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TERMINOLOGY OF THE HUMID

AIR DIAGRAM

BELOW THE DEFINITIONS OF THE TERMS USED IN A HUMID AIR DIAGRAM :


TERM SYMBOL DEFINITION
Volume mass ρ Mass of humid air volume unit (in kg of humid air / m3 of humid air)
Volume of humid air that contains the dry air mass unit (in m3 of humid air / kg of dry
Specific volume v’
air)
Absolute humidity w Mass of water vapour in the dry air mass unit (in kg of water / kg of dry air)
Temperature that generates water droplets during cooling at constant pressure:
H The humid air is "saturated"
Dew temperature tr
H It has a partial pressure of water vapour Pg
H The saturating vapour pressure of the water vapour is Pg
Ratio between partial water vapour pressure contained in the air and partial pressure
saturation at the same temperature : ε = Pg
P s (t )
(value directly linked to the impression of being in
dry or humid air environment)
Relative humidity or
ratio of hygrometry ε Important:
The relative humidity and the percentage of humidity µ must not be mixed up. This is
the ratio between absolute humidity w and absolute humidity ws at the same temperature
but for a partial pressure equal to the saturated vapour pressure : W
µ=
Ws
In fact, at "air conditioning" temperatures these two values are the same.
Value given by a dry−bulb thermometer, protected from environmental radiation (air
Dry temperature t
speed: 2 m/s)
Value given by a wet−bulb thermometer, protected from environmental radiation (air
Wet temperature t’
speed: 2 m/s)
Does not appear in the diagram but is used for calculations
Concerns the following types of heat:
H Specific dry air heat, at constant pressure:
Specific heat 1.0065 kJ / kg of dry air / °K
cs
or mass heat H Specific water vapour heat:
1.883 kJ / kg of water / °K
H Latent heat of water evaporation:
2500 kJ / kg of water
Quantity of energy necessary to:
H Increase or decrease the dry air temperature
H Decrease or increase the water vapour content
Enthalpy q’ is equal to 1 kg of dry air enthalpy qa associated to w kg of water vapour
enthalpy qg q’=qa+qg
The arbitrary origin values are:
H Air mass enthalpy at 0°C: q°a=0
H Liquid water mass enthalpy at 0°C: q°e=0
H 1 kg dry air enthalpy: (1.0065 x t) in kJ / kg of dry air
Enthalpy difference i or q’ H 1 kg water vapour enthalpy: (1.883 x t + 2500) in kJ / kg dry air
H Enthalpy of the mix: q’ in kJ / kg dry air = (1.0065 t) + w (1.883 t + 2500)
Example of calculation:
For an air with the following characteristics:
H Temperature: +25°C
H Relative humidity: 50 %
H Absolute humidity: w = 0.010 kg
H Enthalpy red on the diagram: i [ 50.2 kJ / kg
Write the formula this way:
q’ = (1.0065 x 25) + 0.010 [(1.883 x 25) + 2500] = 50.63 kJ / kg

602 AIR CONDITIONING - HEATING - REFRIGERATION - AIR HANDLING - HEAT EXCHANGE - NA 08.01 A
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Over 70 2300 employees 9 sites around 130 product ranges


countries the world

-100000
-50000

-30000

-20000

-15000

-10000

-7500

-6000

-5000

-4000

-3000

00
-250

-200

00
-15

0
-10

-50

0
0,975

0
25
0,970

0,965

50

0
0,960

75
0,955
00

0,950
v'

0,945
10

0,940

0,935

0,930
0,029
0,030

0,028

0,027

0,026

0,025

0,024

0,023

0,022

0,021

0,020

0,019

0,018

0,017

0,016
w

0,015

0,014

0,013

0,012

0,011

0,010
55

0,009

0,008

0,007

0,006

0,005

0,004

0,003

0,002

0,001

0,000
00
11

54

0,930
54 55˚C
CIAT: welcome to the world of sustainable solutions

53
135

52
00

53
12

51

52

0,920
50

49 50˚C 51
00

59
13

48
130

0,910
48
47
00
14

47
46

44 45˚C 46
45
44

0,900
00

Sustainable solutions for your customers, today and for future generations
15

43
125

43
42
00

42
16
The world is changing. Protecting the environment and using energy

41

0,890
39 40˚C 41
wisely are part of our daily life. It’s time to back up our words with actions.

40

10
ε=
Today we must design living and working spaces that are cost-effective,

39
00
17
safe, comfortable and sustainable.

120

38

38

0,880
37

37
Throughout its 75-year history, CIAT has been imagining, developing and 180
0

36

36
manufacturing heating, cooling and air handling solutions for its

35

35
customers. In recent years these solutions have become decisively

20

0,870
34

34
ε=
sustainable. 0

115
190

33

33
Sustainable because they guarantee your customers exceptionally low

32

32
consumption levels with very high performance. Sustainable because our

30

29 30˚C 31
equipment is designed to have a minimal ecological impact throughout its
0

ε=
200

0,860
entire life cycle, from design to final dismantling. Sustainable because we

30
guide you through the inevitable changes that your activity faces.

110

40

28
Sustainable because our industrial success proves that our solutions are

ε=
2100

0,850
75 years in advance.

27
24 25˚C 26
50
5
10

ε=
2200

25
00 1
q' 60

ε=

0,840
95

23
2300
90 70

22
=
ε
80

21
85
ε=

0,830
20
2400

20
80 90
ε=

19
(kg/kg) Absolute humidity, mass of humidity per unit mass of dry air
75 00 1

18
ε=

Enthalpy of humid air containing the unit mass of dry air


70

17
2500

Volume of humid air containing the unit mass of dry air.

0,820
14 15˚C 16
65

60

15
2600

The CIAT Group: a European leader on an international scale 55

0,810
13
50
As France’s leading manufacturer in the field of heating by heat

12
2700

pumps, air conditioning, air handling and heat exchange, the CIAT
45

10˚C 11
Variation rate of q' over the variation of w
Group is a major player in Europe’s HVAC market. We draw our

10

0,800
strength from our nine production sites and our vast complex in

9
2800

France’s Rhône-Alpes region from which we diffuse universal comfort

8
throughout the world. The CIAT Group and its 2300 employees build

7
this success on the technological excellence of its products and expert 2900

0,790
6
Dry temperature or humid air
advice.

5˚C
5
Humid air diagram
40

4
0
300
35

0,780
Humid temperature
Condensation point

2
30

Relative humidity

1
25 0
310

0˚C
0

-1

0,770
-2
0
320
Headquarters - Culoz - France

Δ q'
Δw

-3
-4

0,760
-5˚C
00

-5
γ:
33
20

-6
(kcal/kg)
15

-7
(m3/kg)
(kg/kg)
00
34

-8
10

0,750
(˚C)

(˚C)
(˚C)
(%)

-9
5

- 10
- 10
00

v'
q'
w

v'
35

tr

t'
ε
0

t
t
-5
CIATESA - Montilla - Spain
-10 00
36

γ
00
00
00
00

0
00

00
00 00

00
00
0

00
00

0
000
0
0
0
7500

0
8000
9000
11000

10000
12500
30000
20000

15000
17500
50000
100000

560

39
37

20

40
41
580
650
700

43

42
38

45

44
46
50

48
54

5
6