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Assignment name: Assignment 3

Student name: Nguyen Trung Duc Anh

Student ID:

Tutor: Le Van Thuan


Introduction
In work, life, we cannot lack relationships to support each other. Especially for those who work
in the service sector such as the Restaurant - Hotel industry, the skill of building relationships is
very important. Because it will be a network of potential customers or partners. When applying
for a job or an official job, we often hear about Networking skills.
Networking is considered an important factor that leads you to success. Today, we live in a
mechanism of interconnected relationships, who you know, who knows you ... In both work and
life, there will be times when you get stuck, Unexpected problems or need support from
someone, you need to have Networking skills.

I. Examine networking principles and their protocols


1. Constrain of different network types and Discuss the benefits and c standards.
- A group of computers and peripherals connected to each other through transmission
media is made up of a computer network. So what types of computer networks are there
today? We will introduce you the current computer networks.

- How to classify computer networks

- Types of computer networks are categorized together based on the scope of the
connection. Here are 3 popular computer networks today.

A. Local area network – LAN

LAN is a network system used to connect computers in a small area (housing, office, school, ...).
Computers on the LAN can share resources with each other, typically sharing files, printers,
scanners and some other devices.

+ LAN - Local Area Network: is a group of computers and communication devices connected
together in a certain small space. For example, a whole house, once a recreational area or a
school area.

* Features of LAN
+ Large bandwidth, running online applications.
+ Connected to each other via the network
+ Network is limited by device
+ Limited connection range
+ Low cost Simple LAN management
1. LAN network

B. Wide area network – WAN

 WAN is a data network designed to connect urban networks (MAN networks) between
geographic areas far away from each other. In terms of geographical scale, the GAN
(global area network) network is the largest, then WAN and LAN.
+ WAN has some of the following characteristics:
+ WAN is used to connect the devices that are separated by large geographies.
+ WAN uses the services of companies providing services, for example: Regional Bell Operating
Conpanies (RBOCs), Sprint, MCI, VPM internet servies, Inc., Altantes.net ...
+ WAN uses various types of serial links.
+ WAN has some different points with LAN. For example, LAN is used to connect individual
computers, peripherals, terminals and other devices in a building or a small geographical area.
Meanwhile WAN is used to connect its branches, so that information is easily exchanged
between centers.
+ WAN operates primarily in the Physical layer and OSI Model data link layer. WAN connects
LANs together. Therefore, WAN performs packet switching between routers, switches and the
LANs it connects to.

* Devices used in WAN: Router: provides many different services, including Internet and WAN
communications. The type of switch used in WAN provides connectivity for video and data
voice communications. Modem: includes: communication with voice communication service;
CSU / DSU (Chanel service units / Digital service units) to communicate with T1 / E1 services;
TA / NT1 (Terminal Adapters / Network Terminal 1) to communicate with ISDN (Integrate
Services Digital Network) service. Server communication: focus on handling user calls. Layer
protocols WAN data link describes how data packets are transported between systems on a data
link, these protocols are designed for point-switching services- point-to-point, multi-point, multi.

2. WAN network

C. Metropolitan area network – MAN


MAN (metropolitan area network) is a broadband data network designed for the scope of cities
and towns. The distance is usually less than 100 km.

MAN network has the following characteristics:


- Bandwidth is moderate, enough to serve city or national level applications such as e-
government, e-commerce, banking applications ...
- Because MAN connects multiple LANs, the administration will be more difficult and the
complexity will increase.
- The cost of MAN equipment is relatively expensive.
* Foundation technologies
- Some previous technologies are used for MAN networks such as ATM technology, FDDI,
DQDB and SMDS technology. Currently, these technologies are being replaced by Ethernet
technology, and MAN networks based on Ethernet technology are also known as Metro Ethernet
(ME) networks. ME networks are defined and developed by MEF and ITU-T G.8261.
* Application
- The MAN network has been able to meet the increasing demand for exchanging data between
the internal network and the external network (Internet access, database access, branch office
connection ...):
- The MAN network application connects different Access networks (LAN / WLAN, CATV,
xDSL, 2G / 3G ... with Core network): An example is MAN Network built on cable TV
infrastructure: Some other applications.

