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Experiment Findings · February 2016

DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.1542.1202

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Centre for energy studies (CES)

Centre for energy studies (CES) was established on January 21, 1999. The Main Objective of the centre is to enhance promotion and development of Renewable Energy Technologies through study, research, human resource development at various levels, and information dissemination for the sustainable development. As an institution within IOE/TU, capacity building of local manpower is the main focused activities of CES. CES has supported and provided assistance to the courses on; Master of Science Engineering in Renewable Energy Engineering (MSREE) and Master of Science Engineering in Energy Systems Planning and Management (MSESPM). Zero Energy House (ZEH), and energy Park (EP) are the parts of CES. Both ZEH and EP are being used as a living laboratory for research students and also demonstration sites for all concerned in the application and development of Renewable Energy Technologies.

For more information visit http://ces.ioe.edu.np

……………………………………………………………………………………

APPEAR project “Development of Academic Program on Energy Systems Planning and Analysis at Institute of Engineering, Tribhuvan Universityis jointly implemented by Centre for Energy Studies (CES) at the Institute of Engineering (IOE) of Tribhuvan University, Nepal and Institute for Energy Systems and Thermodynamics (IET) at Vienna University of Technology, Vienna and funded by the Austrian Development Cooperation under the APPEAR programme. The “appear Project 42” is expected to directly contribute in building capacity of energy systems planning and analysis for developing sustainable energy policies in the Nepal and creating awareness for the universal access to electricity in the 21 st century.

ISBN 978-9937-0-0053-6

2014/RBESPA-2

Research Book Series Energy Systems Planning and Analysis

Design, Fabrication and Testing of Nepali Bio-char Stove

Tri Ratna Bajracharya

Study Team members: Bishal Shahi, Bishan Thapa, and Ghanashyam Chauhan

members: Bishal Shahi, Bishan Thapa, and Ghanashyam Chauhan Centre for Energy Studies (CES) Institute of Engineering,

Centre for Energy Studies (CES) Institute of Engineering, Tribhuvan University, Nepal

Centre for Energy Studies (CES) Institute of Engineering, Tribhuvan University, Nepal

Supported by the Austrian Development Cooperation under the APPEAR programme

Supported by the Austrian Development Cooperation under the APPEAR programme

Research Book Series Energy Systems Planning and Analysis

2014

Published by

Centre for Energy Studies (CES) Institute of Engineering, Tribhuvan University, Nepal

Supported by the Austrian Development Cooperation under the APPEAR programme

Copyright © 2014, Center for Energy Studies (CES)

Disclaimer:

The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the publisher. The opinions expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) alone and do not imply opinion on the part of the publisher.

ISBN-978-9937-0-0053-6

Published by Center for Energy Studies (CES) Institute of Engineering, Tribhuvan University, Zero Energy House, Pulchowk, Lalitpur G.P.O. Box: 1915 Phone: 977-1-5532235; Fax: 977-1-5532234; e-mail: ces@ioe.edu.np http://ces.ioe.edu.np

Print Anupam Printing Press Bafal, Kathmandu

Contents

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF SYMBOLS

LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

1. Introduction

1

1.1 Background

1

1.2 Problem Statement and Rationale

4

1.3 Objective

6

1.4 Scope of work……………………………………………… .

6

1.5 Expected Outcome ………………………………………… 7

7

1.6 Limitation…………………………………………………

.

2. Literature Review

8

3. Methodology

22

3.1 Study of the existing gasification cookstove

22

3.2 Construction of tin can model of bio-char stove

22

3.3 Design of bio-char stove prototype

22

3.4 Fabrication of Bio-char Stove

23

3.5 Performance testing of the Bio-char Stove

23

3.6 Cost estimation and financial analysis

25

4.

Design

26

4.1

Design

26

4.1.1

Inner cylinder design

26

4.1.2

Syngas burning and oxygen requirements

27

4.1.3

Syngas opening holes

27

4.1.4

Oxygen, air supply and outer bottom holes

28

4.1.5

Air + syngas mixture and inner top holes

28

4.1.6

Vertical clearance between cylinders

28

4.1.7

Outer cylinder design

29

5. Fabrication

30

5.1 Material selection

30

5.3 Fabrication costs

6. Result, Analysis and Outcomes

6.1 Water boiling test results

6.2 Controlled Cooking Test Results

6.3

6.4

Char Test

Outcomes

7. Cost Estimation and Financial Analysis

33

34

34

38

39

41

47

7.1 Cost estimation of Bio-char stove for mass production

47

7.2 Financial Analysis

47

7.3 Discussion and Analysis

50

8. Conclusion and Recommendations References Appendix

51

53

56

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1.1 Preliminary data on fuel consumption of gasification stoves

3

Table 2.1 Some of Natural draft gasifier stoves developed worldwide

10

Table 2.2 Typical gas composition for different fuels and reactor types

19

Table 5.1 Material comparison …………………………………………

31

Table 5.2 Fabrication cost of stove ……………………

…………….

33

Table 6.1 WBT constant input data for initial design ………

……….

34

Table 6.2 WBT input data for initial design ………………………

……

34

Table 6.3 WBT output data for initial design ……………………………

35

Table 6.4 WBT constant input for first modification ……………………

36

Table 6.5 WBT input for first modification ………………………

.

36

Table 6.6 WBT Output for first modification ………………………….….

36

Table 6.7 WBT constant input for second modification ……………….….

37

Table 6.8 WBT input for second modification ………………

……….….

38

Table 6.9 WBT output for second modification …………………………

38

Table 6.10 Test Results of CCT …………………………………………

39

Table 6.11 Proximate Analysis Result of Pine Char ……………………

40

Table 6.12 Stove output of initial stove and its modifications ….…

……

41

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1 Grams of CO2 equivalent per liter of water boiled and simmered for 30

minutes for five different stoves in year 2009………………

….…………

2

Figure 2.1 Wood Gas Stove developed by Reed and Larson ………………

10

Figure 2.2 Charcoal Making Wood Gas Stove ………………………

……

10

Figure 2.3 IISC’s Gasifier Stove …

………………………………………

11

Figure 2.4 Briquette Stove

………………………………………

………

11

Figure 2.5 Rice Husk Gasifier Stove ……………………………

……

12

Figure 2.6 Updraft Gasifier ………………………………………………….

15

Figure 2.7 Downdraft Gasifier principle in use of Bio-char Stove ………….

16

Figure 2.8 Cross draft Gasifier

……………………………………………

17

Figure 2.9 Producer gas and its constituents ………………

……………….

18

Figure 6.1 Thermal efficiency of initial stove and its modifications

……

42

Figure 6.2 Char yield of initial stove and its modifications ………………

43

Figure 6.3 Flame sustainability of initial stove and its modification

……

44

Figure 6.4 Variation of water temperature with time for first modification

45

Figure 6.5 Variation of water temperature with time for second modification

46

LIST OF SYMBOLS

A a

A

A

d Inner Cylinder Diameter

D Outer Cylinder Diameter

E Total Energy Input

h Minimum Inner Height

k Cylinder Aspect Ratio

k v

Q Power Input

t

V Minimum Inner Cylinder Volume Required

V a

V

V m

v m

W Watts

Total Airflow Area

Total Syngas Flow Area

Total Mixture Flow Area

g

m

Wood Chips Void Factor

Estimated Cooking Time

Air Supply Rate

Syngas Volume Required

Mixture Volume

Initial Mixture Velocity

g

LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

SFC

Specific Fuel Consumption

TLUD

Top Lit Updraft Gasifier

AEPC

Alternative Energy Promotion Center

TNMOC

Total Non-Methane Organic Compound

AIT

Asian Institute of Technology

TSP

Total Suspended Particle

ASTM

American Society for Testing Materials

TU

Tribhuvan University

CCT

Controlled Cooking Test

WBT

Water Boiling Test

CES

Center

for Energy Studies

CEEN

Center

for Energy Environment, Nepal

FAO

Food and Agriculture Organization

 

HEH

Household Energy and Health

HHV

Higher Heating Value

IAP

Indoor Air Pollution

ICS

Improved Cooking Stove

IDD

Inverted Downdraft Gasifier

IRR

Internal Rate of Return

IOE

Institute of Engineering

IPOBIS

Indian Institute of Science Portable Biomass Stove

JIS

Japanese Industrial Standard

KPT

Kitchen Performance Test

LHV

Lower Heating Value

LPG

Liquid Petroleum Gas

MJ

Mega Joules

Msc.

Masters in Science

NAST

Nepal Academy of Science and Technology

NESS

Nepal Environmental & Scientific Services

NGO

Non-Governmental Organization

NPV

Net Present Value

PIC

Products of Incomplete Combustion

RECAST

Research Center for Applied Science and Technology

Design, fabrication and Testing of Nepali Bio-char Stove

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1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background Energy is an important development indicator, which provides vital inputs for survival and economic development. Energy supply and consumption is still in a traditional state in Nepal. The energy resource base in Nepal consists of biomass, hydroelectricity, petroleum products, and natural gas and coal reserves. Among these entire base, it is the evident fact that biomass is still the dominant form of energy resources of the country with respect to its utilization especially in rural sector.

