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Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a

Due: 11:59pm on Sunday, April 21, 2019

You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy

Learning Goal:

To introduce the idea of physical dimensions and to learn how to find them.

Physical quantities are generally not purely numerical: They have a particular dimension or combination of dimensions

associated with them. Thus, your height is not 74, but rather 74 inches, often expressed as 6 feet 2 inches. Although feet and

inches are different units they have the same dimension--length.

Part A

In classical mechanics there are three base dimensions. Length is one of them. What are the other two?

The current system of units is called the International System (abbreviated SI from the French Système

International). In the past this system was called the mks system for its base units: meter, kilogram, and second.

What are the dimensions of these quantities?

ANSWER:

Correct

There are three dimensions used in mechanics: length ( l), mass ( m ), and time ( t). A combination of these three

dimensions suffices to express any physical quantity, because when a new physical quantity is needed (e.g., velocity), it

always obeys an equation that permits it to be expressed in terms of the units used for these three dimensions. One then

derives a unit to measure the new physical quantity from that equation, and often its unit is given a special name. Such new

dimensions are called derived dimensions and the units they are measured in are called derived units.

For example, area A has derived dimensions [A] = l2 . (Note that "dimensions of variable x " is symbolized as [x] .) You can

A= 2

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2

find these dimensions by looking at the formula for the area of a square A = s , where s is the length of a side of the

2 2

square. Clearly [s] = l . Plugging this into the equation gives [A] = [s] = l .

Part B

Find the dimensions [V ] of volume.

Express your answer as powers of length ( l), mass ( m ), and time ( t).

You have likely learned many formulas for the volume of various shapes in geometry. Any of these equations will

3

give you the dimensions for volume. You can find the dimensions most easily from the volume of a cube V = e ,

where e is the length of the edge of the cube.

ANSWER:

[V ] = l3

Correct

Part C

Find the dimensions [v] of speed.

Express your answer as powers of length ( l), mass ( m ), and time ( t).

Speed v is defined in terms of distance d and time t as

v= d

t.

Therefore, [v] = [d]/ [t].

You are probably accustomed to hearing speeds in miles per hour (or possibly kilometers per hour). Think about

the dimensions for miles and hours. If you divide the dimensions for miles by the dimensions for hours, you will

have the dimensions for speed.

ANSWER:

[v] = tl

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

Correct

The dimensions of a quantity are not changed by addition or subtraction of another quantity with the same dimensions. This

means that ∆v , which comes from subtracting two speeds, has the same dimensions as speed.

It does not make physical sense to add or subtract two quanitites that have different dimensions, like length plus time. You

can add quantities that have different units, like miles per hour and kilometers per hour, as long as you convert both

quantities to the same set of units before you actually compute the sum. You can use this rule to check your answers to any

physics problem you work. If the answer involves the sum or difference of two quantities with different dimensions, then it

must be incorrect.

This rule also ensures that the dimensions of any physical quantity will never involve sums or differences of the base

dimensions. (As in the preceeding example, l + t is not a valid dimension for a physical quantitiy.) A valid dimension will only

2/ 3 2 −2

involve the product or ratio of powers of the base dimensions (e.g. m l t ).

Part D

Find the dimensions [a] of acceleration.

Express your answer as powers of length ( l), mass ( m ), and time ( t).

In physics, acceleration a is defined as the change in velocity in a certain time. This is shown by the equation

a = ∆v/ ∆t. The ∆ is a symbol that means "the change in."

ANSWER:

l

[a] = t2

Correct

Learning Goal:

To practice Problem-Solving Strategy 1.2 Unit Conversions.

A gallon of water in the United States weighs about 8.33 lb . In other words, the density of water is 8.33 lb/ g a l . What is the

3 3

density of water in kg / m ? What is the density of water in g / cm ?

In most cases, you're best off using the fundamental SI units (meters, kilograms, seconds) within a problem. If you need the

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

answer to be in a different set of units, wait until the end of the problem to make the conversion.

Units are multiplied and divided just like ordinary algebraic symbols. This gives us an easy way to convert a quantity from

one set of units to another. The key idea is to express the same physical quantity in two different units and form an equality.

For example, since 1 min = 60 sec the ratio (1 min)/ (60 sec) equals 1.

If you do your units conversion correctly, unwanted units will cancel. Finally, check whether your answer is reasonable. If you

have converted to a smaller unit, for example, the number representing the quantity should be larger.

The physical property of density is given by mass/volume. The SI unit for mass is the kilogram (kg ) and for volume it is the

3 3

cubic meter (m ). Therefore, density should be given in units of kg / m .

Part A

3

Calculate the density of water in kg / m .

Express your answer in kilograms per cubic meter using three significant figures.

Which of the following expressions is the correct conversion factor needed when converting pounds into

kilograms?

ANSWER:

2.20 lb

1.00 kg

1.00 kg

2.20 lb

1.00 lb

2.20 kg

Correct

When you convert pounds into kilograms, you need to multiply by a conversion factor that has pounds

in the denominator and equals 1. For example, you can start from the equality

1.00 kg = 2.20 lb

and derive the conversion factor

1.00 kg

2.20 lb

= 1.

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

Hint 2. Find the conversion factor between gallons and cubic meters

Which of the following expressions is the correct conversion factor needed when converting gallons into cubic

meters?

ANSWER:

264 m3

1.00 g a l

264 g a l

1.00 m3

1.00 m3

264 g a l

Correct

When you convert gallons into cubic meters, you need to multiply by a conversion factor that has

gallons in the denominator and equals 1. For example, you can start from the equality

1.00 m 3 = 264 g a l

and derive the conversion factor

1.00 m3

264 g a l

= 1.

ANSWER:

Correct

3

If you were to complete the conversion and find the equivalent density in kg / m of 8.33 lb/ g a l , you would

write

lb lb 1.00 kg 264 g a l kg

8.33 gal

= 8.33 × × 1.00 m3

= 1000 m3 .

gal 2.20 lb

Part B

3

Now, convert the density of water to g / cm .

Express your answer in grams per cubic centimeter using three significant figures.

Hint 1. Find the conversion factor between cubic meters and cubic centimeters

Which of the following is the correct relationship between cubic meters and cubic centimeters?

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

ANSWER:

1 m 3 = 106 cm 3

1 m 3 = 104 cm 3

1 m 3 = 102 cm 3

1 m 3 = 10−2 cm 3

1 m 3 = 10−4 cm 3

1 m 3 = 10−6 cm 3

ANSWER:

3

1000 kg / m = 1.00 g / cm 3

Correct

3

If you had 1 cm of water (about the size of a sugar cube), it would have a mass of 1 g .

Part C

The same physical quantity, such as density, can be reported using different units. Above, you found that water has a

3 3

density of 1000 kg / m = 1 g / cm . Because the density of water must be the same regardless of what units you

3

use to measure it, you can conclude that an object whose density is 1 kg / m must be less dense than water. In other

3 3

words, 1 kg / m is less than 1 g / cm .

3 3 3

If you had three different objects with densities of 1 kg / m , 1 g / m , and 1 kg / mm , which object would be the

most dense?

Rank the given densities from most to least dense. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them.

If all these densities were given in the same units, you could easily compare the objects to identify the most

dense and least dense. Since the units given are all different, convert all the densities to a common set of units,

3

such as kg / m , before making your comparison.

ANSWER:

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

Reset Help

Correct

3

These three densities are readily compared if they are converted to the SI unit of density, kg / m :

1 kg / mm 3 = 109 kg / m 3

1 kg / m 3 = 1 kg / m 3

1 g / m3 = 10−3 kg / m 3

Learning Goal:

To learn how to change units of physical quantities.

Quantities with physical dimensions like length or time must be measured with respect to a unit, a standard for quantities with

this dimension. For example, length can be measured in units of meters or feet, time in seconds or years, and velocity in

meters per second.

When solving problems in physics, it is necessary to use a consistent system of units such as the International System

(abbreviated SI, for the French Système International) or the more cumbersome English system. In the SI system, which is

the preferred system in physics, mass is measured in kilograms, time in seconds, and length in meters. The necessity of

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

using consistent units in a problem often forces you to convert some units from the given system into the system that you

want to use for the problem.

The key to unit conversion is to multiply (or divide) by a ratio of different units that equals one. This works because

multiplying any quantity by one doesn't change it. To illustrate with length, if you know that 1 inch = 2.54 cm , you can write

2.54 cm

1=

1 inch

.

To convert inches to centimeters, you can multiply the number of inches times this fraction (since it equals one), cancel the

inch unit in the denominator with the inch unit in the given length, and come up with a value for the length in centimeters. To

convert centimeters to inches, you can divide by this ratio and cancel the centimeters.

For all parts, notice that the units are already written after the answer box; don't try to write them in your answer also.

Part A

How many centimeters are there in a length 89.5 inches ?

Express your answer in centimeters to three significant figures.

ANSWER:

227 cm

Correct

Sometimes you will need to change units twice to get the final unit that you want. Suppose that you know how to convert from

centimeters to inches and from inches to feet. By doing both, in order, you can convert from centimeters to feet.

Part B

Suppose that a particular artillery piece has a range R = 3910 ya rds . Find its range in miles. Use the facts that

1 mile = 5280 ft and 3 ft = 1 ya rd.

Express your answer in miles to three significant figures.

The first step in this problem is to convert from yards to feet, because you know how to then convert feet into

miles. Convert 3910 ya rds into feet. Use

3 ft

1= 1 ya rd

.

ANSWER:

1.17×104 ft

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

ANSWER:

Correct

Often speed is given in miles per hour (mph ), but in physics you will almost always work in SI units. Therefore, you must

convert mph to meters per second (m/ s).

Part C

What is the speed of a car going v = 1.000 mph in SI units? Notice that you will need to change from miles to meters

and from hours to seconds. You can do each conversion separately. Use the facts that 1 mile = 1609 m and

1 hour = 3600 s .

Express your answer in meters per second to four significant figures.

In converting 1.000 mph into meters per second, you will need to multiply by

1609 m

1=

1 mile

.

When you do this, the miles will cancel to leave you with a value in meters per hour. You can then finish the

conversion. What is v = 1.000 mph in meters per hour?

Express your answer in meters per hour to four significant figures.

ANSWER:

v = 1609 m/ hour

Answer Requested

Which of the following would you multiply 1609 m/ hours by to convert it into meters per second (m/ s)?

ANSWER:

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

3600 s

1 hour

3600 s

1 hour

1 hour

3600 s

Correct

ANSWER:

v = 0.4469 m/ s

Correct

Notice that by equating the two values for v, you get 1.000 mph = 0.4469 m/ s . It might be valuable to

remember this, as you may frequently need to convert from miles per hour into more useful SI units. By

remembering this relationship in the future, you can reduce this task to a single conversion.

± A Trip to Europe

Learning Goal:

Unit conversion is not limited to physics problems but is part of our everyday life, correct use of conversion factors is

essential to working through problems of practical importance.

For example, unit conversion could be used in problems involving currency exchange. Say you want to calculate how many

euros you get if you exchange 3600 US dolla rs (USD ), given the exchange rate 1 EUR = 1.20 USD , that is, 1 euro

to 1.20 US dolla rs. Begin by writing down the starting value, 3600 USD . This can also be written as a fraction:

3600 USD

.

1

Next, convert dollars to euros. This conversion involves multiplying by a simple conversion factor derived from the exchange

rate:

1.00 EUR

.

1.20 USD

Note that the "dollar" unit, USD , should appear on the bottom of this conversion factor, since USD appears on the top of

the starting value.

Finally, since dollars are divided by dollars, the units can be canceled and the final result is

( )( ) = 3000 EUR

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3600 USD

1 1.20 USD

Currency exchange is only one example of many practical situations where unit conversion may help you to work through

problems. Remember that unit conversion involves multiplying a given value by a conversion factor, resulting in a value in the

new units. The conversion factor can be the ratio of any two quantities, as long as the ratio is equal to one.

