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Prof.

Jean Walrand, CS228a “High Performance Communication Network”, Class Project Report Fall 2000

A Survey for QoS Strategies in Mobile Wireless ATM


Networks
Ye Sheng1, Jiagen Ding1, Zhanfeng Jia2 and Wai kin Chan3
UC Berkeley

Abstract unconditional and hard availability of negotiated


QoS. The adaptive resource management can be
The concept of “wireless ATM” (WATM), first used on the following framework: First, at call
proposed in 1992, is now being actively considered setup, applications negotiate the end-to-end QoS
as a potential framework for next-generation wireless with the network; second, during the connection
communication networks capable of supporting lifetime, resources are fairly managed among
integrated, quality-of-service (QoS) based adaptable flows.
multimedia services. In this project, we give a (4) QoS for ad hoc network is also reviewed
thorough review on existing strategies for in this paper for the purpose of completeness.
implementing QoS on mobile WATM network. Finally a conclusion is given and a rough
(1) QoS through MAC: Media access control design principle for WATM with QoS support is
(MAC) layer sits right between the lower physical proposed.
layer (PHY) and upper transportation layer. The
MAC layer must enable multiple nodes share a same Key Words: QoS, MAC, ATM, wireless network,
frequency band for data transmission. The MAC routing, rerouting.
layer must also provide support for standard ATM
services including UBR, ABR, VBR, and CBR traffic
classes, with QoS control. The performance of the I. INTRODUCTION
MAC protocol has a significant impact on network
performance. While a lot of traditional MAC A. Scenario
schemes will be discussed in this paper, energy will Wireless ATM (WATM) is one of the solutions
be focused on those specific protocols for WATM which can satisfy increasing demands for
with QoS support. multimedia services in mobile communications and
(2) QoS through Routing: In a wireless has been widely studied. Work on WATM has been
network, a mobile user may roam arbitrarily from its motivated by the wide acceptance of ATM
current base station to another vicinal base station. switching technology as a basis for broad-band
The process of passing a user’s radio link between networks which support integrated services with
radio ports in the network is called “handoff”. The suitable QoS control. The 53-byte ATM cell turns
problems incurred during handoff, like disruption, out to be quite reasonable for use as the basis
cell loss and signaling overhead, pair with the transport unit over high bit-rate radio channels,
guarantee of QoS hint that handoff is one of the most taking into account both error control and medium
important and attractive problems in implementing access requirements. ATM signaling protocols for
wireless networks. Many approaches have been connection establishment and QoS control also
proposed to crack this problem. In Section 3, the provide a suitable basis for mobility extensions (e.g.
taxonomy of rerouting schemes is given. We analyze handoff and location management).
several typical rerouting schemes and some design A WATM network consists of base stations
issues then follow. interconnected by a wire-line ATM network and
(3) QoS Adaptation: Mobile and wireless mobile terminals (MT’s). Each base station provides
networks may suffer from temporary channel fading a radio coverage area called cell for MT’s. A
and high bit error rate which make it very hard to common target of all WATM works is the QoS
predict the behavior of the wireless transmission guarantee through the life of the connection
channel over a prolonged period. Therefore, resource regardless of system characteristics. Wireless ATM
reservation in the wireless part can never guarantee
1
1
Graduate student, ME, UC Berkeley, Email: (yesheng and jgding) @mechatro2.me.berkeley.edu
2
Graduate student, EECS, UCBerkeley, Email: jia@eecs.berkeley.edu
3
Graduate student, IEOR, UCBerkeley, Email: freebsd@uclink.berkeley.edu

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has to comply with the end-user QoS guarantee in the  WATM terminal with a WATM radio network
ATM network for wireless users. In mobile interface card and mobility and radio enhanced
communications with cellular networks, a MT moves UNI software.
from one cell to another owing to roaming; it is
called handoff. As mentioned, ATM is connection- (2) Interfaces
oriented; therefore, when a MT causes a handoff There are two type of protocol interfaces in WATM:
WATM, the connection to the MT has to be renewed.  The “W” UNI is the interface between
In this case, degradation of communication quality mobile/wireless user terminal and ATM base
such as a pause of communication during renewal of station
the connection and the connection dropping due to  The “M” UNI/NNI is the interface between
bandwidth shortage is an important problem. mobility-capable ATM network devices
including switches and base stations.

C. WATM Protocol Architecture [14]

The WATM protocol architecture is based on


integration of radio access and mobility features as
“first class” capabilities within the standard ATM
protocol stack. A physical view of this protocol
architecture is given in Fig. 1-1. The idea is to fully
integrate new wireless physical layer (PHY),
medium access control (MAC), data link control
(DLC), wireless control, and mobility
signaling/management functions into the ATM
(a) protocol stack shown in the figure.

D. Radio Access Subsystem

The WATM radio access subsystem consists of four


major components: PHY, MAC, DLC and wireless
control, as shown in Fig. 1-2. PHY consists of radio
transport convergence (RTC) sublayer and physical
media dependent (PMD) sublayer. PMD defines the
actual modulation method used to transmit/receive
data. RTC supports required framing and
synchronization on the channel. MAC layer
interfaces with RTC. The WATM DLC layer
interfaces each ATM virtual circuit (both service
data and signaling) with the ATM network layer
(b) above. An additional wireless control interface is
provided within the control plane to deal with radio
Fig. 1-1 Basic WATM network architecture (a) and link specific control functions (e.g. initial
protocol stack (b) registration, resource allocation and power control).
Regular ATM signaling (with mobility extensions)
is used for ATM layer connection control function
B. WATM Components, Interfaces (e.g. call establishment, QoS control and handoff).
Service data, ATM signaling and wireless control
(1) Components are multiplexed and scheduled onto the shared radio
The major hardware and software components in channel through the MAC layer.
WATM include following:
 ATM switches with standard UNI/NNI
capabilities together with additional mobility
support software;
 ATM base station or radio port also with
mobility-enhanced UNI/NNI software and radio
interface capabilities;

