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NCERT Solutions for Class 6th Social Science

History Chapter 6 Kingdoms, Kings and an Early


Republic
1. State whether true or false:
(a)‘Rajas’ who let the ‘ashvamedha’ horse pass through their lands were irwited to the sacrifice.
(b)The charioteer sprinkled sacred water on the king.
(c)Archaeologists have found palaces in the settlements of the ‘janapadas’.
(d)Pots to store grain were made out of Painted Grey Ware.
(e)Many cities in ‘mahajanapadas’ were fortified.
Ans. (a) .True (b) False (c) False (d) True (e) False.

2.Fill in the chart given below with the terms: hunter—gatherers, farmers, traders, crafts-persons,
herders. ‘

Ans: Hunter gatherers, farmers, traders, crafts-persons and herders—all paid taxes.
(i)Farmers—one-sixth of the produce.
(ii)Crafts-persons—in the form of labour.
(iii)Herders—in the form of animals and animal produce.
(iv)Traders—taxes on goods brought and sold.
(v)Hunter-gatherers—forest produce.

3. Who were the groups who could not participate in the assemblies of the ‘ganas’ ?
Ans: These groups of people were not allowed to participate in the assemblies of the ‘ganas’.
(i)Women (ii) ‘Dasas’ (iii) ‘Kammakaras’.

4.Why did the ‘rajas’ of ‘mahqjanapadas’ build forts?


Ans: The ‘rajas’ of ‘mahajanapadas’ built forts around their capital cities because probably the people were
afraid of attacks from other kings and needed protection. It is also possible that some ‘rajas’ wanted to
show that they were rich and powerful by building large, tall and impressive walls around cities. Moreover,
by fortifying, the land and its people could be controlled more easily.

5. In what ways are present-day elections different from the ways in which rulers were chosen in
‘janapadas’?
Ans: Choosing rulers in ‘janapadas’—Men were chosen ‘rajas’ by performing big sacrifices. The
‘ashvamedha’ (horse sacrifice) was one such ritual which was used to identify a ‘raja’. The ‘raja’ chosen by
this sacrifice was considered very powerful. Electing rulers today—Today, we have a democratic system of
government. Each citizen has a right to vote and the government is decided by elections in which each
citizen casts his vote.

6. Find the state in which you live in the political map on page 136. Were there any ‘janapadas’ in
your state ? If yes, name them. If not, name the janapadas’ that would have been the closest to your
state, and mention whether they were to the east, west, north or south.
Ans: The answer depends on the region you live in. Take the help of your teacher and the map given on
page 57 in the textbook to prepare your answer. However, a sample answer has been provided (using the
state Uttar Pradesh) – The ‘janapadas’ in the present-day Uttar Pradesh—Panchala, Kosala.

7. Find out whether any of the groups mentioned in answer 2 pay taxes to day.
Ans: Out of the groups mentioned in answer 2, those that pay taxes even today are traders

8. Find out whether the groups mentioned in answer 3 have voting rights at present.
Ans: Today, voting rights are not decided by gender or profession. Women, ‘khmmakaras’ and ‘dasas’—all
are entitled to vote today.

I.MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS


Choose the correct option to complete the statements given below:
(i)The ‘ashvamedha’ was the sacrifice of
(a)horse (b) cow
(c) bull (d) goat.
(ii) Which of these groups of people were not allowed to take part in the rituals after the
‘ashvamedha’ ?
(a) ‘Vish’/’Vaishya’ (b) Priests
(c) Women (d) ‘Shudras’.
(iii)The two words that constitute the word ‘janapada’ mean:
(a) woman and foot (b) citizens and foot
(c) men and hand (d) goats and ‘rajas’.
(iv) Which of these was usually fortified?
(i)all cities in ‘mahajanapadas’
(ii)all cities in ‘janapadas’
(iii)capital cities of ‘mahajanapadas’
(iv)the whole ‘mahajanapada’.
(v) One-sixth of the produce was taken as tax from
(a) farmers (b) hunter-gatherers
(c) crafts-persons (d) Traders.
(vi) The present name of Raj agriha is
(a) Rajgir (b) Rajmahal
(c) Rajgaon (d) Patna.
(vii) Alexander was a ruler who lived in
(a) Slovenia (b) Greece
(c) Rome (d) Macedonia.
(viii) At the banks of which river did Alexander’s troops stop?
(a) Indus (b) Ganga (c) Narmada (d) Beas.
(ix) Vajji had its capital city at
(a) Raj agriha (b) Vaishali
(c) Patna (d) Magadha.
Ans: (i)—(a), (ii)—(d), (iii)—(b), (iv)–(c), (v)—(a), (vi)—(a), (vii)—(d), (viii)—(d), (ix)—(b).

III.FILL IN THE BLANKS


Fill in the blanks with appropriate words to complete each sentence:
(i) Some changes took place in the ways of choosing new ‘rajas’ about………………….. years ago.
(ii) Purana Qila was a settlement in a ‘janapada’ and is now located in ………………………
(iii) Archaeologists have discovered that people in ‘janapadas’ lived in ……………………….
(iv) Painted Grey Ware is a type of…………………
(v) The taxes on crops were called ………………
(vi) Herders were supposed to pay taxes in the form of…………………….
(vii) ‘Kammakara’ was a word used for …………………
(viii) A ruler called……….. extended the control of Magadha up to the northwest part of the
subcontinent.
Ans. (i) 3000mNew Delhi (iii) huts (iv)potteiyr (v) ‘bhaga’ (vi)animals and animal produce (vii) landless
agricultural laburers (viii)Mahapadma Nanda.

III.TRUE/FALSE
State whether these sentences are true (‘I’) or false (F).
(i)The sprinkling of sacred water on the king was done by the ‘shudras’.
(ii)The word ‘janapada’ means the land where the ’jana’ has set its foot.
(iii)Capital cities were fortified with huge walls of wood, brick or stone.
(iv) The rulers of ‘mahajanapadas’ depended on occasional gifts brought by people,
(v) The rivers Narmada and Brahmaputra flowed through Magadha.
(vi) Alexander was the only person who conquered Magadha.
(vii) Both the Buddha and Mahavira belonged to ‘ganas’ or ‘sanghas’.
Ans. (i)—F, (ii)—T, (iii)—T, (iv)—F, (v)-F, (vi)—F, (vii)—T.

IV.MATCHING SKILL
Match the items in column A correctly with those given in column B,

V.VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


1. Name a ritual used to recognise someone as a ‘raja’.
Ans: ‘Ashvamedha’ was one ritual used to recognise kings.

2. Which category of people was excluded from the rituals?


Ans: The ‘shudras’ were excluded from rituals,
3. Name two ‘janapadas’ in North India.
Ans: Hastinapura and Atranjikhera.

4. How were cities fortified?


Ans: Cities were fortified by building huge walls of wood, brick or stone around them,

5. For what did rulers need taxes?


Ans: Rulers needed taxes to build huge forts and to maintain big armies,

6. Name tivo rivers that flowed through Magadha.


Ans. Ganga and Son were two rivers that flowed through Magadha.

7. Name some places conquered by Alexander.


Ans: Alexander conquered parts of Egypts and West Asia.

8. Which rulers conquered the last of the ‘ganas’ or ‘sanghas’?


Ans: The Gupta rulers conquered the last of the ‘ganas’ or ‘sanghas’.

VI.SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


1. Write a short note on the ‘ashvamedha’ ritual
Ans: The ‘ashvamedha’ (horse sacrifice) was a ritual used to recognise men as ‘rajas’. A horse was left to
wander freely. If it wandered into another kingdom and the king of that kingdom stopped it, they had to fight.
The ‘raja’ who succeeded in the challenge was recognised as stronger. He would then perform the
sacrifice, in which other kings would also come.

2. What were the different roles of different persons in the sacrifice? [V. Imp.]
Ans: The ‘raja’ was the central person in the sacrifice. He was given a special seat, like a throne. His
charioteer would tell others tales of the ‘rajas’ exploits. His wives and sons would perform several minor
rituals. Other ‘rajas’ would sit and watch. Priests sprinkled sacred water on the king. Ordinary people
brought gifts.

3. What is known about the ‘janapadas’ and their people?


Ans: Archaeologists have excavated a number of settlements in ‘janapadas’. They have found that people
lived in huts. The people kept cattle as well as other animals. They grew a variety of crops like rice, wheat,
barley, pulses, etc. They made earthen pots, some of which were grey in colour and some red.

4. Write a short note on the governance system in ‘ganas’ or ‘sanghas’? [V. Imp.]
Ans: In ‘ganas’ or ‘sanghas’, these were not one but many rulers. Even if there were several men together,
each was called a ‘raja’. They performed rituals together. They met in assemblies and took decisions.
Women, ‘dasas’ and ‘kammakaras’ were not allowed to participate in these assemblies.

VII.LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


1. What was an important features of capital cities of ‘mahqjanapadas’? Why were they fortified?
How were they fortified? [V. Imp.]
Ans: Capital cities of ‘mahajanapadas’ were mostly fortified by building huge walls of wood, brick or stone
around them. There were various reasons for building forts. They were probably built because people were
afraid of attacks from other kings and needed protection. Some rulers probably built forts to make their
cities impressive and to show how rich and powerful they were. Moreover, by making forts, controlling the
fortified area became easier for the kings.
Buildings forts required a great-deal of planning. Hundreds of thousands of brick or stone had to be
prepared. Enormous amount of labour and resources were required.

2. What changes took place in agriculture around this time? [V. Imp.]
Ans: There were two significant changes in agriculture around this time:
(i) Growing use of the iron ploughshares helped in yiedling a better grain produce. Heavy, clayey soil could
be turned over better with an iron ploughshare than with a wooden ploughshare.
(ii) People began transplanting paddy. This meant that instead of scattering seed on the ground, from which
plants would sprout, saplings were grown and then planted in the fields. Production developed due to this
since many plants survived.

VIII.MAP SKILLS
1. On an outline physical map of India, mark these ‘janapadas’ or ‘mahajanapadas’.
(i) Gandhara (ii) Kuru
(iii) Panchala (iv) Kosala
(v) Avanti (vi) Magadha
(vii) Anga (viii) Vajji.
Ans:
NCERT Solutions for Class 6th Social Science
History Chapter 7 New Questions and Ideas
1. Describe the ways in which the Buddha tried to spread his message to the people.
Ans: The Buddha preached about life being full of suffering and unhappiness. He spoke of ‘tanha’ the
desire to have more. He taught about ‘Karma’our actions which affect us in the current life and also in the
later lives. He taught people to be kind and to respect the lives of others. He used the language of the
ordinary people, Prakrit, to talk to them.

2. Write whether true or false:


(a)The Buddha encouraged animal sacrifices.
(b)Samath is important because it was the place where the Buddha taught for the first time.
(c)The Buddha taught that ‘Karma’ has no effect on our lives.
(d)The Buddha attained enlightenment at Bodh Gaya.
(e)Upanishadic thinkers believed that the ‘atman’ and ‘brahman’ were ultimately one.
Ans: (a) False, (b) True, (c) False, (d) True, (e) True.

3. What were the questions that Upanishadic thinkers wanted to answer?


Ans: Upanishadic thinkers wanted to know about life after death. Some wanted to know why sacrifices
should be preformed. They felt there had to be something permanent in the universe that lasted even after
death. Their ideas are recorded in the Upanishads.

4. What were the main teachings of the Mahavira?


Ans: Mahavira taught a simple doctrine: men and women who wish to know the truth must leave their
homes. Mahavira told them to follow ‘ahimsa’—not hurting any living being.

5. Why do you think Armgha’s mother wanted her to know the story of the Buddha?
Ans: Buddha was the founder of Buddhism and he was the Wise One. His stories could be inspirational
and motivational to students. So Anagha‘s mother wanted her to know his story.
6. Do you think it would have been easy for slaves to join the ‘sangha’? Give reasons for your
answer.
Ans: Slaves were allowed to join ‘sanghas’. Those who followed Buddhism did not believe in dividing the
society and Buddha taught that all humans are equal.