You and your friends are organizing a trip to Europe. Your plan is to rent a car and drive through the major European capitals.

By consulting a map you estimate that you will cover a total distance of 5000 km. Consider the euro-dollar exchange rate

given in the introduction and use unit conversion to work through these simple problems.

Part A

You select a rental package that includes a car with an average consumption of 6.00 liters of fuel per 100 km.

Considering that in Europe the average fuel cost is 1.063 euros/ liter , how much (in US dollars) will you spend in fuel

on your trip?

Express your answer numerically in US dollars to three significant figures.

Begin with writing the total distance in kilometers. Then multiply this by the consumption rate [in

liters/ (100 km) ] of your rental car to calculate how many liters of fuel are needed. Then compute the total cost

of fuel (in euros) by multiplying your expression by the average fuel cost. Finally, convert the total cost of fuel to

dollars.

Hint 2. Find the unit factor to express the cost of fuel in euros

Which of these unit factors can be used to calculate the cost of fuel in euros?

When calculating the total cost of fuel in euros, you divide kilometers by kilometers (and cancel out the

kilometer units) and multiply the resulting value in liters by a conversion factor that has the liter unit at the

bottom, so that again you can cancel out units.

ANSWER:

1 EUR

1.063 liters

1.063 EUR

1 liter

1 liter

1.063 EUR

1.063 liters

1 EUR

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

Correct

Which of these unit factors can be used to convert the total cost of fuel to dollars?

Since you are converting the cost of fuel from euros to dollars, you need to multiply by a conversion factor

that has the euro unit, EUR, on the bottom, so that you can cancel out units.

ANSWER:

1.20 USD

1 EUR

1.20 EUR

1 USD

1 USD

1.20 EUR

1 EUR

1.20 USD

Correct

You can avoid many mistakes in unit conversion problems if you are careful to cancel units.

ANSWER:

Answer Requested

Part B

How many gallons of fuel would the rental car consume per mile?

Express your answer numerically in gallons per mile to three significant figures.

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

Begin with writing the consumption rate in liters per kilometer. Then multiply this by the unit factor needed to

convert kilometers to miles. Finally convert liters to gallons. Be sure to cancel units so that your answer is

dimensionally consistent.

Since you are converting the car's fuel consumption per kilometer to the car's fuel consumption per mile

you need to multiply by a conversion factor that has the kilometer unit on the top, so that you can cancel

out units.

ANSWER:

1 km

1.609 miles

1.609 km

1 mile

1 mile

1.609 km

1.609 miles

1 km

Correct

Which of these unit factors can be used to convert liters to gallons?

Since you are converting the car's consumption in liters to gallons, you need to multiply by a conversion

factor that has the liter unit at the bottom, so that you can cancel out units.

ANSWER:

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

3.785 g a llons

1 liter

1 g a llon

3.785 liters

1 liter

3.785 g a llons

3.785 liters

1 g a llons

Correct

ANSWER:

Correct

Part C

What is the average cost, in dollars per gallon, of fuel in Europe?

Express your answer numerically in dollars per gallon to three significant figures.

Begin with writing the cost of fuel in euros per liter. Then multiply this by the unit factor needed to convert euros to

dollars. Finally convert liters to gallons. Be sure to cancel units, to make sure that your answer is dimensionally

consistent.

Which of these unit factors can be used to convert the price of fuel from euros to dollars?

ANSWER:

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

1.20 EUR

1 USD

1 USD

1.20 EUR

1.20 USD

1 EUR

1 EUR

1.20 USD

Correct

Which of these unit factors can be used to convert the price of fuel per liter to a price per gallon?

ANSWER:

3.785 g a llons

1 liter

1 g a llon

3.785 liters

1 liter

3.785 g a llons

3.785 liters

1 g a llon

Correct

ANSWER:

Correct

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

Part A

How many nanoseconds does it take light to travel a distance of 3.30 km in vacuum?

Express your answer numerically in nanoseconds.

Light travels at a constant speed; therefore, you can use the formula for the distance traveled in a certain amount

of time by an object moving at constant speed. Before performing any calculations, it is often recommended,

although it is not strictly necessary, to convert all quantities to their fundamental units rather than to multiples of

the fundamental unit.

Hint 2. Find how many seconds it takes light to travel the given distance

8

Given that the speed of light in vacuum is 3.00 × 10 m/ s , how many seconds does it take light to travel a

distance of 3.30 km ?

Express your answer numerically in seconds.

How long does it take light to travel a distance r ? Let c be the speed of light.

The equation that relates the distance s traveled by an object with constant speed v in a time t is

s = vt .

ANSWER:

r⋅c

r

c

c

r

Correct

Express your answer numerically in meters.

1 km = 103 m

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ANSWER:

3.30 km = 3300 m

Answer Requested

ANSWER:

1.10×10−5 s

Correct

Now convert the time into nanoseconds. Recall that 1 ns = 10−9 s.

ANSWER:

1.10×104 ns

Correct

± Scientific Notation

A number written in scientific notation has the form a × 10 , where 1 ≤ a < 10 and k is an integer, that is, k is one of

k

Part A

Determine the values of a and k when 299, 790, 000 is written in scientific notation.

Enter a and k , separated by commas.

ANSWER:

a , k = 2.9979,8

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

Answer Requested

8

The value 2.9979 × 10 is the magnitude of the speed of light in meters per second, to five significant figures.

This is really fast: about 675 million miles per hour!

Part B

Determine the values of a and k when 0.51 is written in scientific notation.

Enter a and k , separated by commas.

ANSWER:

a , k = 5.1,-1

Correct

The value 0.51 is the magnitude of the energy associated with a stationary electron, sometimes called its "rest

energy," expressed in millions of electron volts, or MeV.

Part C

3 2

Now consider the expression 4.0 × 10 + 4 × 10 . Determine the values of a and k when the value of this

expression is written in scientific notation.

Enter a and k , separated by commas.

Write both numbers such that they have the same power of 10. In this case it would be best to choose the

common power to be either 3 or 2, since these are the two that appear in the expression given. Now you can add

13 13 13

the factors that are multiplied by 10 . For example, 2 × 10 + 3 × 10 = 5 × 10 .

n

ANSWER:

a , k = 4.4,3

Correct

3

The value 4 × 10 = 4000 is the approximate radius of the earth in miles.

Part D

Finally, consider the expression

−11 24

(6.67× )(5.97× )

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−11 24

(6.67×10 )(5.97×10 )

2 .

(6.38×106 )

Determine the values of a and k when the value of this expression is written in scientific notation.

Enter a and k , separated by commas.

Hint 1. A walk-through

Express all the numbers in the expression using scientific notation. To do this, recall that

2

(a × 10k ) = a 2 × 10(2⋅k) . Then you should get a fraction of the form

k k

(a1 ×10 1 )(a2 ×10 2 )

,

a3 ×10k 3

or

a1 ⋅a2 10k 1 ⋅10k 2

a3 k .

10 3

To determine a , you have to divide a 1 ⋅ a 2 by a 3 . This will often give you a number that is not between 1 and 10;

in that case, you have to write it in scientific notation, for instance,

a1 ⋅a2 k4

a3 = a 4 × 10 .

k k2

k

10 5 = 10 1 ⋅10

k .

10 3

k 5 = (k 1 + k 2 ) − k 3 .

The value of a you are looking for is equal to a 4 ; k is equal to k 4 + k5 .

ANSWER:

a , k = 9.78,0

Correct

This is the magnitude of the acceleration experienced by a freely falling body near the surface of the earth,

2

expressed in meters per second squared (m/ s ). This acceleration is usually denoted by the symbol g. You

2

may learn later that this acceleration is related to the mass Me and radius R e of the earth as g = GMe / R e ,

−11

where G = 6.67 × 10 N ⋅ m 2 / kg 2 is called the gravitational constant, postulated by Sir Isaac Newton

and first measured by Henry Cavendish in 1798.

Significant Figures

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

Part A

−27

To seven significant figures, the mass of a proton is 1.672623 × 10 kg . Which of the following choices

demonstrates correct rounding?

Check all that apply.

ANSWER:

1.672 × 10−27 kg

1.67 × 10−27 kg

1.67263 × 10−27 kg

Correct

−27

The number 1.672 × 10 is incorrect because when we round to four significant figures we get 1.673, not

−27

1.672. Similarly, 1.67263 × 10 is incorrect because when we round to six significant figures we get

1.67262, not 1.67263.

Part B

23

mol −1 . Which of the following choices

demonstrates correct rounding?

Check all that apply.

ANSWER:

6.0 × 1023 mol −1

6.02214 × 1023 mol −1

Correct

All these options are correct; they represent different levels of precision, even though the numerical value is

the same.

Learning Goal:

To be able to make order-of-magnitude calculations.

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

Imagine that a company wants to build a new factory. Such a complex project would involve significant investment in terms of

both time and money. Consequently, before construction can start the company asks for an estimate of the total cost.

Although estimate figures are not exact, they are still helpful: For instance, if the projected cost is three times the amount of

money that the company is willing to spend, the project will be canceled or substantially changed.

Individuals make such estimates all the time. For instance, when you need to drive somewhere for a meeting, you can

roughly predict how much time you will spend on the road and depart accordingly. Of course, the actual travel time is unlikely

to be exactly the same as the estimated one—but it still helps to make an estimate so that you can decide when to leave.

Physicists must frequently make such estimates—known as order-of-magnitude calculations—as part of their job. Depending

on the results of the estimate, a potentially lengthy and costly research project may be postponed, canceled, or redesigned.

Being able to make a quick calculation and get a "ball-park figure" of the expected result is an important skill for a scientist,

involving processes such as identifying relevant information, searching for this information, and using your experience or

background knowledge.

It is impossible, of course, to give an accurate answer to this question. However, it is quite possible to find the order of

magnitude of the answer. All one needs to do is to use some common sense and, possibly, search for relevant reference

information. The calculation can proceed as follows:

9

There are about 7 × 10 people on earth. An average adult male weighs, say, 75 kg ; an average adult female weighs about

60 kg , and an average child will weigh considerably less than 60 kg . Figuring roughly one child per adult, we can reasonably

say that an average person's mass is about 50 kg , which gives the total mass of all humans on our planet as

Of course, we may be off in our estimates of the average mass or number of people. While it would be unreasonable to say

11

that we know the total mass is 3.5 × 10 kg , we can be reasonably sure that we have the correct order of magnitude; that

is, we have the correct exponent to which the number 10 is raised.

In each of the following problems, you will be asked to make similar estimates.

Part A

How many people can fit into the Pentagon, which was once the largest office building in the world? Assume that

everybody must be standing on the floor.

Round the answer to the nearest power of 10 and then express your answer as the order of magnitude. For

5 5

instance, if your estimated answer is 3 × 10 , enter 5. If your estimated answer is 8.7 × 10 , you should enter

6 (rounding up to the next power of 10).

What information should you be looking for?

Check all that apply.

ANSWER:

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

How many people can be found in the largest building in the world on a typical day?

What numeric quantities do you need to estimate?

Check all that apply.

ANSWER:

ANSWER:

Correct

Your process for solving this problem might have been something like this:

First, a simple library or Internet search would tell you that the largest building in the world (in terms of the total

floor area) is the Pentagon, the main building of the U.S. Department of Defense. Its total floor area is about

6.5 × 106 ft 2 but only 3.8 × 106 ft 2 can be occupied; it would be hard to stand inside a wall! Assuming

2

that an average person occupies about 2.0 ft when standing (a conservative estimate), we can see that

6

about 1.9 × 10 people (more than three times the entire population of Washington, DC) could fit into the

Pentagon—assuming the floors held up!

Your own answer may have been different from ours or used different details; however, the order of magnitude

was, hopefully, the same.

