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TERM PAPER IN

READING &
WRITING

Jane Mary N. Badiang March 11,2018


ICT-3 Ms. Sarah Escueta
PATTERNS OF DEVELOPMENT

DESCRIPTION (CITING QUALITIES)


Patterns of Development in Writing.Some general patterns of development are:
Cause and Effect details why something happens, what causes it, what are the effects
and how it is related to something else. Classification and Division groups items into
their parts or types. Description details what something looks like and its
characteristics.. It is simply telling a story, usually from the viewpoint of one person.

They are considered narration, or narrative, as long as they tell a story. Some
patterns work naturally with other patterns, such as narration and description.
Classification, especially comparison-contrast, and evaluation are often found together,
too. The rhetorical patterns (or modes) are ways to organize the information used to
achieve the purpose.Some patterns work naturally with other patterns, such as narration
and description. Classification, especially comparison-contrast, and evaluation are often
found together, too.

Examples:
 Her last smile to me wasn't a sunset. It was an eclipse, the last eclipse, noon dying
away to darkness where there would be no dawn.

 My Uber driver looked like a deflating airbag and sounded like talk radio on repeat.

 The painting was a field of flowers, blues and yellows atop deep green stems that
seemed to call the viewer in to play.

 The old man was bent into a capital C, his head leaning so far forward that his
beard nearly touched his knobby knees.

 My dog's fur felt like silk against my skin and her black coloring shone, absorbing
the sunlight and reflecting it back like a pure, dark mirror.

 The sunset filled the sky with a deep red flame, setting the clouds ablaze.

 The waves rolled along the shore in a graceful, gentle rhythm, as if dancing with the
land.

 Winter hit like a welterweight that year, a jabbing cold you thought you could stand
until the wind rose up and dropped you to the canvas.
 She had pewter-colored hair set in a ruthless permanent, a hard beak, and large
moist eyes with the sympathetic expression of wet stones.

 The idiosyncrasy of this town is smoke. It rolls sullenly in slow folds from the great
chimneys of the iron-foundries, and settles down in black, slimy pools on the muddy
streets. Smoke on the wharves, smoke on the dingy boats, on the yellow river--
clinging in a coating of greasy soot to the house-front, the two faded poplars, the
faces of the passers-by.

 It was a cold grey day in late November. The weather had changed overnight, when
a backing wind brought a granite sky and a mizzling rain with it, and although it was
now only a little after two o'clock in the afternoon the pallor of a winter evening
seemed to have closed upon the hills, cloaking them in mist.

 I was born in an empty sea, My tears created oceans


 Producing tsunami waves with emotions
 Patrolling the open seas of an unknown galaxy
 I was floating in front of who I am physically
 Spiritually paralyzing mind body and soul
 It gives me energy when I'm lyrically exercising
CLASSIFICATION (DIVIDING UNITS INTO CLASSES OR GROUPS)
Classification-Division Pattern. This pattern allows you to either divide a topic into it's
component parts, or to categorize (or classify) a group of related items or event.Either
way you end up with doctors grouped by specialty but division illustrates differences,
while classification focuses on similarities.Breaking down a subject into its type.To
discover the nature of a subject by studying its part and their relationship to the larger
whole.

This pattern allows you to either divide a topic into it's component parts, or to
categorize (or classify) a group of related items or events. When dividing you begin with
one central topic and break that down into multiple parts. Think about medicine.
Medicine is one of several branches of science and it can be divided into numerous
categories or specialties. Doctors can specialize in internal medicine, dermatology, the
immune system, feet, ears, eyes ect.

Classification works in the other direction, putting things together based on shared
qualities or characteristics. Imagine that all those doctors are at a doctor convention
and in order to make sense of them you need to organize them into groups according to
their specialty. Either way you end up with doctors grouped by specialty but division
illustrates differences, while classification focuses on similarities.

Classification is sorting

-focus is on similarities

Division is breaking into parts.

-focus is on differences
EXAMPLES:

*Schools

Different students attend various types of schools; however, they can usually be
classified as either public, private religious, private non religious, or alternative. Public
schools are funded by the state, and the majority of students in the United States attend
them. Private religious schools are based around a particular faith, such as Catholicism,
Judaism, and so forth. The religion is part of the every day lives of the students and they
also learn about the faiths. All types of private schools do not receive state funding.
Therefore, private non religious schools are simply just that: schools which do not
receive state funding and have the ability to make their own rules. Alternative schools
can be made up of a variety of different categories, such as the Montessori program or
technical schools. Most students who attend class in an actual school building go to one
of these types of institutions.

*Literature

The word "literature" evokes the image of a book-lined shelf, or an evening spent in a
chair with a novel. While written literature has been around since the advent of print, it
has always taken on different forms. At its most basic, literature simply means written
work, although some would argue that the term refers specifically to published works, or
even to works that have garnered some critical acclaim. High literature connotes
literature that has been accepted as academically beneficial. "Low" literature, like some
young adult fiction, doesn't always have the intellectual value of high literature, but there
is some crossover- the novels of Stevenson and Twain were originally written to a
young adult audience but are considered classics today.