7. Make a List of at least five ideas and questions mentioned in this lesson. Choose three from the
List and discuss why you think they are important even today.
Ans: Ideas and questions mentioned in the lesson and their relevance today

 Life is full of suffering and unhappiness. It is due to our unfulfilled desires. This is true today since
most people are not satisfied with what they have. They resort to unfair means out of greed and end
up in suffering and trouble.
 Our actions (‘Karma’) affect us in our current life as well as next life.
 We should not hurt or kill any living being, according to Mahavira. This is important because every
living being has a desire to live.
 Thinkers wanted to know about life after death and they wanted to know why sacrifices should be
performed. Sacrifices are not justified since living being should be killed.
 Upanishadic thinkers also felt that something was permanent in the universe and it lasted even after
death.

8. Find out more about men and women who renounce the world today. Where do they live, what
kinds of clothes do they wear, what do they eat? Why do they renounce the world?
Ans: Prepare the answer with the help of your subject teacher.

I. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS


Choose the correct option to complete the statements given below:
(i) Buddhism was found by ………….
(a) Mahavira (b) Zoroaster
(c) Ramkrishna Paramhansa (d) none of these.
(ii) Jainism was founded by ……….
(a) Mahavira (b) Buddha
(c) Zoroaster (d) Tao.
(iii) The Vinaya Pitaka is a sacred text of…………..
(a) the Buddhists (b) the Jainas
(c) the Hindus (d) the Sikhs.
(iv) Buddha used ………. to communicate with people.
(a) Prakrit (b) Sanskrit
(c) Urdu (d) Hindi.
(v)The universal soul has been referred to as
(a) ‘atman’ (b)‘brahman’
(c) ‘Karma’ (d) ‘tanha’.
(vi) A woman Upanishadic thinker was
(a) Jabali (b) Satyakama Jabala
(c) Urmila (d) Gargi.
(vii) Mahavira was the prince of the
(a) Lichchhavis (b) Lumbini
(c) Kusinara (d) Magadha.
Ans: (i)—(d), (ii)—(a), (iii)—(a), (iv)—(a), (v)—(b), (vi)—(d), (vii)—(a).
II.FILL IN THE BLANKS
Fill in the blanks with appropriate words to complete each sentence.
(i) The Buddha belonged to a small ‘gana’ called …………….
(ii) The Buddha got enlightenment at …………..
(iii) The Buddha used the word ……… for desire of worldly things.
(iv) Satyakama Jabala was the son of a ………… woman called Jabali.
(v) The Prakrit spoken in Magadha was known as ……………
(vi)Jainism was initially supported by only the …………..
(vii).The teachings of Mahavira were written down for the first time about years ago.
(viii) The earliest ‘Viharas’ were made of………… and of……..
Ans: (i) Sakya (ii) Bodh Gaya
(iii) ‘tanha’ (iv) slave
(v) Magadhi (vi) traders
(vii) 1500 (viii) wood, brick.

III. TRUE/FALSE
State whether these sentences are true (T) or false (F).
(i) The original name of the Buddha was Siddhartha.
(ii)The Buddha passed away at Kusinara.
(iii)The Buddha believed ‘tanha’ could be removed by following moderation in everything.
(iv)The Upanishads are part of the Rigveda.
(v) Mahavira was a prince in the Sakya ‘gana’.
(vi) The Jaina were supposed to lead luxurious lives.
(vii) Both Jaina and Buddhist monks went from place to place throughout the year and taught
people.
Ans: (i)—T, (ii)—T, (iii)—T, (iv)—F, (v)—F, (vi)—F, (vii)—T.

IV. MATCHING SKILL


Match the items in column A correctly with those given in column B.

V.VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


1. What was the atm of the thinkers in the society? [V. Imp.]
Ans: The thinkers wanted to understand the ongoing changes in the society and to tiy to find out the true
meaning of life.

2. What did the Buddha do after his enlightenment?


Ans: The Buddha went to Samath and taught for the first time. He spent the rest of his life travelling and
teaching people.
3. What was the ‘Karma’ according to the Buddha? [V. Imp.]
Ans: ‘Karma’ refers to our actions—good or bad.

4. How did the Buddha connect to everyone in the society?


Ans: The Buddha used Prakrit so that everyone could understand his teachings.

5. What sort of people became Upanishadic thinkers?


Ans: The Upanishadic thinkers consisted of men, especially ‘brahmins’ and ‘rajas’. There were exceptions,
however.

6. What did Mahavira do to attain enlightenment? [Imp.]


Ans: Mahavira left home at the age of thirty. Then he spent twelve years in forest and led a hard and lonely
life. Then he got enlightenment.

7. State two basic rules of Jainism


Ans: (a) The Jains had to beg for food.
(b) They were to be absolutely honest.

8. Name the book which gives the rules of the Buddhist ‘Sangha’.
Ans: The Vinaya Pitaka gives the rules made for the Buddhist ‘Sangha’.

9. Who all joined the ‘Sangha’?


Ans: Those who joined the ‘sangha’ included ‘Brahmins’, Kshatriyas’, merchants, labourers, slaves, etc.

10. How did monks take shelter in the rainy season?


Ans: The monks got temporary shelters built during rainy season, or they lived in caves.

VI. SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


1. Write a short note on the Buddha’s teachings. [V. Imp.]
Ans: The Buddha said that life is full of suffering and unhappiness. He said that its cause lies in our
unfulfilled desires and dissatisfaction (‘tanhaj. He suggested moderation in everything as a solution. He told
people to be kind and to respect each and every life. Our actions (‘Karma’) affect us in this life and the
further ones. The Buddha encouraged people to think for themselves rather than simply accept his
teachings.

2. Write a short note on Mahavira’s teachings.


Ans: Mahavira said that those who wish to know the truth must leave their homes. People must follow
‘ahimsa’. The Jaines had to leave very simple lives and be very honest throughout. The men had to give up
clothes.

3. Describe how Jainism spread in other parts of India.


Ans: Jainism was initially supported mainly by traders. Farmers found it difficult to follow the rules since
they required to kill the insects affecting crops. Over centuries, Jainism spread to different parts of north
India, and to Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.
4. What does the Vinaya Pitaka teU. about ‘sangha’? [V. Imp.)
Ans: From the Vinaya Pitaka, we know that there were separate branches for men and women in the
Buddhist ‘sangha’. Children were supposed to take permission of their parents and slaves had to ask for
permission from their masters to join it. Women had to ask their husbands. Those who lived in the ‘sangha’
had to lead very simple lives—meditating, travelling and begging. They taught others and helped each
other.

VI.LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


1. Describe Buddha’s life in brief. [V. Imp.]
Ans: The Buddha (original name—Siddhartha Gautama) belonged to a small ‘gana’ and was a kshatriya.
At an early age, he left the comforts of home and went in search of knowledge. He wandered for several
years, and met and discussed with other contemporary thinkers. He meditated for several days under a
‘peepaT tree at Bodh Gaya in Bihar. Here, after meditation, he attained enlightenment. This gave him the
name ‘the Buddha’ (the Wise One). He went to Samath and taught people. He travelled and preached for
the rest of his life. He spoke of ‘tanha’, ‘Karma’, etc. He died at Kusinara.

NCERT Solutions for Class 6th Social Science


History Chapter 8 Ashoka The Emperor Who Gave
Up War
1. Make a list of the occupations of the people who lived within the Mauryan empire.
Ans: The Mauryan empire consisted of people who were merchants, officials, crafts persons, farmers and
herders, etc.
2. Complete the following sentences:
(a)Officials collected…….. from the area under the direct control of the ruler.
(b)Royal princes often went to the provinces as………….
(c)The Mauryan rulers tried to control…….. and……….. which were important for transport.
(d)People in forested regions provided the Mauryan officials with…………
Ans: (a)taxes (b) governors
(c) roads, rivers (d) elephants, timber, honey and wax.

3. State whether true or false:


(a)UJjain was the gateway to the north-west.
(b)Chandragupta’s ideas were written down in the Arthashastra.
(c)Kalinga was the ancient name of Bengal
(d)Most Ashokan inscriptions are in the Brahmi script.
Ans: (a) False, (b) True, (c) False, (d) True.

4. What were the problems that Ashoka wanted to solve by introducing ‘dhamma’?
Ans: There were a number of problems in the empire that led Ashoka to introduce his ‘dhamma’. People in
the empire followed different religious, usually causing conflicts. Animal sacrifice was common. Slaves and
servants were ill-treated by their masters. There were quarrels among civilians. To solve these problems,
Ashoka introduced his ‘dhamma’.

5. What were the means adopted by Ashoka to spread the message of ‘dhamma’?
Ans: Ashoka appointed officials (called ‘dhamma mahamatta’) to go from place to place and tell people
about ‘dhamma’. Ashoka got his messages inscribed on rocks and pillars too, in a language called as
Prakrit which was comprehensible to all. Messengers were also send to other parts of the world.

6. Why do you think slaves and servants were ill-treated? Do you think the orders of the emperor
would have improved their condition? Give reasons for your answer.
Ans: Slaves and servants were ill-treated because their masters felt superior to them. The masters treated
them as animals. It was because of the old Varna’ system. The emperor’s orders might have helped to
some extent. Ashoka was a king who was loved by his subjects. Moreover his ‘dhamma’ was a realistic
innovation.

7. Write a short paragraph explaining to Roshan why the lions are shown on our currency notes.
List at least one other object on which you see them.
Ans: The lions are part of the Lion Capital in Samath. These lions are shown on our currency notes in
honour of one of the greatest kings of India, Ashoka, who built the Capital. Moreover, on independence, the
lion was recognized as the national animal, so the notes also showed the Lion Capital.
Another object which has the lions are shown are the coins of our currency.

8. Suppose you had the power to inscribe your orders, what four commands would you like to
issue?
Ans: To answer this question, use your own imagination and help from friends and teacher.
Some sample points:
(i)Slaveiy be abolished.
(ii)Animal sacrifice be stopped.
(iii)People should not fight among themselves.
(iv)No discrimination be practised based on gender, caste, creed, etc.
I. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
Choose the correct option to complete the statements given below:
(i)The founder of the Mauiya empire was …………. ,
(a) Ashoka (b) Chandragupta
(c) Bimbisara (d) Chanakya.
(ii)The capital of the Mauryan empire was………….
(a) Pataliputra (b) Rajagriha
(c) Ujjain (d) Taxila.
(iii) According to the Arthashastra, blankets of………… India were famous.
(a) north (b) north-west
(c) south (d) north-east.
(iv) The script used for inscription was ……………
(a) Brahmi (b) Prakrit
(c) Tamil (d) Roman.
(v) Ashoka was a
(a) Hindu (b) Jaina
(c) Buddhist (d) None of these.
Ans. (i)—(b), (ii)—(a), (iii)—(b), (iv)—(a), (v)—(c).

II. FILL IN THE BLANKS


Fill in the blanks with appropriate words to complete each sentence.
(i) Ashoka was Chandragupta’s ……………………………….
(ii) Chanakya was …….. ’s minister.
(iii) The Arthashastra was written by………….
(iv)……… was the gateway to the northwest of the empire.
(v)………. were sent as governors to other provincial capitals.
(vi) South India was important for ………….
(vii) Ashoka gave up war after winning over…………
(viii) ‘Dhamma’ is the Prakrit word for the Sanskrit word
(ix) Ashoka appointed …….. to spread ‘dhamma’.
Ans: (i) grandson (ii) Chandragupta
(iii) Chanakya (iv) Taxila
(v) Royal princes (vi) gold and other precious stones
(vii) Kalinga (viii) ‘Dharma’
(ix) officials.

