Rubber elasticity
L. R. G. Treloar
To cite this article: L. R. G. Treloar (1971) Rubber elasticity, Contemporary Physics, 12:1, 3356,
DOI: 10.1080/00107517108205104
Rubber Elasticity
L. R. G. TRELOAR
Department of Polymer and Fibre Science
University of ManChester Institute of Science and Technology
SUMMARY. The elasticity of rubber arises not from the forces between molecules in
the ordinary sense, but from the thermal energy of the constituent atoms in the
longchain molecule. It is associated with a reduction of entropy on deformation
rather than with an increase of internal energy, such as occurs in an ordinary solid.
This mechanism explains the unusual thermoelastic properties of rubber, originally
studied by Gough and Joule.
The basic concepts of this kinetic theory of rubber elasticity are explained, a s well
as the subsequent developments which have taken place in the quantitative treatment
of the mechanical properties of rubber under the most general type of strain
Attention is drawn to the unusual ‘ normalstress ’ effects which occur only in materials
which are capable of undergoing large elastic deformations. A modification of the
basic theory which enables the photoelastic properties of a rubberlike material to be
interpreted in terms of the polarizability of the longchain molecule is examined and
shown t o yield information on the statistical form of the molecule.
Finally, consideration is given to recent developments in the thermodynamics of
elasticity, and to the problem of interpreting the small but significant changes in
internal energy which are found to occur on deformation of an actual rubber.
physicist, and particularly from the more academic type of physicist. Possibly
one reason for this is that the subject is one which draws its inspiration from
both chemical and physical sources, and in which, therefore, the physics
content cannot be entirely isolated from the chemical background. However
that may be, there is no doubt that, as the emphasis on the utilization of rubbers
in the engineering field strengthens, the further development of the subject
will rely heavily on the services of the physicist in both the experimental and
theoretical fields.
The aim of this review is t o set out briefly the key problems in the physics
of rubber elasticity, to examine the theoretical concepts involved in the
elucidation of these problems, and t o indicate the extent t o which the various
physical properties may be quantitatively accounted for in terms of a relatively
simple model of the molecular structure of rubberlike materials.
EXTENSION, "10
500 to 1000 per cent, is higher than that for a normal solid by a factor of about
1000.
It was discovered by Gough (1805) that a strip of rubber extended by a
constant force contracted on raising the temperature. Alternatively, if held
at a constant stretched length, the tensile force increased on heating. This
effect was later coniirmed by Joule (1859), and is known as the GoughJoule
effect. Another effect discovered by Gough, and also confirmed by Joule, was
that the adiabatic extension of a rubber strip was accompanied by a rise in
temperature, while an adiabatic retraction produced cooling. These two
effectsthe reversible heat of extension and the contraction on heatinghave
important thermodynamic implications, and were in fact shown by Kelvin to
be thermodynamically related to each other.
These peculiar thermoelastic effects, like the purely mechanical properties
of rubber, clearly cannot be accounted for in terms of interatomic forces of the
type responsible for the mechanical properties of an ordinary crystalline solid.
In such a material the individual atoms are held in fixed mean positions by
welldefined interatomic forces. These forces vary rapidly with the distance
between atomic centres. Application of a stress changes the interatomic
distances in such a way that the internal forces are brought into equilibrium
with the external stress. Theoretically the maximum deformation which
this type of structure can withstand is about 20 or 30 per cent; in practice it
is very much lower.
be very much less than the fully outstretched length (fig. 2 ( c ) ) . If such a
molecule is forcibly extended and then released it will in the course of time
return t o some more highlykinked state such as that shown in fig. 2 (b) under
the influence of the random bombardments of surrounding molecules. The
molecule is thus inherently elastic, but its elasticity is kinetic, not static, and
depends upon the statistical configurations of the chain.