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

Part B

If the entire population of the United States forms a human chain by holding hands, how many times can such a chain be

wrapped around the earth's equator?

Round your answer to the nearest integer.

ANSWER:

Correct

Here is one way to solve this problem:

There are about 300 million people in the United States. The distance between the tips of a person's

outstretched hands is roughly equal to the height of the person. Counting children, we estimate the average

palm-to-palm distance as one meter. Since the equator is about 40 million meters long, division yields about

7.5. However, in this part any answer between 5 and 15 is considered correct—after all, we are just estimating.

Part C

How many times does your heart beat during your lifetime?

Round the answer to the nearest power of 10 and then express your answer as the order of magnitude. For

instance, if your estimated answer is 3 × 105 , enter 5. If your estimated answer is 8.7 × 105 , you should enter

6 (rounding up to the next power of 10).

ANSWER:

Correct

On average, your heart beats about once every second. The number of seconds in the lifetime of an average

U.S. resident is

86, 400 das y × 365 da ys yea rs

yea r × 75 lifetime = 2.4 × 10 s

9

assuming a lifetime of 75 years. Of course, we didn't account for leap years since this is just an estimate.

Part D

Legend has it that, many centuries ago, Archimedes jumped out of his bathtub and ran across town naked screaming

"Eureka!" after he solved an especially difficult problem. Though you may not have thought of things this way before,

when you drink a glass of water, the water that you are drinking contains some water molecules that were in

Archimedes' bathwater that day, because water doesn't get created or destroyed on a large scale. It follows the water

cycle, which includes rain, evaporation, flowing of rivers into the ocean, and so on. In the more than two thousand years

since his discovery, the water molecules from Archimedes' bathwater have been through this cycle enough times that

they are probably about evenly distributed throughout all the water on the earth. When you buy a can of soda, about how

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

many molecules from that famous bathtub of Archimedes are there in that can?

Round the answer to the nearest power of 10 and then express your answer as the order of magnitude. For

instance, if your estimated answer is 3 × 105 , enter 5. If your estimated answer is 8.7 × 105 , you should enter

6 (rounding up to the next power of 10).

Assume that the water from that bathtub is evenly mixed with the water throughout the surface of the Earth--after

all, it has had more than 2000 years to do so.

23

There are about 6.0 × 10 molecules in 18 g of water; in other words, 1 kg of water contains about

3.3 × 1025 molecules .

Estimate the mass of water in Archimedes' bathtub and the total mass of water on earth. (Note that most of the

earth's water is in its oceans.)

ANSWER:

Correct

21

We used the following assumptions: The total mass of water on the earth's surface is 1.4 × 10 kg

(reference information available from many different sources); the mass of the water in the bathtub is guessed

to be 200 kg ; the mass of the water in the can of soda is estimated to be about 0.33 kg ; and 1 kg of water

25

contains about 3.3 × 10 molecules .

25

Thus the total number of molecules in the can is roughly 10 . The fraction of the bathtub molecules in the can

21

is 200/ (1.4 × 10 ) . Therefore, the number of bathtub molecules contained in the can is

25

200×10

21 ≈ 1.4 ×

106 .

1.4×10

Your answer is most likely different but it should still have the same order of magnitude, equal to 6. In case of

some "wilder" assumptions, we count 5 and 7 as correct too.

Tim and Rick both can run at speed vr and walk at speed vw , with vr > vw . They set off together on a journey of distance

D . Rick walks half of the distance and runs the other half. Tim walks half of the time and runs the other half.

Part A

D

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Express the time taken by Rick in terms of vr , vw , and D .

Find the time that it takes Rick to walk the first half of the distance, that is, to travel a distance D/ 2 at speed vw .

ANSWER:

D

tw,R = 2v w

Now find the time Rick spends running.

ANSWER:

D

tr,R = 2v

r

Now just add the two times up and you're done.

ANSWER:

D D

tR = 2v + 2v

w r

Correct

Part B

Find Rick's average speed for covering the distance D .

Express Rick's average speed in terms of vr and vw .

You were given the total distance and have calculated the total time. Recall that average speed is equal to total

distance traveled divided by the amount of time it took to travel this distance.

ANSWER:

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

2v v

va ve,R = v r +r vww

Correct

Part C

How long does it take Tim to cover the distance?

Express the time taken by Tim in terms of vr , vw , and D .

Tim walks at speed vw half the time and runs at speed vr for the other half.

Find Tim's average speed in terms of given quantities.

Consider a related problem. Tim walks for a time tT / 2 at speed vw and runs for a time tT / 2 at speed

vr .

Find the total distance he travels in time tT in terms of given quantities and tT .

ANSWER:

v w tT v r tT

dT =

2

+ 2

ANSWER:

v w +v r

va ve,T = 2

ANSWER:

tT = v w2D

+v r

Correct

Part D

D

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Think logically, but without using the detailed answers in the previous parts.

Imagine that both Rick and Tim do all of their walking before they start to run. Rick will start running when he has

covered half of the total distance. When Tim reaches half of the total distance, will he already have started

running?

ANSWER:

Rick

Tim

Correct

Part E

In terms of given quantities, by what amount of time, ∆t , does Tim beat Rick?

It will help you check your answer if you simplify it algebraically and check the special case vr = vw .

Express the difference in time, ∆t in terms of vr , vw , and D .

ANSWER:

2

D(v w −v r )

∆t =

2v r v w (v r +v w )

Correct

Part F

In the special case that vr = vw , what would be Tim's margin of victory ∆t(vr = vw ) ?

If vr = vw , is the any difference between what Tim and Rick do?

ANSWER:

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

∆t(vr = vw ) = 0

Correct

Learning Goal:

To learn to read a graph of position versus time and to calculate average velocity.

object from the graph of its position x(t) as a function of time t. A

traveling object might move at different speeds and in different

directions during an interval of time, but if we ask at what constant

velocity the object would have to travel to achieve the same

displacement over the given time interval, that is what we call the

object's average velocity. We will use the notation va ve [t1 , t2 ] to

indicate average velocity over the time interval from t1 to t2 . For

instance, va ve [1, 3] is the average velocity over the time interval

from t = 1 to t = 3.

Part A

Consulting the graph shown in the figure, find the object's average velocity over the time interval from 0 to 1 second.

Answer to the nearest integer.

Average velocity is defined as the constant velocity at which an object would have to travel to achieve a given

displacement (difference between final and initial positions, which can be negative) over a given time interval,

from the initial time ti to the final time tf . The average velocity is therefore equal to the displacement divided by

the given time interval. In symbolic form, average velocity is given by

x(tf )−x(ti )

v a ve [ti , tf ] = tf −ti .

ANSWER:

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

va ve [0, 1] = 0 m/ s

Correct

Part B

Find the average velocity over the time interval from 1 to 3 seconds.

Express your answer in meters per second to the nearest integer.

The final and initial positions can be read off the y axis of the graph. What is the displacement during the time

interval from 1 to 3 seconds?

Express your answer numerically, in meters

ANSWER:

x f − x i = 40 m

Average velocity is defined as the constant velocity at which an object would have to travel to achieve a given

displacement (difference between final and initial positions, which can be negative) over a given time interval,

from the initial time ti to the final time tf . The average velocity is therefore equal to the displacement divided by

the given time interval. In symbolic form, average velocity is given by

x(tf )−x(ti )

v a ve [ti , tf ] = tf −ti .

ANSWER:

va ve [1, 3] = 20 m/ s

Correct

A note about instantaneous velocity. The instantaneous velocity at a certain moment in time is represented by

the slope of the graph at that moment. For straight-line graphs, the (instantaneous) velocity remains constant

over the interval, so the instantaneous velocity at any time during an interval is the same as the average

velocity over that interval. For instance, in this case, the instantaneous velocity at any time from 1 to 3 seconds

is the same as the average velocity of 20 m/ s.

Part C

a ve [0, 3]

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Since the object's position remains constant from time 0 to time 1, the object's displacement from 0 to 3 is the

same as in Part B. However, the time interval has changed.

ANSWER:

va ve [0, 3] = 13.3 m/ s

Correct

Note that va ve [0, 3] is not equal to the simple arithmetic average of va ve [0, 1] and va ve [1, 3] , i.e.,

v a ve [0,1]+v a ve [1,3]

, because they are averages for time intervals of different lengths.

2

Part D

Find the average velocity over the time interval from 3 to 6 seconds.

Express your answer to three significant figures.

What is the displacement?

Answer to the nearest integer.

ANSWER:

Correct

What is the time interval?

Answer to two significant figures.

ANSWER:

tf − ti = 3.0 s

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

Correct

ANSWER:

Correct

Part E

Finally, find the average velocity over the whole time interval shown in the graph.

Express your answer to three significant figures.

What is the displacement?

ANSWER:

x(6.0) − x(0.0) = 0 m

ANSWER:

va ve [0.0, 6.0] = 0 m/ s

Correct

Note that though the average velocity is zero for this time interval, the instantaneous velocity (i.e., the slope of

the graph) has several different values (positive, negative, zero) during this time interval.

Note as well that since average velocity over a time interval is defined as the change in position (displacement)

in the given interval divided by the time, the object can travel a great distance (here 80 meters) and still have

zero average velocity, since it ended up exactly where it started. Therefore, zero average velocity does not

necessarily mean that the object was standing still the entire time!

To describe the motion of a particle along a straight line, it is often convenient to draw a graph representing the position of the

t

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particle at different times. This type of graph is usually referred to as an x vs. t graph. To draw such a graph, choose an axis

system in which time t is plotted on the horizontal axis and position x on the vertical axis. Then, indicate the values of x at

various times t. Mathematically, this corresponds to plotting the variable x as a function of t. An example of a graph of

position as a function of time for a particle traveling along a straight line is shown below. Note that an x vs. t graph like this

does not represent the path of the particle in space.

Now let's study the graph shown in the figure in more detail. Refer

to this graph to answer Parts A, B, and C.

Part A

What is the overall displacement ∆x of the particle?

Express your answer in meters.

The displacement ∆x of the particle is given by the difference between the initial position x 0 at t = 0.0 s and

the position x at t = 50.0 s . In symbols,

∆x = x − x 0 .

Remember that in an x vs. t graph, time t is plotted on the horizontal axis and position x on the vertical axis. For

example, in the plot shown in the figure, x = 16.0 m at t = 10.0 s .

ANSWER:

∆x = 30 m

Correct

In this example, the magnitude of the displacement is also equal to the total distance traveled by the particle (30

m).

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

Part B

What is the average velocity va v of the particle over the time interval ∆t = 50.0 s ?

Express your answer in meters per second.

The average velocity va v of a particle that undergoes a displacement ∆x along a straight line in a time interval

∆t is defined as

∆x

va v = ∆t

.

In an x vs. t graph, then, the average velocity equals the slope of the line connecting the initial and final

positions.

The slope m of a line from point A, with coordinates (tA , x A ), to point B, with coordinates (tB , x B ), is equal to

the "rise" over the "run," or

x B −x A

m= tB −tA .

ANSWER:

va v = 0.600 m/ s

Correct

The average velocity of a particle between two positions is equal to the slope of the line connecting the two

corresponding points in an x vs. t graph.

Part C

What is the instantaneous velocity v of the particle at t = 10.0 s ?

Express your answer in meters per second.

The velocity of a particle at any given instant of time or at any point in its path is called instantaneous velocity. In

an x vs. t graph of the particle's motion, you can determine the instantaneous velocity of the particle at any point

in the curve. The instantaneous velocity at any point is equal to the slope of the line tangent to the curve at that

point.

ANSWER:

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

v = 0.600 m/ s

Correct

The instantaneous velocity of a particle at any point on its x vs. t graph is the slope of the line tangent to the

curve at that point. Since in the case at hand the curve is a straight line, the tangent line is the curve itself.