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station to compete for control of the transmission
channel each time it sends a message; this strategy
is very efficient when the network load is low. How
ever, as the traffic level rises, it becomes
increasingly difficult to transmit data as stations
prevent each other from taking control of the
channel; this causes the average delay to grow
rapidly, as well as retransmission rate since mobile
nods will cause more collision. Consequently,
contention-based schemes cannot provide stability
under heavy network loads. Other contention-free
Fig. 1-2 WATM radio access protocol components protocols have been proposed, which use polling,
and interface to ATM layer token passing or reservation. These protocols can
survive heavy loads, but are not efficient under light
In the following section, first, we will take a loads, and often requires a base station as a control
detail look into QoS techniques in WATM from point.
different point of view. Then, Section II and III The existing MAC protocols include ALOHA
reviews QoS through MAC layer and through routing [1], carrier sense medium access (CSMA) [2],
respectively. Section IV presents the adaptive QoS multiple access with collision avoidance (MACA)
guarantee technique. QoS technique for ad hoc [3], MACAW [4], floor acquisition multiple access
network is discussed in V. A conclusion is given in (FAMA) [5], frequency division multiple access
section VI. (FDMA), time division multiple access (TDMA)
[6], dynamic assignment multiple access (DAMA)
[7], code division multiple access (CDMA) [8] and
II. QoS through MAC spread spectrum medium access protocol with
collision avoidance (MACA/C-T, MACA/R-T) [9],
etc.
Media access control (MAC) layer sits right In pure ALOHA [1], each user could start a
between the lower physical layer (PHY) and upper transmission any time without first sensing the
transportation layer. Radio air interface is by nature a channel status. The throughput is affected by
broadcasting media, where any two transmissions frequent collisions. In the slotted ALOHA (S-
without coordination in a same radio coverage range ALOHA), the time axis is divided into time slots
may cause interference or collision. The MAC layer with duration greater than the time required to
must enable multiple nodes share a same frequency transmit a packet on the channel. Nodes must start
band for data transmission. The MAC layer must also their transmissions at the beginning of a time slot.
provide support for standard ATM services including This prevents partial collisions, where one packet
UBR, ABR, VBR, and CBR traffic classes, with QoS collides with a portion of another. In both cases,
control. The performance of the MAC protocol has a ALOHA does not use carrier sensing and does not
significant impact on network performance. A key stop transmitting a packet when it detects a
factor in selection of the MAC protocol will be the collision. Reservation ALOHA (R-ALOHA) is a
ability to support these ATM traffic classes at packet access scheme based on time division
reasonable QoS levels while maintaining reasonably multiplexing. In this protocol, certain packet slots
high radio channel efficiency. are assigned with priority, and it is possible for users
This may be achieved by time sharing (TDMA) to reserve slots for the transmission of packets. Slots
or frequency sharing (FDMA) for narrow-band can be permanently reserved or can be reserved on
radios, or by code division (CDMA) or orthogonal request. For high traffic conditions, reservation
carrier division (OFDM) for spread spectrum offers better throughput. In CSMA [2], each user
systems. The goal is to construct a viable data senses the carrier before starting the transmission.
channel for every member of the system with a set of The throughput is higher than ALOHA because
predefined qualities: bandwidth, delay, jitter, and bit collisions may be avoided. However, the CSMA
error rate. We will provide an introduction for some protocol does not address the “hidden terminal”
general MAC schemes followed by discussion of problem and the “exposed terminal” problem (Fig.
MAC for WATM in the following section. 2-1). A terminal H is “hidden” when it is far away
from the data source S but is close to the data sink
A. Existing MAC protocols D. Without the ability to detect the ongoing data
Existing MAC protocols can be divided into two transmission, H will cause a collision at D if H
groups: contention-based and contention-free. A starts transmitting to J. On the other hand, a
contention-based protocol such as CSMA requires a terminal E is “exposed” if it is close to S but is far

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away from D. Since E senses an ongoing data interference level at its neighbors and could not start
transmission but does not know that D is out of its the retransmission promptly.
reach, E remains silent. In fact, E could have In [9], spread spectrum medium access protocol
transmitted to another terminal I because its with collision avoidance (MACA/C-T, MACA/R-T)
transmission would not cause any collision at D. was proposed. While multiple access capability was
supported in their protocol, there was no dynamic
code assignment is used which is potentially to
I E S D H J provide improved performance.
In [13], a new set of low-power media access
protocols for PicoNode like ad hoc sensor networks
is proposed. The existing MACs have been
Fig. 2-1 Hidden Terminal and Exposed Terminal compared and some general principles for low
Problems power MAC design have been proposed. A non-
conventional approach in the design process has
In MACA [3], the source and sink exchange been pursued: a mixed top-down and bottom-up
request-to-send (RTS) and clear-to-send (CTS) method is used to fully exploit the optimization
control packets before transmitting data packets (Fig. space from a system perspective. Similar design
2-2). Thus, having heard CTS but not RTS, a hidden strategy can be utilized in the design of MAC for
terminal H remains silent during the entire data WATM and even for the design of whole WATM
transmission period. Similarly, having heard RTS but protocol with QoS support. It is found that this
not CTS, an exposed terminal E can transmit data to method leads to some novel low power techniques.
another idle terminal I even though it detects an CDMA was chosen to implement multiple channels
ongoing transmission activity. But intruder will cause to reduce conflict rate. Dynamic channel assignment
problem at this case. For example, when a node has is achieved via a dedicated common control channel
not heard any RTS-CTS dialogue and moves into the to support mobility as well as to provide
communication range of an occupied receiver, any neighborhood information to upper layer routing
transmission of the intruding node may cause a protocols.
collision with the ongoing transmission, and thus Specific techniques which have been
affect the channel throughput. considered for the WATM MAC layer include
PRMA extension [15], dynamic TDMA/TDD [16],
[17] and CDMA [18], etc. We will provide a short
RTS introduction of them in the following section.
I E S D H J
CTS C. CDMA
In spread spectrum communication, a
transmitter spreads a transmission in a wide
frequency spectrum by using a spreading code,
Fig. 2-2 RTS-CTS dialogue which is independent of the data packet being sent.
A receiver uses the same code to perform a time
The multi-channel protocols may mitigate the correlation operation to de-spread the received
problems caused by intruders. In [8], two-spread signal and retrieve the specific desired data. All
spectrum (SS) protocols, the Common-Transmitter- other codewords appear as noise due to
Based (C-T) protocol and the Receiver-Transmitter- decorrelation. In multi-user environment, each user
Based (R-T) protocol, are proposed. In R-T, if a transmits a noise-like wideband signal and
transmitter wants to send data, it first transmit a contributes to the background noise affecting other
control packet on the receiver’s spreading code and neighboring nodes. The Code
transmission power in
then sends the data packet on its own spreading code. controlled to maintain a given signal-to-noise ratio
At the idle stage, the receiver monitors its code for for the required level of performance [10]. This
any control packet. Upon receiving the control approach provides multiple access capability, named
packet, the receiver tunes to the transmitter’s code code division multiple access (CDMA), by allowing
and receives the data packet accordingly. In C-T, multiple receivers to simultaneously receive packets
control packets are sent on a common code and data from different transmitters when the
packets are sent in the same way as in R-T. However, communicationsChannel
overlap
1 in time and space domains
in both protocols, the transmitter does not know any [11], as shown in Fig. 2-3.
Channel 2
possible collision of control packets at the receiving
end. If such a collision occurs, the transmitter will
unwittingly proceed the transmission of data packets.
Thus, it may waste its power, increase the Frequency

4 Channel N

Time
call, no other user can share the same frequency
band. The features of FDMA are as followings:
 It can be analogue or digital.
 If an FDMA channel is not in use, then it
sits idle and can not be used by other users
to increase or share capacity.
 Little or no equalization is required in
FDMA narrowband systems.
 Appropriate for circuit-switched traffic.
 Guard bands are required to separate
channels.
 Fewer bits are needed for overhead
purposes (such as synchronization and
framing bits) since FDMA is a continuous
transmission scheme.
 Low capacity.
Fig. 2-3 CDMA in which each channel is assigned a
unique PN code orthogonal to PN codes used by
other users Code

Properties of CDMA are as followings:


 Many users share the same frequency.
 Unlike TDMA and FDMA, CDMA has a
soft capacity limit. The system performance
gradually degrades for all users as the
number of users increased, and improved as Frequency

the number of users is decreased. Ch 1 Ch 2 Ch N


 Multipath fading may be substantially
reduced because the signal is spread over a
large spectrum.
 Channel data rates are very high in CDMA Time

systems.
 Since CDMA uses co-channel cells, it can Fig. 2-4 FDMA where different channels are
use macroscopic spatial diversity to provide assigned different frequency bands
soft handoff.
 Self-jamming is a problem in CDMA since FDMA is a kind of fixed assignment method
the spreading sequences of different users and it is not suitable for WATM because it is not
are not exactly orthogonal. efficient in terms of bandwidth utilization.
 The near-far problem occurs at a CDMA
receiver if an undesired user has a high E. TDMA and Dynamic TDMA
detected power as compared to the desired TDMA: TDMA systems divide the radio
user. Thereby, power control is necessary in spectrum into time slots, and in each slot only one
CDMA. user is allowed to either transmit or receive. It can
In short, CDMA may be regarded as a combination be seen from Fig. 2-5 that each user occupies a
of fixed and random assignment scheme. Although it cyclically repeating time slot, so a channel may be
can provide high bandwidth efficiency, it requires thought of as particular time slot that reoccur every
more complexity in the base stations and suffers from frame, where N time slots comprise a frame. TDMA
power control problem and peak bit rate limitations. systems transmit data in a buffer-and-burst method;
Hence it may not be suitable for supporting future thus the transmission for any user is non-
wireless broadband traffic itself. continuous. The transmission from various users is
interlaced into a repeating frame structure as shown
D. FDMA [19] in Fig. 2-6. Properties of TDMA are as followings:
FDMA systems assign individual channels to  Data transmission occurs in bursts.
individual users. From Fig. 2-4, it can be seen that  SIN can be measured in idle slots.
each user is allocated a unique frequency band or  Equalizer is required.
channel. These channels are assigned on demand to  There is significant overhead for
users who request service. During the period of the synchronization.

5
 Guard time is needed between slots. (or handoff) call is established. VBR service may be
provided with a suitable combination of these
periodic and dynamic allocation modes [14].
Code
TDMA Frame

Downlink Uplink S-ALOHA


Channel N
Control

Time Slots
Channel 2
User A User B
Channel 1 Time
Frequency Frame Head WATM Cell

Uplink Sub- BW Req/Alloc


Preamble frame Header Packet

Fig. 2-7 Example Dynamic TDMA/TDD frame


Time
structure
Fig. 2-5 TDMA scheme where each channel occupies
a cyclically repeating time slot MASCARA: In [20], MASCARA (Mobile
Access Scheme based on Contention and
Reservation for ATM) is proposed, and it is a
Preamble Information Message Trail Bits combination of reservation and contention
technique [21]. The multiple access is TDMA,
where time is divided in variable length time
frames, which are further subdivided in time slots,
Slot 1 Slot 2 Slot N as shown in Fig. 2-8. The multiplexing of uplink
and downlink is TDD. Slot allocation is performed
dynamically to
 Match current user needs and again attain
Trail Bits Sync. Bits Information Data Guard Bits high statistical multiplexing gain
 Provide the QoS required by the individual
connections

Fig. 2-6 TDMA frame structure Variable Length Time Frame

Downlink Uplink
TDMA itself is also a kind of fixed assignment
method and it is not suitable for WATM because it is Frame Head Downlink Uplink Contention

not efficient in terms of bandwidth utilization. But


Time
TDMA has an advantage in that it is possible to Variable Variable Variable
allocate different numbers of time slots per frame to Boundary Boundary Boundary
different users. Thus bandwidth can be supplied on
demand to different users by concatenating or
Broadcast Reservation-based traffic Contention-based traffic
reassigning time slots based on priority. Thereby,
some extension of TDMA is still an interesting
scheme for MAC of WATM. Fig. 2-8 MASCARA frame structure

Dynamic TDMA/TDD: An example of a


centrally controlled dynamic TDMA/TDD protocol F. TDMA/S-ALOHA Technique
under active consideration for WATM MAC layer is In [22], an efficient MAC protocol with QoS
outlined in Fig.2-7. This protocol is based on framing support enhancement called PARROT for WATM is
of channel time into control and ATM slots as shown. proposed. PARROT combines the advantages of
Downlink control and ATM data are multiplexed into TDMA and S-ALOHA. Unlike TDMA, it supports
a single TDM burst. Uplink control is sent in a dynamic flexible bandwidth access. It allows a
slotted ALOHA contention mode in a designated mobile terminal to issue bandwidth access requests
region of the frame, while ATM signaling and service and to use its demanded bandwidth when its
data are transmitted in slots allocated by the MAC requests are accepted. PARROT also supports both
controller. UBR/ABR slots are assigned dynamically asynchronous and synchronous services. PARROT
on a frame-by-frame basis, while CBR slots are uses a variation of R-ALOHA to serve bandwidth.
given fixed periodic slots assignments when a new Unlike most reservation schemes, it has algorithms

6
to allow mobile terminals to quickly regain access to  The coordination of transmission in a
their requested bandwidth. It extends the traditional CDMA system can enhance the worst-case
contention/reserves states to Empty/Owner/Reserves interference situations through the control
states. The inclusion of Owner states and associated of the number of simultaneous
procedure allows a mobile terminal to quickly transmissions. Here, the time scheduling
reclaim its portion of bandwidth allocated to it by the provides multiplexing gain which allows
base station. This feature gives PARROT much more the system to operate with lower than
flexible and efficient bandwidth utilization than both typical spreading factor. Consequently,
TDMA and S-ALOHA. transmission rates higher than those of
typical CDMA systems can be provided,
G. Scheduled CDMA (CDMA / TDMA) which in turn, results in better service
In [23], a hybrid CDMA/TDMA technique support capability and also higher system
called Scheduled CDMA (SCDMA) is proposed. In capacity.
SCDMA system, a centralized architecture in each  With regard to QoS provisioning, a hybrid
wireless cell is considered. It is assumed that in each CDMA/TDMA scheme is superior to
direction (up-link or down-link), the base station CDMA due to coordination among
collects the capsule transmission requests of all transmission. Unlike CDMA, a hybrid
services, sorts them (e.g., based on service priorities, scheme can achieve both hard bounds QoS
delay tolerance, etc.), and puts them in a global guarantees and efficient use of channel
queue as shown in Fig. 2-9. Then at any time, its resources at the same time. Moreover,
scheduler specifies the set of capsules (corresponding ATM-type traffic controls can be easily
to requests at the head of the global queue) which can implemented over the air interface of a
be transmitted in parallel. hybrid system.