III. TRUE/FALSE
State whether these sentences are true (T) or false IF).
(i) The lions on the currency notes come from the Rampurwa bull capital,
(ii) Ashoka founded the Mauiyan empire.
(iii) Royal princes were sent as governors to provinces. •
(iv)Ashoka gave up war after losing in Kalinga.
(v) Ashoka himself went from place to place to preach ‘dhamma’.
(vi) The ‘dhamma’ also reached other countries.
Ans. (i)—F, (ii)—F, (iii)—T, (iv)—F, (v)—F, (vi)—T.
IV. MATCHING SKILL
Match the items in column A correctly with those given in column B.

V.VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


1. Who was Chanakya?
Ans: Chanakya (or Kantilya) was a wise man who served Chandragupta Mauiya.

2. Who lived in the Mauryan cities?


Ans: Merchants, officials and crafts persons lived in Mauryan cities.

3. Giue one point of difference between empires and kingdoms.


Ans: Empires need more resources than kingdoms do as they are larger,

4. Give one point of information given by the Arthashastra


Ans: The Arthashastra tells that the north west of the Mauryan empire was important for blankets, and
south for stones,

5. What all was given as tribute by people in forested areas?


Ans: People living in the forested areas gave elephants, timber, honey, wax, etc. as tribute.

6. What was special about Ashoka as a ruler? [V. Imp.]


Ans: Ashoka was the first ruler who tried to take his message to his subject through inscriptions.

7. What change came upon Ashoka after the Kalinga war?[V. Imp.]
Ans: Ashoka saw that there was a lot of violence in the war and many people were killed. So he decided he
would not fight any more wars,

8.What was the purpose of Ashoka’s ‘dhamma’? [V. Imp.]


Ans: Ashoka wished to instruct his subjects, for which he introduced his ‘dhamma’.

9. Name some countries where Ashoka spread his ‘dhamma’.


Ans: Ashoka’s ‘dhamma’ reached Syria, Egypt, Greece and Sri Lanka among other sounds. ,

10. Where has the Rampurwa Bull been placed now?


Ans: The Rampurwa Bull is now In the Rashtrapati Bhavan. •
IV.SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
1. Write a short note to describe the Mauryan people.
Ans: The Mauryan cities had mainly merchants, officials and crafts persons. In village farmers and herders
lived. In forested areas, people gathered forest produce and hunted animals for food. People in different
parts of the empire used various different languages. They also probably ate diverse kinds of food and
same can be said about the clothes they wore.

2. How was Ashoka unique? [V. Imp.]


Ans: Ashoka was the most famous Mauryan ruler. He was known to take his message amongst the people
through inscriptions. His inscriptions were in the people’s language Prakrit. Ashoka also remains the only
king in history who gave up war after winning one. This he did after he observed the violence in the Kalinga
war. Ashoka then became a Buddhist and got the idea of the ‘dhamma’.

VII. LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


1. Describe governance in the Mauryan empire. [V. Imp.]
Ans: The Mauryan empire consisted of severed different parts which were ruled over differently.

 The Empire’s capital. The areas adjacent to Pataliputra, the capital of the empire, was under the
direct control of the emperor. Officials were supposed to collect taxes from the inhabitants in strict
obedience of the ruler’s order.
 The Provincial capitals. There were provinces with their own capitals, e.g. Taxila and Ujjain in the
north west and central India respectively. There was obviously some amount of control from the
emperor in Pataliputra: Royal princes were sent as governors.
 Other areas. In the other areas, the Mauryans controlled roads and rivers, , which were vital for
transport. Resources, whatever available, were collected as tribute.

VIII. MAP WORK


1.On the outline map of India Locate and label the following Mauryan cities/regions.
(i) Pataliputra (ii) Ujjain (iii) Taxila (iv) Sanchi (v) Samath (vi) Lumbini (vii) Rampurwa (viii)
Kaushambi (ix) Meerut (x)Kalinga.
Ans:
NCERT Solutions for Class 6th Social Science
History Chapter 9 Vital Villages, Thriving Towns
Question-1
Fill in the blanks: ,
(a)……. was a word used for large landowners in TamiL
(b)The ‘gramabhojaka’ often got his land cultivated by the…………………..
(c)Ploughmen were known as ………….. in Tamil .
(d)Most ‘grihapatis’ were………….
Answer:
(a) ‘Vellalar’ (b) slaves and workers
(c) ‘uzhavar’ (d) smaller.

Question-2
Describe the Junctions of the ‘gramabhojaka’. Why do you think he was powerful?
Answer:
The ‘gramabhojaka’ was the largest landowner. He had slaves and he hired workers to cultivate the land.
He was powerful since the king entrusted him with the important job of collecting taxes from the villagers.
His other functions were those of a policeman and judge.
Question-3
List the crafts persons who would have been present in both villages and cities.
Answer:
Craftsman like the carpenters, weavers, potters, etc. were presumably present in both villages and cities.

Question-4
Choose the correct answer:
(a)Ring wells were used for:
1.bathing 2.washing clothes
3.irrigation 4. drainage.
(b)Punch marked coins were made of:
1.Silver 2.gold
3.tin 4.ivory.
(c)Mathura was an important:
1.village 2.port
3.religious centre 4.forested area.
(d)‘Shrenis’ were associations of:
1.rulers 2.crafts persons
3.farmers 4.herders.
Answer:
(a)drainage
(b)silver
(c)religious centre
(d)crafts persons.

Question-5
Which of the iron tools shown on page 87 (of the NCERT textbook) would have been important for
agriculture? What would the other tools have been used for?
Answer:
The iron tools shown on page 87 are: sickle, tongs, and axe. The ones that would have been used for
agriculture were—sickle and axe.

Tongs would have been used to hold things without actually touching them.

Question-6
Compare the drainage system in your locality with that of the cities mentioned in the lesson. What
similarities and differences do you notice?
Answer:
The drainage system in our localities is well-planned. The same system was adopted in the times
mentioned in the lesson. Both the systems are found to be similar in many ways. The only difference that
we find in the modem and the past systems is that the past system was made of mud, bricks and thatch.
They could not survive for long. They were not well-maintained, but today we have well-maintained and
developed drainage system. It is made of solid materials. It tests long.

Question-7
If you have seen crafts persons at work, describe in a short paragraph what they do.
[Hint. How do they get the raw materials, what kind of equipment do they use, how do they work, what
happens to the finished product.]
Answer:
I have seen crafts persons like weavers, blacksmiths, goldsmiths in villages and cities. Weavers are mostly
seen in villages. I saw them running their spinning wheel or handmill. First they collect the cotton balls, they
weave thread and then they weave clothes. After that they sell it in the market.

Question-8
List (he Junctions performed by men and women who live in your city and village. In what ways are these
similar to those performed by people who lived in Mathura? In what ways are they different?
Answer:
In the city I live, I see men and women working to feed their families. Mostly men work in offices and other
establishments. Women also work in offices these days. In a city like Mathura, people worked to provide
food items to the city- folks because it was located at the intersection of two major trade and travel routes.
Life of people of our cities and that in Mathura was in no way much different.

I.MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS


Choose the correct option to complete the statements given below:
(i) The use of iron in the Indian Subcontinent began about .
(a) 2000 years ago (b) a million years ago
(c) 3000 years ago (d) 500 years ago.
(ii) VeUalar was the term used for
(a) Large landowners (b) Small farmers
(c) Common people (d) Slaves.
(iii) Gram bhqjaka was a powerful man. He also worked as a
(a) Judge (b) Policemen
(c) Councillor (d) Both (a) and (b).
(iv) Mathura is an important centre for worship of
(a) Lord Rama (b) Lord Krishna
(c) Lord Vishnu (d) Both (a) and (b).
(v) Between 2200 and 1900 years ago, Arikamedu was a
(a) Coastal settlement (b) Monastery
(c) Religious place (d) None of the above.
Answer: (i)—(c), (ii)—(a), (iii)—(d), (iv)—(b), (v)—(a).

II.FILL IN THE BLANKS


Fill in the blanks with appropriate words to complete each sentence.
(i) The post of gram bhojaka was …………….
(ii)There were independent farmers also who were known as ……………………
(iii)……. literature was popular in Tamil Nadu.
(iv) The Jatakas were stories preserved by …………………
(v) The associations of crafts persons and merchants were known as ……………………….
(vi) Stamped red-glazed pottery was known as ………………. ware.
Answer: (i) hereditary (ii)grihpatis
(iiij Sangam (iv)Buddhist monks
(v) shrenis (vi) Arretine.

III.TRUE/FALSE
State whether these sentences are true (T) or false (F).
(i) The ploughshare was used to increase agricultural production.
(ii)Most of the grihpatis were large landowners.
(iii)Extremely fine pottery was found in the southern part of the sub-continent,
(iv) Shrenis also served as banks where rich men and women deposited money,
(v) Arretine Ware was named after a city in Germany.
Answer: (i) True, (ii) False, (iii) False, (iv) True, (v) False.

IV.MATCHING SKILL
Match the items in column A correctly with those given in column B.

V.VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


Question-1
Where were some of the largest collections of iron tools found?
Answer:
These were found in the megalithic burials,

Question-2
What was the use of iron tools?
Answer:
Iron tools were used for clearing forests.

Question-3
What did irrigation works include?
Answer:
Irrigation works included canals, wells, tanks and artificial lakes,
Question-4
Mention any one function that was performed by the grama bhojaka
Answer:
The grama bhojaka collected taxes from the village for the king.

Question-5
How did the dasa karmakara earn a living?
Answer:
They used to work on the fields owned by others.

Question-6
What do you know about Jatakas?
Answer:
Jatakas were stories composed by ordinary people and preserved by Buddhist monks.

Question-7
What were ring wells?
Answer:
Rows of pots or ceramic rings arranged one on top of the other came to be known as ring wells.

Question-8
How did people use ring wells?
Answer:
People used ring wells as toilets. They also used them as drains and garbage dumps.

Question-9
How luos wealth measured during early times?
Answer:
Wealth was measured in terms of coins during early times.

Question-10
What do you know about punch marked coins?
Answer:
Earliest coins were punch marked coins, they came to be known like this because the designs were
punched on to the metal like silver or copper.

Question-11
How can you say that Mathura was a religious place?
Answer:
One could find Buddhist monasteries and Jaina shrines in Mathura. Mathura was also a place where Lord
Krishna was worshipped by the people.

Question-12
Mention the occupations of people who lived in Mathura
Answer:
Goldsmiths, blacksmiths, weavers, basket makers, garland makers and perfumers.
Question-13
Why were Varanasi and Madurai famous?
Answer:
Varanasi and Madurai were famous for the manufacture of cloth.

Question-14
What do you know about Arikamedu?
Answer:
Between 2200 and 1900 years ago Aricamedu was a coastal settlement where ships unloaded goods from
distant lands.

VI.SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


Question-1
What steps were taken to increase agricultural production? [V. Imp.]
Answer:
Iron tools such as axes and iron ploughshare began to be used. Axes were used for clearing forests and
the ploughshare was useful for increasing agricultural production. Apart from these new tools, irrigation was
also used for this purpose. Irrigation works that were built during this time included canals, wells, tanks, and
artificial lakes.

Question-2
Who was the grama bhojaka? Write about him in brief.
Answer:
The grama bhojaka was the village headman in the northern part of the country. His post was hereditary.
He was the largest landowner in the village who kept slaves and hired workers to cultivate the land. He
collected taxes from the village for the king. He also functioned as a judge and sometimes as a policeman

Question-3
What do you know about Sangam literature? [V. Imp.]
Answer:
Some of the earliest works in Tamil came to be known as Sangam literature. These earliest works were
composed around 2300 years ago. These texts were called Sangam because they were supposed to have
been composed and compiled in assemblies of poets. These assemblies were known as Sangams. They
were held in the city of Madurai.

