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Apr 16, 2019

Electonics Devices 7th Edition

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Electonics Devices 7th Edition

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Basic Electronics

Lecture 02

Prepared By

Zeeshan Fiaz

Outline

Ohm’s Law

Its Applications in Real Life

Electrical Energy

Electrical Power

Ohm’s Law

Ohm's law states that, in an electrical circuit, the current passing through most

materials is directly proportional to the potential difference applied across them,

Mathematically,

V ∝ R

V=IR

where I is current in amperes (A), V is voltage in volts (V), and R is resistance in ohms (Ω) For a constant resistance, if the voltage applied to a circuit is increased, the current will increase and if the voltage is decreased, the current will decrease.

Ohm’s law describes mathematical relation between voltage, current, and resistance in a circuit. It can also be written in three equivalent forms; Express I as a function of V and R Express V as a function of I and R Express R as a function of V and I

Three expression for Ohm’s Law

Units of Voltage

Basic unit of voltage is the volt (V). Multiple units of voltage are:

kilovolt (kV) 1 thousand volts or 1^3 V

megavolt (MV) 1 million volts or 10^6

V

Submultiple units of voltage are:

millivolt (mV) 1-thousandth of a volt or 10^-3 V microvolt (µV) 1-millionth of a volt or

Units of Current

Basic unit of current is the ampere (A).

Submultiple units of current are:

milliampere (mA) 1-

thousandth of an

ampere or

10^-3 A microampere (µA) 1- millionth of an ampere or 10^-6 A

10^-6 V

Units of Resistance

Basic unit of resistance is the Ohm (Ω). Multiple units of resistance are:

kilohm (kΩ) 1 thousand ohms or 1^03 Ω Megohm (MΩ) 1 million ohms or 1^06 Ω

Problems

How much is the current, I, in a 470-kΩ resistor if its voltage is 23.5 V?

How much voltage will be dropped across a 40 kΩ resistance whose

current is 250 µA?

Note: Please consider related problems

Linear Relationship of Current and voltage

In resistive circuits, current and voltage are linearly proportional. Linear means that if one is increased or decreased by a certain percentage, the other will increase or decrease by the same percentage, assuming that the resistance is constant in value. For example, if the voltage across a resistor is tripled, the current will triple. If the voltage is reduced by half, the current will decrease

by half.

Applications of Ohm’s Law

Current calculation in circuits

Voltage calculation in circuit

Resistance Calculation in circuit

Energy and power

Energy is the ability to do work

power is the rate at which energy is used

In other words, power, P, is a certain amount of energy, W, used in a certain length of time (t), expressed as follows:

P=W/t where P is power in watts (W), W is energy in joules (J), and t is time

in seconds (s).

Amounts of power much less than one watt are common in certain areas of

electronics. As with small current and voltage values, metric prefixes are used

to designate small amounts of power. Thus, milliwatts (mW) and microwatts are commonly found in some applications.

In the electrical utilities field, kilowatts (kW) and megawatts (MW) are common units. Radio and television stations also use large amounts of power to transmit

signals. Electric motors are commonly rated in horsepower (hp) where 1 hp =

746 W.

Since power is the rate at which energy is used, power utilized over a period of time represents energy consumption. If you multiply power in watts and time in seconds, you have energy in joules, symbolized by W, W = Pt

Kilowatt-hour unit of Energy

The joule has been defined as the unit of energy. However, there is another way to express energy. Since power is expressed in watts and time can be

expressed in hours, a unit of energy called the kilowatt-hour (kWh) can be

used.

Electric bills are charged on the basis of energy is being used. Because power companies deal in huge amounts of energy, the most practical unit is the kilowatt-hour.

For example, a 100 W light bulb burning for 10 h uses 1 kWh of energy.

W = Pt = (100 W)(10 h) = 1000 Wh = 1 kWh

Example

Power in Electrical Circuits

When there is current through a resistance, the collisions of the electrons as

they move through the resistance give off heat, resulting in a conversion of electrical energy to thermal energy.

The amount of power dissipated in an electrical circuit is dependent on the amount of resistance and on the amount of current, expressed as

P=(I^2)R

The amount of power dissipated in a resistance may be calculated using any one of three formulas, depending on which factors are

known:

P |
= I^2×R |

P |
= V^2 / R |

P |
= V×I |

These power expression also known as watt’s law

Power Rating of the Resisters

Power rating is the maximum amount of power that a resistor can dissipate without being

damaged by excessive heat buildup.

The power rating is not related to the ohmic value (resistance) but rather is determined

mainly by the physical composition, size, and shape of the resistor. All else being equal, the

larger the surface area of a resistor, the more power it can dissipate.

The surface area of a cylindrically shaped resistor is equal to the length (l) times the circumference (c)

When a resistor is used in a circuit, its power rating should be greater than the maximum power that it will have to handle to create a safety margin.

Therefore next higher standard value is used. For example, if a metal-film resistor is to dissipate 0.75 W in a circuit application, its rating should be the next higher standard value which is 1 W.

When the power dissipated in a resistor is greater than its rating, the resistor will become excessively hot. As a result, the resistor may burn open or its resistance value may be greatly altered.

A resistor that has been damaged because of overheating can often be detected by the charred or altered appearance of its surface. If there is no visual evidence, a resistor that is suspected of being damaged can be checked with an ohmmeter for an open or increased resistance value.

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