3. MAN network.
* Network standards:
- Introduction to Network Standards Network architectures are defined by exact and
detailed specification regarding the physical layout, cabling and methods used to access and
maintain communications in and between network media. The Institute of Electrical and
Electronic Engineer (IEEE), is one international organization responsible for developing and
providing networking technology specification for worldwide usage. We call these
networking technology specification as network standards.
- Common Network Standards Network communication use a The well known standards
variety of standards to adopted by the IEEE are the ensure that data travels 802 standards.
These physical correctly to its destination. cabling and specify the way data is transmitted.
Network standards define guideline that specify the way The ones we will get to know
computers access the medium here are: to which they are attached. i. 802.3 ii. 802.7 The
guideline also describe iii. 802.8 the type of medium used, the iv. 802.11 speeds used on
different type of physical cable or wireless technology used.
- 802. 3 Ethernet LAN It is the standard for an Ethernet LAN. In 802.3, Ethernet refers to
the physical cabling, while the way data is transmitted through the cable is called Carrier
Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection (CSMA/CD). This method of transmission
requires that only one device on the network can be transmitted at a time. If another device
can sense that a transmission is already in the cable, it will have to wait.
- 802.7 Broadband LAN It is the standard specification for a Broadband LAN. This 802.7
standard provides specifications for the design, installation and testing needed for broadband
transmission. Broadband transmission allow simultaneous multiple transmission or signal
using different communications channels at the same time.
- 802.8 Fibre-Optic LAN and MAN Specification for Fibre- Optic LAN and MAN are
given under the 802.8 standard. This standard gives the recommendation for the
configuration and testing of fibre-optic Local Area Network and Metropolitan Area
Networks
- 802.11 Wireless LAN This standard defines communication between a wireless
computer or client and an access point or between two wireless computers or clients. The
802.11 standard uses the 2.4GHz frequency band to transmit data up to 2Mbps.
II. Explain the impact of network topology, communication and bandwidth requirements.
A. Explain the impact of network topology:
* Network topology is the arrangement of different elements (links, network nodes, etc.) of a
computer network. Mostly, it is the topological structure of a computer network, and can be
described in terms of physics and logic. The physical topology (physical topology) is the
arrangement of various network components, including the device storage and installation of the
connecting cable, while the logical topology (logical topology) indicates how data flows in the
network. The distance between network nodes, physical delivery points, transmission rates, and /
or signal types may vary between the two networks, although their topological structure may be
identical.

1.Star network
Star network is one of the most popular intranet models today. The Star LAN network has a
recognizable feature, in which the central role device is the packet or routing transmission
devices such as Switch or Router.

Compared to other traditional network models, star-shaped networks have the advantage of
transmission speeds. The ability to repair is also relatively easy, every time Lan has a star, the
network has a problem. For each network node in a star-shaped network topology, the
administrator only needs to replace the device at the location where the machine is damaged
without affecting other machines in the network. For example, if machine A breaks the network
cable, you can unplug and replace network cable A at the location of the router's connection port,
all other devices are still operating normally.
Star network is increasingly popular and become the top choice in businesses, organizations,
schools, game rooms ... with a range of up to 100m. In addition, this star topology model can
also be expanded or collapsed easily and flexibly. Expanded, we will have the Internet
connecting the world.
a. Star network
 Ring network
A ring network is a network topology in which each node connects to exactly two other
nodes, forming a single continuous pathway for signals through each node - a ring. Data
travels from node to node, with each node along the way handling every packet.

b. Ring network.
 Mesh topology
+ A mesh network (or simply meshnet) is a local network topology in which the
infrastructure nodes (i.e. bridges, switches and other infrastructure devices) connect directly,
dynamically and non-hierarchically to as many other nodes as possible and cooperate with one
another to efficiently route data from/to clients. This lack of dependency on one node allows for
every node to participate in the relay of information. Mesh networks dynamically self-organize
and self-configure, which can reduce installation overhead. The ability to self-configure enables
dynamic distribution of workloads, particularly in the event that a few nodes should fail. This in
turn contributes to fault-tolerance and reduced maintenance costs.
+ Mesh topology may be contrasted with conventional star/tree local network topologies in
which the bridges/switches are directly linked to only a small subset of other bridges/switches,
and the links between these infrastructure neighbours are hierarchical. While star-and-tree
topologies are very well established, highly standardized and vendor-neutral, vendors of mesh
network devices have not yet all agreed on common standards, and interoperability between
devices from different vendors is not yet assured.

c. Mesh topology
 Linear bus topology

If the layout of the road corridors is like the figure, the server (host) as well as all other
computers (workstations) or nodes (nodes) are connected to each other on a main cable line to
transfer n signal. All nodes use this same main cable. The two ends of the cable are covered by a
device called a terminator. Signals and packets when moving up or down in cables carry the
address of the destination . - Advantages: o This type of network uses the least cable, easy to
install, thus saving installation costs - Defect: o There are disadvantages, however, that there will
be traffic congestion when moving data with large quantities. o When there is a failure in a
certain section, it is difficult to detect, a stop on the line to fix curing will stop the whole system.
d. Linear bus topology