Biomass energy: fuelwood, agro-residue and animal dung is used for cooking and heating purposes. Use of traditional stoves such as open fire stove and "chulo" (rudimentary stoves) consumes more fuel wood and increases the burden on women. Women are mainly responsible for cooking and collection of biomass, mainly fuelwood from the forest. Use of biomass energy and low-grade biomass fuels lead to excessive levels of indoor smoke/air pollution. These inefficient technologies emit air pollution that can harm respiratory and cardiac health and exacerbate global warming. Women and children in particular are exposed to the smoke emission. Women who cook on traditional biomass stoves are up to four times more likely to suffer from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, such as chronic bronchitis, than women who cook using clean fuels (Warwick H, Doig, 2004). This is one of the reasons for higher rates of infant mortality and morbidity and other unhealthy living conditions. Release of incomplete carbon gas and other harmful particles in the atmosphere due to poor combustion of biomass fuels in rudimentary stoves results in aggravation of respiratory and cardiac health and exacerbate global warming. More than 80% of the energy needs are met by fuelwood thus exerting immense pressure on the forest resources of the country with negative impacts on environment. (Source AEPC)

In order to achieve reduction in indoor smoke / air pollution and increased fuel efficiency and protect the forest resources and environment, different efforts have been made to improve efficiency of cook stove which result to advancement of improved cooking stove and metallic cooking stove currently in practice in Nepal. But the efficiencies of such stoves are within 20 % and there is still a significant amount of carbon emission. Now concerns over global warming have added a new reason to accelerate the transition to cleaner biomass energy use in the developing

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world. These results to the development of bio-char stove which can produce both heat for cooking and bio-char for carbon sequestration and soil building. Following figure illustrates the paramount importance of gasifier stove (bio-char stove) in context of carbon emission in contrast to improved stove which is currently in practice in Nepal. (Garrett et.al. 2010)

is currently in practice in Nepal. (Garrett et.al. 2010) Source: Garrett et.al. 2010 Figure 1.1 Grams

Source: Garrett et.al. 2010

Figure 1.1 Grams of CO2 equivalent per liter of water boiled and simmered for 30 minutes for five different stoves in year 2009

The bio-char stove technology is new in context of Nepal but the research and advancement has been conducted worldwide especially in developing countries like Cambodia, Africa, Srilanka and some state of India. Experiment suggests that fuel reduction in using gasification stove in the order of 30-50% than traditional stoves. The table shows some of the gasification stoves and their comparison with traditional stoves.

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Table1.1Some preliminary data on the fuel consumption of gasification stoves

Name of Stove

Developer/ Designer

Estimated fuel consumption or reduction compared to traditional stove

PekoPe

PaalWendelbo

768g wood pellets for 5L WBT

Oorja

First Energy

30% reduction

Philips natural draft woodstove

Philips

50% reduction

Vesto

New Dawn Engineering

35% reduction

BioLite

--------------

42% reduction

The bio-char stove that we have designed is basically consists of two chambers:

combustion chamber and outer chamber. The combustion and pyrolysis occurs in the combustion chamber. Bio-char stoves involve two processes. First, solid biofuel is pyrolysed into a mixture of hydrocarbon-containing gases and charcoal. Second, the gases are burnt with a clean (smokeless) flame. When the stove is used to make charcoal, the operation of the stove is stopped at this stage and the charcoal is removed as a by-product. If the charcoal is left in the stove, it will usually burn releasing more heat and leaving ash. A primary air flow is required for pyrolysis, while a secondary air flow is introduced into the hot gas above the fuel in order to assist the gas burn. Organic matter used as fuel in stoves is converted thermally into syngas, solid residue (including bio-char and ash) and liquid (including tars). Similar processes occur in large-scale gasifiers, and are designed to maximize the gas production which can be captured and then used for electricity or heat generation. However these conditions are generally created in stoves using simple technology to maximize heat production for cooking. Depending on the type of stove, a mixture of processes will occur at any one time during use of the stove.

The stove is one-pot to allow cooking rice and vegetable dishes. The wood pallets or wood chips are fed into the combustion chamber from the top. Design is basically based for five people. There are many challenges faced to design a stove. These include:

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1. Ensuring that biomass consumption is lowered.

2. Producing an affordable, durable stove that is easy to operate and maintain.

3. Producing a stove whose efficiency doesn’t decrease over time.

4. Understanding the potential added burdens of producing and distributing bio-char especially for women.

5. Understanding behavioral and sociological barriers to new technologies.

Potential benefits of Bio-char producing stoves

Health: Bio-char producing stoves are potentially much cleaner, with lower emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and fine particles.

(carbon

dioxide and methane) and black carbon emissions, create bio-char that can be used to sequester carbon in soils, and reduce the use of fossil-fuel based

fertilizers.

Climate: Bio-char-producing

stoves

have

lower

greenhouse

gas

Deforestation: Bio-char producing stoves use less fuel, can use a wider variety of fuels, and can replace inefficient charcoal production technologies.

Soils: Bio-char producing stoves create bio-char that sequesters carbon in soils, may in some cases reduce emissions of nitrous oxide (a powerful greenhouse gas) from soils, improves fertility, and increases productivity in degraded soils.

Income Generation: Bio-char producing stoves can accommodate many forms of agricultural residues-some without further treatment. Collecting this residue is another income generating opportunity not presently available for most other stoves since they cannot utilize that type of fuel.

1.2 Problem Statement and Rationale A major cause of poor health in low-income communities, and especially amongst women, is indoor air pollution (IAP) arising from inhaling smoke from cooking fires. Over a third of humanity - 2.4 billion people - burn biomass (wood and non-

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woody materials such as dung and agro-residues) to supply their domestic energy requirements mostly cooking and heating. (Warwick H, Doig A, 2004) Nepal’s climatic condition varies with topography including wide distribution of fauna in mountain and hilly region. In the Terai, summer temperatures exceed 37° C while winter temperatures range from 7°C to 23°C in the Terai. In mountainous regions, hills and valleys, summers are temperate while winter temperatures can plummet under subzero.(http://www.dnpwc.gov.np/). The fuel woods in these regions are consumed mainly for the purpose of cooking and space heating in winter. An inefficient cooking practice not only increases the fuel wood consumption pattern but also leads to deforestation and deterioration of women’s health in rural areas. Several studies have shown that particulate matter (PM 10) concentration on cooking place was about 8000 μg/m 3 against the national standard of 120 μg/m 3 in 24 hours average time. Similarly, the total suspended particle (TSP) was about 8,800 μg/m 3 against national standard of 230 μg/m 3 ,21 ppm of carbon monoxide (CO) against national standard of 9 ppm in 8 hour average was found where biomass was used as fuel.(Lohani, 2010). Acute respiratory infection (ARI), tuberculosis and other chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), complication in child birth continue to exist at high rate. The survey conducted in 1996, showed that 34% of children under five were infected with ARI (http://www.childinfo.org/eddb/ARI/database.htm). One of the major causes behind it is indoor air pollution. The infant mortality rate was around 64 per thousand in 2001. However, this figure comes down to 9.14 deaths per thousand in 2007(Ministry of health and population 22 December 2010). Among several factors ARI has been identified as one of the major factors in high infant and under five mortality rates in Nepal. Moreover, The UN Food and Agriculture Organization estimate that about 25% of Nepal is forested. Between 1990 and 2005, Nepal lost 24.5% of its forest cover; the rate of deforestation is about 1.35% per year. A primary reason for this deforestation is the use of wood for fuel and the lack of alternatives such as more fuel-efficient cook stoves. (http://www.himalayanstoveproject.org/deforestation.htm ).

So, developments of ideas and projects to minimize the consumption of fuel wood in these areas are required. A properly designed bio-char cooking stove reduces the fuel wood consumption by increasing the cooking efficiency as well as it serves the purpose for soil amendment because of bio-char yield as bio-char provides some nutrients to soil, including phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and other

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micro-nutrients (reflecting the composition of the original feedstock). Hence the development of bio-char stove is essential and this stove technology is new in context of Nepal. In the present context, many metallic improved cooking stoves manufactured by different agencies are being used in the residential areas of hilly and mountainous region. Each of those stoves has their own thermal efficiencies. The bio-char stove is expected to have much clean combustion and higher thermal efficiency.

1.3 Objective

2.1 1.3.1 General

Design, Fabrication and Performance test of Bio-char stove

2.2 1.3.2 Specific

The specific objectives are

To Plan and Design bio-char stove

To fabricate one pot bio-char stove

To conduct performance test which includes the thermal efficiency test and controlled cooking test.

To assay the amount of bio-char yield from bio-char stove

To conduct char test which includes proximate analysis and calorific value.

To identify the drawback of tested bio-char stove.

1.4 Scope of work

Cooking practice in Nepal especially in most of the rural areas are still traditional.

An average household in villages of district like Humla uses 20 - 40 kg firewood a day for cooking, heating and lighting. (www.rids-nepal.org/index.php/smokeless-

Thus a huge quantity of biomass is needed only for

cooking traditional meal, ‘daal-bhat’ (rice and lentil, vegetables). These practices

not only lead to the ample amount of firewood consumption but also yield high indoor air pollution level. It is not a hidden fact that governmental organizations like Alternative Energy Promotion Center (AEPC) and other NGO’s and INGO’s promoted improved cooking and metallic stoves. It was the great advancement in the field of stove technology and was a boon for rural housewife. However these stoves still have significant amount of carbon emission and fuel consumption.