Question-4
What kind of information do we get from several inscriptions found in Mathura?
Answer:
The inscriptions found in Mathura record gifts made by men and women to monasteries and shrines. These
were made by kings and queens, officers, merchants and crafts people who lived the city. The inscriptions
from Mathura make us aware that people were engaged in several occupations such as— weaving, basket
making, garland making etc. There were also goldsmiths and blacksmiths.

Question-5
What were shrenis? What functions did shrenis of crafts persons perform?[Imp.]
Answer:
Shrenis were associations of crafts persons and merchants. The shrenis of crafts persons performed
various functions. They provided training, procured raw material and distributed the finished product. Then
came shrenis of merchants who organised the trade. Shrenis also performed the role of banks where rich
men and women deposited money.

Question-6
Write a short note on Arikamedu.
Answer:
Arikamedu, located in Pondicherry, was a coastal settlement between 2200 and 1900 years ago. It was a
place where ships unloaded goods from distant lands. A massive brick structure which is supposed to be a
warehouse was found at the site. Other discoveries include pottery from the Mediterranean region. For
example, amphorae which were tall double handled jars that contained liquids and stamped red-glued
pottery, known as Arretine Ware. It was named after a city in Italy. »

VII.LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


Question-1
Describe severed ways offinding out about early cities. [V. Imp.]
Answer:
Several ways of finding out about early cities include Jatakas, sculpture, archaeology and travellers.
Jatakas were stories composed by ordinary people and preserved by Buddhist monks.
Sculptures carved scenes depicting peoples’ lives in towns and villages as well as in the forest. Many of
these sculptures were used to decorate railings, pillars and gateways of buildings that were visited by
people. In many cities, archaeologists have found rows of pots or ceramic rings arranged one on top of the
other. These are known as ring wells, which were used as toilets and as drains and garbage dumps. These
ring wells are usually found in individual houses. The accounts of sailors and travellers also help us to know
about early cities. One of the most detailed accounts that has been found was by an unknown Greek Sailor.
He described all the ports he visited.

Question-2
Mathura was a city with many Junctions. Explain. [V. Imp.]
Answer:
Mathura has been an important city for more than 2500 years. It was important for various reasons.
It was located at the cross roads of two major routes of travel and trade – from the northwest to the east
and from north to south.

 There were fortifications around the city, and several shrines. Farmers and herders from adjoining
areas provided food for city people.
 Mathura was also a centre where some extremely find sculpture was produced.
 Around 2000 years ago, Mathura became the second capital of the Kushanas.
 Mathura was a religious centre also. There were Buddhist monasteries and Jaina shrines. It was also
an important centre for the worship of Lord Krishna.
NCERT Solutions for Class 6th Social Science
History Chapter 10 Traders, Kings and Pilgrims
I. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

Choose the correct option to complete the statements given below:

(i) Puhar was an important port on the


(a) West coast(b) East coast(c) Malabar coast(d) None of the above.

(ii) The most fertile river valley was


(a) Kaveri(b) Yamuna(c) Ganga(d) None of the above.

(iii) The capital of the Pandyas was


(a) Madurai(b) Mudumalai(c) Patliputra(d) Ujjain.
(iv) The Satavahanas became an Important dynasty In
(a)Northern India (b) Eastern India
(c) Southern India (d) Western India.

(v) The rulers who ruled over central Asia and north-west India around 2000 years ago were
(a) Pandyas (b) Cholas(c) Kushanas (d) Cheras.

Ans: (a)—(b), (iii)—(a), (iii)—(a), (iv)—(d), (v)—(c).

II.FILL IN THE BLANKS

Fill in the blanks with appropriate words to complete each sentence.

(i)Gold, ……… and ……….. were in abundance in South India.


(ii)Gautamiputra Shri Satakami and other Satavahana rulers were known as lords of the …………
(iii)The famous Kushana ruler ………….. organised a Buddhist council.
(iv)The older form of Buddhism was known as ……………..
(v) Buddha’s attainment of enlightenment was shown by sculptures of the ………………………tree.
(vi) Anyone could follow the path of………………
(vii) Xuan Zang, a Chinese Buddhist pilgrim took the………………… route to return China.
(viii) …….. was the most famous Buddhist monastery.
(ix) The two major centres of power of the Kushanas were ……………….. and ………….
(x) The images of deities were placed within special homes or places known as

Ans:

(i)spices, precious stones (ii)dakshinapatha


(iii) Kanishka (iv)Kanishka
(v) peepal (vi)Bhakti
(vii) land (viii)Nalanda
(ix) Peshawar, Mathura (x)temples.

III.TRUE/FALSE

State whether these sentences are true (T) or false (F).

(i) Fa Xran started his journey back home from Nalanda.


(ii)Pepper, a very important spice grown in South India was known as black gold in the Roman Empire.
(iii)Muvendar is a Bengali word meaning three chiefs.
(iv) Puhar or Kaveripaltinam was the port of the Pandyas.
(v) The statues of Buddha were made in Mathura and Taxila.
(vi) Bodhisattvas were persons who had attained enlightenment.Ans. (0 False, (ii) True, (iii) False, (iv)
False, (u) True, (ui) True.

IV.MATCHING SKILL
Match the items in column A correctly with those given in column B.Column B

Ans. (i)—(b), (ii)—(d), (iii)—(a), (iv)—(e), (v)—(c).

V.VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

1. Where can evidence of trade be found?


Ans: Evidence of trade can be found in the Sangam poems.

2. What was South India famous for? [Imp.]


Ans: It was famous for items like gold and precious stones and spices like pepper. Q. 3. How can you say
that Rome had a flourishing trade with south India?Ans. Many Roman gold coins have been found in south
India.

4. Name the three ruling families of south India


Ans: The Cholas, Cheras and Pandyas.

5. How did the chiefs use the tribute that they collected from neighbouring areas?
Ans: They kept some of the wealth for their use and distributed the rest amongst their supporters.

6. Who were the supporters of the chiefs?


Ans: Their family members, soldiers and poets.

7. Name the items that the chiefs gave to the poets as a reward.
Ans: Precious stones, gold, horses, elephants, chariots and fine cloth.

8. Why do you think Gautamiputra Shri Satakami wanted to control the coasts?
Ans: He wanted to do this to become more efficient and powerful

9. What qualities of silk make it a highly valued fabric?


Ans: Silk has rich, glossy colour and smooth texture.

10. How is making silk a complicated process? [V. Imp.]


Ans: Raw silk is extracted from the cocoons of silk worms, spun into thread and then woven into cloth.

11. Who were the earliest rulers of the subcontinent to issue gold coins?
Ans: The Kushanas were the earliest rulers to issue gold coins
12. Who was Kanishka? Mention one of his achievements. [V. Imp.]
Ans: Kanishka was the famous ruler of the Kushana dynasty. He organized a Buddhist council where
scholars used to discuss important issues,

13. Who were Bodhisattvas?


Ans: They were holy persons who had attained enlightenment.

14. Name the countries where the worship of Bodhisattvas became popular.
Ans: Central Asia, China, Korea and Japan

15. Name some Chinese Buddhist pilgrims.


Ans: Fa Xran, Xuan Zang and I-Qing.

16. Mention the important feature of later Hinduism. [V. Imp.]


Ans: The worship of deities like Shiva, Vishnu and goddess Durga became popular

17. What was given much importance under the system ofBhakti? [V. Imp.]
Ans: The devotion and individual worship of a god or goddess were given much importance under the
system of Bhakti.

VI. SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

1. Who was Gautamiputra Shri Satakami? How do we come to Know about him?[Imp.]
Ans: Gautamiputra Shri Satakami was the famous ruler of the Satavahana dynasty. We come to know
about him from an inscription composed by his mother. According to this inscription he and other
Satavahana rulers were known as lords of the dakshinapatha, which was used as a name for the entire
southern region. He sent his army to the eastern, western and southern coasts

2. How did the knowledge of silk spread far and wide? [V. Imp.]
Ans: China was the first country where silk took its birth. Although the country kept the-methods of making
silk a closely guarded secret for a long time, people of other regions ultimately came to know about them.

 Some people from China went to distant lands on foot, horseback and on camels and with them they
carried silk.
 Sometimes, Chinese rulers sent gifts or silk to rulers in Iran and west Asia. From there the knowledge
of silk spread further west.

3. Why was silk so expensive? [Imp.]


Ans: Silk had to be brought from China. It was a long journey and the traders had to cross dangerous
roads through mountains and deserts. People living along the route often demanded payments from the
traders for giving them permission to pass through.

4. Wtite a brief note on the Chinese Buddhist pilgrims.


Ans: Fa Xran, Xuan Zang and I-Qing were the famous Chinese Buddhist pilgrims who came to India to visit
places associated with the life of the Buddha. They also visited famous monasteries.These pilgrims left an
account of their journey. They mentioned the dangers that they had to face on their way to monasteries that
they visited. They also mentioned the books that they carried with them. These pilgrims also carried with
them the statues of the Buddha.

5. What was the Bhakti system of belief? [V. Imp.]


Ans: According to the Bhakti system of belief, if a devotee worships the chosen deity with a pure heart, the
deity will appear in the form in which he/she may desire. Therefore, the deity could be thought of as a
human being, lion, tree or any other form. Once this idea gained acceptance, artists made beautiful images
of these deities.

VII.LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

1. What do you mean by Silk Route? What was its significance? [V. Imp.]
Ans: The route through which the traders carried silk with them is known as silk Route. .Silk was
first invented in China and the methods of its making were kept a high secret for several years. But the
traders ultimately spread the knowledge of silk far and wide. Everyone got attracted to it because of its fine
texture. Wearing silk became a fashion amongst rulers and rich people in Rome. In India too, the rulers
tried is control the Silk Route. This was because they could benefit from taxes, tributes and gifts that were
brought by traders travelling along the route. The Kushanas were the best known rulers who controlled the
Silk Route. During their rule, a branch of the Silk Route extended from Central Asia down to the seaports at
the mouth of the river Indus, from where silk was shipped westwards to the Roman Empire.

2. How did Buddhism grow during Kushana dynasty? [Imp.]


Ans: Kanishka was the most reputed Kushana ruler. During his region Buddhism spread to a great extent.
He organised a Buddhist council where scholars used to gather to discuss major issues.Ashvaghosha was
a renowned poet in his court. He wrote the biography of the Buddha.Mahayana Buddhism emerged as a
new form. This had two special features. Earlier, Buddha’s presence was shown in sculpture by using
certain signs. Now. statues of Buddha were made. Mathura and Taxila became prominent places where
several statues of Buddha were made.The second distinct feature was a belief in Bodhisattvas, who were
sacred people and had attained enlightenment. The worship of Bodhisattvas gained popularity in Central,
Asia, China and later to Korea and Japan. Buddhism also spread to western and southern India. It also
spread south eastwards to Sri Lanka, Myanmar. Thailand and other parts of South east Asia including
Indonesia.

3. What was Bhakti movement? Why did it become more popular? [V. Imp.]
Ans: Bhakti movement was a new way of worship. Bhakti means devotion to a particular deity. During the
post vedic era some deities like Shiva, Vishnu and Durga became popular among the devotees. This
inclination towards deities came to be known as Bhakti movement.It became popular because in this, there
was no discrimination among the worshippers or devotees. There was no difference whether one was rich
or poor, high or low, man or woman. Everyone was allowed to worship the deities of his/ her own choice.
Bhakti movement discarded the performance of elaborated sacrifices.
NCERT Solutions for Class 6th Social Science
History Chapter 11 New Empires and Kingdoms
I. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

Choose the correct option to complete the statements given below:

(i) The first ruler of the Gupta dynasty who adopted the grand title of maharaj- adhiraja was
(a) Samudragupta (b) Chandragupta

(c) Skandhagupta (d) Both (a) and (c).

(ii) We learn about Gupta rulers from the

(a) Inscriptions (b) Prashastis

(c) Coins (d) Both (a) and (c).