\
I
I
I
I
I
I I
I
I
I
I
I
I
(b)
z (c)
Some idea of the statistical form of the longchain molecule may be gained
from the model represented in fig. 3. This represents a paraffin chain con
taining a thousand CC bonds, constructed on the basis of random rotation
about successive bonds.
Thermodynamic consequences
The contrast between the basic concept of rubber elasticity and the concept
of intermolecular force fields could hardly be more absolute. The elasticity
of a rubber is due not t o any attractive forces between molecules in the
ordinary sense of the term, but t o the thermal motion of the parts of the
longchain molecules themselvessometimes called the microBrownian motion.
I n many respectsand particularly in its thermodynamic aspectsthe
elasticity of rubber is more akin to that of a gas than to that of an ordinary
solid. The extended molecule retracts to a less extended length not because
the shorter length has a lower energy, but because the shorter length has a
higher probability, or in thermodynamic terms, a higher entropy.
Just as in the case of a perfect gas we make the assumption that the internal
energy of the system (ie. the kinetic energy of the molecules) depends only on
Rubber Elasticity 37
the temperature, and not on the volume, so, by analogy, we may make the
assumption that the internal energy of a rubber is a function only of the
temperature, and not of the state of strain (e.g. length). This assumption
leads directly to the following important conclusions:
1. The tensile force in a rubber held at constant stretched length is propor
tional to the absolute temperature.
2. The heat evolved in an isothermal extension is equal to the mechanical
work done by the stretching force.
The statistical theory thus provides an immediate explanation of the long
established thermoelastic effects discovered by Gough and confirmed by Joule.
1.75
1.50
1.25 
1.00 ' I I I I I
4. Quantitative development
Large and small strains
The classical theory of elasticity is essentially a smallstrain theory. It
provides a complete description of the mechanical properties of an elastic
solid, in the region of small strains, in terms of two independent physical
constants. Any homogeneous state of strain can be expressed as the sum of
a change of volume (dilatation) together with two (or three) shear strains.
The resultant stress is derived on the basis that each component of strain
produces a corresponding component of stress, and that these stresses are
additive.
In rubbers, the strains are large. Under these conditions not only are the
stressstrain relations for particular types of strain nonlinear, but, more
importantly, individual stresses and strains can no longer be simply super
imposed. This second consideration arises from the fact that the properties
of the material are actually changed by the deformation, and that in the
strained state it is no longer isotropic, in contrast to the classical elastic solid,
whose properties are assumed to be isotropic and independent of strain.
This more complex strain dependence necessitates a quite different approach
to the method of representation of the elastic behaviour. The statistical
theory has been remarkably successful in providing a basis for such a new
approach.
Chain statistics
In any real molecule, the geometry of the chain, i.e. the succession of bond
lengths and valence angles, is a function of its chemical constitution, and hence
varies from one type of molecule t o another. The statistical properties of the
chain, however, are not very sensitive to the details of the chain structure,
and may be expressed in terms of a general function representing the proba
bility P(r)dr that the chain ends shall be separated by a distance lying between
r and r + dr. This function has the form shown in fig. 5, and is represented by
the equation
4b3
P(r)dr = r2 exp [  b2r2]dr
7T42
in which the parameter b depends on the detailed chain geometry and also on
the chain length. The rootmeansquare (r.m.s.) value of r , which is a
convenient average statistical parameter to employ, is given by

(r2)l/2= (Q)’l2/b.
For the hypothetical case of a randomlyjointed chain of n links each of length
1, which is frequently used for mathematical convenience,
For any other chain geometry the parameter b and the r.m.s. length differ
only by a numerical factor from the values (3). The important conclusion
is that the r.m.s. length is proportional to the square root of the number of
links in the chain, i.e. to the square root of the chain length itself.
The first step in the application of the statistical treatment of the single
chain to the problem of the mechanical properties of a rubber is the derivation
of the entropy of the chain as a function of the distance between its ends.