Physically, this means that the instantaneous velocity of the particle is constant over the entire time interval of

motion. This is true for any motion where distance increases linearly with time.

Another common graphical representation of motion along a straight line is the v vs. t graph, that is, the graph of

(instantaneous) velocity as a function of time. In this graph, time t is plotted on the horizontal axis and velocity v on the

vertical axis. Note that by definition, velocity and acceleration are vector quantities. In straight-line motion, however, these

vectors have only one nonzero component in the direction of motion. Thus, in this problem, we will call v the velocity and a

the acceleration, even though they are really the components of the velocity and acceleration vectors in the direction of

motion.

Part D

Which of the graphs shown is the correct v vs. t plot for the motion described in the previous parts?

Recall your results found in the previous parts, namely the fact that the instantaneous velocity of the particle is

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

constant. Which graph represents a variable that always has the same constant value at any time?

ANSWER:

Graph A

Graph B

Graph C

Graph D

Correct

Whenever a particle moves with constant nonzero velocity, its x vs. t graph is a straight line with a nonzero

slope, and its v vs. t curve is a horizontal line.

Part E

Shown in the figure is the v vs. t curve selected in the previous part. What is the area A of the shaded region under the

curve?

Express your answer in meters.

The shaded region under the v vs. t curve is a rectangle whose horizontal and vertical sides lie on the t axis and

the v axis, respectively. Since the area of a rectangle is the product of its sides, in this case the area of the

shaded region is the product of a certain quantity expressed in seconds and another quantity expressed in

meters per second. The area itself, then, will be in meters.

ANSWER:

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

A = 30 m

Correct

Compare this result with what you found in Part A. As you can see, the area of the region under the v vs. t

curve equals the overall displacement of the particle. This is true for any velocity curve and any time interval:

The area of the region that extends over a time interval ∆t under the v vs. t curve is always equal to the

displacement over ∆t .

Learning Goal:

To understand how to graph position, velocity, and acceleration of an object starting with a table of positions vs. time.

The table shows the x coordinate of a moving object. The position is tabulated at 1-s intervals. The x coordinate is indicated

below each time. You should make the simplification that the acceleration of the object is bounded and contains no spikes.

time (s) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

x (m) 0 1 4 9 16 24 32 40 46 48

Part A

Which graph in best represents the function x(t) , describing

the object's position vs. time?

A bounded and nonspiky acceleration results in a smooth graph of x vs. t.

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

ANSWER:

Graph 1

Graph 2

Graph 3

Graph 4

Correct

Part B

Which of the following graphs in best represents the function

v(t), describing the object's velocity as a function of time?

Velocity is the time derivative of displacement. Given this, the velocity toward the end of the motion is

__________.

ANSWER:

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Two of the possible velocity vs. time graphs indicate zero velocity between t = 4 and t = 7 s. What would the

corresponding position vs. time graph look like in this region?

ANSWER:

a horizontal line

curved upward

curved downward

The problem states that "the acceleration of the object is bounded and contains no spikes." This means that the

velocity ___________.

ANSWER:

has spikes

has no discontinuities

is constant

ANSWER:

Graph 1

Graph 2

Graph 3

Graph 4

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

Correct

In principle, you could also just compute and plot the average velocity. The expression for the average velocity

is

x(t )−x(t )

v a vg [t1 , t2 ] = 2t2 −t1 1 .

The notation va vg [t1 , t2 ] emphasizes that this is not an instantaneous velocity, but rather an average over an

interval. After you compute this, you must put a single point on the graph of velocity vs. time. The most

accurate place to plot the average velocity is at the middle of the time interval over which the average was

computed.

Also, you could work back and find the position from the velocity graph. The position of an object is the integral

of its velocity. That is, the area under the graph of velocity vs. time from t = 0 up to time t must equal the

position of the object at time t. Check that the correct velocity vs. time graph gives you the correct position

according to this method.

Part C

Which of the following graphs in best represents the function

a(t), describing the acceleration of this object?

Acceleration is the time derivative of velocity. Toward the end of the motion the acceleration is __________.

ANSWER:

zero

positive

negative

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What is the acceleration a over the interval during which the object travels at constant speed?

Answer numerically in meters per second squared.

ANSWER:

a = 0 m/ s 2

Acceleration is the time derivative of velocity. Initially the acceleration is _________.

ANSWER:

zero

positive

negative

ANSWER:

Graph 1

Graph 2

Graph 3

Graph 4

Correct

In one dimension, a linear increase or decrease in the velocity of an object over a given time interval implies

constant acceleration over that particular time interval. You can find the magnitude of the acceleration using

the formula for average acceleration over a time interval:

v(t )−v(t )

a a vg [t1 , t2 ] = 2t2 −t1 1 .

When the acceleration is constant over an extended interval, you can choose any value of t1 and t2 within the

interval to compute the average.

Kinematic Vocabulary

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One of the difficulties in studying mechanics is that many common words are used with highly specific technical meanings,

among them velocity, acceleration, position, speed, and displacement. The series of questions in this problem is designed to

get you to try to think of these quantities like a physicist.

Answer the questions in this problem using words from the following list:

A. position

B. direction

C. displacement

D. coordinates

E. velocity

F. acceleration

G. distance

H. magnitude

I. vector

J. scalar

K. components

Part A

Velocity differs from speed in that velocity indicates a particle's __________ of motion.

Enter the letter from the list given in the problem introduction that best completes the sentence.

ANSWER:

Correct

Part B

Unlike speed, velocity is a __________ quantity.

Enter the letter from the list given in the problem introduction that best completes the sentence.

ANSWER:

Correct

Part C

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

Enter the letter from the list given in the problem introduction that best completes the sentence.

ANSWER:

Correct

Part D

Once you have selected a coordinate system, you can express a two-dimensional vector using a pair of quantities

known collectively as __________.

Enter the letter from the list given in the problem introduction that best completes the sentence.

ANSWER:

Correct

Part E

Speed differs from velocity in the same way that __________ differs from displacement.

Enter the letter from the list given in the problem introduction that best completes the sentence.

Displacement is the vector that indicates the difference of two positions (e.g., the final position from the initial

position). Being a vector, it is independent of the coordinate system used to describe it (although its vector

components depend on the coordinate system).

ANSWER:

Correct

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

Part F

Consider a physical situation in which a particle moves from point A to point B. This process is described from two

coordinate systems that are identical except that they have different origins.

The __________ of the particle at point A differ(s) as expressed in one coordinate system compared to the other, but the

__________ from A to B is/are the same as expressed in both coordinate systems.

Type the letters from the list given in the problem introduction that best complete the sentence. Separate the

letters with commas. There is more than one correct answer, but you should only enter one pair of comma-

separated letters. For example, if the words "vector" and "scalar" fit best in the blanks, enter I,J.

ANSWER:

A,C

Correct

The coordinates of a point will depend on the coordinate system that is chosen, but there are several other

quantities that are independent of the choice of origin for a coordinate system: in particular, distance,

displacement, direction, and velocity. In working physics problems, unless you are interested in the position of

an object or event relative to a specific origin, you can usually choose the coordinate system origin to be

wherever is most convenient or intuitive.

⃗

Note that the vector indicating a displacement from A to B is usually represented as r BA = r B⃗ − r A⃗ .

Part G

Identify the following physical quantities as scalars or vectors.

ANSWER:

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

Reset Help

velocity average velocity

acceleration

Correct

A common graphical representation of motion along a straight line is the v vs. t graph, that is, the graph of (instantaneous)

velocity as a function of time. In this graph, time t is plotted on the horizontal axis and velocity v on the vertical axis. Note

that by definition, velocity and acceleration are vector quantities. In straight-line motion, however, these vectors have only a

single nonzero component in the direction of motion. Thus, in this problem, we will call v the velocity and a the acceleration,

even though they are really the components of the velocity and acceleration vectors in the direction of motion, respectively.

Here is a plot of velocity versus time for a particle that travels along a straight line with a varying velocity. Refer to this plot to

answer the following questions.

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

Part A

What is the initial velocity of the particle, v0 ?

Recall that in a graph of velocity versus time, time is plotted on the horizontal axis and velocity on the vertical

axis. For example, in the plot shown in the figure, v = 2.00 m/ s at t = 30.0 s .

ANSWER:

v0 = 0.5 m/ s

Correct

Part B

What is the total distance ∆x traveled by the particle?

Recall that the area of the region that extends over a time interval ∆t under the v vs. t curve is always equal to

the distance traveled in ∆t . Thus, to calculate the total distance, you need to find the area of the entire region

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

under the v vs. t curve. In the case at hand, the entire region under the v vs. t curve is not an elementary

geometrical figure, but rather a combination of triangles and rectangles.

What is the distance ∆x 1 traveled in the first 20 seconds of motion, between t = 0.0 s and t = 20.0 s ?

Express your answer in meters.

The region under the v vs. t curve between t = 0.0 s and t = 20.0 s can be divided into a rectangle of

dimensions 20.0 s by 0.50 m/ s , and a triangle of base 20.0 s and height 1.50 m/ s , as shown in the

figure.

ANSWER:

∆x 1 = 25 m

What is the distance ∆x 2 traveled in the second 20 seconds of motion, from t = 20.0 s to t = 40.0 s ?

Express your answer in meters.

The region under the v vs. t curve between t = 20.0 s and t = 40.0 s is a rectangle of dimensions

20.0 s by 2.00 m/ s , as shown in the figure.

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

ANSWER:

∆x 2 = 40 m

What is the distance ∆x 3 traveled in the last 10 seconds of motion, from t = 40.0 s to t = 50.0 s ?

Express your answer in meters.

The region under the v vs. t curve between t = 40.0 s and t = 50.0 s is a triangle of base 10.0 s and

height 2.00 m/ s , as shown in the figure.

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

ANSWER:

∆x 3 = 10 m

ANSWER:

∆x = 75 m

Correct

Part C

What is the average acceleration a a v of the particle over the first 20.0 seconds?

The average acceleration a a v of a particle that travels along a straight line in a time interval ∆t is the ratio of the

change in velocity ∆v experienced by the particle to the time interval ∆t , or

∆v

aa v =

∆t

.

In a v vs. t graph, then, the average acceleration equals the slope of the line connecting the two points

representing the initial and final velocities.

The slope m of a line from point A, of coordinates (x A , yA ), to point B, of coordinates (x B , yB ), is equal to the

"rise" over the "run," or

y B −y A

m= x B −x A .

ANSWER:

a a v = 0.075 m/ s 2

Correct

The average acceleration of a particle between two instants of time is the slope of the line connecting the two

corresponding points in a v vs. t graph.

Part D

t = 45.0 s

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The acceleration of a particle at any given instant of time or at any point in its path is called the instantaneous

acceleration. If the v vs. t graph of the particle's motion is known, you can directly determine the instantaneous

acceleration at any point on the curve. The instantaneous acceleration at any point is equal to the slope of the

line tangent to the curve at that point.

The slope m of a line from point A, of coordinates (x A , yA ), to point B, of coordinates (x B , yB ), is equal to the

"rise" over the "run," or

y B −y A

m= x B −x A .

ANSWER:

1 m/ s 2

0.20 m/ s 2

a= -0.20 m/ s 2

0.022 m/ s 2

-0.022 m/ s 2

Correct

The instantaneous acceleration of a particle at any point on a v vs. t graph is the slope of the line tangent to

the curve at that point. Since in the last 10 seconds of motion, between t = 40.0 s and t = 50.0 s , the curve

is a straight line, the tangent line is the curve itself. Physically, this means that the instantaneous acceleration

of the particle is constant over that time interval. This is true for any motion where velocity increases linearly

with time. In the case at hand, can you think of another time interval in which the acceleration of the particle is

constant?

Now that you have reviewed how to plot variables as a function of time, you can use the same technique and draw an

acceleration vs. time graph, that is, the graph of (instantaneous) acceleration as a function of time. As usual in these types of

graphs, time t is plotted on the horizontal axis, while the vertical axis is used to indicate acceleration a .