(iii) Harsha’s brother-in-law was the ruler of

(a) Kanauj (b) Patliputra

(c) Ujjain (d) Prayaga.

(iv) Pulakeshin II was a ruler of

(a) Chalukya dynasty (b) Pallava dynasty

(c) Gupta dynasty (d) Chola dynasty,

(v) We come to know about Harshavardhana from

(a)The biography written by Banabhatta

(b)The account of Xuan Zang

(c)Both (a) and (b)

(d)Neither (a) nor (d).

Ans. (i)—(b), (ii)—(d), (iii)—(a), (iv)—(a), (v)—(c).

II.FILL IN THE BLANKS

Fill in the blanks with appropriate words to complete each sentence.

(i) Kumara Devi, the mother of Samudragupta belonged to the …………………… gana.

(ii) ……………..,a Chinese pilgrim, spent a lot of time at Harsha’s court and left a detailed account of what
he saw.
(iii)Harshavardhana’s success was checked by ………………. , a chalukya ruler.

(iv) The two important ruling dynasties in south India during this period were the

………. and the ………..

(v) The Raichur Doab was situated between the rivers …………………. and ………….

(vi) The ……… and ……….. were the new dynasties which took place of the Pallavas

and the Chalukyas.

(vii) Whenever the Samantas found the ruler weak and inefficient, they tried to become

(viii) The untouchables during this period were treated badly and were expected to live on the of the city.

Ans. (i) Lichchhavi (ii) Xuan Zang

(iii) Pulakeshin II (iv) Pallavas, Chalukyas

(v) Krishna, Tungabhadra (vi) Rashtrakuta, Chola

vii) independent (viii) outskirts

III.TRUE/FALSE

State whether these sentences are true (C) or false (F).

(i) The military leaders collected revenue from the land granted to them and spent this on their families.

(ii) The rulers of dakshinapatha surrendered to Samudragupta after being defeated and were never allowed
to rule again.

(iii) The descendants of the Kushanas and Shakas ruled the outlying areas during this period.

(iv) Harshavaradhana became the king of Thanesar after both his father and elder brother died.

(v) Harshavardhana never got success in the east.

(vi) Aihole was an important centre of trade.


(vii) The capital cities of the Pallavas and Chalukyas were not very prosperous. (uiii) The prathama-kulika
meant the chief craftsman.

Ans. (i) False, (ii) False, (iii) True, (v) True, (vi) False, (vii) True, (viii) False.

IV.MATCHING SKILL

Match the items in column A correctly with those given in column B.

Column A Column B

(i) Kalidasa (a) The court poet of Pulakeshin II

(ii) Aryabhatta (b) The court poet of Samudragupta

(iii) Ravikirti (c) A renowned poet during this period

(iv) Harishena (d) The court poet of Harshavardhana

(v) Banabhatta (e) An astronomer

Ans. (i)—(c), (ii)—(e), (iii)—(a), (iv)—(b), (v)—(d).

V.VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

1. Who was Samudragupta? [Imp.]

Ans: He was a famous ruler of the Gupta dynasty.

2. How do we know about him?

Ans: We know about him from a long inscription, which is a poem in Sanskrit composed by his court poet,
Harishena.

3. Where is this poem inscribed?

Ans: This poem is inscribed on the Ashokan pillar at Allahabad.

4. What were prashastis? [V. Imp.]

Ans: Prashastis were poems composed by the court poets in praise of their rulers.
5. During which dynasty did prashastis gain importance?

Ans: Prashastis gained importance during the Gupta dynasty.

6. What does Samudragupta’s prashasti tell us?

Ans: Samudragupta’s prashasti tells us that he was a great warrior who woned several battles.

7. Name the four different kinds of rulers described by Samudragupta’s court poet,
Harishena. [V. Imp.]

Ans: • The rulers of Aryavarta

 The ruler of Dakshinapatha


 The inner circle of neighbouring states
 The rulers of the outlying areas.

8. Banabhatta wrote Harshavardhana’s biography. What is the name of this book? [V. Imp.]

Ans: The biography written by Banabatta is called the Harshacharita.

9. In which language is Harshacharita written?

Ans: Harshacharita is written in Sanskrit.

10. When did Harshavardhana become the ruler of Kanauj?

Ans: Harshavardhana became the ruler of Kanauj after his brother-in-law was killed by the ruler of Bengal.

11. What happened when Harshavardhana tried to cross the Narmada?

Ans: He was stopped by Pulakeshin II, the best known Chalukya ruler

12. Name the capital of the Pallauas.

Ans: Kanchipuram.

13. Name the capital of the Chalukyas.

Ans: Aihole.

14. From whom did Pulakeshin get the kingdom?


Ans: He got the kingdom from his uncle.

15. Harishena held more than one offices? Name them.

Ans: Harishena held more than one offices. Besides being a maha-danda-nayaka, he was a Kumar-
amatya and a sandhi-vigrahika.

16. What was the nagaram?

Ans: It was an organisation of merchants.

17. Who controlled the local assemblies?

Ans: Wealthy and powerful landowners and merchants controlled the local assemblies

18.How do we know about the lives of ordinary people during this period?

Ans: We come to know about the lives of ordinary people from plays like Kalidasa’s Abhijnana
Shakuntalam and accounts left by Chinese pilgrims like Fa Xian.

VI. SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

1. How does Samudragupta’s prashasti describe him? [V. Imp.]

Ans: In Samudragupta’s prashasti the poet-praised him in glowing terms. According to this prashasti,
Samudragupta was a great warrior who won victories in battles. He was a learned king and the best of
poets. He was equal to the gods. He was a brave ruler of the Gupta dynasty whose area of influence
spread far and wide.

2. Describe Samudragupta as a warrior as mentioned in the prashasti?

Ans: Samudragupta was a great ruler of the Gupta dynasty. He was a brave warrior too who won victories
in battles. His body was most charming and covered with the plenteous beauty of the marks of hundreds of
scars caused by battle-axes, arrows, spikes, spears, barbed darts, swords, iron clubs, javelins, barbed
arrows, long arrows and many other weapons.

3. What was the difference between the way in which Samudragupta treated the rulers of Aryavarta
and Dakshinapatha?

Ans: Samudragupta’s policies towards the rulers of Aryavarta were very strict. All the nine rulers were
brutally defeated and their kingdoms were made a part of Samudragupta’s empire. But so far the rulers of
Dakshinapatha were concerned, Samudragupta maintained a submissive altitude towards them. There
were twelve rulers who surrendered to Samudragupta after being defeated and he then allowed all of them
to rule again.
4. What do you know about Harshavardhana? Describe the main events of his career.[V. Imp.]

Ans:

 Harshavardhana ruled nearly 1400 years ago.


 We come to know about him from his biography, written by his court poet Banabhatta. This biography
is known as Harshacharita which is in Sanskrit.
 Another source to know about him is Xuan Zang’s account which he left behind him.
 Harshavardhana became the ruler of Thanesar after both his father arid elder brother died.
 He took over the kingdom of Kanauj after his brother-in-law was killed by the ruler of Bengal.
 Harsha led an army against the ruler of Bengal.
 He got success in the east and conquered both Magadha and Bengal. But he had to face defeat when
he tried to cross the Narmada.

5. What do you know about the genealogies of the Guptas? Mention in brief.

Ans: We come to know about the genealogy of the Guptas from the prashastis, which mention
Samudragupta’s great grandfather, grandfather, father and mother. His mother, Kumara Devi belonged to
the Lichchhavi gana, while his father, Chandragupta was the first Gupta ruler who adopted the grand title of
maharqj- adhiraja. Samudragupta too used that title. His great grandfather and grandfather are mentioned
simply as maharajas. Samudragupta also added the name of his son Chandragupta II in the genealogy.
Chandragupta II led an expedition to western India where he defeated the last of the Shakas.

6. Pulakeshin II was the best-known ChaLukya ruler. Explain in brief. [V. Imp.]

Ans: We come to know about Pulakeshin II from a prashasti, composed by his court poet Ravikirti.
According to this prashasti Pulakeshin got the kingdom from his uncle. He led expeditions along both the
west and the east coasts. Besides, he checked the advance of Harshvardhana when he tried to cross the
Narmada to march into the Deccan. The prashasti also tells us that Pulakeshin also attacked the Pallava
king, who took shelter behind the walls of Kanchipuram.

7. What was the condition of ordinary people in the kingdoms? Describe in brief.

Ans: The condition of ordinary people has been highlighted in the plays and accounts left by the foreign
travellers especially the Chinese pilgrims such as Fa Xian.

 Kalidasa’s plays throw light on life in the king’s court. In his plays the king and most brahmins are
shown speaking Sanskrit while women and men other, than the king and brahmins use Prakrit.

 The accounts of Fa Xian throw light on the plight of the untouchables. These untouchables were
treated badly by the powerful and influential people of the kingdom. They were strictly instructed to
live on the outskirts of the city.

8. The king’s army on the move has been vividly described by Banabhatta. Write the whole
description in your own words. [V. Imp.]
Ans: The king used to travel with a lot of things which included weapons and things of daily use such as
pots, pans, furniture, golden footstools, food, etc.

 He was also accompanied by animals such as goat, deer, rabbits, etc. These were carts also carrying
vegetables and spices.
 The king’s huge army was accompanied by a band of musicians.
 Villagers brought gifts of curds, gur and flowers as for the king. They also provided folder for the
animals.

 After the army passed, the whole environment was seen filled with dust. Elephants often trampled
down the huts of villagers.

VII.LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

1.Describe Samudragupta’s policies towards the

 rulers of Aryavarta
 rulers of Dakshinapatha
 inner circle of neighbouring states, and
 rulers of the outlying areas. [V. Imp.]

Ans: Samudragupta was a great warrior of the Gupta dynasty. He won several battles.

In a prashasti Harishena describes four different kinds of rulers and tells us about Samudragupta’s policies
towards them.

 The rulers of Aryavarta. There were altogether nine rulers of Aryavarta. All of them were uprooted and
their kingdoms were made a part of Samudragupta’s empire.
 The ruler of Dakshinapatha. There were twelve rulers of Dakshinapatha. All of them were defeated by
Samudragupta. These defeated rulers surrendred to Samudragupta. But Samudragupta showed
leniency. He allowed them to rule again.
 The inner circle of neighbouring states. The rulers of these states including Assam, Coastal Bengal,
Nepal and a number of gana Sanghain the northwest brought tribute to Samudragupta. They also
followed his orders and attended his court.
 The rulers of outlying areas. They were perhaps the descendants of the Kushanas and Shakas and
the ruler of Sri Lanka. They submitted to Samudragupta and offered daughters in marriage.

2. Who were the Pallauas and Chalukyas? Describe them in detail. [V. Imp.]

Ans: In South India during this period there were two famous ruling dynasties knows as the Pallavas and
Chalukyas.

 The Pallavas. The kingdom of the Pallavas spread from the region around their capital, Kanchipuram
to the Kaveri delta.
 The Chalukyas. The kingdom of the Chalukyas was centred around the Raichur Doab, between the
rivers. Krishna and Tungabhadra. Their capital was at Aihole. It was an important trading centre.
Besides, it was a religious centre too. There were a number of temples there.
The Chalukyas and Pallavas were very much competitive. They were great rivals. They frequently said one
another’s lands. Their main target were the capital cities because they were rich towns.

The name and fame of the Chalukyas and Pallavas did not last long. They lost their influence and finally
they were replaced by the Rashtrakuta and Chola dynasties

NCERT Solutions for Class 6th Social Science


History Chapter 12 Buildings, Paintings and Books
1. Read the story on page 130. In what ways in the monkey king similar to or different from the
kings you read about in Chapters 6 and 11?
Ans: The monkey king in the story on page 130 is similar to the kings mentioned in chapters 6 and 11. The
monkey king like the other kings has a huge army.