By following the standard processes of statistical thermodynamics, according
to which the entropy associated with a given state is proportional to the
logarithm of its probability, the entropy s for the chain may be shown to be
of the form
s = c  kb2r2, (4)
where k is Boltzmann’s constant and c is an arbitrary constant. The entropy
is thus a maximum when the two ends of the chain are coincident ( r = 0) and
diminishes progressively with increasing extension.
Network properties
I n order to apply this result for the entropy of the single chain to the problem
of the elasticity of rubber it is necessary to introduce certain assumptions
concerning the structure of the rubber and the relation between the deformation
of the molecules and the strain in the bulk material. The first of such assump
tions is that the forces between the chains are negligibly small. This means
that on deformation of the material no work is done against intermolecular
forces, the only change being a change in the entropy of the individual chains.
However, if there were no forces between molecules the system would behave
as a liquid; there would be no restriction on the slippage of one molecule past
another. To overcome this difficulty the further assumption is made that a
small number of permanent connections or crosslinkages are introduced
between the chains. Since the molecules are very long the number of such
crosslinkages required may be quite small, and these will therefore not
seriously interfere with the freedom of motion of the chains (the microBrownian
motion) except in the immediate vicinity of the crosslinkages.
40 L. R. G. Trebar
for the change AA in Helmholtz free energy, which is equal to the work W
done by the applied forces in producing the deformation, i.e.
W =AA = A U  TAX =  T A S , (5)
where A S is the entropy of deformation and T the absolute temperature.
From the value of W so calculated, it is a simple matter to derive the stress
strain relation corresponding to the particular type of strain considered.
The principal stresses t,, t 2 and t , corresponding to this state of strain act
normally to the surfaces of the deformed cube in the directions of the principal
strains (fig. 7 ) . The problem is to find the relation between these principal
stresses and the principal extension ratios A,, A, and A,.
The statistical theory of the network yields the following expression for the
work of deformation (per unit volume):
W=$NkT(A12+ A , 2 + A , 2   3 ) , (7)
42 L. R. G. Treloar
where N is the number of ' chains ' (segments between junction points) per
unit volume. From this it is easy to obtain the streesstrain relations.
Putting
NkT = G, (7 a )
these are of the form
tlt,=G(h,2 A,'),
t ,  t , = G(  As2).
Four important features of these equations are particularly noteworthy.
These are
(1) The expression for the work of deformation, and the corresponding
stressstrain relations, involve only a single physical parameter relating
to the material, i.e. N , the number of chains per unit volume. This,
in turn, is determined by the number of crosslinkages introduced.
(2) For a given state of strain, only the differences between principal stresses
are obtainable. This is equivalent to the statement that the principal
stresses are indeterminate to the extent of an arbitrary hydrostatic
pressure, and is a direct consequence of the assumption of constancy of
volume or volume incompressibility.
(3) The stressstrain relations are nonlinear, involving the squares of the
principal extension ratios. Hooke's law is not, in general, obeyed.
(4) As a corollary to ( l ) ,all rubbers, whatever their chemical constitution,
should have the same form of stressstrain relations, subject only t o a
scale factor or modulus.
A
If h is the extension ratio, the condition (6) for constancy of volume yields:
A , = A; A, = A, = A"2. (10)
The first of eqns. (6) then gives the stress:
t = NkT(A 2  l/A). (11)
In this equation t is the true stress, or stress per unit crosssectional area,
measured in the deformed state. In practice, it is more convenient to introduce
the nominal stress F , or force per unit unstrained area. Putting t = F/area =
AF (from (10)) eqn. (11) becomes:
F=NkT(Al/h2). (12)
The form of this equation is shown in fig. 9.
( b ) Uniaxial compression
This state of strain (fig. 8 c) is formally equivalent to simple extension, but
with A (the compression ratio) less than 1. The same formulae (11) and (12)
apply as for simple extension, but t and F are in this case negative, i.e.
compressive.