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These leads us in search of much promising stove like bio-char stove which has much clean combustion, fuel efficiency and carbon sequestration. The enactment of our proposal was held on February 2013. The project duration was around seven months. Design of stove is mainly based on average five person family. After that we have gone through the fabrication of bio-char stove.

As expected, the deliverable of our project will be clean and efficient biomass combustion stove. And not only that, our stove also produce a bio-char which is a “porous carbonaceous solid produced by thermo-chemical conversion of organic materials in an oxygen depleted atmosphere which has physiochemical properties suitable for the safe and long-term storage of carbon in the environment and, potentially, soil improvement”. Bio-char stove technology is new in context of Nepal so the constraint of our project is inaccessible of its appropriate data in Nepal and wood pallets required for clean combustion. And it is obvious that some of the information are uncertain so we did some of assumptions like the air flow rate from primary and secondary holes for proper ignition, syngas is emitted as constant flow rate from the bottom of combustion chamber and air is mixed thoroughly with syngas inside passage between two chamber for combustion.

1.5 Expected Outcomes

Analogously more clean combustion and less fuel wood consumption than improved and metallic cooking stoves.

Ascertainable amount of thermal and combustion efficiency

Gratifying amount of bio-char production.

1.6 Limitation

The assumptions and conditions carried out during calculations deviate from the real ones.

Lack of appropriate data and information of bio-char stove and its design criteria in context of Nepal.

Inaccessible of wood pallets for bio-char stove for clean and efficient combustion.

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2. LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Background Gasification is the process that converts carbon containing feedstock into carbon monoxide, hydrogen and carbon dioxide which can be achieved by reacting the material at high temperature without combustion, with controlled amount of oxygen. The resulting gas is a syngas or producer gas and is itself a fuel. The process of producing energy using the gasification method has been in use for more than 180 years. At the turn of the century, petroleum gained wider use as a fuel but during World War II, shortage in petroleum supplies led to wide re- introduction of gasification. By 1945 the gas was being used to power trucks, buses and agricultural and industrial machines. But the need for liquid fuels remained and German engineers devised a way to make synthetic liquid fuel from gasified coal.

The first gasification stove was developed in 1985 by Dr. Thomas B. Reed which

is

now called Top-Lit Up Draft gasification stove, shortened to “TLUD”. However

it

is also came to known that there was also the independent work of Paal

Wendelbo, a Norwegian working in Uganda in 1990s. Reed and Wendelbo are the independent co-originators. Others who have done significant work with the

gasification stoves up through 2007 are the “Pyroneers” (a person expert in pyrolysis and gasification technology).In 1995 Dr. Ronal Larson joined the effort with a focus on the gasifier’s capacity for producing charcoal as a valuable by- product in a household stove. After testing and publications, but no real success for applications, they stopped that work in 1996. However, in 1998 Dr. Reed began work on a smaller, forced convection model with a fan with the intention to make

a stove for the affluent North American camper market. He had successfully

produced the “Wood-Gas Camp Stove” for marketing in 2003 and can produce impressive heat for sustained periods however some modifications are necessary for applications in developing countries. (Anderson, 2010)

The gasification stoves (including both top-lit updraft TLUD and inverted downdraft IDD) refer to a method of combustion that is essentially pyrolytic gasification of dry biomass, followed by the combustion of those gases, with a co- product of charcoal that can be saved or combusted. TLUD and IDD are public domain terms that describe a method or process. They are not the names of a specific stove or device. The solid material obtained from the carbonization of

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biomass is the bio-char which have a high carbon sequestration value and can be used as a fertilizer. The use of bio-char for soil nutrient retention and improvement is thought to have originated over 2,000 years ago in the Brazilian Amazon. Archeological studies indicate population of native Amazonians prospered in agrarian civilizations sustained by amending nutrient-poor tropical soils with application of charcoal (aka bio-char) and organic matter. At present, thousands of hectares of anthropogenic, nutrient-rich bio-char soils remain in the Xingu region of the Amazon, distinguished from the generally depleted tropical soils. These unique soils have provided scientists, horticulturalists and environmentalists with evidence of the enduring beneficial effects of bio-char and verified it as a stable, sequestered form of carbon with the potential to mediate modern greenhouse gases concentrations. (http://news.mongabay.com/2013/0102-biochar-ryking.html).

2.2 Biomass Gasification for Cooking Purposes Gasifier stoves can be adopted by households for cooking purposes. A gasifier stove is a metallic biomass fuelled cooking stove designed in such a way that the fuel is first converted into combustible gases through intense heating which then burns with a clean flame. The stove can be fuelled with dry firewood, sawdust, agricultural wastes, wood shavings, chunks or twigs (DEEP, 2010). The stoves are very compatible to the cooking habits of the rural majority that currently rely on firewood as fuel, and could be used as substitute for other conventional stoves such as metallic improved cook stove. The gasifier stove is currently being applied in preparation of food and heating water for countries like Cambodia, Africa, Vietnam, Srilanka and some state of India. Moreover, these types of stove involve less complication in their construction. The stove requires basic raw materials such as sheet metal, tins, screw, rivets, and can be made with simple tools such as metal snip, drill machines and hammer. In comparison to the traditional cooking stoves the gasifier stoves are not only fuel efficient but also emission efficient. Owing to their low efficiency, the traditional cook stoves emit more than 10% of their carbon as products of incomplete combustion (PIC) comprising varying amount of tars. In addition, about 100-180 g of carbon monoxide and 7.7 g of particulate matter are also emitted per kg of wood. Gases such as methane, total non-methane organic compounds (TNMOC) and N 2 O are added to this. These PIC emissions are even higher in the case of loose biomass or cow dung used as fuel in these stoves (Grover, 2003).

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Some of the natural draft stoves (based on combustion of gas produced from biomass) developed so far is listed in Table 2.1. The capacity of these stoves ranges from 3kWth to 20kWth, making them suitable for domestic as well as community cooking applications.

Table 2.1 Some of Natural draft gasifier stoves developed worldwide for cooking applications

No.

Name of Stove

 

Developed by

 

1

Wood-Gas Cook Stove

 

Thomas Reed and Ron larson

2

Charcoal

Making

Wood

Gas

ElsenKarstad

 

Cooking Stove

   

3

Natural draft cross flow stove model IGS2, DGS2 and CGS3

Asian

Institute

of

Technology

Thailand (AIT)

 

4

Briquette gasifying stove

 

Richard Stanley (Legacy Foundation, USA) and Kobus Venter (Venter Forestry Services, South Africa)

5

IISC Gasifier Stove

 

Indian Institute of Science

6

San

San

Rice

husk

Gasifier

U Tin Win (under guidance of P.D Grover and G.R Quick )

stove

(Source: S.C. Bhattacharya and M. Augustus Leon, Energy Field of Study, AIT)

and M. Augustus Leon, Energy Field of Study, AIT) Figure 2.1 Wood Gas Stove developed by

Figure 2.1 Wood Gas Stove developed by Reed and Larson

Study, AIT) Figure 2.1 Wood Gas Stove developed by Reed and Larson Figure 2.2 Charcoal Making

Figure 2.2 Charcoal Making Wood Gas Stove

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Design, fabrication and Testing of Nepali Bio-char Stove 11 Figure 2.3 IISC’s Gasifier Stove Figure 2.4

Figure 2.3 IISC’s Gasifier Stove

Figure 2.4 Briquette Stove

Elsen Kartstad’s Charcoal Making Wood Gas Cooking Stove (Figure 2.2) is a simple stove developed for the East African households (Karstad, 1997). The IISc Gasifier stove (Figure 2.3) employs small wood sticks and pelletized waste, and has a thermal output of 3-4 kW. It offers a water-boiling efficiency of 25-35% and the stove can operate continuously for about 2 hours for a single fuel loading. The emission from the stove has been found to be low. (IPOBIS, 2004) The Rice husk gasifier stove (Figure 2.5) offers smokeless combustion of rice husk in an efficient manner. Stove performance can be improved by using external fan source.

Although the simplest way to get air into the combustion and fuel chamber is through ‘natural draft’ where fresh air is sucked in as the hot air rises and is appropriate in the rural areas of many developing countries like ours, some of the difficulties associated with their operations. These difficulties mainly are starting the gasifier and controlling the flame. Also before the starting of pyrolysis phase in stove, stove operation is through purely combustion so some emissions occurs at this phase. To overcome these difficulties some of designer uses forced draft type

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of gasifer stoves. The forced draft type gasifier stove use a small battery operated blower to supply primary air.

use a small battery operated blower to supply primary air. Figure 2.5 Rice Husk Gasifier Stove

Figure 2.5 Rice Husk Gasifier Stove

2.3 Project Works and Study Related to Gasifiers in Nepal Cooking practice from wood gasification technology is still new in context of Nepal. Although gasification system has been utilized in a couple of industries but there is no significant progress in domestic sector. In fact various involved parties are still dwelling in the testing phases for the feasibility of the gasifier stove. Instead of having such an extensive benefits of gasifier stove like fuel efficient, emission efficient and bio-char production, organizations like AEPC still providing metallic improved stoves in rural sector for cooking purpose. However in recent trend organizations like AEPC, STARIC, RECAST, NAST, etc. are conducting feasibility test and also promoting the gasification technology in Nepal. Nepal Academy of Science and Technology (NAST) has developed a briquette gasifier stove by adopting the design for Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), Thailand (Singh and Shakya, 2001). But this stove is bulky in size for domestic cooking purpose and the cost of fabrication is too high for low income people.

