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Math 155 Course Notes Exercises - Week 8 Solutions

7.1 Differential equation. Solve the following pure-time differential equa-


tions with initial conditions.
dy
(a) = e−3x , where y0 = 10 for x0 = 0.
dx
dy 1
(b) = , where y0 = 1 when x0 = 0.
dx 1 + x2
dh
(c) = 5 − 16t 2 , where h(3) = −11.
dt
Solution.

(a)
dy
= e−3x
dx
dy
Multiply both sides by dx and recall that dy = dx dx

dy = e−3x dx,

and integrate Z Z
dy = e−3x dx,

then the general solution


1
y(x) = − e−3x + C.
3
Recall that y(0) = 10. Then
1 31
10 = − + C ⇒ C =
3 3
and plugging it back into the general solution gives the particular
solution
1 31
y(x) = − e−3x + .
3 3
(b)
dy 1
= ,
dx 1 + x2
dx
Z Z
dy = ,
1 + x2
and the general solution

y(x) = tan−1 x + C.

Satisfying the initial condition

y0 = y(0) = 0 + C = 1 ⇒ C = 1.

Plugging it back into the general solution yields the particular solution

y(x) = tan−1 x + 1.
(c)
dh
= 5 − 16t 2 ,
dt
Z Z
dh = (5 − 16t 2 )dt.

The general solution

16 3
h(t ) = 5t − t + C.
3
Satisfying the initial condition

16 3
h(3) = 5 · 3 − · 3 + C = −11,
3
15 − 144 + C = −11,

C = 144 − 26 = 118.

Then the particular solution

16 3
h(t ) = 5t − t + 118.
3

7.2 Cell volume. Suppose that the volume V (t ) of a cell at time t changes
according to
dV
= 1 + cos t, with V (0) = 5.
dt
Find V (t ).
Solution.
dV
= 1 + cos t,
dt
dV
dt = (1 + cos t )dt,
dt
dV = (1 + cos t )dt,
Z Z
dV = (1 + cos t )dt.

The general solution


V (t ) = t + sin t + C.

Then V (0) = 5 and V (0) = C ⇒ C = 5 and V (t ) = t + sin t + 5.

7.3 Differential equation. Solve the given autonomous differential equa-


tions.
dx
(a) = 1 − 3x, where x(−1) = −2.
dt
dN
(b) = 5 − N, where N (2) = 3.
dt
Solution.
(a)
dx
= 1 − 3x,
dt
dx
dt = (1 − 3x)dt,
dt
dx = (1 − 3x)dt,
dx
= dt,
1 − 3x
dx
Z Z
= dt,
1 − 3x
1
− ln |1 − 3x| = t + C1 ,
3
ln |1 − 3x| = −3t − 3C1 ,
|1 − 3x| = e−3t · e−3C1 ,
1 − 3x = ±e−3C1 · e−3t ,

rename C = ±e−3C1 , then

1 − 3x = Ce−3t ,
3x = 1 −Ce−3t .

The general solution


1 1 −3t
x(t ) = − Ce .
3 3
We must satisfy the initial condition

x(−1) = −2.

Then
1 1 3
−2 = − Ce ,
3 3
−6 = 1 −Ce3 ,
−7 = −Ce3 , C = 7e−3 .

Plugging back into the general solution yields the particular solution,
satisfying given initial condition
1 7 −3(t +1)
x(t ) = − e .
3 3
(b)
dN
= 5 − N,
dt
dN
Z Z
= dt,
5−N
− ln |5 − N| = t + C1 ,
5 − N = ±e−t−C1 .
Let C = ±e−C1
5 − N = Ce−t .
Then the general solution

N (t ) = 5 −Ce−t .

Satisfying the initial condition

N (2) = 5 −Ce−2 = 3,

Ce−2 = 2, C = 2e2 ,
and finally,
N (t ) = 5 − 2e2−t .

7.4 Radioactive decay. Assume that W (t ) denotes the amount of radioactive


material in a substance at time t. Radioactive decay is then described by
the differential equation
dW
= −λW (t ) with W (0) = W0 ,
dt
where λ is a positive constant called the decay constant.

(a) Solve the equation.


(b) Assume that W (0) = 123 gr and W (5) = 20 gr and that time is mea-
sured in minutes. Find the decay constant λ and determine the half-life
of the radioactive substance.

Solution.

(a)
dW
= −λW (t ),
dt
dW
Z Z
= −λ dt,
W
ln |W | = −λt + C1 ,
W = ±e−λt · eC1 ,

replace C = ±eC1 . Then the general solution

W (t ) = Ce−λt .