Part E

Which of the graphs shown below is the correct acceleration vs. time plot for the motion described in the previous parts?

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Recall that whenever velocity increases linearly with time, acceleration is constant. In the example here, the

particle's velocity increases linearly with time in the first 20.0 s of motion. In the second 20.0 s , the particle's

velocity is constant, and then it decreases linearly with time in the last 10 s . This means that the particle's

acceleration is constant over each time interval, but its value is different in each interval.

What is a 1 , the particle's acceleration in the first 20 s of motion, between t = 0.0 s and t = 20.0 s ?

Express your answer in meters per second per second.

Since we have already determined that in the first 20 s of motion the particle's acceleration is constant, its

constant value will be equal to the average acceleration that you calculated in Part C.

ANSWER:

a 1 = 0.075 m/ s 2

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Correct

What is a 2 , the particle's acceleration in the second 20 s of motion, between t = 20.0 s and t = 40.0 s ?

Express your answer in meters per second per second.

In the second 20 s of motion, the particle's velocity remains unchanged. This means that in this time

interval, the particle does not accelerate.

ANSWER:

a 2 = 0 m/ s 2

Correct

What is a 3 , the particle's acceleration in the last 10 s of motion, between t = 40.0 s and t = 50.0 s ?

Express your answer in meters per second per second.

Since we have already determined that in the last 10 s of motion the particle's acceleration is constant, its

constant value will be equal to the instantaneous acceleration that you calculated in Part D.

ANSWER:

a 3 = -0.20 m/ s 2

Correct

ANSWER:

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Graph A

Graph B

Graph C

Graph D

Correct

In conclusion, graphs of velocity as a function of time are a useful representation of straight-line motion. If read

correctly, they can provide you with all the information you need to study the motion.

Learning Goal:

To understand the distinction between velocity and acceleration with the use of motion diagrams.

In common usage, velocity and acceleration both can imply having considerable speed. In physics, they are sharply defined

concepts that are not at all synonymous. Distinguishing clearly between them is a prerequisite to understanding motion.

Moreover, an easy way to study motion is to draw a motion diagram, in which the position of the object in motion is sketched

at several equally spaced instants of time, and these sketches (or snapshots) are combined into one single picture.

In this problem, we make use of these concepts to study the motion of a power ball. This discussion assumes that we have

already agreed on a coordinate system from which to measure the position r (t) ⃗ (also called the position vector) of objects as

⃗ and a (t)

a function of time. Let v(t) ⃗ be velocity and acceleration, respectively.

Consider the motion of a power ball that is dropped on the floor and bounces back. In the following questions, you will

describe its motion at various points in its fall in terms of its velocity and acceleration.

Part A

You drop a power ball on the floor. The motion diagram of the ball is sketched in the figure . Indicate whether the

magnitude of the velocity of the ball is increasing, decreasing, or not changing.

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By definition, the velocity is the ratio of the distance traveled to the interval of time taken. If you interpret the

vector displacement ∆r as ⃗ the distance traveled by the ball, the length of v is⃗ directly proportional to the length

⃗

of ∆r . Since the length of displacement vectors is increasing, so is the length of velocity vectors.

ANSWER:

increasing

decreasing

not changing

Correct

While the ball is in free fall, the magnitude of its velocity is increasing, so the ball is accelerating.

Part B

Since the length of v is⃗ directly proportional to the length of ∆r , the

⃗ vector connecting each dot to the next could

represent velocity vectors as well as displacement vectors, as shown in the figure here . Indicate whether the velocity

and acceleration of the ball are, respectively, positive (upward), negative, or zero.

Use P, N, and Z for positive (upward), negative, and zero, respectively. Separate the letters for velocity and

acceleration with a comma.

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The acceleration is defined as the ratio of the change in velocity to the interval of time, and its direction is given

by the quantity ∆v = ⃗ v(t⃗ 2 ) − v(t⃗ 1 ) , which represents the change in velocity that occurs in the interval of time

∆t = t2 − t1 .

ANSWER:

N,N

Correct

Part C

Now, consider the motion of the power ball once it bounces upward. Its motion diagram is shown in the figure here .

Indicate whether the magnitude of the velocity of the ball is increasing, decreasing, or not changing.

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By definition, the velocity is the ratio of the distance traveled to the interval of time taken. If you interpret the

vector displacement ∆r as ⃗ the distance traveled by the ball, the length of v is⃗ directly proportional to the length

⃗

of ∆r . Since the length of displacement vectors is decreasing, so is the length of velocity vectors.

ANSWER:

increasing

decreasing

not changing

Correct

Since the magnitude of the velocity of the ball is decreasing, the ball must be accelerating (specifically, slowing

down).

Part D

The next figure shows the velocity vectors corresponding to the upward motion of the power ball. Indicate whether its

velocity and acceleration, respectively, are positive (upward), negative, or zero.

Use P, N, and Z for positive (upward), negative, and zero, respectively. Separate the letters for velocity and

acceleration with a comma.

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The acceleration is defined as the ratio of the change in velocity to the interval of time, and its direction is given

by the quantity ∆v = ⃗ v(t⃗ 2 ) − v(t⃗ 1 ) , which represents the change in velocity that occurs in the interval of time

∆t = t2 − t1 .

ANSWER:

P,N

Correct

Part E

The power ball has now reached its highest point above the ground and starts to descend again. The motion diagram

representing the velocity vectors is the same as that after the initial release, as shown in the figure of Part B. Indicate

whether the velocity and acceleration of the ball at its highest point are positive (upward), negative, or zero.

Use P, N, and Z for positive (upward), negative, and zero, respectively. Separate the letters for velocity and

acceleration with a comma.

In Part D you found that the velocity of the ball is positive during the upward motion. Once the ball starts its

descent, its velocity is negative, as you found in Part B. Since velocity changes continuously in time, it has to be

zero at some point along the path of the ball.

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In Part D, you found that the acceleration of the ball is negative and constant during the upward motion, as well

as once the ball has started its descent, which you found in Part B. Since acceleration is a continuous function of

time, it has to be negative at the highest point along the path as well.

ANSWER:

Z,N

Correct

These examples should show you that the velocity and acceleration can have opposite or similar signs or that

one of them can be zero while the other has either sign. Try hard to think carefully about them as distinct

physical quantities when working with kinematics.

Learning Goal:

To understand the meaning of the variables that appear in the equations for one-dimensional kinematics with constant

acceleration.

Motion with a constant, nonzero acceleration is not uncommon in the world around us. Falling (or thrown) objects and cars

starting and stopping approximate this type of motion. It is also the type of motion most frequently involved in introductory

kinematics problems.

x(t) = xi + v i t + 12 at2 ,

v(t) = vi + at,

where the symbols are defined as follows:

x i is the initial position of the particle;

v(t) is the velocity of the particle;

vi is the initial velocity of the particle;

a is the acceleration of the particle.

In anwering the following questions, assume that the acceleration is constant and nonzero: a ≠ 0.

Part A

The quantity represented by x is a function of time (i.e., is not constant).

ANSWER:

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true

false

Correct

Part B

The quantity represented by x i is a function of time (i.e., is not constant).

ANSWER:

true

false

Correct

Recall that x i represents an initial value, not a variable. It refers to the position of an object at some initial

moment.

Part C

The quantity represented by vi is a function of time (i.e., is not constant).

ANSWER:

true

false

Correct

Part D

The quantity represented by v is a function of time (i.e., is not constant).

ANSWER:

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true

false

Correct

The velocity v always varies with time when the linear acceleration is nonzero.

Part E

Which of the given equations is not an explicit function of t and is therefore useful when you don't know or don't need the

time?

ANSWER:

x = xi + v i t + 12 at2

v = vi + at

v2 = v2i + 2a(x − x i )

Correct

Part F

A particle moves with constant acceleration a . The expression vi + at represents the particle's velocity at what instant

in time?

ANSWER:

only at time t =0

Correct

2

x(t) = i + i ∆t + 1 a (∆t

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x(t) = xi + v i ∆t + 12 a (∆t) 2

and

v(t) = vi + a ∆t.

Here ∆t is the time that has elapsed since the beginning of the particle's motion, that is, ∆t = t − ti , where t is the current

time and ti is the time at which we start measuring the particle's motion. The terms x i and vi are, respectively, the position

and velocity at t = ti . As you can now see, the equations given at the beginning of this problem correspond to the case

ti = 0 , which is a convenient choice if there is only one particle of interest.

To illustrate the use of these more general equations, consider the motion of two particles, A and B. The position of particle A

2

depends on time as x A (t) = x i + vi t + (1/ 2)at . That is, particle A starts moving at time t = tiA = 0 with velocity

viA = vi , from x iA = x i . At time t = t1 , particle B has twice the acceleration, half the velocity, and the same position that

particle A had at time t = 0.

Part G

What is the equation describing the position of particle B?

The general equation for the distance traveled by particle B is

xB (t) = xiB + v iB ∆t + 12 a B (∆t) 2 ,

or

xB (t) = xB (t = t1 ) + v B (t = t1 )(t − t1 ) + 12 a B (t − t1 ) 2 ,

since ∆t = t − t1 is a good choice for B. From the information given, deduce the correct values of the

constants that go into the equation for x B (t) given here, in terms of A's constants of motion.

ANSWER:

xB (t) = xi + 2v i t + 14 at2

x B (t) = x i + 0.5vi t + at2

xB (t) = xi + 2v i (t + t1 ) + 14 a(t + t1 ) 2

2

x B (t) = x i + 0.5vi (t + t1 ) + a(t + t1 )

xB (t) = xi + 2v i (t − t1 ) + 14 a(t − t1 ) 2

2

x B (t) = x i + 0.5vi (t − t1 ) + a(t − t1 )

Correct

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Part H

At what time does the velocity of particle B equal that of particle A?

Type an expression for particle A's velocity as a function of time.

Express your answer in terms of t and some or all of the variables x i , vi , and a .

Look at the general expression for v(t) given in the problem introduction.

ANSWER:

vA (t) = vi + at

Type an expression for particle B's velocity as a function of time.

Express your answer in terms of t and some or all of the variables t1 , x i , vi , and a .

vB (t) = vB (t = t1 ) + a B (t − t1 ).

From the information given, deduce the correct values of the constants that go into this equation in terms

of particle A's constants of motion.

ANSWER:

ANSWER:

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vi

t = t1 + 4a

vi

t = 2t1 + 2a

vi

t = 3t1 + 2a

Correct

Learning Goal:

Cheetahs, the fastest of the great cats, can reach 50.0 miles/ hour in 2.22 {\rm \rm {s}} starting from rest. Assuming that

they have constant acceleration throughout that time, find their acceleration in meters per second squared.

In most straight-line motion problems, you can use the constant-acceleration equations. Occasionally, however, you will

encounter a situation in which the acceleration isn’t constant. In such a case, you’ll need a different approach.

1. First, decide where the origin of coordinates is and which axis direction is positive. It is often easiest to place

the particle at the origin at time t = 0; then x_0 = 0. It helps to make a motion diagram showing the coordinates

and some later positions of the particle.

2. Keep in mind that your choice of the positive axis direction automatically determines the positive direction for x

velocity and x acceleration. If \texttip{x}{x} is positive to the right of the origin, then \texttip{v_{\mit x}}{v_x} and

\texttip{a_{\mit x}}{a_x} are also positive toward the right.

3. Restate the problem in words, and then translate it into symbols and equations.

4. Make a list of known and unknown quantities such as \texttip{x}{x}, \texttip{x_{\rm 0}}{x_0}, \texttip{v_{\mit x}}

{v_x}, \texttip{v_{0x}}{v_0x}, \texttip{a_{\mit x}}{a_x}, and \texttip{t}{t}. Write down the values of the known

quantities, and decide which of the unknowns are the target variables. Look for implicit information.