He himself is wise, diplomatic and brave. He has the virtue of taking right moment. When he observes the
situation of the attack on his community by the king’s men, he makes a quick plan to save his army. First,
he let all of them cross the river. As he is the last, he gets tired and exhausted, he falls down and is dead.
In this way, he sacrifices his life for the safety of his kingdom. This is the supreme virtue of a king. So, he is
in no way different from the other human kings.

2. Find out more and teU. a story from one of the epics.

Ans: We have a number of stories in our epics which inspire us in many ways. They guide us and teach us
the ideals of life. Such epics are the Mahabharata and Ramayana.

In the Mahabharata, we have one such story. The battle was finalised between Kauravas and Pandavas.
Both the parties were making efforts’ to win the favour of their relatives and other king. Krishna who was
related to both was considered as a super man, possessing the qualities of gods. So, Duryodhana, the
eldest of the Kauravas approached him. On the same day Arjuna, one of the five Pandavas, also went to
Krishna. Duryodhana was a proud fellow. He sat on the head-side of Krishna who was sleeping at that time.
Arjuna, a humble fellow, reached there after Duryodhana. But he sat at the feet side of Krishna and began
pressing his feet. As Krishna opened his eyes, he saw Aijuna. Krishna had already promised them that he
would be from the side of the man who would reach him first. As krishna saw Arjuna first he said that he
would be in favour of Arjuna. Duryodhana opposed it because he had reached there first. Krishna said that
those who want to get something from anyone then should be humble and courteous. Here, Duryodhana
lost Krishna. We learn from this story that we should not show our arrogance to those from whom we ask
for something.

I.MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

Choose the correct option to complete the statements given below:

(i) The iron Pillar is situated at………………


(a) Junagarh (b) Mehrauli
(c) Aihole (d) Ahmedabad.

(ii) The height of the Iron Pillar is ……………. .


(a) 7.2 m (b) 8.2 m
(c) 9.2 m (d) 10.2 m.

(iii)The small box placed at the centre or heart of the stupa is known as a………………………
(a) Relic casket (b) Sacred box
(c) Trunk (d) None of the above.

(iv) The puranas contained stories about …………………


(a) Kings and queens (b) Gautam Buddha
(c) Mahatma Gandhi (d) Gods and goddesses.
(v) Sanskrit Ramayana is written by ………………
(a) Valmiki (b) Vyasa
(c) Tulsidas (d) Vishnu Sharma.

Ans. (i)—(b), (ii)—(a), (iii)—(a), (iv)—(d), (v)—(a).

II.FILL IN THE BLANKS

Fill in the blanks with appropriate words to complete each sentence.

(i) The ………. at Aihole was built about 1400 years ago
(ii)The small box placed at the centre of the stupa contains bodily remains of the and his followers.
(iii)The……. were recited in temples by priests and people came to listen to them.
(iv) Both the……….. and the…………. are supposed to have been composed by Vyasa.
(v)developed a scientific explanation for eclipses.

Ans: (i) Durga temple (ii) Buddha


(iii) Vedas (iu) Puranas, Mahabharata
(u) Aryabhatta

III.TRUE/FALSE

State whether these sentences are true (T) or false (F).

(i) Most temples of this period had a hall like structure known as the mandapa.
(ii) Mahabalipuram and Aihole are known for the finest stone temples.
(iii) Merchant and farmers usually decided to build stupas and temples during this period.
(iv) The Tamil epic the Silappadikaram was composed by a poet named Ilango.
(v) Meghaduta is a famous poem compsed by Tulsidas.
(vi) Women and Shudras could hear the stories of the Puranas.
(vii) It was Ravana who abducted Rama’s wife Sita.
(viii) The Jatakas and the Panchatantra are collections of stories told by birds and animals.
(ix) Aryabhatta was a famous story-letter.
(x)The Bhagavad Gita is a part of the Ramayana.

Ans. (i) True, (ii) True, (iii) False, (iv) True, (v) False, (vi) True, (vii) True, (viii) False, (ix) False, (x) False.

IV.MATCHING SKILL
Match the items in column A correctly with those given in column B.

Ans. (i)—(b), (ii)—(d), (iii)—(a), (iv)—(e), (v)—(c).

V. VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

1. When was the Iron Pillar made?


Ans: It was made about 1500 years ago.

2. Mention the most striking feature of the Iron Pillar.


Ans: The Pillar has not rusted in all these years.

3. What do you mean by the word ‘Stupa’? [V. Imp.]


Ans: The word Stupa means a mound. It is a Buddhist religious building.

4. Why did devotees walk around the stupa in a clockwise direction?


Ans: They did so to show their devotion.

5. Why was Amaravati famous?


Ans: Amaravati was a place where a magnificent stupa once existed.

6. Marne the deities worshipped in the earliest Hindu temples.


Ans: Vishnu, Shiva and Durga.

7. What was the garbhagriha?


Ans: It was a room in the temple during this period.

8. Why was the garbhagriha so important? [V. Imp.]


Ans: The image of the chief deity was place in the garbhagriha. Also, the priests performed religious rituals
here.

9. What was the shikhara?


Ans:It was a tower built on the top of the garbhagriha to mark this out as a sacred place.

10. What do you know about the monolithic temples at Mahabalipuram?


Ans: Each of these temples was carved out of a huge, single piece of stone.
11. Why did only Kings or queens decide to build stupas and temples?
Ans: Building stupas and temples was an expensive affair. Ordinary people could not think about it.

12. How were the gifts brought by the devotees used?


Ans: The gifts brought by the devotees were used to decorate stupas and temples.

13. How were paintings done in the dark caves?


Ans: The caves were dark. Therefore paintings were done there in the torch light.

14. What are epics? Give examples. ‘ [V. Imp.]


Ans: Epics are grand, long compositions about the heroic deeds of men and women, They include stories
about gods as well. Example—the Mahabharata, the Ramayana.

15. Which gods and goddesses were mentioned in the stories of the Puranas?
Ans: Vishnu, Shiva, Durga or Parvati were mentioned in the stories of the Puranas.

16. How were the Puranas different from the Vedas?


Ans: Women and Shudras were not allowed to study the Vedas but these people could read and hear the
verses of the Puranas.

17. Where are the stories told by ordinary people preserved? [V. Imp.]
Ans: The stories told by ordinary people are preserved in the Jatakas and the Pcmchatantra.

18. Name the book written by Aryabhatta In which language is it written?


Ans: This book is Aryabhatiyam. It is written in Sanskrit.

VI. SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

1. Write a few lines on the Iron Pillar located at Mehrauli, Delhi


Ans:

 The Iron Pillar located at Mehrauli, Delhi was made about 1500 years ago.
 It is made of iron. Its height is 7.2 m and its weight is over 3 tones.
 It was probably built during the Gupta dynasty.
 It is amazing that the pillar has not rusted in all these years.
 The pillar is a remarkable example of the skill of Indian crafts people.
 The pillar is famous all over the world.

2. How were stupas and temples built? [V. Imp.]


Ans: Building stupas and temples was not an ordinary job. It needed huge wealth which only kings or
queens could afford.

There were several stages in building a stupa or a temple. Firstly, good quality stone had to be found,
quarried and transported to the place that was often carefully selected for the new building. Secondly, these
rough blocks of stone had to be shaped and covered into pillars, and panels for walls, floors and ceilings.
Thirdly, these had to be placed in precisely the right position.Kings and queens spend money from their
treasury to pay the crafts persons.

3. What are the main features of Ajantapaintings? [V. Imp.]


Ans:

 The paintings of Ajanta are world famous. Ajanta is a place where several caves were hollowed out of
the hills over centuries.
 Most of these were Buddhist monasteries while some of them were decorated with paintings.
 The caves are dark inside and therefore most of these paintings were done in the light of torches.
 The colours are vivid even after 1500 years.
 These colours were made of plants and minerals.

4. Write in brief about Kalidasa’s Meghaduta. [Imp.]


Ans: Kalidasa’s Meghaduta is a best-known poem. It is one of his best literary creation. It is in Sanskrit. It
was written during the Gupta reign. There is a description of monsoon in this famous book. The monsoon
cloud is imagined to be a messenger between lovers who are separated from one another.

The poet beautifully describes the breeze that will carry the cloud northwards. It is a cool breeze. It blows
with fragrance of the earth. It is delightful, swollen by the cloud’s showers. Elephants inhale it deeply. It
causes the wild figs to ripen. It blows gently with the cloud. This description is veiy sensuous and appealing.
It creates a real picture of the cloud and the breeze. Kalidasa was really a poet at par.

5. What are Puranas? Mention some of their features.


Ans: The term Purana literary means old. The Puranans are collections of old Hindu religions stories. Here
are some of their features:

 They contain stories about gods and goddesses such as


 Vishnu, Shiva, Durga or Parvati.
 .They also contain details on how these deities were to be worshipped.
 There are accounts as well about the creation of the world and about kings.
 Puranas unlike Vedas could be read and heard by everybody including women and Shudras

6. Describe the contribution of Aryabhatta to Science. [V. Imp.]

Ans: The name of Aryabhatta emerged during this period. He became famous as a mathematician and
astronomer. He wrote a book in Sanskrit known as the Aryabhatiyam. He stated that day and night were
caused by the rotation of the earth on its axis, even though it seems as if the sun is rising and setting
everybody. He developed a scientific explanation for eclipses as well. He also found a way of calculating
the circumference of a circle, which is nearly as accurate as the formula we use today.

VII.LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

1. What are stupas? Mention some of their striking features.


Ans: Stupas are Buddhist religious buildings made of brick and stone. There are several kinds of stupas.
 Some are round and tall while some are big and small. Here are some striking features of stupas.
 There is a small box, known as a relic casket, placed at the centre or heart of the stupa. The box
contains bodily remains of the Buddha or his followers, or things they used, as well as precious
stones and coins.
 This box was covered with earth. Later, a layer of mud brick or baked brick was added on top. And
then, the dome like structure was sometimes covered with carved stone slabs. ‘

 A path called the pradakshina patha was laid around the stupa. This was surrounded with railings.
Entrance to the path was through gateways.
 Devotees walked around the stupa in a clockwise direction, as a mark of devotion.

2. Describe the earliest Hindu temples.


Ans: Some Hindu temples were also built during this period. The deities worshipped in these shrines were
Vishnu, Shiva and Durga. The most important part of the temples was the garbhagriha, which was a room
where the image of the chief deity was placed. It was at this place that priests performed religious rituals
and devotees offered worship to the deity.

The garbhagriha had a tower known as the shikhara built on its top. This marked the place as a sacred one.
Building shikharas require careful planning. Most temples also had a mandapa. This was a hall like
structure meant for the common people to assemble.

Mahabalipuram and Aihole in south India were famous for their temples. These were stone temples. The
monolithic temples of Mahabalipuram were very beautiful. Each of these temples was carved out of a huge,
single piece of stone. It is therefore they are known as monoliths. The Durga temple at Aihole was built
about 1400 years ago.