*Friendships

Although friendship is something that most people enjoy, friendships are not all the
same. Some friendships are forged from a long-term familiarity with one another, and
other friendships can spring up just by spending one fun evening together. Not all
friendships result in daily or even weekly time spent together; long-term friendships can
be kept afloat using communication tools like the Internet and telephone, while other
friendships result in sporadic get-togethers sometimes months or even years apart.
People seek different things in friendship, meaning certain friendships result around
trips to a diner or video games while other friendships may occur due to a work
relationship or general common interests.

*Religion

The beliefs and practices known as religion can cause unity or contention, can hold
many things in common while promoting very different values, can be as simple as the
Golden Rule or complex as tradition allows. The Abrahamic religions- Islam,
Christianity, and Judaism- all share a common father, Abraham. Nevertheless, the
teachings of each religion vary to such a degree that many wars and conflicts have
been fought between them. Nevertheless, most religions, from the Abrahamic beliefs to
eastern religions such as Hinduism and Buddhism, promote loving others, living moral
lives, and working toward the benefit of humanity.

*Weight Loss

People looking to lose weight have a few options: exercise, diet, weight loss pills, and
surgery. Exercising involves going to a gym, working out at home, or joining some sort
of class or sports team. Those who are dieting can talk to a doctor about a plan for
them. Weight loss pills can be taken, if proper precautions and directions are followed.
Individuals who are severely overweight can talk to a doctor about having surgery to
lose the weight that they need.
PROBLEM-SOLUTION (GIVING WAYS TO SOLVE A PROBLEM)
Problem-Solution Patterns. A problem-solution pattern divides information into
two main sections, one that describes a problem and one that describes a solution.
This pattern is typically used in persuasive writing, where the writer's general purpose
is to convince the reader to support a certain course of action.

A problem-solution pattern divides information into two main sections, one that
describes a problem and one that describes a solution. This pattern is typically used in
persuasive writing, where the writer's general purpose is to convince the reader to
support a certain course of action. The pattern is designed to compel the reader to
make some kind of change in opinion or behavior by establishing that a problem exists,
then providing a solution. In the problem section, the writer identifies different aspects of
the problem being discussed and offers evidence of these problems. In the solution
section, the writer identifies a potential solution and supports the effectiveness of this
solution over others.

In composition, using a problem-solution format is a method for analyzing and


writing about a topic by identifying a problem and proposing one or more solutions. A
problem-solution essay is a type of argument. "This sort of essay involves
argumentation in that the writer seeks to convince the reader to take a particular course
of action. In explaining the problem, it may also need to persuade the reader concerning
specific causes" (Dave Kemper et al., "Fusion: Integrated Reading and Writing," 2016).

In many types of report writing, the thesis statement is posed front and center, in
one sentence. Author Derek Soles writes about how the thesis statement in a problem-
solution paper differs from a straight "report of findings" type of text:

[One] expository mode is the problem-solution essay, topics for which are typically
framed in the form of questions. Why did fourth-graders from poor families score low on
a nationwide math test, and how can educators improve math education for this group?
Why is Iran a threat to our national security, and how can we reduce this threat? Why
did it take the Democratic Party so long to select a candidate for the 2008 presidential
election, and what can the party do to make the process more efficient in the future?
These essays have two parts: a full explanation of the nature of the problem, followed
by an analysis of solutions and their likelihood of success.

In a problem-solution essay, the thesis statement usually proposes the solution.


Because readers must first understand the problem, the thesis statement usually comes
after a description of the problem. The thesis statement does not have to give details
about the solution. Instead, it summarizes the solution. It should also lead naturally to
the body of the essay, preparing your reader for a discussion of how your solution would
work.

EXAMPLES:
*We buried my cousin last summer. He was 32 when he hanged himself from a closet
coat rack in the throes of alcoholism, the fourth of my blood relatives to die prematurely
from this deadly disease. If America issued drinking licenses, those four men—including
my father, who died at 54 of liver failure—might be alive today.

* America is suffering from overwork. Too many of us are too busy, trying to squeeze
more into each day while having less to show for it. Although our growing time crunch is
often portrayed as a personal dilemma, it is, in fact, a major social problem that has
reached crisis proportions over the past twenty years.

*The modern-day apartment dweller is faced with a most annoying problem: paper-thin
walls and sound-amplifying ceilings. To live with this problem is to live with the invasion
of privacy. There is nothing more distracting than to hear your neighbors' every function.
Although the source of the noise cannot be eliminated, the problem can be solved.

* Suppose a writer's stated purpose is to persuade his/her readers to ride bicycles as


their primary form of transportation. First the writer will attempt to establish that common
forms of motorized transportation create compelling problems that require a solution.
Then he/she will show how the proposed solution - riding bikes - provides a beneficial
alternative to driving.

* The Benedictine monks at the Portsmouth Abbey in Portsmouth, R.I., have a problem.
They are aging — five are octogenarians and the youngest will be 50 on his next
birthday and their numbers have fallen to 12, from a peak of about 24 in 1969.