Choose an equation from the following list

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that contains only one of the target variables. Solve this equation for the target variable, using symbols only. Then, substitute

the known values and compute the value of the target variable. Sometimes you will have to solve two simultaneous

equations for two unknown quantities.

Take a hard look at your results to see whether they make sense. Are they within the general range of values you expected?

This problem involves the motion of an object, the cheetah, whose acceleration is assumed constant. Thus, the equations

given in this strategy apply.

Part A

Which of the following sketches and choice of coordinate axis best describe the physical situation presented in this

problem?

ANSWER:

Correct

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Part B

The next step is to translate the problem statement from words into symbols. Which of the following is an appropriate

restatement of the problem, "Cheetahs, the fastest of the great cats, can reach 50.0 {\rm \rm {miles/hour}} in 2.22 {\rm

\rm {s}} starting from rest. Assuming that they have constant acceleration throughout that time, find their acceleration in

meters per second squared."

The problem states that the cheetah starts running from rest. What is the initial velocity \texttip{v_{0x}}{v_0x} of

the cheetah?

Enter your answer in meters per second.

ANSWER:

Hint 2. The condition for the equations of motion presented in this problem

The equations presented in the strategy above only apply to situations involving motion under constant

acceleration.

ANSWER:

Cheetahs can reach v_{0x}= 50.0 {\rm \rm {miles/hour}} in \texttip{t}{t} = 2.22 {\rm \rm {s}} starting from v_x =

0. What is \texttip{a_{\mit x}}{a_x}?

Cheetahs can reach \texttip{v_{\mit x}}{v_x} = 50.0 {\rm \rm {miles/hour}} in \texttip{t}{t} = 2.22 {\rm \rm {s}}

starting from v_{0x} = 0. What is \texttip{a_{\mit x}}{a_x}?

Cheetahs can reach \texttip{v_{\mit x}}{v_x} = 50.0 {\rm \rm {miles/hour}} in \texttip{t}{t} = 2.22 {\rm \rm {s}}

starting from v_{0x} = 0. Assuming a = \rm{constant}, what is \texttip{a_{\mit x}}{a_x}?

Cheetahs can reach v_{0x}= 50.0 {\rm \rm {miles/hour}} in \texttip{t}{t} = 2.22 {\rm \rm {s}} starting from v_x =

0. Assuming a = \rm{constant}, what is \texttip{a_{\mit x}}{a_x}?

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Correct

Now you compile a list of known and unknown quantities. You can organize this information in a table as

shown below.

Known Unknown

x_0=0\;\rm m \texttip{x}{x}

\texttip{a_{\mit

v_{0x}=0\;\rm m/s

x}}{a_x}

\texttip{v_{\mit x}}{v_x} = 50.0 {\rm

_

\rm {miles/hour}}

Part C

Finally, you are ready to answer the main question. Cheetahs, the fastest of the great cats, can reach 50.0 {\rm \rm

{miles/hour}} in 2.22 {\rm \rm {s}} starting from rest. Assuming that they have constant acceleration throughout that time,

find their acceleration in meters per second squared.

Enter your answer in meters per second squared to three significant figures.

Which of the following equations would be the best to use when solving for \texttip{a_{\mit x}}{a_x}?

ANSWER:

How many meters per second are equivalent to 50.0 {\rm \rm {miles/hour}} ?

Enter your answer in meters per second to three significant figures.

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1 \;\rm {mile} = 1609 \;\rm m.

ANSWER:

ANSWER:

Correct

Part D

Imagine you looked up the accelerations of the following objects: snails, humans, Thomson's gazelles, the space shuttle,

Formula One race cars, and F-16 fighter jets. Which of the following statements about the acceleration of a cheetah

would you expect to be true?

ANSWER:

The acceleration of a cheetah is greater than the acceleration of a snail but less than the acceleration of a

human.

The acceleration of a cheetah is greater than the acceleration of a Formula One race car but less than the

acceleration of an F-16 fighter jet.

The acceleration of a cheetah is greater than the acceleration of a Thomson's gazelle but less than the

acceleration of the space shuttle during liftoff.

Correct

The acceleration of the space shuttle on takeoff is 29.4 \rm{m/s^2}. Thomson's gazelles can accelerate at

approximately half the rate of a cheetah, which is why they often become tasty snacks for the fast cats.

If you had solved for the acceleration of a cheetah and calculated a number greater than 29.4 \rm{m/s^2} or

smaller than 30 \rm{cm/s^2} (the acceleration of a snail), you most likely made an error and would want to

review your work.

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Learning Goal:

To learn to use images of an object in motion to determine position, velocity, and acceleration.

Two toy rockets are traveling in the same direction (taken to be the x axis). A diagram is shown of a time-exposure image

where a stroboscope has illuminated the rockets at the uniform time intervals indicated.

Part A

At what time(s) do the rockets have the same velocity?

The diagram shows position, not velocity. You can't find instantaneous velocity from this diagram, but you can

determine the average velocity between two times \texttip{t_{\rm 1}}{t_1} and \texttip{t_{\rm 2}}{t_2}:

Note that no position values are given in the diagram; you will need to estimate these based on the distance

between successive positions of the rockets.

ANSWER:

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at time t = 1 only

at time t = 4 only

at times t = 1 and t = 4

Correct

Part B

At what time(s) do the rockets have the same x position?

ANSWER:

at time t = 1 only

at time t = 4 only

at times t = 1 and t = 4

Correct

Part C

At what time(s) do the two rockets have the same acceleration?

The velocity is related to the spacing between images in a stroboscopic diagram. Since acceleration is the rate at

which velocity changes, the acceleration is related to the how much this spacing changes from one interval to the

next.

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ANSWER:

at time t = 1 only

at time t = 4 only

at times t = 1 and t = 4

Correct

Part D

The motion of the rocket labeled A is an example of motion with uniform (i.e., constant) __________.

ANSWER:

velocity

position

time

Correct

Part E

The motion of the rocket labeled B is an example of motion with uniform (i.e., constant) __________.

ANSWER:

velocity

position

time

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Correct

Part F

At what time(s) is rocket A ahead of rocket B?

You can answer this question by looking at the diagram and identifying the time(s) when rocket A is to the right of

rocket B.

ANSWER:

before t = 1 only

after t = 4 only

between t = 1 and t = 4

Correct

± Rocket Height

A rocket, initially at rest on the ground, accelerates straight upward from rest with constant acceleration 53.9 {\rm m/s^2} .

The acceleration period lasts for time 5.00 {\rm s} until the fuel is exhausted. After that, the rocket is in free fall.

Part A

Find the maximum height \texttip{y_{\rm max}}{y_max} reached by the rocket. Ignore air resistance and assume a

constant acceleration due to gravity equal to 9.80 \rm{m/s^2} .

Write your answer numerically in units of meters.

Divide the upward motion into two parts: first the fueled motion, and then the motion under the influence of gravity

alone. Find the height reached over the course of the fueled motion, and then calculate the additional height

achieved during the second part of the motion. Putting these two distances together will give you the maximum

height reached by the rocket.

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Hint 2. Find the height reached during the fueled part of the motion

Find the height \texttip{y_{\rm fuel}}{y_fuel} above the ground at which the rocket exhausts its fuel.

Answer numerically in units of meters.

At the instant that the rocket takes off, take time t_0=0 and the initial position y_0=0. Let the final values of

the variables correspond to those at which the rocket runs out of fuel. Clearly, the final height

\texttip{y_{\rm fuel}}{y_fuel} for the fueled portion of the flight and the associated final

velocity\texttip{v_{\rm fuel}}{v_fuel} are not given.

Let us denote other quantities as follows: \texttip{t_{\rm fuel}}{t_fuel} is the time that the rocket travels

before it runs out of fuel; \texttip{v_{\rm 0,fuel}}{v_0,fuel} is the rocket's initial velocity; and \texttip{a_{\rm

fuel}}{a_fuel} is the rocket's net acceleration during the fueled portion of its flight. Which of the these

quantities are known?

What is the initial velocity \texttip{v_{\rm 0,fuel}}{v_0,fuel} for the fueled part of the motion?

Give your answer numerically.

ANSWER:

ANSWER:

\texttip{t_{\rm fuel}}{t_fuel}

\texttip{v_{\rm 0,fuel}}{v_0,fuel}

\texttip{a_{\rm fuel}}{a_fuel}

Choose the kinematic equation that makes the solution straighforward, that is, the one that contains the

variable you are solving for and in which all of the other quantities are known.

ANSWER:

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v=v_0+at

\large{y=y_0+v_0t+\frac12at^2}

v^2=v_0^2+2a(y-y_0)

ANSWER:

Hint 3. Find the initial velocity, the final velocity, and the acceleration for the "free-fall" part of the motion

What are \texttip{v_{\rm 0,grav}}{v_0,grav}, \texttip{v_{\rm f,grav}}{v_f,grav}, and \texttip{a_{\rm grav}}{a_grav} for

the second part of the motion?

Write your answer numerically in the order v_{0, \rm grav},v_{\rm f, grav},a_{\rm grav}, separated by

commas as shown, in SI units.

When the rocket runs out of fuel, its acceleration changes abruptly, but its velocity changes continuously.

Therefore, the rocket's initial velocity \texttip{v_{\rm 0,grav}}{v_0,grav} for the second part of the flight is

just its velocity at the moment the engine runs out of fuel. What, then, is \texttip{v_{\rm 0,grav}}{v_0,grav}?

Give your answer numerically.

Hint 1. Find the velocity when the engine runs out of fuel

For the fueled part of the motion, you know that the initial velocity is given by v_{0, \rm fuel} =0, the

acceleration by a_{\rm fuel} =53.9 {\rm m/s^2} , and the time of fueled flight by t_{\rm fuel} =5.00

{\rm s} . You also determined the height \texttip{y_{\rm fuel}}{y_fuel} in Part A.2.

Choose a kinematic equation that you could use to find \texttip{v_{\rm f,fuel}}{v_f,fuel}, the velocity

at the end of the fueled motion.

1. v=v_0+at

2. y=y_0+v_0t+(1/2)at^2

3. v^2=v_0^2+2a(y-y_0)

4. \large{y-y_0=\left( \frac{v_0+v}{2} \right) t}

Choose one letter corresponding to the equation you have chosen (even though there is

more than one correct answer).

ANSWER:

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ANSWER:

What value should you use for the acceleration \texttip{a_{\rm grav}}{a_grav}? Keep in mind that the

direction is important, since the acceleration due to gravity is slowing down the rocket as it continues its

ascent.

ANSWER:

What is the velocity \texttip{v_{\rm f,grav}}{v_f,grav} of the rocket when it reaches its maximum height?

Note that the rocket has just ended its ascent and is about to begin its descent. What is its velocity at this

instant?

Give your answer numerically.

ANSWER:

ANSWER:

Choose the kinematic equation that makes the solution straightforward, that is, the one that contains the variable

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you are solving for and for which all of the other quantities are known.

ANSWER:

v=v_0+at

y=y_0+v_0t+(1/2)at^2

v^2=v_0^2+2a(y-y_0)

ANSWER:

Answer Requested

A Flea in Flight

In this problem, you will apply kinematic equations to a jumping flea. Take the magnitude of free-fall acceleration to be 9.80

{\rm m/s^2} . Ignore air resistance.

Part A

A flea jumps straight up to a maximum height of 0.550 {\rm m} . What is its initial velocity \texttip{v_{\rm 0}}{v_0} as it

leaves the ground?

Express your answer in meters per second to three significant figures.