3. Describe the two Sanskrit epics the Mahabharata and Ramayana.


Or Why are the epics like Mahabharata and Ramayana so popular even today?
Ans. The Mahabharata and Ramayana are the most popular of the epics and other religious books of the
Hindus. They are also famous among the followers of other religion. The causes for their popularity are
almost the same. The story of the Mahabharata tells family drama followed by a great war between the two
groups of the same family, the Kauravas and Pandavas. Here, we learn how are fights for the right cause.
The Pandavas are dethroned and banished diplomatically by their cousin Duryodhana. They are always
subjected to humiliation and injustice. Finally, they are put in a great battle to get their own right. In the
Mahabharata we know how much tolerance one should have, how one can fight for a justified cause, how
we should respect our elders, etc. There are so many teachings of ideal life in it. The Gita, which constitute
a part of the Mahabharata is in itself considered as a great epic. It unfolds all the mysteries of life, the life
before and the life after.
In the same way the Ramayana, written in the most popular language of the time, teaches us the high
ideals of life. Rama, the most prominent character, shows how man should follow the ideals of life. He
possesses all the virtues of a highly idealistic and realistic human being. He follows the system in a humble
way. He fights for the justice and his right. This story is told in a very realistic way. It seems to be the story
of a common man. So, it has a great appeal in our society till today.
NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Hindi Chapter 9 – टिकि
अलबम
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NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Hindi Chapter 13 – मैं
सबसे छोिी होऊं

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NCERT Solutions for Class 6th Social Science


Geography Chapter 5 Major Domains of the Earth
1. Answer the following questions briefly.
(a)What are the four major domains of the earth?
(b)Name the major continents of the earth.
(c)Name the two continents that lie entirely in the Southern Hemisphere.
(d)Name the different layers of atmosphere.
(e)Why is the earth called the ‘blue planet’?
(f ) Why is the Northern Hemisphere called the land Hemisphere?
(g) Why is the biosphere important for living organisms?
Answer: (a)The four major domains of the earth are—Lithosphere, Atmosphere,
Hydrosphere and Biosphere.
(b)Asia, Europe, Africa, North America, South America, Australia and Antarctica.
(c)Australia and Antarctica.
(d)Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Thermosphere and Exosphere.
(e)More than 71% of the earth is covered with water. Hence, its is known as the ‘blue planet’.
(f)The greater part of the landmass lies in the Northern Hemisphere. Hence, it is called the land
Hemisphere.
(g)Biosphere is important for living organisms because it is here that three essential elements of life (land,
water and air) are found.

2.Tick the correct answer.


(a)The mountain range that separates Europe from Asia is
(i) the Andes (ii) the Himalayas (iii) the Urals.
(b)The continent of North America is linked to South America by
(i) an Isthmus (ii) a Strait (iii) a Canal.
(c)The major constituent of atmosphere by percent is
(i) Nitrogen (ii) Oxygen (iii) Carbon dioxide.
(d)The domain of the earth consisting of solid rocksis
(i) the Atmosphere (ii) the Hydrosphere (iii) the Lithosphere.
(e)Which the largest continent?
(i) Africa (ii) Asia (iii) Australia
Answer: (a)—(iii), (b)—(i), (c)—(i), (d)—(iii), (e)—(ii).

3.Fill in the blanks.


(a)The deepest point on the earth is ……….. in the Pacific Ocean.
(b)The……… Ocean is named after a country.
(c)The……… is a narrow contact zone of land, water and air that supports life.
(d)The continents of Europe and Asia together are known as…………….
(e)The highest mountain peak on the earth is…………….
Answer: (a)Mariana Trench, (b) Indian, (c) Biosphere, (d) Eurasia, (e) Everest.

Things to do
1. Cut the outline of the continents from an outline map of the world and arrange them according to
their decreasing sizes.
Answer: For’ self-attempt.

2. Cut the outline of the continents from an outline map of the world and try to fit them together as a
jig-saw puzzle.
Answer: For self-attempt.
3. Collect pictures of expeditions to the Himalayas. Write about the kind of equipment carried by the
climbers for protection against sunshine, temperature and the lack of air.
Answer: The mountaineers carry oxygen cylinders to be able to breath at high altitudes. They wear special
jacket to avoid temperature. They also wear sunglasses and cap to save themselves from the scorching
heat of the sun.

I.Multiple Choice Questions


Choose the correct option to complete the sentences given below:
(i) Life exists in this zone:
(a) Lithosphere (b) Biosphere
(c) Hydrosphere (d) Atmosphere.
(ii) It is the only continent through which the tropic of Cancer, the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn pass:
(a) Asia (b) Europe
(c) Africa (d) North America.
(iii) It is world’s longest mountain range
(a) The Mt. Everest (b) The Ural Mountains
(c) The Karakoram range (d) The Andes.
(iv)Which ocean is ‘S’ shaped?
(a) The Pacific Ocean (b) The Atlantic Ocean
(c) The Indian Ocean (d) The Arctic Ocean.
(v) Which one is not the layer of Atmosphere?
(a) The Biosphere (b) The Trosphere •
(c) The Stratosphere (d) The Mesosphere.
(vi) It is called an island continent
(a) South America (b) Antarctica
(c) Africa (d) Australia.
Answer: (i)— (b), (ii)—(c), (iii)—(d), (iv)—(b), (v)—(a), (vi)—(d).
II.Fill in the Blanks
Fill in the blanks with appropriate words to complete each sentence:
(i) The South Pole lies almost at the centre of………………..
(ii) Africa is the second largest continent after ……………..
(iii) The world’s longest river the Nile flows through ………………
(iv) The hydrosphere comprises water in the form of………………. , water and ………….
(v) The Arctic Ocean is connected with the Pacific Ocean by a narrow stretch of shallow water
known as ……………
(vi) The Pacific Ocean is …………. in shape.
(vii)’ The Coastline of Atlantic Ocean is highly ……………….
(viii) Europe lies to the …………. of Asia.
Answer: (i) Antarctica(ii) Asia (iii) Africa (iv) ice, water vapour (v) Berring Strait (vi) circular (vii) indented
(viii) west.

III. True/False
State whether these sentences aretrue (T) or false (F).
(i)The shape of the Pacific Ocean is almost triangular.
(ii)A veiy small part of Africa lies in the Northern Hemisphere.
(iii)The level of seawater remains the same everywhere.
(iv) Air moves from low pressure to high pressure.
(vi) Carbon dioxide is an important constituent of air.
(vii) The atmosphere is composed mainly of nitrogen and oxygen.
Answer: (i) False, (ii) False, (iii) True, (iv) False, (v) True, (vi) True.

IV.Matching Skill
Match the items in column A correctly with those given in column B.

V.Very Short Answer Type Questions


1. Which is larger—Europe or Australia?
Answer: Europe is larger than Australia.

2. How is nitrogen a significant gas?


Answer: Nitrogen helps in the growth of living organisms.

3. What is the Junction of carbon dioxide?


Answer: Carbon dioxide absorbs the heat radiated by the earth and thus keeps the planet warm.

4. What is the height of the Mt. Everest?


Answer: The height of the Mt. Everest is 8,848 metres.
5. In which Hemisphere does Asia lie?
Answer: Asia lies in the Eastern Hemisphere.

6. Name the world’s largest hot desert. Where is it located?


Answer: The Sahara desert. It is located in Africa.

7. How is North America linked to South America? [Imp.]


Answer: North America is linked to South America by a narrow strip of land called the Isthmus of Panama.

8. Name the Oceans that surround the continent—North America.


Answer: The Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean and the Arctic Ocean.

9. Which two oceans surround South America on the east and the west?
Answer: On the east—the Atlantic Ocean On the west—the Pacific Ocean.

10. Name the research stations of India in Antarctica.


Answer: Maitri and Dakshin Gangotri.

11. What percent of the earth is covered with water? [Imp.]


Answer: More than 71 per cent of the earth is covered with water.

12. What percent of earth is covered with land?


Answer: 29 per cent of earth is covered with land

13. How much of the earth’s water is found in the oceans?


Answer: More than 97 percent of the earth’s water is found in the ocean.

14. Why is the ocean water not fit for human use? [Imp.]
Answer: It is because the ocean water is very salty.

15.Why do the mountaineers carry with them oxygen cylinders?[Imp*]


Answer: The mountaineers carry with them oxygen cylinders so that they can easily breathe at high
altitudes.

16. What is the nature of the temperature?


Answer: The temperature decreases as we go upwards.

17. Name the continents that surround the pacific ocean.


Answer: Asia, Australia, North America and South America.

18. Which is the busiest ocean from the point of view of commerce?
Answer: The Atlantic ocean is the busiest ocean from the point of view of commerce.
19. Mention two reasons of fast removal of soil from stops. [V. Imp.l
Answer: (i)Cutting of forests for wood.
(ii)Clearing land for agriculture.

20. What happened to Andaman and Nicobar islands during Tsunami? [V. Imp.]
Answer: Parts of these islands were submerged under water during Tsunami.

21. What makes the water of lakes and rivers unsuitable for human use?
Answer: Discharge of waste material into lakes and rivers makes the water unsuitable for human use.

22. Mention any two reasons of air pollution.


Answer: (i) Emission from industries
(ii)Emission from vehicles.

V.Short Answer Type Questions


1. Mention the three main components of the environment. [V. Imp.]
Answer: The three main components of the environment are – the lithosphere, the atmosphere and the
hydrosphere. The lithosphere is the solid portion of the earth. The gaseous layers that surround the earth is
the atmosphere. The atmosphere is made up of oxygen, nitrogen, carbondioxide and other gases. The
hydrosphere refers to the big area of water that covers the earth’s surface. This water is in the forms of ice,
water and water vapour.

2. Write a short note on the ‘hydrosphere’.


Answer: The hydrosphere refers to the water bodies that are found on the earth’s surface. More than 71%
of the earth is covered with water. This water is found in all its forms—ice, water and water vapour. Running
water in oceans and rivers and in lakes, ice in glaciers, underground water and the water vapour in
atmosphere. More than 97% of the earth’s water is found in oceans. The ocean water is very salty, hence
not of human utility. A large proportion of the rest of water is in the form of the icesheets and glaciers or
under the ground. A very small percentage (0.03%) is available as fresh water. It is this water that we use.

3. Explain biosphere—the domain of life. [V. Imp.]


Answer: The biosphere is a narrow zone of the earth where land, water and air interact with each other to
support life. It is in this zone that life exists. There are several species of organisms that vary in size from
microbes and bacteria to large mammals. All living organisms including humans are linked to each other
and to the biosphere for survival.

4.Give an account of the composition of atmosphere. Also discuss the importance of the
components. [V. Imp.]
Answer: The atmosphere is composed mainly of nitrogen, and oxygen. Together they make up about 99%
of clean, dry air. Nitrogen 78% and oxygen 21%. Apart from these two major gases, there are other gases
too in the atmosphere. These gases include carbon dioxide, argon and others comprise 1% by volume. ‘
Oxygen is the breath of life while nitrogen helps in the growth of living organisms. Carbon dioxide absorbs
heat radiated by the earth. In this way, it keeps the planet warm. It is also essential for the growth of plants.

5. What is atmosphere? Write about its different layers.


Answer: The atmosphere is a thin blanket of air that surrounds the earth. It provides us with the air we
breathe and protects us from the harmful effects of sun’s rays. The atmosphere extends upto a height of
about 1,600 km. The atmosphere is divided into five layers based on composition, temperature and other
properties. These layers are—the troposphere, the stratosphere, the mesosphere, the themosphere and
the exosphere.

VI.Long Answer Type Questions


1. Give the details of all the major continents. [V. Imp.]
Answer: There are seven major continents—Asia, Europe, Africa, North America, South America, Australia
and Antarctica.
1.Asia is the largest continent. It covers about one third of the total land area of the earth. It lies in the
Eastern Hemisphere. The Tropic of Cancer passes through this continent. Asia is separated from Europe
by the Ural mountains on the west. The combined land mass of Europe and Asia is called the Eurasia
(Europe + Asia).
2.Europe.This continent lies to the west of Asia. The Arctic circle passes through it. It is bound by water
bodies on three sides.
3.Africa.It is the second largest continent after Asia. The Equator or 0° latitude runs almost through the
middle of the continent. A large part of Africa lies in the Northern Hemisphere. It is the only continent
through which the Tropic of Cancer, the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn pass. It is bound on all sides
by oceans and seas. The world’s largest hot desert, i.e. the Sahara Desert lies in this continent. The world’s
longest river the Nile flows through it.
4.North America. It is the third largest continent of the world. It is linked to South America by a very narrow
strip of land called the Isthmus of Panama. This continent lies completely in the Northern and Western
Hemisphere.
5.South America. It lies mostly in the Southern Hemisphere. The Andes, world’s longest mountain range,
runs through its length from north to south. The world’s largest river, the Amazon flows through this
continent.
6. Astralia. It is the smallest continent. It lies entirely in the Southern Hemisphere.
7.Antarctica.It lies completely in the Southern Hemisphere. It is a large continent. The South Pole lies
almost at the centre of this continent It is permanently covered with thick ice sheets because it is located in
the South Polar region. Permanent human settlement is not found here.

