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Belt Conveyors Presentation by Group 1
Belt Conveyors
Presentation by Group 1
What is Belt Conveyor?
What is Belt Conveyor?
 Belt Conveyor is a Material Handling Equipment.  Belt Conveyor consist of a belt
 Belt
Conveyor
is
a
Material
Handling
Equipment.
 Belt Conveyor consist of a belt running over
drums or pulleys provided at the end and are
supported at intervals by a series of rollers
known as Idlers.
Types of Belt Conveyors:
Types of Belt Conveyors:
 Flat Belt Conveyors 
 Flat Belt Conveyors
Types of Belt Conveyors:  Flat Belt Conveyors   Troughed Belt Conveyors Portable Belt Conveyors

Troughed Belt Conveyors

Portable Belt Conveyors
Portable Belt Conveyors
Belt Conveyor Components :
Belt Conveyor Components :
Following are the main components of a Belt Conveyor system :  Belt  Pulleys
Following are the main components of a Belt
Conveyor system :
 Belt
 Pulleys and Idlers
 Drives
 Motor and Controls
 Conveyor Belt Take-ups
 Hold Backs
 Feeders
Belt :
Belt :
 Conveyor Belt consist of a carcass embedded in rubber.  The carcass is made
 Conveyor Belt consist of a carcass embedded in
rubber.
 The carcass is made up of Plies or Layers of Fabric
(Cotton or Synthetic ) bonded together carries
tension and absorbs impact.
 The rubber compound may be natural, synthetic or
a blend. Steel-wire standard cable may also be
used in place of fabric.
Belt (Continued) :
Belt (Continued) :
 Vulcanizing or Mechanical Fasteners are used to make the Conveyor Belts endless at the
 Vulcanizing or Mechanical Fasteners are
used to make the Conveyor Belts
endless at the job site.
Pulleys and Idlers :
Pulleys and Idlers :
 Pulleys are generally located at the terminals of a belt conveyors, where they support
 Pulleys are generally located at the terminals
of a belt conveyors, where they support the
belt and transmit driving power.
 The Conveyor Belts are supported on idlers
between the terminals.
 The idlers are generally of three-roll type ,
with the central roll horizontal and two side
rolls inclined to form a trough.
Pulleys and Idlers (Continued):
Pulleys and Idlers (Continued):
 This angle of inclination is generally kept at 20˚.  The idler rolls are
 This angle of inclination is generally kept
at 20˚.
 The idler rolls are made up of steel tubing
,
with
welded
end
discs
which
has
antifriction bearings.
 The idler supporting the loaded strand of
the belt is known as upper idler.
Pulleys and Idlers (Continued):
Pulleys and Idlers (Continued):
 The idler supporting the return belt is called as lower idler.  The upper
 The idler supporting the return belt is
called as lower idler.
 The upper idler may be 3-roller type
or single-roller type.
 But lower idler always have a single
roller.
Drives :
Drives :
 Nearly all belt conveyors are driven by electric motors.  Speed reduction may be
 Nearly all belt conveyors are driven by
electric motors.
 Speed reduction may be achieved by chain
and sprockets, V-belt or gearing.
 The drives are located at the discharge
end of inclined conveyors.
Motors and Controls :
Motors and Controls :
Motors and Controls :  Squirrel-cage and wound-rotor type motors are commonly used in conveyors. 

Squirrel-cage and wound-rotor type motors are commonly used in conveyors. The motor for a conveyor belt drive must have sufficient torque to overcome the starting friction of the system.

 The motor for a conveyor belt drive must have sufficient torque to overcome the starting
 The motor for a conveyor belt drive must have sufficient torque to overcome the starting
Conveyor Belt Take-ups :
Conveyor Belt Take-ups :
 Take-ups are provided to adjust increase in length of the belt due to its
 Take-ups are provided to adjust increase
in length of the belt due to its elongation
after it is put into operation. Take-ups
are of 2 types ,
1. Screw take-ups
2. Counter weight take-ups
1. Screw take-ups :  These are used to increase the length of the conveyor
1. Screw take-ups :  These are used to increase the length of the conveyor