Take the positive y direction to be upward, the y coordinate of the initial position of the flea to be y_0 = 0, and

denote the final height of the flea by \texttip{y_{\rm 1}}{y_1}, whose value 0.550 {\rm m} you know. Let \texttip{t}{t}

be the duration of the flea's leap to its maximum height, \texttip{v_{\rm 0}}{v_0} its initial velocity, \texttip{v_{\rm 1}}

{v_1} its final velocity (at maximum height), and \texttip{a_{\rm y}}{a_{\rm y}} its (constant) acceleration. Which of

the following quantities is/are known?

Check all that apply.

Typically, you need to know the values of four variables in order to solve any of the kinematic equations,

because they contain five variables each, with the exception of v_1=v_0 + a_{\rm y}t, which contains only

four variables, in which case you would need to know the values of only three of these variables. Since we

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may place the flea at any point of the y axis to begin its jump, we have conveniently assumed that

\texttip{y_{\rm 0}}{y_0} is equal to 0.

What is the velocity \texttip{v_{\rm 1}}{v_1} of the flea at its maximum height of y_1= 0.550 {\rm m} ?

Express your answer in meters per second to three significant figures.

ANSWER:

ANSWER:

\texttip{t}{t}

\texttip{v_{\rm 0}}{v_0}

\texttip{v_{\rm 1}}{v_1}

Decide which kinematic equation makes the solution of this problem easiest. That is, look for an equation that

contains the variable you are solving for and in which all the other variables are known.

ANSWER:

v_1=v_0+a_{\rm y}t

\large{y_1=y_0+v_0t+\frac{1}{2}a_{\rm y}t^2}

v_1^2=v_0^2+2a_{\rm y}(y_1-y_0)

You have determined that the simplest equation to use is

v_1^2 = v_0^2 + 2a_{\rm y}(y_1-y_0).

To solve for \texttip{v_{\rm 0}}{v_0}, you must first subtract the term 2a_{\rm y}(y_1-y_0) from both sides of the

equation, and then take the square root of both sides. Keep in mind that the acceleration is negative.

ANSWER:

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

Correct

Part B

How long is the flea in the air from the time it jumps to the time it hits the ground?

Express your answer in seconds to three significant figures.

One approach is to find the time it takes for the flea to go from the ground to its maximum height, and then find

the time it takes for the flea to fall from its maximum height to the ground. The subsequent hints will guide you

through this approach.

Hint 2. Find the time from the ground to the flea's maximum height

What is the time \texttip{t_{\rm up}}{t_up} it takes the flea to go from the ground (y_0=0\;\rm m, \texttip{v_{\rm 0}}

{v_0}) to its maximum height (y_1= 0.550 {\rm m} , v_1=0\;\rm m)?

Express your answer in seconds to three significant figures.

ANSWER:

Hint 3. Find the time from the flea's maximum height to the ground

What is the time \texttip{t_{\rm down}}{t_down} that it takes for the flea to fall from its maximum height (y_0=

0.550 {\rm m} , v_0=0\;\rm m) to the ground (y_1= 0\;\rm m)?

Express your answer in seconds to three significant figures.

ANSWER:

ANSWER:

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

Correct

Notice that the time for the flea to rise to its maximum height is equal to the time it takes for it to fall from that

height back to the ground. This is a general feature of projectile motion (any motion with a = -g) when air

resistance is neglected and the landing point is at the same height as the launch point.

There is also a way to find the total time in the air in one step: just use

\large{y=y_0+v_0t+\frac{1}{2}a_{\rm y}t^2}

and realize that you are looking for the value of \texttip{t}{t} for which y=y_0.

The graph in the figure shows the velocity \texttip{v}{v} of a sports car as a

function of time \texttip{t}{t}. Use the graph to answer the following questions.

Part A

Find the maximum velocity \texttip{v_{\rm max}}{v_max} of the car during the ten-second interval depicted in the graph.

Because the graph displays the car's velocity at each moment in time, the maximum velocity of the car can be

found simply by locating the maximum value of the velocity on the graph.

ANSWER:

Correct

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

Part B

During which time interval is the acceleration positive?

Recall that acceleration is the rate of change of velocity with respect to time. Therefore, on this graph of velocity

vs. time, acceleration is the slope of the graph. Recall that the slope \texttip{m}{m} is defined by m=\Delta y/\Delta

x for a graph of \texttip{y}{y} vs. \texttip{x}{x}, or m=\Delta v/\Delta t in this case. If the graph is increasing from left

to right, then the slope is positive.

ANSWER:

t=0\;{\rm s} to t=6\;{\rm s}

t=0\;{\rm s} to t=4\;{\rm s}

t=0\;{\rm s} to t=10\;{\rm s}

t=4\;{\rm s} to t=10\;{\rm s}

t=2\;{\rm s} to t=6\;{\rm s}

Correct

Part C

Find the maximum acceleration \texttip{a_{\rm max}}{a_max} of the car.

Express your answer in meters per second per second to the nearest integer.

The car's acceleration is the rate of change of the car's velocity \texttip{v}{v} with respect to time \texttip{t}{t}. In

this problem, the car's velocity is given graphically, so the car's acceleration at a given moment is found from the

slope of the \texttip{v}{v} vs. \texttip{t}{t} curve at that moment. If the \texttip{v}{v} vs. \texttip{t}{t} curve over some

time interval is represented by a straight line, the instantaneous acceleration anywhere in that interval is equal to

the slope of the line, that is, to the average acceleration over that time interval.

To find the maximum acceleration, find the value of the curve's greatest positive slope.

Hint 2. Find the final velocity on the interval with greatest acceleration

The slope of the curve is greatest during the first second of motion. The slope of the graph on this interval is

given by the change in velocity divided by the change in time over the interval from t=0 to t=1. At time t = 0\; {\rm

s}, the car's velocity v(0) is zero. Find the velocity \texttip{v\left(1\right)}{v(1)} of the car at time t=1\;{\rm s}.

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

ANSWER:

ANSWER:

Correct

Part D

Find the minimum magnitude of the acceleration \texttip{a_{\rm min}}{a_min} of the car.

Express your answer in meters per second per second to the nearest integer.

To find the minimum magnitude of the acceleration of the car, you must find the point where the absolute value of

the slope is smallest.

ANSWER:

Correct

Part E

Find the distance \texttip{d_{\rm 0,2}}{d_0,2} traveled by the car between t=0\;\rm s and t=2\; \rm s.

In this problem, the car's velocity as a function of time is given graphically, so the distance traveled is represented

by the area under the \texttip{v}{v} vs. \texttip{t}{t} graph between t=0\;\rm s and t=2 \; \rm s.

What is the distance \texttip{d_{\rm 0,1}}{d_0,1} traveled between t=0\;\rm s and t=1\;\rm s?

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

Observe that the region in question is a triangle

, whose area is therefore one-half the product of

the base and the height.

ANSWER:

d_0,1 = 15 \rm m

What is the distance \texttip{d_{\rm 1,2}}{d_1,2} traveled between t=1\;\rm s andt=2\;\rm s?

The region under the graph between 1 and 2 seconds can be seen as consisting of a rectangle and a

triangle.

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

ANSWER:

ANSWER:

\texttip{d}{d} = 55 \rm m

Correct

Click Play to watch the video. Answer the ungraded questions in the video and the graded follow-up questions at right.

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

Part A

Which of the motion diagrams in the figure below best matches the motion of the bungee jumper shown in the video?

ANSWER:

Correct

Because the video only follows the free fall portion of the jump, the correct motion diagram shows constant

downward acceleration.

Part B

Which of the following best describes the acceleration of a bungee jumper during free fall?

ANSWER:

zero

negative

constant

positive

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

Correct

Free fall acceleration is constant and has a value of 9.8 \rm m/s^2.

Part C

Three cars drive around a perfectly circular track. The speedometers in the figure below show the speed of each car

over the same 10-\rm s time interval. Which of the cars are accelerating?

ANSWER:

Car A

Cars A and B

Cars A, B, and C

Correct

All three cars are accelerating because the directions of their velocity vectors change constantly as they drive

in a circle. In addition, the speeds of cars A and B are changing, which also indicates acceleration.

Part D

Four cars undergo acceleration as described by the data in the following table.

Car Initial Velocity (\rm m/s) Time period (\rm s)

m/s)

C 1.0 -5.0 2.0

D 0.0 25.0 10.0

ANSWER:

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

Reset Help

Correct

The average accelerations, from most positive to most negative, are as follows: (B) 4 \rm m/s^2, (A) 3 \rm

m/s^2, (D) 2.5 \rm m/s^2, and (C) −3 \rm m/s^2.

Click Play to watch the video. Answer the ungraded questions in the video and the graded follow-up questions at right.

Part A

Suppose you are hiking along a trail. Make a comparison between the magnitude of your displacement and your

distance traveled.

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

ANSWER:

The magnitude of your displacement must be less than your distance traveled.

The magnitude of your displacement must be greater than your distance traveled.

The magnitude of your displacement can be greater than your distance traveled.

The magnitude of your displacement can be less than your distance traveled.

Correct

The magnitude of your displacement represents your change in position. That is, the magnitude of your

displacement is how far you are from your starting location along a straight line.

Part B

Suppose a runner completes one lap around a 400-\rm m track in a time of 50 \rm s. Calculate the magnitude of the

average velocity of the runner.

Express your answer in meters per second to the nearest integer.

ANSWER:

0 \rm {m/s}

Correct

Part C

Suppose a runner completes one lap around a 400-\rm m track in a time of 50 \rm s. Calculate the average speed of the

runner.

Express your answer in meters per second to the nearest integer.

ANSWER:

8 \rm {m/s}

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

Correct

Average velocity is defined in terms of displacement, whereas average speed is defined in terms of total

distance traveled.

Part D

Consulting the graph shown in , determine the object's

average velocity over the time interval from 2 to 4

seconds.

Express your answer in meters per second to the

nearest integer.

ANSWER:

5 \rm m/s

Correct

Average velocity can be determined from the slope of a line connecting two points on a position versus time

graph.

Exercise 1.4

Part A

What is this value in kilograms per cubic meter?

ANSWER:

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

Correct

Exercise 1.14

With a wooden ruler you measure the length of a rectangular piece of sheet metal to be 11 {\rm mm} . You use micrometer

calipers to measure the width of the rectangle and obtain the value 5.98 {\rm mm} . Give your answers to the following

questions to the correct number of significant figures.

Part A

What is the area of the rectangle?

ANSWER:

A = 66 {\rm mm}^{2}

Correct

Part B

What is the ratio of the rectangle's width to its length?

ANSWER:

Correct

Part C

What is the perimeter of the rectangle?

ANSWER:

P = 34 {\rm mm}

Correct

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

Part D

What is the difference between the length and width?

ANSWER:

Correct

Part E

What is the ratio of the length to the width?

ANSWER:

Correct

Exercise 1.18

Part A

How many kernels of corn does it take to fill a 3-{\rm L} soft drink bottle? (Take that about four kernels fill 1 {\rm cm^3} .)

Express your answer using two significant figures.

ANSWER:

1.2×104 kernels

Correct

Exercise 2.3

You normally drive on the freeway between San Diego and Los Angeles at an average speed of 105 {\rm km/h}, and the trip

takes 2 {\rm h} and 20 {\rm min}. On a Friday afternoon, however, heavy traffic slows you down and you drive the same

distance at an average speed of only 74.5 {\rm km/h} .

Part A

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

ANSWER:

Correct

Exercise 2.9

A ball moves in a straight line (the x-axis). The graph in the figure

shows this ball's velocity as a function of time.

Part A

What is the ball's average velocity during the first 2.6 {\rm s} ?

ANSWER:

Correct

Part B

What is the ball's average speed during the first 2.6 {\rm s} ?

ANSWER:

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

Correct

Part C

Suppose that the ball moved in such a way that the graph segment after 2.0 {\rm s} was -3.0 {\rm{ m/s}} instead of +3.0

{\rm{ m/s}}. Find the ball's average velocity during the first 2.6 {\rm s} in this case.

Express your answer using two significant figures.