( c ) Simple shear
For a simple shear in the ( x , y ) plane (fig. 10) the principal axes of the
strain ellipsoid are inclined to the direction of shearing. Their magnitudes
are related by the equations
EXTENSION
Fig. 9. Combined stressstrain curves for rubber in extension and uniaxial com
pression. Circles and points, experimental. Continuous curve, theoretical
(eqn.:(W
44 L. R. Q. Tretoar
where A, is the major axis of the strain ellipsoid in the plane of the shear.
If y is the amount of the shear (Love, 1927)
y=tan + = A  l / A (14)
Insertion of the values (13) in the expression (7) for the work deformation
yields, with ( 1 4 ) ,
W =;NkT(hz+l/h22) = i N k T y 2 (15)
The shear stress t,, is obtained by differentiation of W, i.e.
t z y = dW/dy = NkTy = Gy. (16)
Thus for simple shear Hooke’s law (stress proportional to strain) is obeyed.
This is the only type of deformation for which Hooke’s law applies.
It is seen from eqn. ( 1 2 ) that the quantity N k T which occurs in the stress
strain relation for simple extension is equivalent to the shear modulus.
Experimental examincztion
Space does not permit a detailed presentation of the experimental evidence
which has been obtained in support of the foregoing theoretical conclusions.
It is only possible to sketch out the lines which have been followed and to give
a few illustrative examples. Fuller accounts have been given elsewhere
(Treloar 1958, 1970).
Typical data for the first part of the extension curve and for uniaxial com
pression are shown in a combined plot in fig. 9. It is seen that these data lie
on a single continuous curve which is approximately of the expected form,
though there are significant deviations at high extensions. A similar degree
of agreement is obtained for simple shear (fig. 1 1 ) ’ the stressstrain curve being
approximately linear up to very high values of the shear strain. Moreover,
the value of G required to fit the data for extension and compression for a
particular rubber (0.39 MN m2) also fit the shear data for the same rubber.
Experiments have also been made for a pure homogeneous strain of the most
general type, obtained by stretching a rubber sheet by different amounts in
two perpendicular directions and measuring the corresponding stresses. Fig. 1 2
represents the relation between the difference of the two principal stresses in
the plane of the sheet, t ,  t,, and the corresponding values of h I 2 A 2 2 . It is
seen that the results are in good agreement with the theoretical relation (8).
These experiments, and many others, have demonstrated that the statistical
theory gives a reasonably accurate description of the elastic properties of
rubber. Not only are the various types of stressstrain relations satisfactorily
Rubber Elasticity 45
SHEAR STRAIN
/ I I I I I
0 2 4 6 8 10
Fig. 12. Pure homogeneous strain. Difference of principal stresses plotted against
difference of squares of principal extension ratios in plane of sheet.
46 L. R. Q. Treloar
reproduced, butwhat is more importantthese particular stressstrain
curves are shown t o be all related to a single general function (eqn. (7)) which
contains only one material parameter or elastic constant. Furthermore, by
making use of crosslinking agents which react in a quantitative manner with
the rubber hydrocarbon chains, i t has been possible t o estimate chemically the
number of crosslinkages introduced, and hence also the number of chains per
unit volume, N . This is found to agree reasonably closely (e.g. to within
about 25%) with the value of N calculated from the measured modulus of
the crosslinked rubber. Since the relevant equations (e.g. eqn. (12)) contain
no adjustable parameter, this agreement is highly significant.
tYX i YY
Fig. 13. Tangential and normal components of stress in simple shear.
Consider a material subjected to a large simple shear in the (2,y) plane, as
in fig. 10. Fig. 13 represents an element cut from the deformed material with
it5 surfaces normal t o the x,y and z directions. We denote the normal stress
components by t x Z , t,, and t Z Z , and the tangential stress components by tzy
and tvx. Rivlin has shown that for a material whose storedenergy function
has the form given by eqn. (7),the components of stress are given by
(tangential),
t x , = tyx = Gy
1
t x x  t,, = G y 2 ; t,,  t z z = 0 (normal).