1. Screw take-ups :

 These are used to increase the length of the conveyor by moving the head
 These are used to increase the length of
the conveyor by moving the head or tail
pulley.
 This system is used for short belts.
2. Weight take-ups :
2. Weight take-ups :
 In this system weighted pulleys are provided to create uniform tension in the returning
 In this system weighted pulleys are
provided to create uniform tension in the
returning belt.
 This system is used for long belts
Hold Backs :
Hold Backs :
 Hold backs are mechanical devices which allow the driving pulley to rotate only in
 Hold backs are mechanical devices which allow
the driving
pulley to rotate only
in normal
direction and prevent to rotate in opposite
direction
 Hold backs are provided on the driving pulley to
prevent the load from causing the belt to run
backward in the event of power failure ,if the
belt is operating on an incline.
Feeders :
Feeders :
 These are used to deliver the material to a belt at a uniform rate.
 These are used to deliver the material to a
belt at a uniform rate.
 It may deliver the material on the belt
either directly or through a chute in order
to reduce the impact of falling material.
Power Required to Drive a Belt Conveyor : Belt Conveyor system requires external power for
Power Required to Drive a Belt
Conveyor :
Belt
Conveyor
system
requires
external
power for following purposes:
 To move the empty belt over the idlers
 To move the load
I.
Horizontally
II.
Vertically
 To rotate all pulleys
 To compensate for friction and other
losses
the load I. Horizontally II. Vertically  To rotate all pulleys  To compensate for friction
Power Required to Drive a Belt Conveyor : (continued)  Power required to move the
Power Required to Drive a Belt
Conveyor : (continued)
 Power required to move the empty belt :
Horse Power required to move an empty belt is
given by the equation :
LSCW
P =
4500
Power Required to Drive a Belt Conveyor : (continued) Where , L = Length of
Power Required to Drive a Belt
Conveyor : (continued)
Where ,
L
= Length of conveyor , m
S = Speed of the belt , m/min
C = Idler-friction factor
W= Weight of the moving parts/m of
conveyor
Power Required to Drive a Belt Conveyor : (continued)  Power required to move a
Power Required to Drive a Belt
Conveyor : (continued)
 Power required to move a load horizontally :
Horse power required to move a load horizontally may
be expressed by ,
LCT
LCT
P =
P =
3600
3600
Power Required to Drive a Belt Conveyor : (continued) Where ,
Power Required to Drive a Belt
Conveyor : (continued)
Where ,
L = Length of conveyor , m
L = Length of conveyor , m
C
C

= Idler-friction factor = Tons material moved per hour

T
T
Power Required to Drive a Belt Conveyor : (continued)  Power required to move a
Power Required to Drive a Belt
Conveyor : (continued)
 Power required to move a load up an inclined :
Two components may be calculated from following
relation
i- To move the load horizontally
LCT
LCT
P =
P =
3600
3600
Power Required to Drive a Belt Conveyor : (continued) ii- Lift the load through the
Power Required to Drive a Belt
Conveyor : (continued)
ii- Lift the load through the net change in
elevation
TH P = 3600
TH
P =
3600
Where , T = Material moved in tons/hr H = Net change in elevation ,m
Where , T = Material moved in tons/hr
H = Net change in elevation ,m
Belt Capacity :
Belt Capacity :
Carrying capacity of a belt (tons/hr) = cross sectional area of material on the belt
Carrying capacity of a belt (tons/hr) =
cross sectional area of material on the belt
(m 2 ) x Speed of the belt (m/hr) x Unit
weight of the material (tons/m 3 )
Selection and Design Criteria :
Selection and Design Criteria :
A belt should have following qualities :
A belt should have following qualities :
 

Width Strength Thickness and Grade Lateral Flexibility Impact Resistance Lateral Stiffness Longitudinal Flexibility

Thickness and Grade Lateral Flexibility Impact Resistance  Lateral Stiffness Longitudinal Flexibility   
  
Thickness and Grade Lateral Flexibility Impact Resistance  Lateral Stiffness Longitudinal Flexibility   
Advantages of Belt Conveyor:
Advantages of Belt Conveyor:
It is capable of handling light or heavy ,fine or coarse  ,wet or dry
It is capable of handling light or heavy ,fine or coarse
,wet or dry material.
It can handle ,thousands of tons of material per hour
for several kilometers.
It can handle hot materials up to 160˚C or so.
It is lighter in weight and consumes less power.
It operates without noise.
It gives a continuous discharge and quantity of which
can be varied by varying the speed of belt.
It can carry material horizontally or in an inclination