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Also different studies and research has been conducted in Center for Energy Studies (CES) regarding to the gasification technology. A thesis work for MSc, Basnyat (2004) has performed on updraft gasifier used for drying cardamom that is in use in Illam district. A thesis work for MSc, Mr. Kul Prasad Simkhada had fabricated a domestic gasifier stove. It is a downdraft type gasifier. However it is also bulky in size and rather applicable for institutional cooking application. Similarly, AEPC in collaboration with STARIC was testing the performance of ‘TLUD’ model updraft gasifier for its use as a cooking stove.

2.4 Gasification Process The process to convert biomass solid raw material into fuel gas or chemical feedstock gas (syngas) is called gasification or thermo-chemical gasification. In order to convert solid biomass into inflammable gas, a substance to promote the chemical reaction is necessary. This substance is called gasification agent, and mainly air (N 2 , O 2 ), oxygen (O 2 ), H 2 O, or CO 2 are applied as an appropriate mixture. Air (only O 2 reacts) and O 2 generate by oxidation, and increased O 2 decreases the effective amount of inflammable gas. In gasification cooks stoves, it is the syngas which is burned to produce the heat. The gas consists of carbon monoxide, methane, carbon dioxide and others, depending on process conditions.

2.4.1 Drying

Biomass fuels consist of moisture ranging from 5 to 35%. At temperature above 100 0 c, the moisture is removed and converted into steam. In the drying stage, fuels do not experience any kind of decomposition. (Taure, 2004)

2.4.2 Pyrolysis

Biomass is consisted mainly of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The photosynthesis and pyrolysis can be simply describes as the following formulas. Pyrolysis reaction takes place at temperature about 500-600 0 C (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) m (Biomass) (H 2 + CO + CH 4 + ………+ C 5 H 12 ) ↑ (Gas) + (H 2 O +……+CH 3 OH+ CH 3 COOH + ….) (Liquid) + C (Char)……….Equation 1 Photosynthesis reaction takes place in presence of light

1 Photosynthesis reaction takes place in presence of light m(6CO 2 +6H 2 O) (Carbondioxide and

m(6CO 2 +6H 2 O) (Carbondioxide and Water) (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) m (Biomass)+ 6mO 2 (Oxygen)………………………………………………………Equation 2

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Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of biomass fuels in the absence of oxygen. Pyrolysis involves release of three kinds of products: solid, liquid and gases. The ratio of products is influenced by the chemical composition of biomass fuels and the operating conditions. The heating value of gas produced during the pyrolysis process is low (3.5-8.9 MJ/m 3 ). It is noted that no matter how gasifier is built, there will always be a low temperature zone, where pyrolysis takes place, generating condensable hydrocarbon. (University of Flensburg, 2004).

2.4.3 Oxidation

Introduced air in the oxidation zone contains, besides oxygen and water vapors, inert gases such as nitrogen and argon. These inert gases are considered to be non- reactive with fuel constituents. The oxidation takes place at the temperature of 700-2000 o C. Heterogeneous reaction takes place between oxygen in the air and solid carbonized fuel, producing carbon monoxide. Plus and minus sign indicate the release and supply of heat energy during the process respectively. (Chiptec,

2003)

C + O 2 = CO 2 + 406 [MJ/kmol]………………………………………

Equation 3

2.4.4 Reduction

In reduction zone, a number of high temperature chemical reactions take place in the absence of oxygen. The principal reactions that take place in reduction are mentioned below.

Boudourad reaction CO 2 + C = 2CO – 172.6 [MJ/kmol]…………………………………….Equation 4

Water-gas reaction

C + H 2 O = CO + H 2 – 131.4 [MJ/kmol]………………………………

Equation 5

Water shift reaction CO 2 + H 2 = CO + H 2 O + 41.2 [MJ/kmol]………………………………Equation 6

Methane production reaction

C + 2H 2 = CH 4 + 75 [MJ/kmol]………………………………………

Equation 7

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Main reactions show that heat is required during the reduction process. Hence, the temperature of gas goes down during this stage. If complete gasification takes place, al the carbon is burned or reduced to carbon monoxide, a combustible gas and some organic matter is vaporized. The remains are ash and some char (unburned carbon) (University of Flensburg, 2004).

2.4 Gasifier and its types Design of gasifier depends upon type of fuel used and whether gasifier is portable or stationary. Gas producers are classified according to how the air blast is introduced in the fuel column. History of gasification reveals several design of gasifier. The most commonly built gasifier is classified as:

Updraft Gasifier Downdraft Gasifier Cross draft Gasifier

2.4.1 Updraft Gasifier An updraft gasifier has clearly defined zones for partial combustion, reduction, and pyrolysis. Air is introduced at the bottom and act as countercurrent to fuel flow. The gas is drawn at higher location. The updraft gasifier achieves the highest efficiency as the hot gas passes through fuel bed and leaves the gasifier at low temperature. The sensible heat given by gas is used to preheat and dry fuel. Disadvantages of updraft gasifier are excessive amount of tar in raw gas and poor loading capability.

amount of tar in raw gas and poor loading capability. Figure 2.6 Updraft Gasifier 16 Research

Figure 2.6 Updraft Gasifier

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2.4.2 Downdraft Gasifier

Downdraft gasifiers are fuel specific. Downdraft wood gasifier can operate on wood like biomass materials and biomass briquettes with a minimum bulk density of 250 kg/m 3 and ash content of less than 5 %. (www.ascentbioenergy.com) In downdraft gasifiers, gas is drawn from the bottom of the reactor while the hottest reaction zone is in the middle. The volatile matter in the fuel gets cracked within the reactor and therefore the output gas is almost tar-free. However, the gas, as it comes out of the reactor, contains small amounts of ash and soot. The gas comes out of the gasifier at 250-450 o C. In downdraft, the air and syngas may enter and exit at different locations. This gas can also be used either in hot condition (after preliminary cleaning) or in cold-clean condition (after appropriate gas clean-up arrangement).The gas from the downdraft gasifiers can be cleaned to very high purity such that it can be used in IC engines or for direct heating applications where purity of gas is critical requirement.

applications where purity of gas is critical requirement. Figure 2.7 Downdraft Gasifier principle in use of

Figure 2.7 Downdraft Gasifier principle in use of Bio-char Stove

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2.4.3 Cross draft Gasifier

Cross draft Gasifier, although they have certain advantage over updraft and downdraft gasifier, they are not of ideal type. The disadvantages such as high exit gas temperature, poor CO 2 reduction and high gas velocity are the consequence of the design. Unlike downdraft and updraft gasifier, the ash bin, fire and reduction zone in cross draft are separated. These design characteristics limit the type of fuel for operation to low ash fuels such as wood, charcoal and coke.

operation to low ash fuels such as wood, charcoal and coke. Figure 2.8 Cross draft Gasifier

Figure 2.8 Cross draft Gasifier

The load following ability of cross draft gasifier is quite good due to concentrate a partial zone which operates at temperatures up to 2000 o C. Start up time (5-10 minutes) is much faster than updraft units. The relatively higher temperature in cross draft gasifier has an obvious effect on gas composition such as high carbon monoxide, and low hydrogen and methane content when dry fuel such as charcoal is used. Cross draft gasifier operates well on dry air blast and dry fuel. (University of Flensburg, 2004)

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2.5 Producer gas and its constituents

Producer gas is the mixture of combustible and non-combustible gases. The quantity of gases constituents of producer gas depends upon the type of fuel and operating condition.

gas depends upon the type of fuel and operating condition. Figure 2.9 Producer gas and its

Figure 2.9 Producer gas and its constituents

The heating value of producer gas vary from 4.5 to 6 MJ/m 3 depending upon the quantity of its constituents. Producer gas from different fuel and different gasifier types may vary in composition (Table 2.2), but it always consist of a mixture of combustible gases hydrogen (H 2 ), Carbon monoxide (CO), and Methane (CH 4 ) and the incombustible gases carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and Nitrogen (N 2 )

Hydrogen is also a product of reduction process in the gasifier. Hydrogen possesses the octane number of 60-66 and it increases the ignition ability of producer gas. Methane and hydrogen are responsible for higher heating value of producer gas. Amount of methane present in producer gas is very less (up to 4 %). Carbon dioxide and nitrogen are non-combustible gases present in the producer gas. Compared to other gas constituents, producer gas contains highest amount (45-60 %) of nitrogen. The amount of carbon dioxide varies from 5 to 15 %. Higher percentage of carbon dioxide indicates incomplete reduction. Water vapor in the producer gas occurs due to moisture content of air introduced during