These equations imply that a large simple shear cannot be maintained by shear
(17)
The stress component tZz represents a tensile stress acting in the direction of
shearing. If this stress is not applied, i.e. if only the tangential stress com
ponents t,,, t,,, are applied, the resultant deformation will not be a simple
shear; there will be, in addition, a contraction in the x direction, and an
expansion in the y and z directions.
It is interesting to note that these normalstress components are proportional
to the square of the shear strain. Components of this type have no analogue
on the classical theory, in which all the components of stress are simply
proportional to the corresponding components of strain.
Torsion of a cylinder
I n the torsion of a cylinder (fig. 14) the element of the material is subjected
to shear strain. This gives rise to normal stress components of the type con
sidered, but in a slightly different form. If we take the case where the
cylindrical surface is stressfree, it is found that at any point within the
cylinder there are normal components of stress acting in both the radial and
Fig. 14. Couple M about axis and normal thrust N acting on cylinder in torsion.
Fig. 15. Relation between couple and torsion for cylinder of 254 cm diameter
(Rivlin and Saunders 1951.)
of the torsion, and has no counterpart on the classical theory. If the com
pressive force is not applied in the axial direction, the cylinder will increase in
length when twisted. This effect is easily demonstrated.
The experiments of Rivlin and Saunders (1951) have confirmed that the
normal thrust on a cylinder in torsion is proportional to the square of the twist
(fig. 16) while the couple is proportional to the first power of the twist (fig. 15).
There was, however, some discrepancy between the values of G derived from
these two measurements. For a quantitative representation of all the data a
2constant form of storedenergy function of a semiempirical type (known as
the MooneyRivlin function) was found t o be necessary. The molecular
significance of this form of deviation from the statistical theory is still not clear.
Fig. 16. Compressive force N on end face of cylinder in torsion plotted against
square of torsion, for cylinder of 2.54 cm diameter. (Rivlin and Saunders
1951.)
Rubber Elasticity 49
Weissenberg effects
Normalstress effects may be observed not only in vulcanized rubbers, but
also in polymer solutions and polymer melts subjected to shear flow, torsion,
etc. Such effects in liquids were demonstrated and studied particularly by
Weissenberg. Since they have been the subject of a recent review article
(Trevana 1968) they are only referred to here in passing. The point which it
is desired to emphasize is that polymer solutions and polymer melts display
many of the properties of a rubberlike solid (e.g. elastic recoil), the chief
difference being that the stresses generated by a deformation rapidly relax.
But in continuous steady flow, the stresses may be considered to be con
tinuously regenerated, and the relations between the normal and tangential
components of stress are of a similar form to those for a solid rubber.
between its ends. Knowing this relationship, it is possible to treat the photo
elastic properties of a network of such chains in a manner analogous to the
treatment of the mechanical properties of the network, the total polarizability
of the network being derived both for the direction of the extension, and for
the transverse direction. Applying the standard LorentzLorenz relation
between refractive index n and polarizability P per unit volume,
n21 4~r
=p
n2+2 3
to each of these directions separately, Kuhn and Griin were thus able to obtain
the corresponding difference of refractive indices n ,  n 2 for light polarized in
these respective directions. The resulting relation between birefringence and
stress is
n,n,  2 ~ r( n , 2 + 2 ) 2
45kT no (011  01217
t
where t is the tensile stress and no the mean refractive index (i.e. the refractive
index in the unstrained state). Since all the terms on the righthand side of
this equation are constant, this means that the birefringence is proportional
to the applied tensile stress.
Fig. 18. Relation between birefringence and stress for natural rubber. 0 Stress
increasing. Stress decreasing.