Codes
H. PRMA and Its Extension
Capsule
Transmission P
PRMA is a kind of demand assignment method
Requests
Global Queue
O [24]. It uses a discrete packet time technique similar
W
E to R-ALOHA and combines the cyclical frame
R
Scheduler structure of TDMA in a manner that allows each
C TDMA time slot to carry either voice or data, where
T
R voice is given priority. It has shortcoming: (1) It can
L
not meet the QoS requirement of VBR services.
VBR applications (especially real-time video) have
relatively strict delay, jitter and loss requirements as
Fig. 2-9 Two-dimentional scheduling in SCDMA well as burst nature over different time-scales. (2)
system The request access overhead is high.
In [25], a new dynamic reservation integrated
In short, this scheme takes advantages of the service multiple access (DRISMA) protocol is
time scheduling property of TDMA to coordinate the proposed for WATM. Compared to other PRMA-
transmission of CDMA-based mobile terminals. The based protocols, DRISMA has two distinctive
main purpose of scheduling is guarantee QoS of all features: (1) While each voice station reserves
admitted services by preventing severe intra-cell isochronous channels by capturing mini-slots, both
interference situations. At any time, the base station the capturing probability and the number of mini-
specifies the set of services permitted to transmit slots per frame are adjusted dynamically to enhance
simultaneously. This is done in conjunction with bandwidth utilization. (2) A novel method using pre-
power control in such a way that the QoS mini-slots is proposed to provide available bit rate
requirements of all scheduled services are met. The (ABR) service such that data traffic can only be
following factors are considered: transmitted over the residual voice bandwidth.
 TDMA is superior to CDMA in terms of DRISMA has the potential to integrate general
“semantic” transparency provided to CBR, VBR and ABR traffic efficiently over WATM
different service since no interference exists channel.
between transmissions of different ATM
cells. I. Adaptive MAC Technique
 CDMA is superior to TDMA in terms of In [26], the following points were put forward:
“temporal” transparency due to  MAC design should be coupled with an
uncoordinated (random) access to channel. error control method (channel interleaving,
FEC and ARQ)

7
 Most previous studies on MAC protocol strategies by means of classifying all rerouting
focus on error free assumption and error schemes according to rearrangement of end-to-end
control was not discussed well in the design connection, hints of signal strength, network
of MAC hierarchical structure, soft and hard handoff as well
 “Polling-based” MAC: it is capable to use a as initiation of handoff.
smart array antenna as needed to abate
multi-path and adjacent cell interference A. Categories of various rerouting schemes

A lot of rerouting schemes [28-33, 38-47] have been


proposed based on rearrangement of end-to-end
III. QoS through ROUTUING ATM connection. We summarize all these schemes
as five categories [27,50]
In a wireless network, a mobile user may roam
arbitrarily from its current base station to another 1. Reestablishment
vicinal base station. The process of passing a user’s Reestablish connection by setting up a new
radio link between radio ports in the network is connection each time a mobile terminal moves. This
called “handoff”. Since wireless ATM aims to is the simplest approach because no rerouting
provide multimedia services to mobile hosts (MHs), functionalities are needed and no modifications will
the performance of the handoff protocol thus has a be applied to ATM switches. Since the path is re-
significant impact on the traffic characteristics and established, it can therefore always provide the
hence the user-perceived quality of service (QoS). optimal path to the mobile terminal. However it
doesn’t provide quality of service because of long
In order to support such mobile user roaming, handoff delays. This is shown in Fig. 3-1a.
protocols must keep track of the location of the
mobile user; maintain the connection within the user
and the base station while guaranteeing (or
renegotiating) the Quality of Service (QoS). This task
can be fulfilled roughly in MAC layer (Medium
MH
Access Control) or in a higher layer, like layer 3. In BS(peer) SW BS(Old)

Section 2, we have already introduced various End User handoff

methods for guaranteeing QoS in the MAC layer. In


this Section, we present some approaches for BS(New)
maintaining the data flow and QoS between the MH
mobile user and the base station. Specifically, we will
focus on the variety of the VC rerouting schemes
(algorithms). Fig. 3-1a Reestablishment

As we have mentioned before, the procedure of 2. Extension


handoff is to reroute ongoing connections to/from Extend current path by forwarding cells to the new
mobile users as these users move among base location of mobile user. This approach is also simple
stations. Hence, the most important concerns of since no rerouting functionalities are needed and no
rerouting schemes should include the following modifications to ATM switches are required.
aspects: [52] Disadvantages include inefficient path, switching
 Exhibiting low handoff latency; and buffering capabilities at all base stations.
 Maintaining an efficient route; Examples using this approach include BAHAMA
 Guaranteeing QoS; [28] and SWAN [29]. BAHAMA is an ad hoc
 Minimizing overhead or waste of network wireless ATM LAN. Mobile terminals locally
resource. register with portable base stations, which are
connected in an arbitrary topology. The routing
There is a dilemma, however, among above goals. scheme employs a Homing Algorithm for routing
For example, maintaining efficient routes would ATM cells by designating Source Home and
unavoidably increase handoff latency; or the faster Destination Home base stations. A paging scheme is
the rerouting does, the larger the cell loss we expect. used to locate the local base station of the mobile
Therefore designing rerouting scheme according to user. This is shown in Figure 3-1b.
different situation of network characteristics would
be the best solution. So many efforts have been made
in this regard by researchers. In the following, we
will provide the taxonomy of various rerouting

8
Dynamic
Cross-over
Switch

MH MH
BS(peer) Switch BS(Old) BS(peer) SW SW BS(Old)

End User handoff End User handoff

BS(New) BS(New)

MH MH

Fig. 3-1b Extension Fig. 3-1d Dynamic Cross-over Switch

3. Fixed Anchor Switch 5. Multicast


The connection from the backbone network to anchor Reroute by advance setup of paths. One possible
switch is fixed. During handoffs, all bridging is way to do it is to build a complete tree of all paths.
performed in the anchor switch and only the In this case, the handoff delay is small but
connection from anchor switch to new base station is connection setup delay is long to set up the tree.
modified [30]. In this approach, only the anchor Also, it may waste bandwidth and costs to modify
switches need to be modified to support connection all the ATM switches. Another way, which is more
rerouting. This is shown in Figure 3-1c. efficient, is to predict possible locations where a
mobile terminal is likely to move to. This approach
wastes less bandwidth while increasing processing
Fixed Anchor
Switch delay and cost of incorrect prediction. This is shown
in Figure 3-1e.
MH
BS(peer) SW BS(Old)

End User handoff Multicast Group

BS(New) MH
BS(peer) SW SW BS(Old)
MH
End User handoff

Fig. 3-1c Fixed Anchor Switch BS(New)

MH

4. Dynamic Cross-over Switch


This approach attempts to find a common switch Fig. 3-1e Multicast
between the old and new paths and turns around the
connection from the common switch to the new Another Example is virtual connection tree (VCT)
location of mobile terminal [31]. The new route is [32]. A VCT is a region containing some
then optimal or close to optimal. The common switch interconnected base stations. Mobile terminals
is called crossover switch. Many connection- moving within the VCT do not incur handoff
rerouting schemes are proposed based on this idea. process. Specifically, a collection of virtual circuit
The criteria on finding the crossover switch include numbers (VCN) is assigned to the mobile host.
optimality of the new path, minimum changes form When handoff happens, one of these numbers is
the old path, closest to new base station, closest to chosen to select the right path. The network call
the old base station minimum delay, etc. processor is only involved for handoffs between
Modification on all ATM switches is needed to base stations belonging to different VCTs.
support rerouting. This is shown in Figure 3-1d. Admission control is required to maintain quality of
service.
Another scheme using this approach predicts routes
for potential handoffs [33]. The connection tree
reconfigures after each time handoff occurs. (One of
the predictive mobility methods uses the movement
circle and movement track models to predict the
regular pattern of daily movement and a Markov
chain model to predict the random movement part.)