II. Discuss the operating principles of networking devices and server types.
Network devices and components: NIC, switch, router, gateway:
 NIC (Network interface card)
A Network interface card (also known as a NIC, network card, or network interface
controller) is an electronic device that connects a computer to a computer network, usually a
LAN. It is considered a piece of computer hardware. Most modern computers support an
internal network interface controller embedded in the motherboard directly rather than
provided as an external component.
Network cards let a computer exchange data with a network. To achieve the connection,
network cards use a suitable protocol, for example CSMA/CD. Network cards usually
implement the first two layers of the OSI model, that is the physical layer, and the data link
layer. There are older network protocols such as ARCNET, introduced in 1977, LocalTalk or
Token Ring, but today, most network cards use Ethernet.
A network card, as it was common in the 1990s. This card was used for ethernet. It has both a
10Base2 connector for a coaxial cable and a 10BaseT connector for a twisted pair cable
Ethernet cards are available in several different standard packages called form factors that
have evolved over the last several generations of PC hardware:
In the 1990s and early 2000s, large Industry Standard Architecture cards were the first
standard for PCs. Computer owners had to open the computer's case to install the card.
Newer Ethernet cards installed inside desktop computers use the Peripheral Component
Interconnect standard and are usually installed by the manufacturer. These cards are still
common in desktop PCs, for computers whose motherboards do not contain an onboard
Ethernet port.
Smaller Personal Computer Memory Card International Association Ethernet cards that
resemble credit cards are readily available for laptop and other mobile computers. These
insert conveniently into slots on the side or front of the device. The PC Card is a common
PCMCIA device, although only certain PC Card and PCMCIA products support Ethernet. By
the early 2010s, however, fewer laptops supported the PCMCIA standard.
Though they look more like small boxes than cards, external USB Ethernet adapters also fill
a market niche. These devices are a convenient alternative to PCI cards for desktop
computers and they're also commonly used with video game consoles and other consumer
devices lacking PCMCIA slots.

e. Network Interface Card


 Switch:
- In a computer network, a switch is a device that creates a data transmission channel from
any input port to a specific output port to bring the data to the specified destination.

- In a local area network (LAN) using Ethernet, the switch determines the location of
sending each incoming frame message by viewing the physical device address (also
known as Media Access Control address or MAC address). Switches maintain tables that
match each MAC address with the port that the MAC address has received. If a frame is
forwarded to an unspecified MAC address to the switch system, it will flood all ports in
the area. Broadcast and multicast frames are also a flooded format. This phenomenon is
called BUM flooding - broadcast, unknown unicast, and multicast flooding. This is the
Layer 2 switch feature or the data-link layer device in the Open OS Interconnection (OSI)
communication model.

4. Switch
 Router:
+ A router is an important item that we use every day, but it's not always clear why it is
needed, except "to go online". This article I explain a little bit so that you can understand and
know why you need it, what it is used for, how to run.
What is the task of the router?
+ The router is responsible for connecting devices to each other in a network by sending data
packets between these devices. Data can be sent from one computer to another, between
multiple computers together, from one phone to another, or from a computer going to the
Internet. In other words, the router is like a traffic officer standing in the middle of the
intersection and controlling the lanes in the direction to prevent traffic jam from happening.
Each device in the network is assigned a unique IP address at a time (in other words, there
will be no two devices with the same IP in the same network at a time, otherwise a conflict
will occur) . The IP address helps the router know which device is the device and where it
will send the packet. IP is like your home address, must be the right address, the new package
is delivered to you, it will not go to the neighbor's house or be completely lost.
5. Router

 Gateway:
+ Gateway lets you join two types of protocols together. For example, if your network uses
IP protocol and someone's network uses IPX, Novell, DECnet, SNA ... or a protocol,
Gateway will switch from one protocol to another.

+ Through Gateway, computers in networks using different protocols can easily "talk" to each
other. Gateway not only distinguishes protocols but can also distinguish applications like how
you send e-mail from one network to another, switch a remote session ...

IV. Interdependencies of network system with hardware:


-Networking hardware, also known as network equipment or computer networking devices, are
physical devices which are required for communication and interaction between devices on
a computer network. Specifically, they mediate data in a computer network.[1] Units which are
the last receiver or generate data are called hosts or data terminal equipment.
-Networking devices may include gateways, routers, network bridges, modems, wireless access
points, networking cables, line drivers, switches, hubs, and repeaters; and may also include
hybrid network devices such as multilayer switches, protocol converters, bridge routers, proxy
servers, firewalls, network address translators, multiplexers, network interface
controllers, wireless network interface controllers, ISDN terminal adapters and other related
hardware.
+ The most common kind of networking hardware today is a copper-
based Ethernet adapter which is a standard inclusion on most modern computer
systems. Wireless networking has become increasingly popular, especially for portable and
handheld devices.
+ Other networking hardware used in computers includes data center equipment (such as file
servers, database servers and storage areas), network services (such as DNS, DHCP, email, etc.)
as well as devices which assure content delivery.
+ Taking a wider view, mobile phones, tablet computers and devices associated with the internet
of things may also be considered networking hardware. As technology advances and IP-based
networks are integrated into building infrastructure and household utilities, network hardware
will become an ambiguous term owing to the vastly increasing number of network capable
endpoints.
Conclusion
Networking is actually very simple, you're probably networking without even realizing it.
Networking appears in many forms, from meeting an old friend, coffee for a while to ask about
school work, or if the father of a buddy says a few words to the boss at the company about you,
to work Meet the upperclassmen who went to work to find out about a career ... There are many
ways to determine who we can networking: student associations, families, relatives, friends,
parents of friends, teachers in universities, former bosses, colleagues old, club members you join
...