Rubber Elasticity 51
8. Thermodynamics of elasticity
In Section 3 reference was made t o the basic thermodynamic consequences
of the statistical theory, and to the temperature dependence of the stress
(fig. 4) associated with the reduction of entropy on extension. I n the presenta
tion given there the purpose was to convey the essential ideas in the simplest
form, and certain complications which arise in a more critical examination
were omitted. Having now reviewed the general development of the statistical
theory it is appropriate to reconsider the fundamental thermodynamics more
closely.
Although at high extensions the tensile force, at constant length, increases
approximately in proportion to the absolute temperature, this is not true for
rather small extensions. This is shown in fig. 19, from which it is seen that at
small extensions the tension actually falls instead of rising, as the temperature
is increased. By interpolation the inversion of slope is found to occur at about
10% extension.
In thermodynamic terms this means that there is a significant increase in
internal energy on deformation in contrast to the postulate of the statistical
theory, according to which the change in internal energy should be zero.
52 L . R. G . T'relour
_.
EL
~~ O0 20 TEMPERATURE,
40 'C
60 80
The explanation of the reversal of slope or ' thermoelastic inversion ' at about
10% extension is in fact quite simple. It arises from the ordinary thermal
expansion of the rubber in the unstrained state. This will be clear from fig. 20,
in which Zoo represents the uiistrained length at temperature To and lo, the
unstrained length a t temperature T . If I is the strained length, which is
maintained constant while the temperatnre is varied, it is clear that the strain
(1  Z,)/ actually decreases as the temperature is raised. Denoting the strains
at temperatures To and T by e, and eT, respectively. we have:
eT=eO P( T  T o ) ,
3 (22)
+F
Fig. 20.
Rubber Elasticity 53
eo= B
 (2TTo). (23)
3
Putting /?= 6.6 x (for natural rubber) and taking a typical range of T as
in fig. 19, i.e. T0=273', T=353", we obtain from (23)
e, = 0.095 = 9.5%, (24)
which is sufficiently near t o the experimental 10% strain.
The significance of the above analysis is that the internal energy change
which accompanies the extension of rubber is not essentially connected with
the mechanism of the elasticity itself, but is a secondary effect associated with
small changes in the volume of the material. The volume of the rubber is
determined by the forces between the chain molecules; these forces are of the
same kind as the forces between the molecules of an ordinary solid If we
consider the variation of the tensile force on rubber at constant strain (i.e.
constant extension ratio A ) rather than at constant length, this is found to be
approximately proportional to the absolute temperature for all values of the
strain, and the inversion effect does not enter into the argument.
This was the conclusion originally arrived at by Gee (1946), who derived the
further result that if the stresstemperature relations could be measured at
constant length and constant volume (by the application of an overall hydrostatic
pressure to counteract the thermal expansivity) then the force would be
strictly proportional to the absolute temperature, and the internal energy
change (associated with the change of volume under the normal constant
pressure conditions) would be zero.
This conclusion is now known to be not quite as exact as was believed at
the time. Later very careful experiments by Allen et al. (1963, 1968), in
Gee's laboratory on the stresstemperature coefficient at constant volume
have shown that even under these conditions the change of internal energy
on extension is still not quite zero. Its magnitude depends on the type of
rubber; for natural rubber the internal energy change accounts for about 13%
of the total stress (the remainder being due to the change in entropy). This
small residual effect may be accounted for on the basis of a more rigorous
theoretical analysis of the network problem by Flory (1961) which takes into
account the possibility of internal energy effects within the single longchain
molecule itself. In the simpler treatments of the network it had previously
been assumed that the internal rotations about bonds take place quite freely.
In a real molecule, however, there is some restriction of rotation due to the
interferences between neighbouring atoms along the chain, as a result of which
different conformations of the chain will have different internal energies. For
such a chain the statistical properties, as represented by eqn. ( l ) ,will no longer
be independent of temperature. Flory's analysis relates the internal energy
54 L. R. G. Treloar
0 0
 2 0297
A 
I I 1 I I
20 30 40 50 60
TEMPERATURE, "C
Fig. 21. Dependence of couple on temperature for cylinder in torsion, for values of
#ao shown. Temperaturc increasing. 0 Temperature decreasing. (Boyce
and Treloar 1970.)