9
B. General Rerouting Scheme
However, as we have mentioned before, it is a trade-
Albeit all rerouting strategies can be classified into off that reducing the signalling complexity may
these five classes according to rearrangement of end- unavoidably cause suboptimal end-to-end path. For
to-end connection, we can not find such a proposed example, the Extension scheme results in a smaller
rerouting scheme that applies only one of these five hand-off latency at the penalty of causing the end-
strategies. Instead, almost all of the rerouting to-end path to be of suboptimal length. On the other
schemes that we have studied take advantages of hand, the Reestablishment scheme will provide us
each of these five strategies, which means they use a with an optimal end-to-end path with the
combination of these five strategies. Therefore, in compensation of largest handoff latency. The
general, we can express this combination in terms of Dynamic Cross-over Switch scheme may have more
a function of three elements: the cross-over switch latency than the Fix Anchor scheme because of the
(SW), the New Base Station (New), and the Old Base time spending in selecting the right switcher that
Station. This combination function is shown as can provide the optimal path for the new
follow: connection. Finally, the Multicast scheme claims a
near-zero latency handoff because of the pre-setup
A Rerouting Scheme ::== connection. However, its advantage will only make
Find(SW) + Setup(SW, New) +Release(SW, Old) sense if the new base station that the mobile user
finally visits is accurately predicted.
Where SW denotes Switch, Find(SW) means find a
cross-over switch, Setup(SW, New) means setup a C. Other classification methods of Rerouting
new connection between SW and New Base Station, Schemes
Release(SW, Old) means release the connection
between SW and Old Base Station. Beside the classification that based on
rearrangement of end-to-end ATM connection, we
Hence, by using this combination function, thees five can also classify rerouting schemes by the following
category strategies can be expressed as follows: methodologies:

 Reestablishment := (1) Hints of Radio Strength:


Setup(Peer Base Station, New) + Release(Peer Base Station,
Radio hint is a good predictor for the occurrence of
Old);
a handoff. It can be derived from received beacon
 Extension := signal strength. Therefore, rerouting schemes can be
Setup(Old, New); categorized as “with radio hint” and “without radio
hint”.
 Fixed Anchor Switch :=
Setup(Fixed Anchor SW) + Release(Fixed Anchor SW, Old); (2) Network Hierarchical Structure:
In a flat network, handoff can be done within
 Dynamic Cross-over Switch :=
Find(Dynamic Cross-over SW) + Setup(Dynamic Cross-over
different cells. This is called “horizontal” handoff.
SW, New) + Release(Dynamic Cross-over SW, Old); However, in a hierarchical multi-layered network
where there exist picocell (small cell used inside
 Multicast := buildings), microcell (medium cell deployed to
Find(All neighboring Base Stations + All Cross-over SWs) + cover roads and towns) and macrocell (large cell
Setup(All Cross-over SWs, All neighboring Base Stations) +
defined as a large area, like a country or state),
Release(Cross-over SW, Old);
“vertical” handoff may occur in the case when a
From the above expressions, it is clear that the MH roams from picocell regions to microcell or
Extension rerouting scheme and the Reestablishment macrocell regions.
rerouting scheme are relatively simple in terms of
signalling protocol complexity [48,49], while the (3) Soft and Hard Handoff:
Fixed Anchor Switch scheme and the Dynamic In soft handoff (will be discussed later), MH can
Cross-over Switch scheme may require more communicate with the old and new base station
signaling messages processing between switches. simultaneously. However, in hard handoff, the MH
Intuitively, the multicast scheme would be the most had to switch to a new frequency channel so that it
complicate scheme in terms of signaling complexity is connected to the new base station.
for the reason that an anticipatory selection of one or
more candidate base stations and cross-over switches (4) Initiation of Handoff:
along with setting up of corresponding connections A handoff may be triggered both by MH and base
between these candidate base stations and switches station. In the first case, the MH evaluates the radio
will impose an unreasonable burden on the network. signal strength at the same time of detecting the

10
presence of neighboring base stations. Thus it will divided into clusters to reduce resources required to
decide when to trigger a handoff. In the second case, maintain and update VCTs. Thus inter-cluster
handoffs are performed by the network. The network handoffs become the bottleneck of QoS. A new
collects all information about the MH, such as the scheme with 2-layered cluster concept is proposed
signal strength, traffic load, and mobility etc. Then [35] to overcome this problem.
the network will also decide when to initiate a
handoff and which new base station is the target base
station. Figure 3.2 is a summary of these categories.

Reestablishment

Extension
End-to-end Fixed Anchor Switch
Connection
Dynamic Cross-over Switch

Multicast

With Hint
Hints of Radio
Handoff Strength
Without Hint

Horizontal
Network
Hierarchical
Structure Vertical

Soft Handoff
Figure 3.3
Soft and Hard
Hard Handoff
Handoff As shown in Figure 3.3, the proposed scheme
allocates two clusters for one cell by connecting two
Mobile Host Initiation
Initiation of mobility support ATM switches to one base station.
Handoff Network Initiation The two clusters belong to two different layers and
Figure 3.2 the clusters in each layer are distributed in contact
with each other like the existing cluster structures.
D. Several Rerouting Schemes During the handoffs, switches corresponding to the
suitable layer are chosen so that both new and
We introduce here some typical rerouting schemes. original base stations are within the same cluster.
Thus the time delay with an inter-cluster handoff
All these approaches have different features suitable turns to be an intra-cluster handoff time. This
to different situation. For example, connection seamless inter-cluster handoff scheme has
extension is one of the fastest ways to perform advantages of small handoff delay and optimal
handoff but will lead to inefficient routes. Dynamic routes. The disadvantages include modification on
rerouting via crossover switches can provide optimal ATM switches and requirement of additional ATM
routes with long handoff delay. From QoS point of switches.
view, connection extension is good for small delay
and processor. On the other hand, when the processor (1) Virtual connection tree (VCT) [32]
is powerful or small delay is not necessary, dynamic
rerouting is preferred. This kind of algorithms The general idea of VCT is the concept of virtual
combining two approaches is called hybrid schemes. connection tree (or footprint-based approach). When
One such proposal [34] combines two schemes a mobile host establishes a wireless ATM
termed RAC (Rearrange ATM Connection) and EAC connection, a connection tree is formed from the
(Extend ATM Connection), based on dynamic root node to the leaves in the tree effectively
rerouting through ATM network and connection producing a point-to-multipoint connection.
extension in wireless network, respectively. When However the mobile terminal is utilizing only one
handoffs happen, RAC places requirements for leaf node at a time. Data is multicast to all
rerouting to network call processor. If the processor neighboring base stations that a mobile host is
is overload due to heavy traffic, EAC is performed. expected to visit. When a mobile host steps out of
The choice of using which one is based on utilization the coverage area of the VCT, the network
of bandwidth, implementation complexity, and establishes a new tree surrounding the mobile.
amount of rerouting load.
VCT based algorithm is among the fastest handoff Therefore, the advantages of VCT are that it avoids
management algorithms. The network is generally the need to involve the network call controller for