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oxidation process, injection of steam in gasifier or moisture content of biomass fuels. (http://cturare.tripod.com/pdc.htm)

Table 2.2 Typical gas composition for different fuels and reactor types

Gasifier Types

Updraft:

Down

Cross

draft

draft

(Moisture- % Wet Basis)

Wood

Wood

Wood

(10-20)

(10-20)

(5-10)

Hydrogen

8-14

12-22

5-10

Carbon monoxide

20-30

15-22

20-30

Methane

2-3

1-3

0.5-2

Carbon dioxide

5-10

8-15

2-8

Nitrogen

45-55

45-55

55-60

Oxygen

1-3

1-3

1-3

Moisture in Gas (Nm 3 H2O/Nm 3 dry gas)

0.20-0.30

0.06-0.12

<0.3

Tar in Gas (g/Nm 3 dry gas)

2-10

0.1-3

<0.3

Lower Heating Value(MJ/Nm 3 dry gas)

5.3-6.0

4.5-5.5

4.0-5.2

Source: Stassen, 1995, pp.7

2.6 Gasifier stove Fuel Characteristics Almost any carbonaceous or biomass fuel can be gasified under experimental or laboratory conditions. However the real test for a good gasifier is not whether a combustible gas can be generated by burning a biomass fuel with 20-40% stoichiometric air but that a reliable gas producer can be made which can also be economically attractive to the customer. Towards this goal the fuel characteristics have to be evaluated and fuel processing done. Many gasifier manufacturers claim that a gasifier is available which can gasify any fuel. There is no such thing as a universal gasifier. A gasifier is very fuel specific and it is tailored around a fuel rather than the other way round.

Thus a gasifier fuel can be classified as good or bad according to the following parameters:

1) Energy content of the fuel 2) Bulk density 3) Moisture content

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4) Dust content 6) Ash and slagging characteristics

These parameters can be described as follow 1) Energy content The higher the energy content and bulk density of fuel, the similar is the gasifier volume since for one charge one can get power for longer time. Fuel with high energy content provides easier combustion to sustain the endothermic gasification reactions because they can burn at higher temperatures

Energy content of fuel is obtained in most cases is an adiabatic, constant volume bomb calorimeter. The values obtained are higher heating values which include the heat of condensation from water formed in the combustion of fuel. The heating values are also reported on moisture and ash basis. Fuel with higher energy content is always better for gasification. The most of the biomass fuels (wood, straw) has heating value in the range of 10-18 MJ/kg, whereas liquid fuel (diesel, gasoline) posses higher heating value (Chandrakant, 2002)

2) Bulk Density of Fuel Higher the bulk density, smaller is the gasifier volume. Bulk density is defined as the weight per unit volume of loosely tipped fuel. Bulk density varies significantly with moisture content and particle size of a fuel. Volume occupied by stored fuel depends on not only the bulk density of fuel, but also on the manner in which fuel is piled. It is also recognized that bulk density has considerable impact on gas quality, as it influences the fuel residence time in the fire box, fuel velocity and gas flow rate.

3) Moisture content In most fuels there is very little choice in moisture content since it is determined by the type of fuel, its origin and treatment. It is desirable to use fuel with low moisture content because heat loss due to its evaporation before gasification is considerable and the heat budget of the gasification reaction is impaired. For

example, for fuel at 25 o C and raw gas exit temperature from gasifier at 300 0 C, 2875 KJ/kg moisture must be supplied by fuel to heat and evaporate moisture. Besides impairing the gasifier heat budget, high moisture content also puts load on cooling and filtering equipment by increasing the pressure drop across these units

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because of condensing liquid. Thus in order to reduce the moisture content of fuel some pretreatment of fuel is required. Generally desirable moisture content for fuel should be less than 20%.

4) Dust content All gasifier fuels produce dust. This dust is a nuisance since it can clog the internal combustion engine and hence has to be removed. The gasifier design should be

such that it should not produce more than 2-6 g/m 3 of dust (Rajvansi, 1990). The higher the dust produced, more load is put on filters necessitating their frequent flushing and increased maintenance.

5) Tar content Tar is one of the most unpleasant constituents of the gas as it tends to deposit in the carburetor and intake valves causing sticking and troublesome operations. It is a product of highly irreversible process taking place in the pyrolysis zone. The physical property of tar depends upon temperature and heat rate and the appearance ranges from brown and watery (60% water) to black and highly viscous (7% water). There are approximately 200 chemical constituents that have been identified in tar so far.

6) Ash and Slagging Characteristics The mineral content in the fuel that remains in oxidized form after complete combustion is usually called ash. The ash content of a fuel and the ash composition have a major impact on trouble free operation of gasifier.

Ash basically interferes with gasification process in two ways:

a) It fuses together to form slag and this clinker stops or inhibits the downward flow of biomass feed.

b) Even if it does not fuse together it shelters the points in fuel where ignition is

initiated and thus lowers the fuel’s reaction response.

Ash and tar removal are the two most important processes in gasification system for its smooth running. Various systems have been devised for ash removal. In fact some fuels with high ash content can be easily gasified if elaborate ash removal system is installed in the gasifier.

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3. METHODOLOGY

The primary purpose of this project is to design and test the Nepali bio-char stove for domestic cooking purpose and our secondary purpose is bio-char production that is suitable in context of Nepal. So, for the successful deliverable bio-char stove and to have its desirable outcome, following methodological approach has been adopted.

3.1 Study of the existing gasification cookstove

Different books, journals, reports and websites have been accessed to learn about

the theory behind combustion, gasification and pyrolysis of gas stove.

3.2 Construction of tin can model of bio-char stove

After the ample literature review, a tin can model of bio-char stove model was fabricated using locally available material based on the principle of downdraft gasification principle. So constructed tin can model verify the downdraft principle as per our expectation. After the satisfactory result given by the model we

proceeded towards the formal design of bio-char stove.

3.3 Design of bio-char stove prototype:

After the successful result from bio-char stove model, the formal designing of bio-

char stove was started. The design of stove is based on following criteria

3.3.1

General

Safety

Smoke reduction

Cleanliness / hygiene

Fuel reduction

Durability (spare parts availability and ease maintenance)

Portability

Time saving in total

3.3.2

Stove production considerations:

Accessibility

Affordability

Production possible by mechanical workshop

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Access for future modification

3.3.3

Cooking considerations

Burn time (time of flame for cooking)

Time suitable for simmering

Flame consistency

Can use a variety of feedstock

The modeling was performed in solid works. The details of designing and dimensioning are discussed in chapter four.

3.4 Fabrication of Bio-char Stove Fabrication was started upon the finalization of design. The details of fabrication are discussed in chapter five.

3.5 Performance testing of the Bio-char Stove For the testing of the performance of our fabricated bio-char stove, we have relied on two major tests. They are Water Boiling Test (WBT) and Controlled Cooking Test (CCT). A thorough analysis can be performed with the WBT and CCT which not only evaluates the performance of the stove but also makes it eligible for comparison with other stoves.

3.5.1 The Water Boiling Test

The The Water Boiling Test (WBT) was performed as per instructions and manuals provided by Approvecho Research Centre using version 3.0. WBT is a rough simulation of the cooking process that is intended to help stove designers understand how well energy is transferred from the fuel to the cooking pot. It can be performed on most stoves throughout the world. This test can be used to compare the performance of two or more stoves under similar controlled conditions or the same stove under different condition. The WBT consist of following phases that immediately follow each other Phase I: High Power (Cold Start) In this phase, the tester begins with the stove at the room temperature and uses a pre-weighed bundle of wood to boil a measured quantity of water in a standard pot. The tester then replaces the boiled water with a fresh pot of cold water to perform second phase of the test.

Phase II: High Power (Hot start)…

(OPTIONAL)

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This phase follows immediately the first test while the stove is still hot. Again, the tester uses a pre-weighed bundle of wood to boil a measured quantity of water in a standard pot. Repeating the test with a hot stove helps to identify differences in performance between a stove when it is cold and when it is hot. Phase III: Low Power (Simmering)

The third phase follows immediately from the second. Here the tester determines the amount of fuel required to simmer a measured amount of water at just below boiling point for 45 minutes. These steps simulate the long cooking legumes or pulses common throughout much of the world. The major outputs from the WBT are as follows:

Thermal Efficiency

Time to boil

Burning rate

While performing WBT, it should be noted that the direct calculation of thermal efficiency derived from the WBT is not a good indicator of the stove’s performance because it rewards the excess production of steam. Under normal cooking condition, excess steam production wastes energy because it represents energy that is not transferred to the food.

The Thermal Efficiency is calculated as

Where,

……………………………

……….