(b) Given that W0 = 123, W (5) = 20, then

W (0) = C ⇒ C = 123

and the particular solution

W (t ) = 123e−λt .
Also, W (5) = 20 or W (5) = 123e−λ ·5 ,

20 = 123e−λ ·5 ,
20
e−λ ·5 = ,
123
20
−λ · 5 = ln ,
123
1 20
λ = − ln ,
5 123
ln 2 ln 2
T= = 1 20 ≈ 1.908min.
λ − 5 ln 123
Then
1 20
W (t ) = 123e 5 ln 123 t .
7.5 Asymptotic length of the fish. Denote by L(t ) the length of a fish at
time t, and assume that the fish grows according to the von Bertalanffy
equation
dL
= k(34 − L(t )) with L(0) = 2.
dt
(a) Solve the differential equation.
(b) Use your solution in (a) to determine k under the assumption that
L(4) = 10. Sketch the graph of L(t ) for this value of k.
(c) Find the length of the fish when t = 10.
(d) Find the asymptotic length of the fish; that is, find limt→∞ L(t ).

Solution.

(a)
dL
= k(34 − L(t )),
dt
dL
Z Z
= k dt,
34 − L
− ln |34 − L| = kt + C1 ,
ln |34 − L| = −kt −C1 ,
34 − L = ±e−C1 · e−kt , rename C = ±e−C1 ,
34 − L = ±C · e−kt ,

and the general solution

L(t ) = 34 −Ce−kt .

Applying the initial condition

L(0) = 34 −C,

34 −C = 2, C = 32.
Then
L(t ) = 34 − 32e−kt .
(b) Given L(4) = 10,

L(4) = 34 − 32e−k·4 ,
10 = 34 − 32e−k·4 ,
24 = 32e−k·4 ,
24
−k · 4 = ln ,
32
1 3
k = − ln , or
4 4
k ≈ 0.0719.

Then the particular solution

L(t ) = 34 − 32e−0.0719t .

L(t)

34

2
t
(c) L(10) = 34 − 32e−0.0719·10 ≈ 18.408.
(d) limt→∞ L(t ) = 34.

7.6 Solving a differential equation. Use the partial-fraction method to


solve the following differential equations with given initial conditions.

dy
(a) = y(1 − y), y(0) = 2.
dx
dy
(b) = (y − 1)(y − 2), y(0) = 0.
dx
dy
(c) = (3 − y)(2 + y), y(0) = 0.
dx
Solution.

(a)

dy
= y(1 − y),
dx
dy
Z Z
= dx.
y(1 − y)
Using the method of partial fractions
Z  
1 1
+ dy = x + C1 ,
1−y y
− ln |1 − y| + ln |y| = x + C1 ,

y
ln = x + C1 ,
1−y
and after renaming the constant
y
= Cex ,
1−y
y = Cex −Cex y,
y(1 + Cex ) = Cex .

The general solution


Cex
y(x ) = .
1 + Cex
Satisfying the initial condition
C
y(0) = 2 ⇒ = 2,
1 +C
C = 2 + 2C, C = −2.
Then
2ex 2
y(x ) = − or y(x) = − .
1 − 2ex e−x − 2
(b)
dy
= (y − 1)(y − 2),
dx
dy
Z Z
= dx,
(y − 1)(y − 2)
Z  
1 1
− dy = x + C1 ,
y−2 y−1

y−2
ln = x + C1 ,
y−1
after renaming the constant
y−2
= Cex .
y−1
Satisfying initial condition y(0) = 0 ⇒ 2 = C and then
y−2
= 2ex ,
y−1
y − 2 = 2ex y − 2ex ,
y(1 − 2ex ) = 2 − 2ex .

Finally, we solve for y


2(1 − ex )
y(x ) = .
1 − 2ex
(c)
dy
= (3 − y)(2 + y),
dx
dy
Z Z
= dx.
(3 − y)(2 + y)
Use partial fraction decomposition
1 A B
= +
(3 − y)(2 + y) 3 − y 2 + y
⇒ 1 = A(2 + y) + B(3 − y),
1 = y(A − B) + 2A + 3B,
0 = A − B ⇒ A = B,
1 = 2A + 3B.
5A = 1 ⇒ A = 1/5.

Finally,  
1 1 1 1
= + ,
(3 − y)(2 + y) 5 3 − y 2 + y
and now we can split the integral as
Z  
1 1 1
Z
+ dy = dx,
5 3−y 2+y
1
[− ln |3 − y| + ln |2 + y|] = x + C1 ,
5
2+y
ln
= 5x + 5C1 ,
3−y
2+y 2+y
= ±e5x+5C1 , = Ce5x (after renaming the constant),
3−y 3−y
2 + y = (3 − y)Ce5x ,
y(1 + Ce5x ) = 3Ce5x − 2.