11
every call handoff attempt. Moreover, it can readily arranged to be much less mobile than its client
support a very high rate of handoffs, thereby enabling mobile user, which means a representative
use of physically small radio cells to provide very migration takes place only when its client mobile
high system capacity. The disadvantages of VCT user relocates to a new geographical or
include: (1) It involves some risk of temporarily administrative domain. Another disadvantage is that
overloading a given cell site, and appropriate quality- it may suffer from low resource utilization
of-service criteria must be maintained. (This can be efficiency because of the high resource consumption
done, which means a satisfactory service quality can by the redundant connection segments.
be maintained, by limiting the number of allowable
connections admitted to the tree to a value slightly (3) R.Cohen and A.Segall [39]
lower than inherent capacity of the tree.) (2) The
geographical coverage of a virtual connection tree The general idea of this scheme is that it utilizes the
must be large enough compared to the size of the virtual path (VP) concept. It builds a "backup" VP
radio cells which comprise the tree so that the rate of connection for each of the current VP connections.
connection tree handoff can be lowered to an In other words, if there are N VP connections, there
acceptable level and can be manageable by the call will be N "backup" VP connections. Whenever a
controller. (3) To prevent the connection of a mobile link or a node fails, all the affected virtual channels
situated at the boundary of two connection trees from (VCs) are being rerouted to the "backup" VP.
oscillating between the two, connection trees would Moreover, this scheme emphasizes that it uses a
overlap in space (i.e., some base stations might simple and fast protocol so that the handoff
belong to two trees). (4) Not efficient in terms of procedure can be completed rapidly.
network resource consumption.
However, the disadvantages of this scheme include:
The solutions to its weak points can be done by using (1) It may use up to two times of the normal
admission control to limit the number of in-progress bandwidth, where half of them is in idle state. (2) It
calls such that two new quality of service metrics does say that the "backup" VPs can be allocated
(overload probability and average time in overload) with no bandwidth. However, in this case, it is not
can be kept suitably low. guaranteed that all VC connections established on
the faulty VP can be accommodated by the backup
(2) S.K.Biswas-A.Hopper [38] VP. (3) It makes an assumption that the SVC
(Signalling VC) in the backup VP will be alive as
This scheme uses the concept of "mobile long as the backup VP is.
representative", a software agent, to hide user
mobility from the non-mobile network entities. Any (Note*: The advantages of using virtual path (VP)
application, interested in a transaction with the are: (1) Only a small number of nodes along the
mobile user, contacts its representative. Hence this route of a VC are involved in the VC Setup
requires a representative to keep up-to-date location Protocol, thus reducing the processing load at
information about its client mobile user. When the network nodes and expedites the VC Setup
mobile user relocates itself from one base station to Protocol; (2) It reduces the processing of cells and
another, only the parts of the connection from the the size of the high-speed routing tables in the
mobile user to its representative are affected. The rest network nodes; (3) It also simplifies network
of the connection remains unaltered, as long as the architecture and management as well as facilitating
representative remains stationary. It also proposed dynamic control of bandwidth allocation; (4) It can
that the handoff latency and resource consumption increase survivability of VC connections. More
are dealt with by a connection caching scheme where specific advantages are explained in [40,41,42])
the necessary connection segments are created before
an actual handoff takes place. (4) S.Seshan, H.Balakrishnan, R.H.Katz [43]

The main disadvantage of this scheme is the This scheme is a multicast-based and buffering-
placement and mobility of the representatives, which based handoff scheme. It predicts a handoff by
are two crucial design decisions. Solutions to these measuring the strengths of received signal and
problems can be categorizes into three kinds of multicasts data to the nearby base stations in
methods: (1) The representative process is advance. On the other hand, the neighboring base
implemented on a fixed network entity, which is stations are forced to buffer the most recently
expected to stay close to the client mobile user; (2) received packets. This obligation of base stations
the representative follows its client mobile user and eliminates data loss without the use of explicit data
usually resides within its geographically nearest forwarding. The main advantages of this scheme
possible stationary entity; (3) The representative is are: (1) Completely eliminates data loss. (2)

12
Negligible latency during handoff: 8 to 15 ms, which the rerouting functions must be distributed
causes applications such as real-time video playback frequently. SRMC uses the concept of a tethered
and higher-level protocols such as TCP to notice a point (TP) to serve as the root in the connection tree
little or no degradation in performance. for handoff. When a connection is first being
established, all potential network routes from the TP
(5) Nearest Common Node Rerouting (NCNR) to the leaves due to possible handoff attempts are
[44] recognized by the network, and these connections
are pre-established (But no resources are reserved).
In this scheme, it attempts to perform the rerouting Once the handoff is initiated, only the resources for
for a handoff at the closest ATM network node that is the active handoff connection are reserved.
common to both wireless cells (which is similar to
the concept of "connection tree" in VCT.) involved in However, in this scheme, resource allocation must
the handoff transaction. NCNR seems better than be performed before the actual rerouting is
VCT for the reason that it do not need to reserve completed. Since the root node has to be involved in
multiple virtual circuits at a given time to support a all handoff attempts, even an attempt between
single connection. Therefore, its advantages are: (1) neighboring nodes is managed through the root
NCNR minimizes the resources required for node, which is the worst case in NCNR algorithm in
rerouting and conserves network bandwidth by terms of the number of signalling messages. SRMC
eliminating unnecessary connections. (2) It uses two uses the centralized intelligent network (IN) concept
different procedures to handle two kinds of traffic: for predetermining the possible routes that may be
time-sensitive (delay-sensitive) and loss-sensitive involved in a handoff. Therefore, when a user does
(cell loss). (3) When a user who is trying to select the not perform a handoff, all the overhead of
optimal link is in a fading environment, a small calculating these possible routes is wasted.
motion of the terminal may cause the radio link to Moreover, it is designed for hierarchical network
switch back and forth between the two radio ports and thus is not effective in a flat network.
involved in the handoff. Hence, it proposed a idea of
setting up a point-to-multipoint link from the anchor (9) Toh's Hybrid Handoff Protocol [47]
to the old and new switches, thus ensuring timely
delivery of time-sensitive traffic. (4) For loss- This scheme is similar to NCNR but it is a hybrid
sensitive traffic handoff, data are buffered in either handoff scheme implemented for Wireless LAN. It
the old switch or the terminal. (5) Cell sequence is is called “hybrid” because it is based on the
preserved. incremental re-establishment scheme and the
concept of crossover switch. Moreover, in order to
(7) BAHAMA Rerouting Scheme [45] cater for both high and low mobility of a MH, and
BAHAMA is a handoff scheme proposed for wireless by using the advantage of locality, this scheme
ATM local area network. It uses the virtual path divides the whole network into a set of clusters,
indicator of the ATM cell header for routing, which where each cluster contains several cells.
can simplify the rerouting since all that needs to be
changed in the cell header is the virtual path indicator Therefore, by using the incremental rerouting
provided that the virtual connection indicator is scheme and concept of crossover switch, it can
available at the new radio port. Moreover it uses the support fast, efficient and continuous handoff.
initial radio port as an anchor for the handoff Moreover, it also uses the radio hint to trigger the
connection and forwards the user cells to the new handoff earlier.
radio port, thus preserving the cell sequence.
E. Rerouting Schemes Design Issues
However, since it doesn't support a user connection
through two radio ports while the handoff stabilizes, We highlight in this section the important issues to
it may ultimately cause a problem for time-sensitive be considered in designing a low latency, efficient
traffic streams. Moreover the concept of using virtual and robust rerouting scheme [50, 51]
path indicators for routing sounds suitable in wireless
LAN while it may not scale well for WANs. (1). Minimizing the disruption time:
Disruption means how long the data transmission is
(8) Source Routing Mobile Circuit Rerouting held during the procedure of handoff. It mainly
(SRMC) [46] depends on how complex the signaling protocol is.
In Extension scheme, for example, its handoff
It is an improvement approach of VCT rerouting in signaling protocol is so simple that it is the best
that it doesn't reserve bandwidth in the connection candidate for time-sensitive application.
tree until the actual rerouting is performed. However,