Equation 8

Mass of water initially in cooking vessel, kg Specific heat of water, kJ/kg 0 C Mass of water evaporated, kg Mass of fuel burned, kg Temperature of boiling water, 0 C Initial temperature of water in pot, 0 C Latent heat of evaporation at 100 0 C and 10 5 Pa, kJ/kg Calorific value of fuel, kJ/kg

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3.5.2. Controlled Cooking Test (CCT)

The WBT output data gives a thermal efficiency of the stove which is necessary to determine the general performance of the stove with respect with other stoves but having thermal efficiency high does not guarantee the better real time cooking and vice-versa. Hence, cooking of favorite set of meal is to be carried out in controlled environment which is called Controlled Cooking Test in order to find out how the stove performs when real time cooking is done. Though it is carried out in controlled environment, it gives hint of the real time cooking done in kitchen. We also performed the controlled cooking test in the stove to evaluate the performance of the stove cooking a set of favorite Nepali meal (rice and pulse) for a family of 5 members. Various outputs from the CCT are as follows:

Specific fuel consumption

Total cooking time

Weight of char remaining

For all the variables involved in the CCT and their respective calculations refer to Appendix D

3.5.3. Total Burning Time

We recorded the total burning time for the stove with initial design and its modifications carried out henceforth. Further, the total burning period is sub- divided into two phase viz. combustion period and gasification period.

3.6 Cost estimation and financial analysis In this chapter we estimated the cost of the stove when it goes for the mass production based upon the price rate provided by the commercial workshop in Sanepa. After the cost estimation basic financial analysis for the feasibility of the stove was carried out which included calculation of payback period, NPV and IRR of the stove.

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4. DESIGN

4.1 Design The design of component parts of our stove is based on the input energy equivalence consumption of the metallic improved cooking stove for cooking one kg of rice. (Anoopa et al. 2006) The stove is designed for average five people for one time meal.

4.1.1 Inner cylinder design

Wood consumption = 624 gm/kg rice Rice requirement = rice + rice equivalent of curry = (1500 + 2500) gm

Total wood required

= 4000 kg

= 4.0 kg

= 624 × 4 gm

= 2496 gm

= 2.496 kg

Wood density = 670 kg/m 3

Wood volume

= 2.496/670

= 0.003725 m 3

= 3725.373 cm 3

Wood pellet void factor, k v = 1.3 Minimum inner volume required, V = 3725.373 × 1.3 = 4842.985 cm 3

Cylinder aspect ratio, k (=h/d) =1.2 Inner diameter, d = (4V/πk) 1/3 = (4×4842.985/ (π×1.2) 1/3

= 17.2592 cm

Minimum inner height, h = k×d = 1.2×17.2592

Lid clearance = 1 cm Mixture hole diameter = 1 cm Total inner cylinder height

= 20.71104 cm

= 20.71104 + 1 + 1

= 22.71104 cm

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4.1.2 Syngas burning and oxygen requirements

Syngas composition = mCO + nH 2 Burning reaction:- mCO + nH 2 + (m+n)/2 O 2 = mCO 2 + nH 2 O

(m+n) volume syngas requires (m+n)/2 volume of O 2

1 volume syngas requires ½ volumes O 2

1 volume syngas requires 4.76 × ½ volume air

4.1.3 Syngas opening holes

Estimated cooking time, t = 80 min.

= 80 × 60

= 4800 sec.

Wood calorific value = 18 MJ/kg

= 18 × 670 MJ/m 3

= 12060 MJ/m 3

Total energy input, E = calorific value × wood volume required

= 12060 × 0.003725

= 44.928 MJ

Power input, Q = E/t

(to meet the power input of MICS)

= 44.928×10 6 /4800

= 9360 W

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= 0.3312102 m/s

4.1.4 Oxygen, air supply and outer bottom holes

Oxygen supply rate = V g /2

= 0.00156/2

= 0.00078 m 3 /s

Air supply rate, V a = 4.76×0.00078

= 0.0037128 m 3 /s

Outer bottom holes No. of holes for air = 35 Diameter of each hole = 12 cm = 0.12 m Hole area each = π × 0.012 2 /4 = 0.000113 m 2 Total air flow area = 35×0.000113 = 0.0039564 m 2 Velocity of air flow = V a /A a = 0.0037128/0.0039564 = 0.9384289 m/s

4.1.5 Air + syngas mixture and inner top holes

Mixture volume, V m = V g +V a

= 0.00156 + 0.0037128

= 0.0052728 m 3 /s

 

= 9.36 kW

Inner top holes

Syngas

lower calorific value, LHV g = 6 MJ/m 3

No. of holes = 38

Syngas

volume required = Q/LHV g

Diameter of each hole = 10 mm = 0.01 m

= 9.36×10 3 / (6×10 6 )

Hole area each = π × 0.01 2 /4= 0.0000785 m 2

= 0.00156 m 3 /s

Total mixture flow area = 38×0.0000785

Inner cylinder base holes No. of holes = 60 Diameter of each hole = 10 mm = 0.01 m Hole area each = π × 0.01 2 /4 = 0.0000705 m 2 Total syngas flow area, Ag = 60×0.0000705 = 0.00471 m 2 Velocity of syngas flow = V g /A g = 0.00156/0.00471

= 0.002983 m 2

Velocity of mix flow = V m /A m

= 0.0052728/0.002983

= 1.7676 m/s

4.1.6 Vertical clearance between cylinders

Total syngas flow area, A g = 0.00471 m 2 = 47.1 cm 2 Inner cylinder diameter, d = 17.259203 cm Minimum clearance = A g / (π×d)

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4.1.7 Outer cylinder design

= 47.1/ (π×17.259203)

= 0.869101 cm

= 8.69101 mm

Mixture volume, V m = 0.0052728 m 3 /s Initial mixture velocity, v m = 0.3312102 m/s Minimum area of mix flow, A = V m / v m

= 0.0052728/0.3312102

= 0.0159198 m 2 = 159.198 m 2

Outer diameter, D = (4A/π + d 2 ) 1/2

= (4×0.0159198/3.14 + 17.2592 2 )

= 22.375882 cm

Outer cylinder height Total inner cylinder height = 22.71104 Vertical clearance = 0.8691015 cm Total outer height = 22.71104+0.8691015 = 23.580145 cm

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5. FABRICATION

After the mathematical calculation and design of various parts of stove, the stove now has to be materialized. Before fabrication, the factors affecting it should be considered. One of the most important factors to be considered is material selection. Rest of the factors is intertwined with this pivotal factor.

5.1 Material selection It is very important criteria for the fabrication .The selection of an engineering material is an integral process that requires an understanding of interactions between many factors. These factors include the following:

Functional requirements and constraints.

Material properties.

Manufacturing process considerations.

Fabric ability.

Design configuration.

Available and alternate materials.

Corrosion and degradation in service.

Thermal stability.

And finally and importantly, Cost.

Different material has different properties. Some of the material considered for our design and their properties are:

The Table 5.1 shows the various properties of various materials. But all the properties listed above cannot be satisfied by a single material hence we had to compromise with some of the non-important properties for fabrication without compromising the primary purpose of the stove. We selected cast iron for the fabrication purposes. Following are the criteria considered before selecting a material.

High melting point for combustion

Weld ability

Anti-rusting

Cost effectiveness

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Table 5.1 Material comparison

S.N.

Properties

Mild Steel

Cast Iron

High

Carbon

Steel

1.

Carbon

0.1-0.29%

0.5-1.5%

2-4%

content

2.

Structure

Bright fibrous

Crystalline coarse

Fine granular

granular structure

   

Tougher and elastic than cast iron

Less tough and less elastic

Tough and

elastic than

 

mild steel

Malleable and

Hard and brittle

Brittle and

3.

Mechanical

ductile

less ductile

properties

than mild

Readily forged

Cannot be forged and welded

Cannot be

and welded

forged and

 

welded

easily

4.

Melting

1400°C

1200°C

1300°C

point

5.

Rusting

Rusts readily

Does not rust readily

Rusts rapidly

6.

Shock

Absorb shock

Cannot absorb

Absorb

absorbing

shock

5.2 Detailed description of the components of stove

5.2.1 Inner cylinder of the stove

It is the most important design of the stove components. Cooking meal for a family of 5 requires weight of wood to be 2.5 kg approximately. Density of wood is taken to be 670 kg/m 3 (Pinus roxburgii). Hence the volume of the inner cylinder is 3725.373 cm 3 .With void factor taken 1.3 the final volume for the inner cylinder design is 4842.985 cm 3 . Hence with above considerations the diameter for the cylinder is 18 cm and with aspect ratio 1.2 the height for the cylinder is 23 cm.

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From the design point of view, the thickness of inner cylinder was selected to be 5

mm but while consulting with the workshop personnel, material available and

fabrication difficulty 2.5 mm thick material was suitable for the fabrication. Moreover, the material for the inner cylinder has to be robust enough for withstanding the pyrolysis and combustion process which could be efficiently achieved even by 2.5 mm thick material so the thickness of the inner cylinder was changed to 2.5 mm.

There are 38 holes of diameter 10 mm at top of the inner cylinder for the mixture of gas and air to ignite.

5.2.2 Base plate of inner cylinder

The

base plate serves the two purposes for the stove, one is as the name indicates

base

for the hollow inner cylinder and other is if holes are created in it, those holes

serve as the outlet for the gas formed by the pyrolysis process. 60 holes of 10 mm diameter were created in the base plate of the inner cylinder which is welded in the

inner cylinder after the manufacture.

5.2.3 The L-support

As the name indicates the shape of the support is L and supports the inner cylinder

with the outer base plate and has dimension of 2.5 x1.5x1cm 3 . It is 3 in number

and placed at 120 degrees to each other.