The general solution


3Ce5x − 2
y(x ) = .
1 + Ce5x
Satisfying the initial condition
3C − 2
y(0) = 0, 0= , C = 2/3,
1 +C
2(e5x − 1) 6(e5x − 1) 6(1 − e−5x )
y(x ) = = = .
1 + 23 e5x 3 + 2e5x 2 + 3e−5x
7.8 Separation of variables. Consider the following differential equation,
which is important in population genetics:
1 d
a(x )g(x ) − [b(x)g(x)] = 0.
2 dx
Here, b(x) > 0.
(a) Define y = b(x)g(x), and show that y satisfies

a(x ) 1 dy
y− = 0.
b(x ) 2 dx

(b) Separate variables in this modified equation and show that if y > 0, then
 Z 
a(x )
y = C exp 2 dx .
b(x )

Solution.

(a) Let y = b(x)g(x), then the given equation becomes

1 dy
a(x )g(x ) − = 0.
2 dx
Note
b(x ) a(x )
a(x )g(x ) = a(x ) g(x ) = y.
b(x ) b(x )
Then
a(x ) 1 dy
y− = 0,
b(x ) 2 dx
and thus we proved that y(x) satisfies this differential equation.
(b) To solve the differential equation, we re-write it

dy a(x )
=2 y.
dx b(x )

Separating variables and integrating

1 a(x )
Z Z
dy = 2 dx,
y b(x )
a(x )
Z
ln |y| = 2 dx + C1 ,
b(x )
R a(x ) R a(x )
2 b(x) dx 2 b(x) dx
y = ±eC1 · e = C·e .

7.9 Equilibrium solutions. Suppose that

dy
= (4 − y)(5 − y).
dx
(a) Find the equilibria of this differential equation.
(b) Graph dy/dx as a function of y, and use your graph to discuss the
stability of the equilibria.
(c) Discuss the stability of the equilibria using the analytical approach.

Solution.

(a) Equilibria: ŷ = 4, ŷ = 5.
(b)
dy
dx

4 5 y
ŷ = 4 is a locally stable equilibrium, ŷ = 5 is a locally unstable equilib-
rium.
(c) Let g(y) = (4 − y)(5 − y). Then g0 (y) = −(5 − y) − (4 − y) = 2y − 9
and g0 (4) = −1 < 0, g0 (5) − 1 > 0 thus confirming results in (b).

7.10 Equilibrium solutions. Suppose that

dy
= y(2 − y)(y − 3).
dx
(a) Find the equilibria of this differential equation.
(b) Graph dy/dx as a function of y, and use your graph to discuss the
stability of the equilibria.
(c) Discuss the stability of the equilibria using the analytical approach.

Solution.

(a) Equilibria: ŷ = 0, ŷ = 2, ŷ = 3
(b)
dy
dx

0 2 3 y

ŷ = 0 and ŷ = 3 are locally stable equilibria, while ŷ = 2 is a locally


unstable equilibrium.
(c) Let g(y) = y(2 − y)(y − 3). Then, after simplification, g0 (y) = −3y2 +
10y − 6, and g0 (0) = −6 < 0, g0 (2) = 2 > 0, and g0 (3) = −3 < 0 thus
confirming results in (b).
7.13 Single compartment model. Denote the concentration of the solute at
time t by C (t ), and assume that

dC
= 3(20 −C (t )) for t ≥ 0.
dt
(a) Solve the differential equation when C (0) = 5.
(b) Find limt→∞ C (t ).
(c) Use your answer in (a) to determine t so that C (t ) = 10.

Solution.

(a) Separating variables and integrating

dC
Z Z
= 3 dt,
20 −C
−ln|20 −C| = 3t + C1 ,
|20 −C| = e−3t · e−C1 ,
20 −C = ±e−C1 · e−3t ,
20 −C = Ce−3t , where C = ±e−C1 .

Then the general solution

C (t ) = 20 −Ce−3t .

Satisfying the initial condition C (0) = 5

5 = 20 −C, C = 15,

and the particular solution

C (t ) = 20 − 15e−3t .

(b) limt→∞ C (t ) = limt→∞ 20 − 15e−3t = 20.




(c) Let t∗ be the time when C (t∗ ) = 10. Then from the particular solution

C (t∗ ) = 20 − 15e−3t∗ = 10,


10 = 15e−3t∗ ,
1 2
t∗ = − ln ≈ 0.135.
3 3