Rubber Elasticity 55
extension) does not have a major effect on the strain. I n particular, there
should be no stresstemperature inversion effect. The experimental data
(fig. 21) bear out these expectations; the relative rates of increase of the couple
are independent of the amount of torsion, and nearly proportional to the
absolute temperature. The small deviation from linearity yields the result
that about 13% of the couple is due to the internal energy change (associated
with the internal energy of the single molecule), in precise agreement with the
results of Allen et al. for simple extension at constant volume.
9. Conclusion
This review has concentrated primarily on the purely elastic properties of
rubber and on their molecular interpretation. It has been shown that the
statistical theory is capable of providing a satisfactory general account of the
most important of these properties and of predicting results which have
subsequently been confirmed experimentally. There are indeed certain
significant deviations from the simple theory as expounded, but except for
those revealed by thermodynamic studies these have not been discussed.
Outstanding among such deviations are deviations in the form of the stress
strain relations (cf. fig. 9)) which though partially described by a more complex
strainenergy function have so far not received any satisfactory or conclusive
explanation in terms of molecular mechanisms.
Many of the practically significant properties of rubbers, however, are
related more closely to the imperfections of the elasticity rather than t o the
elasticity itself, i.e. to the viscoelastic properties of the material. I n contrast
to the purely elastic properties, which are similar for all types of rubber, the
viscoelastic properties are extremely dependent on the chemical constitution
of the material. It is these properties which determine the dissipation of heat
in a cyclic deformation and the range of temperature over which rubberlike
properties are retained. They also play an important part in determining the
resistance to tearing and fatigue. Nevertheless, although an understanding of
the basic mechanism of the purely elastic behaviour is not related directly to
these more practical situations, it does provide the general framework within
which their interpretation has to be discussed. I n this sense the statisitcal
theory must be regarded as an important development not only in our know
ledge of the structure and properties of rubberlike polymers, but also in our
ability to cope with the practical needs of the rubber industry.
REFERENCES
ALLEN,BIANCHI and PRICE,1963, Trans. Faraday SOC.,59, 2493.
ALLEN,KIRRHAM, PADGET and PRICE, 1968, Polymer Systems (Macmillan)p. 51.
ANTHONY, CASTONAND GUTH,1942, J . phys. Chem., 46, 826.
BOYCEand TRELOAR, 1970, Polymer, i 1 , 2 1 .
FARADAY, 1826, Quart. J. Sci., 21, 19.
RORY, 1961, Trans. Faraday Soc., 57, 829.
GEE, 1946, Trans. Faraday SOC.,42, 585.
GENT and VICKROY, 1967, J . Polym. Sci.,A2,5, 17.
GOUGH,1805, Mem. Lit.phil. SOC.Manchester, 1, 288.
JAMESand GUTH, 1943, J. chem. Phys., 11,455.
JOULE, 1859, Phi!. Trans., 149, 91.
KUHNand G R ~ N1942,
, Kolloidzeits, 101, 248.
56 Rubber Elasticity
The Author:
L. R. 0. Treloar, 0.I3.E.. B.Sc., Ph.l)., L).Sc., F.InsL.P., Professor of Polymer and Fibre Science,
University of Manchestrr Institate of Science and Tcchnology. Previously on tho research staff
of the General Electric Company ( 1 92938), the British Rubber Producers’ Research Associatiolr
(193819), the British Rayon Rescarch Associat,ion(104961) and thc Cotton, Silk and Manhiatlo
Fihres Research Association (196163).
Mult mai mult decât documente.
Descoperiți tot ce are Scribd de oferit, inclusiv cărți și cărți audio de la editori majori.
Anulați oricând.