13
(2) Maintaining an efficient route: keep track of the strength of signals sent by the
An efficient route stands for the most suitable route mobile host.
for communication, which does not mean the optimal
path. If, in Extension scheme for example, the (7) Consideration for data looping:
extension of one segment of route adds only an Since a mobile host may abruptly move between
insignificant transmission delay in the whole path, its base stations, looping can occurs when a mobile
efficiency is still better than the Reestablishment host enters a new wireless cell but suddenly
scheme, in which the time spent in calculating a new withdraws, and re-enters the old wireless cell. We
path is significant compared with that of Extension must consider this issue if our rerouting scheme
scheme. uses the data forwarding method, in which a data
looping cycle may arise.
(3) Guaranteeing QoS:
It is clear that a rerouting scheme must be able to (8) Scalable:
support QoS requirements of the communication A handoff scheme must be scalable to the number of
entities that are involved in the handoff procedure. mobile connections and MHs. In general, it should
Therefore, we should consider the following support, as many handoff requests as possible
questions. (I) Should QoS re-negotiation be allowed without consuming excessive resources, like
during handoff? Because of the different bandwidth and buffers.
communication attributes of the new base station, the
QoS requirement may not be able to meet. (II) What
QoS requirements should be used as the beginning F. Soft Handoff
parameters for the re-negotiation? (III) What are the
factors that cause QoS adjustments? (IV) QoS should The handoff procedure includes actions in two
be consistent along the whole path of communication levels: media level and network level. The media
(wireless and wired). level handoff is the actual transfer of the radio
connection between two base stations. The network
(4) Minimizing overhead or waste of network level handoff is to support the media level handoff
resource: by performing packet buffering and rerouting. The
This issue must be considered because of the handoff algorithms discussed so far are all network
limitations of network resource. It includes not only level rerouting. They are called "hard handoff"
minimizing overhead or waste of network resource because they cut the old radio connection before
but also the data update rates in switches due to building a new one. These kinds of “break-before-
rerouting: The more complex a rerouting scheme is, make” process have some potential problems. For
the greater overhead it imposes in the network. example, when the mobile terminal is in a region of
Therefore, one should be careful if he/she applies the deep fading, there is a possibility of information
Multicast strategize in his/her rerouting scheme. loss and poor QoS. Furthermore, with hard handoff,
the old base station needs to forward buffered
(5) Exploitation of all information: packets to the new base station. The communication
We describe this issue because the more information link to the new base station can be set up only after
about the handoff we can exploit or discover, the less the packet forwarding in order to avoid packet
complex our rerouting scheme is and the less misrouting and disordering. Due to the mismatch
overhead our rerouting scheme generates. For between the high transmission rate over wired links
example, we can exploit the advantage of “Radio and low rate over wireless links, the number off the
Hint” (We will describe later.) to trigger the handoff buffered packets can be large, causing a long
earlier, thereby reducing the latency of handoff. handoff delay and may resulting in packet loss.
Other method for predicting handoff is to estimate Also, if the number of mobile terminals roaming
the moving pattern of a mobile host. between radio cells is large, it is possible that the
required link bandwidth will exceed the capacity of
(6) Cell loss and sequencing: the links between base stations.
After a handoff, all cells will be transported to the
mobile host over the new path. However, some cells, Cooperation between network level and media level
which are transported over the old path, may arrive are helpful to solve these problems. The so-called
later than those new cells. In this case, we must "soft handoff" scheme [36] doesn't cut the
consider of the cell sequencing. On the other hand, connection with the old base station. On the
data may lose if the mobile host entered to a new contrary, the mobile terminal keeps communication
wireless cell and before the old base station knows with B (>1) base stations simultaneously during
about the handoff. Therefore, base station should each handoff. Each base station makes decision on
the transmitted data symbols based on its own

14
received signal and estimates the signal-to-noise ratio Application QoS adaptation includes bandwidth
(SNR) of the signal. Among the base stations, only and delay adaptation. Bandwidth adaptation refers
the detected packets from the base station with the to allow the application to adapt to variations in the
highest SNR channel are used. Moreover, the available network bandwidth. An example is when
receiver at the mobile terminal can be implemented a mobile host moves from one cell to another cell,
for achieving the maximum diversity reception gain the application may have to scale down their QoS
by synchronizing the signals from B base stations. requirements without being forced to terminate.
According to [37], comparing with hard handoff, soft Delay adaptation for multi-media applications is
handoff can increase the capacity of a heavily loaded possible provided that the delay is reasonably
system by more than two times and double the stable. A tradeoff can be made for greater roaming
coverage area of each cell. capability and flexibility without being forced to
terminate frequently.