5.2.4 Outer cylinder of the stove

The outer cylinder is to be designed such that the emission from the inner cylinder

and the air from the surrounding should mix, flow efficiently and reach to the top of inner cylinder for the burning purpose. Hence with 2.5 cm gap radially the diameter of the outer cylinder is calculated to be 23 cm. the thickness for the outer cylinder is 2 mm. Height of the outer cylinder is 26 cm. Thirty-five holes of 12

mm diameter were punched in outer cylinder for the entry of the air.

5.2.5 Outer cylinder base plate

The outer cylinder base plate is 29 cm in diameter and 2.5 mm in thickness. It is

welded at the base of the outer cylinder and supports the whole assembly.

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5.2.6 Top plate of stove

The top plate of stove is also 29 cm in diameter and 2.5 mm in thickness only difference in the base plate and top plate is top plate consists of 12 cm hole at the center which serves the purpose of flame outlet.

5.2.7 Stand of the stove

It is 3 in number and supports the whole stove as well as clasps the two plates along with two cylinders. It is a rod of 10 mm in diameter and 30 cm in height.

5.3 Fabrication costs Fabrication work of stove was carried out at Om Shiva Shakti Grill and Shutter Workshop, Sanepa. The fabrication cost per stove is given below:

Table5.2. Fabrication cost of stove

S.N.

Particulars

Amount(Rs)

1.

Inner cylinder with base plate

1100

2.

Outer cylinder

1000

3.

Top plate

150

4.

Bottom plate

150

5.

Stands( Three in quantity)

100

6.

Total

2500

Source: Om Shiva Shakti Grill and Shutter Workshop, Sanepa

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6. RESULT, ANALYSIS AND OUTCOMES

The following tests were carried out for different stove design variations. The wood we had used was commonly available Pinus roxburgii (Salla) which is a typical softwood with gross calorific value of 18 MJ and moisture content of 15 % taken as standard.

6.1. Water boiling test results

6.1.1. WBT input/output for initial stove design

Table 6.1 WBT constant input data for initial design

SN

Particulars

units

Value

1

Weight of empty stove

gm

9100

2

Air temperature

0

C

28

3

Moisture content

 

%

15

4

Dry weight of pot

gm

500

5

Local boiling temperature of water

0

C

96

Table 6.2 WBT input data for initial design

SN

Particulars

cold start

simmering

Initial

Final

Initial

final

1

Weight of wood(gm)

750

0

-

-

2

Water temperature(0C)

26

92

-

-

3

Weight of pot+water(gm)

2400

2000

-

-

4

Charcoal weight(gm)

-

25

-

-

5

Time(min)

0

33

-

-

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Table 6.3 WBT output data for initial design

     

cold

 

SN

Particulars

Units

start

Simmer

1

Thermal efficiency

%

17

-

2

Char weight

gm

25

-

3

Time to boil

min

33

-

4

Burning rate

g/min

18

-

5

Specific Fuel Consumption

g/liter

415

-

6

Fire Power

Watts

5748

-

6.1.1.1

Observation

Full combustion with red flame

Smoke formation

Combustion doesn’t leads to pyrolysis therefore;

Complete ash formation

6.1.1.2 Possible reasons

Air flow through primary outlet so it affects pyrolysis

Low effective height of the pot holder

6.1.1.3 First modification

Holes at the bottom of combustion chamber are transferred on circumferential side at 2 cm above the base

Air supply holes level is placed at bottom of the outer chamber as low as possible

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6.1.2 WBT input/output for first modification

Table 6.4 WBT constant input for first modification

SN

Particulars

Units

Value

1

Weight of empty stove

gm

8350

2

Air temperature

0

C

28

3

Moisture content

%

15

4

Dry weight of pot

gm

500

5

Local boiling temperature of water

0

C

96

Table 6.5 WBT input for first modification

   

cold start

Simmering

SN

Particulars

initial

final

Initial

final

1

Weight of wood(gm)

800

0

800

0

 

Water

     

2

temperature(0C)

25.15

96

96

67.4

 

Weight of

     

3

pot+water(gm)

3000

2822.5

2822.5

2462.5

4

Charcoal weight(gm)

-

290

-

87.5

5

Time(min)

0

19.5

19.5

66.5

Table 6.6 WBT Output for first modification

Pot holder height is now increased to 4 cm.

S.N.

Particulars

Units

Cold start

Simmer

 

Number of holes at primary outlet and secondary inlet are now reduced

1.

Thermal efficiency

%

35

12

2.

Char weight

gm

290

87.5

3.

Time to boil

min

20

46

4.

Burning rate

g/min

12

6.5

5.

Specific Fuel Consumption

g/liter

96

158.5

6.

Fire Power

Watts

2883

1669

 

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6.1.2.1 Observation

Pyrolysis happens but takes time. Syngas starts to emits after 8 th minute of ignition.

Smoke concentration reduces

Flame sustains for 27 th minutes

6.1.2.2 Reasons

Though pyrolysis happens but take significant time (8 min) this may be because combustion chamber is thick enough and took considerable time to heat up.

6.1.2.3 Second modification

Thickness of combustion chamber reduced to form 2.5 mm to 0.35 mm

Diameter of combustion chamber is increased from 18cm to 21 cm

Material now used is steel sheet metal

6.1.3. WBT input/output for second modification

Table 6.7 WBT constant input for second modification

SN

Particulars

units

value

1

Weight of empty stove

gm

6450

2

Air temperature

0

C

28

3

Moisture content

%

15

4

Dry weight of pot

gm

500

5

Local boiling temperature of water

0

C

96

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Table 6.8 WBT input for second modification

     

cold start

simmering

 

SN

Particulars

initial

final

initial

final

1

Weight of wood(gm)

1200

500

 

1200

 

500

2

Water temperature(0C)

25.05

95.9

 

95.9

93.4

 

Weight of

       

3

pot+water(gm)

3000

2855

 

2855

2067.5

4

Charcoal weight(gm)

-

245

-

 

245

5

Time(min)

0

16

 

16

 

65

Table 6.9 WBT output for second modification

 

S.N.

Particulars

 

Units

 

Cold start

Simmer

 

1.

Thermal efficiency

 

%

 

34

20.5

2.

Char weight

 

gm

 

245

245

3.

Time to boil

 

min

 

16

48.5

4.

Burning rate

 

g/min

 

13.5

12

5.

Specific Fuel Consumption

 

g/liter

 

91.5

371.5

6.

Fire Power

 

Watts

 

3390.5

2964.5

6.1.3.1 Observation

Pyrolysis occurs at 4 th minutes from ignition.

Virtually No Smoke

Flame sustains for whooping one hour and seven minutes.

6.2 Controlled Cooking Test Results The controlled cooking test was conducted in CES lab at IOE, Pulchowk campus to determine the stove performance at actual cooking condition. The procedure and necessary data for the test was taken as per the instruction provided by shell foundation for household energy and health program and then the obtained data

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was fitted into the excel sheet provided by them. The important result that we have deducted from this test is the SFC and the total time to cook the meal. The result obtained from the test is as below:

Table 6.10 Test Results of CCT

Parameters

Test

Weight of raw food (gm)

760+200=960 (Rice + Pulse)

Wood Supplied (gm)

1500

Wood Remaining (gm)

525

Weight of Char (gm)

260

Equivalent Dry Wood consumed (gm)

585

Time (min)

34

SFC (g/kg)

609

6.2.1 Discussion:

It is seen that only 975gm of wood is consumed for cooking one time meal for a typical family. The SFC obtained from the test is 609 g/kg means 609gm of wood is required to cook 1kg of meal. The cooking time for both rice and pulses are observed as 34 min. we had conducted CCT for same weight of meal in LPG gas stove and the cooking time was observed as 17 min. It is seen that our Nepali bio- char stove takes as double time as that of gas cook stove for cooking. Since we use wood as a fuel for cooking, giving such result with respect to LPG gas stove is quite satisfactory.

6.3 Char Test

6.3.1 Proximate Analysis

Proximate analysis of the char was done to know the carbon content and information related to moisture content, volatile matter present and ash content so as to assess the produced char to be used as a charcoal fuel. Thus, studying these characteristics is very important to understand the characteristics of the charcoal. The proximate analysis was conducted at Center for Energy and Environment, Nepal (CEEN) by the help of Prof. Ramesh Man Singh. The proximate analysis was carried out by following JIS 8812 standard method. The test results are as follows:

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Table 6.11 Proximate Analysis Result of Pine Char

Sample Name:

Pine Char

Standard (NAST)

Moisture Content (%)

5.57

7.5

Volatile Matter Content (%)

36.50

17.96

Ash Content (%)

1.85

5.39

Total Fixed Carbon Content (%)

56.09

69.15

6.3.1.1 Discussion

Moisture Content: Moisture affects the combustion efficiency negatively and the moisture content should typically be as low as possible (Demirbas, 2004). Optimum moisture content that can be allowed to use in charcoal briquettes is 10-12%. (Eriksson & Prior, 1990).