ANSWER:

Answer Requested

Part D

Suppose that the ball moved in such a way that the graph segment after 2.0 {\rm s} was -3.0 {\rm{ m/s}} instead of +3.0

{\rm{ m/s}}. Find the ball's average speed during the first 2.6 {\rm s} in this case.

Express your answer using two significant figures.

ANSWER:

Correct

Exercise 2.14

A race car starts from rest and travels east along a straight and level track. For the first 5.0 {\rm s} of the car's motion, the

eastward component of the car's velocity is given by \upsilon_x (t) = (0.870 \;\rm m/s^3) t^2.

Part A

What is the acceleration of the car when \texttip{\upsilon _x}{v} = 15.9 {\rm m/s} ?

Express your answer with the appropriate units.

ANSWER:

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

Correct

Exercise 2.23

The human body can survive a negative acceleration trauma incident (sudden stop) if the magnitude of the acceleration is

less than 250\;{\rm m}/{\rm s}^{2}.

Part A

If you are in an automobile accident with an initial speed of 113 {\rm km/h} and are stopped by an airbag that inflates

from the dashboard, over what distance must the airbag stop you for you to survive the crash?

ANSWER:

x = 1.97 {\rm m}

Correct

Exercise 2.44

A hot-air balloonist, rising vertically with a constant velocity of magnitude \texttip{v}{v} = 5.00 {\rm m/s} , releases a sandbag

at an instant when the balloon is a height \texttip{h}{h} = 40.0 {\rm m} above the ground . After it is released, the sandbag is

in free fall. For the questions that follow, take the origin of the

coordinate system used for measuring displacements to be at the

ground, and upward displacements to be positive.

Part A

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

Compute the position of the sandbag at a time 0.240 {\rm s} after its release.

ANSWER:

y = 40.9 {\rm m}

Correct

Part B

Compute the velocity of the sandbag at a time 0.240 {\rm s} after its release.

ANSWER:

Answer Requested

Part C

Compute the position of the sandbag at a time 1.50 {\rm s} after its release.

ANSWER:

y = 36.5 {\rm m}

Correct

Part D

Compute the velocity of the sandbag at a time 1.50 {\rm s} after its release.

ANSWER:

Correct

Part E

How many seconds after its release will the bag strike the ground?

ANSWER:

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

t = 3.41 {\rm s}

Correct

Part F

With what magnitude of velocity does it strike?

ANSWER:

Correct

Part G

What is the greatest height above the ground that the sandbag reaches?

ANSWER:

y = 41.3 {\rm m}

Correct

Exercise 2.52

The acceleration of a bus is given by a_{x}(t)= \alpha t, where \texttip{\alpha}{alpha} = 1.14 {\rm m/s^3} is a constant.

Part A

If the bus's velocity at time \texttip{t_1}{t_1} = 1.15 {\rm s} is 5.03 {\rm m/s} , what is its velocity at time \texttip{t_2}{t_2} =

2.11 {\rm s} ?

ANSWER:

Correct

Part B

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

If the bus's position at time \texttip{t_1}{t_1} = 1.15 {\rm s} is 5.94 {\rm m} , what is its position at time \texttip{t_2}{t_2} =

2.11 {\rm s} ?

ANSWER:

x = 11.5 {\rm m}

Answer Requested

Learning Goal:

To understand the relationships between position, velocity, and acceleration.

NOTE: These activities use Java, and are therefore not screen-reader accessible and may not work on a mobile device. If

the browser you're using no longer supports Java, try a different browser and download the Java plugin for this content.

For this tutorial, use the PhET simulation The Moving Man. This simulation allows you to drag a person back and forth and

look at the resulting position, velocity, and acceleration. You can also enter a position as a function of time mathematically

and look at the resulting motion.

Start the simulation. When you click the simulation link, you may be asked whether to run, open, or save the file. Choose to

run or open it.

Under the Charts tab you can click and drag the person left and right, or enter a numeric value in the boxes on the left panel

to see plots for the person’s position, velocity, and acceleration as a function of time. Click the Play button to start a

simulation and the Pause button to stop a simulation. You can also watch a playback by selecting the Playback radio button

instead of the default Record radio button. You can click Clear to remove the current plot while maintaining your settings for

position, velocity and acceleration or click Reset All to start over. In the Playback mode, the grey bar can be dragged over

the plot to any value in time, and the digital readouts will show the corresponding values of the position, velocity, and

acceleration.

Under the Special Features menu, the Expression Evaluator option produces a second window in which you can

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

mathematically type in any function for the position as a function of time, \texttip{x\left(t\right)}{x(t)}. After typing in a function,

click the Play button to start the simulation.

To zoom in vertically, click any of the three + buttons to the top right of each plot. To zoom in horizontally, click the + button to

the bottom right of the acceleration plot.

Feel free to play around with the simulation. When you are done, click Reset All on the Charts tab before beginning Part A.

Part A

First, you will focus on the relationship between velocity and position. Recall that velocity is the rate of change of position

(v_x = dx/dt). This means that the velocity is equal to the slope of the Position vs. Time graph.

Move the person to the position x= -6\, {\rm m} or enter –6.00 in the position box. If you dragged the person to position,

click the Pause button and then the Clear button. Next, drag the person to the right to roughly x = 6\, {\rm m} and

reverse his direction, returning him to the original position, at x = -6\, {\rm m}. Move the person relatively quickly, about a

few seconds for the round trip. Your plots should look something like those shown below.

Look at the Position vs. Time and Velocity vs. Time plots. What is the person's velocity when his position is at its

maximum value (around 6 \rm m )?

ANSWER:

zero.

The person's velocity is negative.

positive.

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

Correct

When the person’s position is a maximum, the slope of the position with respect to time is zero, so dx/dt=0.

However, due to the person’s acceleration, the velocity does not remain zero; he eventually moves to the left.

Part B

Acceleration is the rate of change of the velocity, a_x=dv_x/dt, so it is the slope of the Velocity vs. Time graph.

Because it is difficult to drag the person in a consistent and reproducible way, use the Expression Evaluator under the

Special Features menu for this question.

Click Reset All and type in the function x(t) = 8*t-2*t*t in the Expression Evaluator. Click the Play button and let the

simulation run roughly 5 simulation seconds before pressing the Pause button. Use the zoom buttons to adjust the plots

so they fit in the screen. You should see a plot similar to what you got in the previous question, but much smoother.

Look at the Position vs. Time, Velocity vs. Time, and Acceleration vs. Time plots.

In Playback mode, use the grey vertical bar. Slide the bar until the value x = 8\, {\rm m} is displayed in the

position box on the left panel. What are the values of velocity and acceleration when x = 8\, {\rm m}?

ANSWER:

When the person is 8 \rm m to the right of the origin, the velocity is zero but the acceleration is negative.

Correct

At x=8\, {\rm m}, the person turns to go back in the opposite direction. His velocity is zero, but his acceleration

is negative since the velocity is decreasing with time. This is similar to throwing a ball straight up into the air; at

its highest point, the velocity is zero but the acceleration is still directed downward.

Part C

Keep the function x(t) = 8*t-2*t*t in the Expression Evaluator. What is the value of the person’s acceleration \texttip{a}{a}

at t=2\, {\rm s}?

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

Use the grey vertical bar. Slide the bar until it coincides with t=2\, {\rm s} on the horizontal axis. What is the value

displayed in the acceleration box on the left panel?

ANSWER:

0

\texttip{a_{\mit x}}{a_x} =

-4\, {\rm m/s^2}

Correct

This is an example of one-dimensional motion with constant acceleration. The position of an object undergoing

this type of motion obeys the kinematic equation x(t) = x_0 + v_{x,0}t + 1/2\,a_x t^2. In this case, the initial

velocity is v_{x,0}=8\, {\rm m/s} and the acceleration is a_x=-4\, {\rm m/s^2} (since 1/2\,a_x =-2\, {\rm m/s^2}).

Part D

In the previous question, the person had an initial velocity of 8\, {\rm m/s} and a constant acceleration of -4\, {\rm m/s^2}.

How would the maximum distance he travels to the right of the origin change if instead his initial velocity were doubled

(v_{x,0}=16\, {\rm m/s})?

Go to the Introduction tab to run the simulation using the new initial velocity v_{x,0}=16\, {\rm m/s} and the same

acceleration of -4\, {\rm m/s^2}, and read the value for position when the velocity equals zero. Remember to

remove the walls from the simulation by clicking on the red close button on the walls. In Playback mode the

simulation can be run slowly and paused when the velocity is zero.

Or, mathematically, determine how long it takes for the person to stop and use this value of time in the equation

for x(t).

ANSWER:

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

Correct

Because it takes twice as much time to momentarily stop, and because his average velocity will be twice as

fast, the distance he travels will be four times greater. Using the kinematic equation, x(4\, {\rm s}) = (16\, {\rm

m/s})\times (4\, {\rm s})-(1/2)\times (4\, {\rm m/s^2})\times (4\, {\rm s})^2=32\, {\rm m}.

Part E

Now, assume that the position is given by the equation x(t) = 4\, {\rm t^3}.

Enter this function in the Expression Evaluator as x(t) = 4*t*t*t. Run the simulation by clicking the Play button in the

Record mode for roughly three simulated seconds and then click the Pause button. Now take a look at the graphs. You

will have to zoom in horizontally (bottom right), so that your range covers two seconds.

ANSWER:

Correct

The graph showing Acceleration vs. Time is a straight line that is not horizontal.

Part F

What is the position of the person when t=1\, {\rm s}?

Express your answer numerically in meters to one significant figure.

You can solve this mathematically using the expression input for position as a function of time, x(t) = 4*t*t*t.

Alternatively, you can put the simulation in Playback mode and drag the grey box/bar to t=1\, {\rm s}, then read

the approximate value for position.

ANSWER:

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

4 \rm m

Correct

Notice that since the position is given by x=4\, {\rm t^3}, when the time is t=1\, {\rm s}, the position is x =

4(1)^3\, {\rm m} = 4\, {\rm m}.

Part G

What is the velocity of the person when t = 1\, {\rm s}?

Express your answer numerically in meters per second to two significant figures.

The velocity is the first derivative of position with respect to time, v_x =dx/dt. You can take the derivative of the

expression of x(t) and evaluate when t = 1\, {\rm s}.

Alternatively, you can put the simulation in Playback mode and drag the grey box/bar to t=1\, {\rm s}, then read

the approximate value for velocity.

ANSWER:

12 \rm m/s

Correct

Notice that since the position is given by x(t)=4t^3, the velocity, which is the first derivative of position with

respect to time, is given by v_x = dx/dt = 12 t^2. So when t=1\, {\rm s}, v=12\, {\rm m/s}.

Part H

What is the acceleration of the person when t=1\, {\rm s}?

Express your answer numerically in meters per second squared to two significant figures.

The acceleration is the first derivative of velocity with respect to time, a_x =dv_x/dt or the second derivative of

position with respect to time, a_x = d^2x/dt^2. You can take the derivative of the expression of v_x(t) and evaluate

when t = 1\, {\rm s}.

Alternatively, you can put the simulation in Playback mode and drag the grey box/bar to t=1\, {\rm s}, then read

the approximate value for acceleration.

Taller de Autoaprendizaje No 1a 4/20/19, 4)33 PM

ANSWER:

24 {\rm m/s^2}

Correct

Notice that since the position is given by x=4 t^3, the acceleration, which is the first derivative of velocity with

respect to time, is given by a_x = dv_x/dt = d(12 t^2)/dx = 24 t. So when t=1\, {\rm s}, a_x=24\, {\rm m/s^2}.

Notice also that the acceleration is proportional to time, which explains why it is increasing at a constant rate

(as discovered in part G).

University of Colorado

http://phet.colorado.edu

Score Summary:

Your score on this assignment is 92.5%.

You received

Typesetting 30.52

math: 65% out of a possible total of 33 points.

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