B. Network QoS Adaptation


IV. Adaptive QoS for WATM Network adaptation involves two elements (a)
M-QoS re-evaluation and (b) M-QoS end-to-end
refresh. The M-QoS re-evaluation governs the
In wireless-based networks, admission control is decision of upgrading or downgrading an existing
required to reserve resources in advance for calls connection QoS while the M-QoS end-to-end
required guaranteed services. The negotiated QoS refresh process is neccessary to resolve the QoS
requirements constitute a certain QoS level that inconsistencies over both the wired and wireless
remains fixed during the call (static resource links after a handoff. During handoff, if the new
allocation). In adaptive resource allocation algorithm, base station is capable of supporting wireless QoS
the admitted call will require a range of acceptable and handoff QoS, M-QoS adaptation is not
QoS levels (low, medium and high) instead of just a necessary. Otherwise Mobile QoS degradation is
single one. As availability of resources in the employed to reduce the blocking probability due to
wireless network varies, the adaptive algorithm the available QoS is insufficient to fulfill M-QoS
selects the best possible QoS it can obtain. In case of requirement. However, the M-QoS upgrade is to
congestion, the algorithm attempts to free up some exploit the availability of abundant resourses at a
resources by degrading the QoS levels of the existing new location.
calls to lesser ones.
In [55], adaptive QoS is discussed as following:
In [53], end-to-end QoS adaptation is discussed: due to user mobility and bursty channel errors, the
Mobile and wireless networks may suffer from link capacity and reliability may dramatically vary
temporary channel fading and high bit error rate over short time scales. In this scenario, it is very
which make it very hard to predict the behavior of difficult to guarantee the QoS negotiated at call set-
the wireless transmission channel over a prolonged up. The efficiency of an adaptive QoS paradigm is
period. Therefore, resource reservation in the examined in this paper within an algorithmic
wireless part can never guarantee unconditional and framework conceived for admission control of
hard availability of negotiated QoS. The adaptive multimedia calls and dynamic radio resource
resource management is based on the following management.
framework:
 At call setup, applications negotiate the end- In [56], a combination of adaptive resource
to-end QoS with the network. allocation and call admission control is proposed for
 During the connection lifetime, resources better performance, where QoS levels are divided
are fairly managed among adaptable flows. into different ranges. It assigns the sources to the
links proportional to the resource availability so as
In [54], end-to-end QoS adaptation is used to to reduce congestion on heavily used links, and
resolve QoS inconsistencies as a result of mobile thereby reducing the chance of call failure and
handoffs in Wireless ATM networks. There are two handoff failure.
forms of adaptation: (a) application and (b) network
QoS adaptation. The former is concerned with
bandwidth; delay variation and packet loss adaptation
by the mobile application while the latter refers to M- V. QoS of AD HOC NETWORK
QoS fulfillment, upgrade and downgrade.

A. Application QoS Adaptation A. Ad Hoc Network

15
Large-scale wireless networks of deeply channel access mechanism is desired. “Hidden
distributed sensors with sensing, actuation and terminal problem” needs to properly addressed. The
communication capabilities have been under MAC can be either synchronous or asynchronous.
intensive research during recent years. Such a In synchronous MAC, global time information is
dynamic information collection and control system needed while in asynchronous there is more
heavily relies on multi-hop mobile architectures. Its contention. There are many MAC methods such as
extreme flexibility and environment awareness will TDMA/FDMA and CDMA. For an ad hoc network
allow incremental deployment in a variety of with no use of base station, centralized control
scenarios: hospital, school, warehouse, battlefield, should be totally avoided. But purely distributed
and metropolitan area, etc. MAC with no coordination will results in high
The term multi-hop radio network refers to a collision rate, thus degrades system performance,
network in which two radios exchange packets either and increase energy consumption, since more
directly or through intermediate nodes. Every node in retransmission has to be engaged. The goal of the
such a network is potentially an information source, design of MAC for ad hoc network is to achieve an
sink, as well as router. Examples of these kinds of optimal point for minimum signaling overhead and
network include SCADDS in USC/ISI, Uamps at minimum collision rate [13].
MIT, Social Insects at MIT media lab, and PicoNode
project in Berkeley Wireless Research Center.
VI. CONCLUSIONS
B. QoS for Ad Hoc Network

Ad Hoc wireless ATM is different from Wireless In this paper, we give a thorough review on existing
last-hop architecture ATM where the backbone strategies for implementing QoS on mobile WATM
network is essentially fixed. In Ad Hoc wireless network.
ATM, the network elements themselves are entirely
wireless. The QoS issues in Ad Hoc Wireless ATM A. QoS through MAC: Fixed assignment methods
are addressed in the following aspects: (a) connection such as TDMA and FDMA techniques are not
management, (b) location management, (c) handoff suitable for WATM because they are not efficient in
management, and (d) routing and (e) media access terms of bandwidth utilization. But some extension
control technique. of TDMA can be used in WATM with certain QoS
support capability. CDMA may be regarded as a
Ad Hoc Wireless ATM connection management combination of fixed and random assignment
Each node has to ensure that QoS requirements scheme. Although it can provide high bandwidth
can be supported through the lifetime of mobile efficiency, it requires more complexity in the base
connection. There are two kinds of management stations and suffers from power control problem and
scheme: distributed algorithm and centralized peak bit rate limitations. ALOHA and CSMA are
algorithm. For distributed algorithm, each node will random methods. This type of protocol is not
have to maintain call state information and perform appropriate for WATM since it cannot provide
call admission control. In the centralized algorithm, guaranteed service but cause significant bandwidth
one node acts as connection management server but wastage due to access contentions. Multiple access
this algorithm has poor scalability. based on demand assignment method is attractive
for WATM because they can provide bandwidth-on-
Ad Hoc wireless ATM location management demand services.
In Ad Hoc wireless ATM, unlike last-hop wireless While most previous studies on MAC protocol
ATM, a mobile node refers to both the mobile end focus on error free assumption, this assumption is
systems and also a switching/intermediate node. The not true for wireless communication. Thereby, MAC
visiting and home location severs may not work well design should be coupled with an error control
for Ad Hoc wireless ATM. method (channel interleaving, FEC and ARQ) to get
better performance.
Ad Hoc wireless Handoff management It can be seen that some kind of combination of
Path extension may not work in Ad Hoc ATM for those techniques may be an appropriate strategy for
the base station themselves are mobile. In order to the MAC of WATM.
support required QoS, VP/VC rerouting may be
necessary. B. QoS through Routing: The problems incurred
during handoff, like disruption, cell loss and
MAC in Ad Hoc wireless ATM signaling overhead will have a significant impact on
To assure QoS in Ad Hoc wireless ATM, a more the user-perceived quality of service (QoS). Many
deterministic and controlled but yet distributed approaches have been proposed to solve this

16
problem. Therefore, a thorough study of presented common control channel, dynamic code assignment
rerouting protocols is a must in providing QoS can be used to support mobility as well as
guarantee in WATM. In Section 3, by a meticulous environment information to upper layer for the
study of present rerouting schemes, we find that, in purpose of optimization, etc. TDMA can be used to
general, all rerouting schemes can be classified into coordinate the transmission of CDMA-based mobile
several classes, which is shown in Figure 3-2. An terminal. (2) Complicated rerouting schemes can be
analysis of some typical proposed rerouting schemes applied. Some schemes are good for small handoff
is also given. With this result, we provide some delay. Others provide optimal paths. Complicated
rerouting scheme design issues. schemes may be designed to make good use of the
advantage of them by combing the basic schemes.
For example, a scheme can use path extension to
C. QoS Adaptation: Mobile and wireless networks guarantee small handoff delay while use dynamic
may suffer from temporary channel fading and high rerouting to get optimal path after the buffered cells
bit error rate which make it very hard to predict the being forwarded. (3) QoS adaptation technique can
behavior of the wireless transmission channel over a be further incorporated into future WATM system to
prolonged period. Therefore, resource reservation in provide additional QoS support.
the wireless part can never guarantee unconditional
and hard availability of negotiated QoS. The adaptive
resource management can be used on the following
framework to achieve better performance: ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
 At call setup, applications negotiate the end-to-
end QoS with the network We want to express our sincere appreciation to Prof.
 During the connection lifetime, resources are Jean Walrand for his fruitful discussion and
fairly managed among adaptable flows. comments.
This adaptation technique can be incorporated into
future WATM system to provide additional QoS
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