Volatile Matter Content: According to the report published by FAO (1985) volatile matter in charcoal can vary from a high value of 40%. The high value of volatile charcoal tends to be stronger, heavier, harder and easier for the ignition than low volatile charcoal but at the same time burn with some smokes too.

Ash Content: Biomass residues normally have much lower ash content (except for rice husk with 20% ash) but their ashes have a higher percentage of alkaline minerals, especially potash. Pine charcoal had 5.39% of ash content (Standard). The good quality charcoal (1.2% to 8.9%) range set by FAO (1987).The low values of ash content obtained could be due to the high heating value of the fuel wood.

Total Fixed Carbon Content: Fixed carbon content is the amount of the carbon present in the sample. Standard value to make good quality of charcoal of pine char conducted by NAST is 69.15%. The charcoal yield from our Nepali bio-char stove is less than the standard value because the char was taken in early stage of gasification process as the sample was taken just at the end of cold start process.

6.3.2 Calorific Value of Char

Another most important feature of a solid fuel is its calorific value. It determines the commercial value of fuel. Hence the char from bio-char stove was tested in the laboratory of Nepal Environmental & Scientific Services (NESS). The calorific value of char was found to be 6363 Kcal/kg. The test was conducted with bomb

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calorimeter that follows American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM), D 5865-

03a.

6.3.2.1 Discussions

The calorific value used for making good quality pine charcoal is 6447 Kcal/kg. (Bharati et al., 2010). The observed value of charcoal from Nepali bio-char stove is 6363 Kcal/kg. This result shows that the calorific value of charcoal from Nepali bio-char stove is very close to the calorific value for pine charcoal.

6.4 Outcomes

Table 6.12 stove output of initial stove and its modifications

 

Thermal

   

variation in

efficiency

Char yield

flame

stove

cold

 

cold

 

sustainability(min)

start

simmer

start

simmer

Initial stove

         

model

17%

0

3.33%

0

33

First

         

modification

35%

12%

36.25%

10.93%

27

Second

         

modification

34%

20.50%

35%

20.41%

67

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6.4.1. Thermal efficiency Vs. Stove variations

Thermal efficiency(%)

40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Initial First Second stove modificat modificat
40%
35%
30%
25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%
Initial
First
Second
stove
modificat
modificat
model
ion
ion
Thermal efficiency
cold start
17%
35%
34%
Thermal efficiency
simmer
0
12%
20.50%
Efficeincy vs stove

Figure 6.1 Thermal efficiency of initial stove and its modifications

The above figure shows the thermal efficiency vs. stove design variations. The initial stove design has 17 % thermal efficiency but it did not follow gasification process as expected rather it follows normal combustion just as in other non- gasifier stove. The stove also didn’t burn for the significant time to allow the simmering process so there was no thermal efficiency for simmering thus we proceed for the first modification in stove.

The first modification follows the principle of gasification and is now performs as a gasifier stove. The thermal efficiency of first modification is 35% in cold start and the thermal efficiency for simmer is 12%. Though the thermal efficiency is high, the stove didn’t show the real time cooking as the burning time of the stove did not cover the full simmering process these leads to the second modification.

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The second modification has cold start thermal efficiency of 34% and simmering thermal efficiency of 20.5 %. This modification finally covers the full simmer phase and hence shows the real time cooking thus concluded for final design.

6.4.2. Char yield Vs. Stove variations

Char Yield(%)

40.00% 35.00% 30.00% 25.00% 20.00% 15.00% 10.00% 5.00% 0.00% Initial First Second stove modific modific
40.00%
35.00%
30.00%
25.00%
20.00%
15.00%
10.00%
5.00%
0.00%
Initial
First
Second
stove
modific
modific
model
ation
ation
Char yield cold
start
3.33%
36.25%
35%
Char yield simmer
0
10.93%
20.41%
char yeild vs stove design

Figure 6.2 char yield of initial stove and its modifications

In the above figure, the initial design gives the char yield of only 3.33 % during cold start since much part of remaining are ashes as it follows combustion process rather than gasification. No simmering test has been done for initial stove design. The first modification of the stove gives the char yield of 36.25% during cold start and the char yield during simmering phase is 10.93%.

The second modification of the stove gives the char yield of 35% during cold start and 20.41% during simmering phase. The simmering phase shows better char yield than first modification because of prolonged gasification and greater biomass feed.

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6.4.3 Flame sustainability Vs. Stove variations 80 67 70 60 50 40 33 27 30
6.4.3 Flame sustainability Vs. Stove variations
80
67
70
60
50
40
33
27
30
20
10
0
Initial stove
First
Second
model
modification
modification
flame sustainability(min)

Figure 6.3 flame sustainability of initial stove and its modification

The above figure shows the Flame sustainability (in min) Vs. Stove design variations. It shows that initial stove design gives 33 minutes of burning time which is purely through combustion of wood without any sign of gasification leaving behind only ash.

The first modification though burns for less time than the initial stove; it follows the gasification process contrary to the initial design.

The flame sustainability for second modification is 67 minutes, which is higher than the first modification because greater biomass feed and uniform gasification. The uniform gasification is because of thin size and high conductivity which leads to better heat distribution.

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6.4.4 Water temperature Vs. Time

First modification

120 100 80 60 40 20 A B 0 0 4 8 12 16 20
120
100
80
60
40
20
A
B
0
0
4
8
12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64
Water Temperature(0C)

Time(min)

Water

temperature(o

C)

Figure 6.4 Variation of water temperature with time for first modification

A = Combustion region B= Pyrolysis region

The above figure shows the temperature vs time graph for the first modification. First eight minutes of ignition accounts for the combustion region while thereafter there is gasification upto the 28 th minute of ignition. Gasification is observed visually when the flame comes out from the upper holes.

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Second modification

120 100 Water 80 temperatu re(oC) 60 40 20 A B 0 0 4 8
120
100
Water
80
temperatu
re(oC)
60
40
20
A
B
0
0
4
8
12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64
Time(min)
Figure6.5. variation of water temperature with time for second modification
Water temperature(0C)

Above figure shows the water temperature ( o C) vs time (min) for the second modification. Gasification starts from the 5 th minute of ignition and lasts till the 67 th minute of ignition. The gasification starts early contrary to the first modification which starts to emit at the 8 th minute of ignition. The major portion of the rise in temperature is observed in gasification region which is showed by the steep line. And the major portion of the graph lies in the gasification zone which indicates that second modification is better gasifier stove design than the first modification. Hence the second modification is the final design.

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7. COST ESTIMATION AND FINANCIAL ANALYSIS

Scrap metals were used for the fabrication of the stove to minimize cost. But for the mass production standard and higher quality metal will be used to ensure longevity of stove life and efficient performance when in use. In one hand, cost of standard and higher quality metal will be high but on other hand, the cost of manufacture will be low. Since the cost of manufacture is significantly low than the cost of increase in price of stove due to use of standard and higher quality metal the net effect is decrease in stove price.

7.1 Cost estimation of Bio-char stove for mass production We fabricated the stove at Om Shiva Shakti Grill and Shutter Workshop. And the cost estimation of the Bio-char stove mentioned below is provided by the owner of same workshop.

7.1.1 Cost of various metals used in stove

Cost of 2 mm cast iron metal = Rs.1413 per m 2 Cost of 0.35 mm sheet metal = Rs.404 per m 2 Cost of 10 mm iron rod of 30 cm length = 150 per piece

7.1.2 Total material required

Total area of 2 mm cast iron metal = 3679×10 -4 m 2 Total area of 0.35 mm sheet metal = 1715×10 -4 m 2

7.1.3 Cost of mass production per stove

Total Cost of 2mm cast iron = Rs.519 Total cost of 0.35 sheet metal = Rs.70 Total cost of 3 rods of length 30 cm of 10 mm diameter = Rs.450 Total cost of pot holder = Rs.150 Cost of labor+ welding + grinding + cutting = Rs.800 Total cost of the stove while in mass production = Rs.1989 Hence the total cost of stove when it goes for mass production is Rs1989

7.2 Financial Analysis First of all, a project should be technically sound. The second criteria for the project to be successfully implemented are that it should be economically feasible

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to implement. There are various methods for the financial analysis. Some of the methods used are:

Payback period

NPV

IRR

Cost of stove while in mass production = Rs.1989 Basic assumptions:

Yearly maintenance cost = Rs.600 Average stove life = 3 years Average wood consumed in family per day = 1.95 kg Average wood consumed in a year = 711.75 kg Cost of wood per kg = Rs.20 Average efficiency of existing metallic stove =17% Average efficiency of Bio-char stove = 34%

Therefore, Average profit per year =

=Rs.5197

7.2.1 Payback period

It is one of the widely used methods of financial analysis. It is one of the cheap method and easy to calculate. It gives the time required for the return on investment to repay the sum of the original investment.

Payback period

= 4 months and 17 days

7.2.2 Net Present Value (NPV)

Payback period gives simple indication when the project begins to yield the profit. The biggest limitation of the payback period is that it does not take into account the time value of money. It is the difference in present values between cash inflows and cash outflows. NPV in decision making NPV > 0 accept the project NPV = 0 remain indifferent NPV < 0 reject the project We have,

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Where,

A= Average Annual profit=Rs.5197

i= Discount Rate=13%