NCERT Solutions for Class 6th Social Science Civics


Chapter 5 Panchayati raj
1. What problem did the villagers in Hardas village face? What did they do to solve this problem?
Ans:The villagers in Hardas village faced water problem. The hand-pump water had gone well below the
point up to which the ground had been drilled. They hardly got water in the taps. The villagers gathered
together in the Gram Sabha meeting to find a solution of the problem. After long discussions, they came to
a conclusion that they should find ways to conserve water. Watershed development programme would be
effective in this direction. They should plant trees, construct check-dams and tanks.

2. What in your opinion, is the importance of the Gram Sabha? Do you think all members should
attend Gram Sabha meetings? Why?
Ans: The Gram Sabha is the most important body of the Panchayati Raj System. It is responsible for the
planning out the strategies for the development of village, implementation of the ruling provisions. It also
looks after the basic amenities of village people. It is also the custodian of the public property of the village.
Education, law and order, primary health services are some of the other responsibilities of the Gram Sabha.
It also checks the wrong decisions taken by the Gram Panchayat. It keeps an eye on the elected
representative and in making them responsible to the persons who elected them.
It is important for all members to attend Gram Sabha meetings because it is the only way to participate in
the proceedings of various plans discussed in the meetings. The members of Gram Sabha represent
different areas. So, it is important for them to put their local problems and development programmes in the
meetings. If they remain absent from the meetings, their interests may be overlooked.

3. What is the link between a Gram Sabha and a Gram Panchayat?


Ans:A Gram Sabha consists of all adults living in an area covered by a Panchayat. Sarpanch, the
Panchayat president, is elected by all the members of a Gram Sabha. The Gram Panchayat has a
secretary who is also the secretary of Gram Sabha. The Secretary is not an elected authority but is
appointed by the government. The secretary is the link between the Gram Panchayat and Gram Sabha. He
is responsible for calling the meetings of Gram Sabha and Gram Panchayat He is also the custodian of the
records of the proceedings. Gram Sabha controls the functioning of the Gram Panchayat.

4. Take an example of any one task done by a Panchayat in your area/nearby rural area and find out
the following :

1. Why it was taken up.


2. Where the money come from.
3. Whether or not the work has been completed.

Ans:

1. Our Panchayat recently undertook the task of building a community hall. It was necessary because
there was no such common place where people could gather at a time. It was difficult to hold a
general meeting, organise a general function, etc.
2. The money was collected as contribution from the villagers and some part of it was also diverted from
the Panchayat welfare fund.
3. Yes, the work has been completed within the projected time and it is now in use.

5. What is the difference between a Gram Sabha and a Gram Panchayat?


Ans:

1. Gram Sabha consists of all the adults of a village while Gram Panchayat is elected by the members of
the Gram Sabha for a period of five years.
2. The area of Gram Sabha is the entire village whereas Gram Panchayat is divided into wards
represented by Ward Councillors.
3. Gram Sabha puts control over Gram Panchayat.
6. Read the following news item:
Nimone is a village on the Chauphula-Shirur Road. Like many others, this village has also been
facing a severe water shortage for the last few months and villages depend on tankers for all their
needs. Bhagvan Mahadeo Lad (35) of this village was beaten with sticks, iron rods and axes by a
group of seven men. The incident came to light when some villagers brought a badly injured Lad to
hospital for treatment. In the FIR recorded by the police Lad said that he was attacked when he
insisted that the water in the tanker must’be emptied into the storage tanks
constructed as part of the water supply scheme by Nlmone Gram Panchayat so that there would be
equal distribution of water. However, he alleged that the upper caste men were against this and told
him that the tanker water was not meant for lower castes.
Adapted, from Indian Express, ‘ May 1, 2004

1. Why was Bhagvan beaten?


2. Do you think that the above is a case of discrimination? Why?

Ans:

1. There was acute water crisis in Nimone village and the villagers had to depend on tankers for their
needs. So, when the tanker came in the village, Bhagvan insisted that the water in the tanker must be
emptied into the storage tanks constructed as part of the water supply scheme by Nimone Gram
Panchayat so that there would be equal distribution of water. But the upper caste men were against
this and therefore they beat Bhagvan to suppress his demand.
2. Yes, the above is a case of discrimination, because the upper caste men tries to suppress the
genuine demand of the lower castes. They look them down upon and ignore their existence.

7. Find out more about watershed development and how it benefits an area?
Ans: Wastershed Development Programme is an initiative of the goverment. It is done by the Non-
govenment Organisation (NGOs). It helps in conservation of water by plantation, making bundns, canals
etc.

I.MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

Choose the correct option to complete the statements given below:

(i) The members of the Gram Sabha must be adults. It means they must be of
(a) 18 years or more (b) 20 years or more
(c) 22 years or more (d) 25 years.
(ii) The people of Hardas village are facing the problem of…………..
(a) Electricity (b) Unemployment
(c) Water shortages (d) None of the above.
(iii)The work of the Gram Panchayat has to be approved by the …………..
(a) Members of the Gram Sabha (b) Zila Parishad (c) Ward Member (d) Gram Sabha.
(iv) Which one is not the source of funds for the Panchayat?
(a) Collection of taxes on houses, market places etc.
(b) Donations for community works etc.
(c) Donations contributed by the villagers for village welfare works
(d) Government scheme funds received through various departments of the government through
the Janpad and Zila Panchayats.
(v) The Panchayatl Raj System is the
(a) First level of democratic government (b) Second level of democratic government
(c) Third level of democratic government
(d) Fourth level of democratic government.

NCERT Solutions for Class 6th Social Science


Civics Chapter 5 Panchayati raj
December 27, 2015 by phani 41 Comments

NCERT Solutions for Class 6th Social Science Civics


Chapter 5 Panchayati raj
1. What problem did the villagers in Hardas village face? What did they do to solve this problem?
Ans:The villagers in Hardas village faced water problem. The hand-pump water had gone well below the
point up to which the ground had been drilled. They hardly got water in the taps. The villagers gathered
together in the Gram Sabha meeting to find a solution of the problem. After long discussions, they came to
a conclusion that they should find ways to conserve water. Watershed development programme would be
effective in this direction. They should plant trees, construct check-dams and tanks.

2. What in your opinion, is the importance of the Gram Sabha? Do you think all members should
attend Gram Sabha meetings? Why?
Ans: The Gram Sabha is the most important body of the Panchayati Raj System. It is responsible for the
planning out the strategies for the development of village, implementation of the ruling provisions. It also
looks after the basic amenities of village people. It is also the custodian of the public property of the village.
Education, law and order, primary health services are some of the other responsibilities of the Gram Sabha.
It also checks the wrong decisions taken by the Gram Panchayat. It keeps an eye on the elected
representative and in making them responsible to the persons who elected them.
It is important for all members to attend Gram Sabha meetings because it is the only way to participate in
the proceedings of various plans discussed in the meetings. The members of Gram Sabha represent
different areas. So, it is important for them to put their local problems and development programmes in the
meetings. If they remain absent from the meetings, their interests may be overlooked.

3. What is the link between a Gram Sabha and a Gram Panchayat?


Ans:A Gram Sabha consists of all adults living in an area covered by a Panchayat. Sarpanch, the
Panchayat president, is elected by all the members of a Gram Sabha. The Gram Panchayat has a
secretary who is also the secretary of Gram Sabha. The Secretary is not an elected authority but is
appointed by the government. The secretary is the link between the Gram Panchayat and Gram Sabha. He
is responsible for calling the meetings of Gram Sabha and Gram Panchayat He is also the custodian of the
records of the proceedings. Gram Sabha controls the functioning of the Gram Panchayat.

4. Take an example of any one task done by a Panchayat in your area/nearby rural area and find out
the following :
1. Why it was taken up.
2. Where the money come from.
3. Whether or not the work has been completed.

Ans:

1. Our Panchayat recently undertook the task of building a community hall. It was necessary because
there was no such common place where people could gather at a time. It was difficult to hold a
general meeting, organise a general function, etc.
2. The money was collected as contribution from the villagers and some part of it was also diverted from
the Panchayat welfare fund.
3. Yes, the work has been completed within the projected time and it is now in use.

5. What is the difference between a Gram Sabha and a Gram Panchayat?


Ans:

1. Gram Sabha consists of all the adults of a village while Gram Panchayat is elected by the members of
the Gram Sabha for a period of five years.
2. The area of Gram Sabha is the entire village whereas Gram Panchayat is divided into wards
represented by Ward Councillors.
3. Gram Sabha puts control over Gram Panchayat.

6. Read the following news item:


Nimone is a village on the Chauphula-Shirur Road. Like many others, this village has also been
facing a severe water shortage for the last few months and villages depend on tankers for all their
needs. Bhagvan Mahadeo Lad (35) of this village was beaten with sticks, iron rods and axes by a
group of seven men. The incident came to light when some villagers brought a badly injured Lad to
hospital for treatment. In the FIR recorded by the police Lad said that he was attacked when he
insisted that the water in the tanker must’be emptied into the storage tanks
constructed as part of the water supply scheme by Nlmone Gram Panchayat so that there would be
equal distribution of water. However, he alleged that the upper caste men were against this and told
him that the tanker water was not meant for lower castes.
Adapted, from Indian Express, ‘ May 1, 2004

1. Why was Bhagvan beaten?


2. Do you think that the above is a case of discrimination? Why?

Ans:

1. There was acute water crisis in Nimone village and the villagers had to depend on tankers for their
needs. So, when the tanker came in the village, Bhagvan insisted that the water in the tanker must be
emptied into the storage tanks constructed as part of the water supply scheme by Nimone Gram
Panchayat so that there would be equal distribution of water. But the upper caste men were against
this and therefore they beat Bhagvan to suppress his demand.
2. Yes, the above is a case of discrimination, because the upper caste men tries to suppress the
genuine demand of the lower castes. They look them down upon and ignore their existence.
7. Find out more about watershed development and how it benefits an area?
Ans: Wastershed Development Programme is an initiative of the goverment. It is done by the Non-
govenment Organisation (NGOs). It helps in conservation of water by plantation, making bundns, canals
etc.

I.MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

Choose the correct option to complete the statements given below:

(i) The members of the Gram Sabha must be adults. It means they must be of
(a) 18 years or more (b) 20 years or more
(c) 22 years or more (d) 25 years.
(ii) The people of Hardas village are facing the problem of…………..
(a) Electricity (b) Unemployment
(c) Water shortages (d) None of the above.
(iii)The work of the Gram Panchayat has to be approved by the …………..
(a) Members of the Gram Sabha (b) Zila Parishad (c) Ward Member (d) Gram Sabha.
(iv) Which one is not the source of funds for the Panchayat?
(a) Collection of taxes on houses, market places etc.
(b) Donations for community works etc.
(c) Donations contributed by the villagers for village welfare works
(d) Government scheme funds received through various departments of the government through
the Janpad and Zila Panchayats.
(v) The Panchayatl Raj System is the
(a) First level of democratic government (b) Second level of democratic government
(c) Third level of democratic government
(d) Fourth level of democratic government.

Ans: (i)—(c), (ii)—(e), (iii)—(d), (iv)—(c), (v)—(a).

II.FILL IN THE BLANKS

Fill in the blanks with appropriate words to complete each sentence:

(i) The Gram Panchayat is elected for ……… years.


(ii) The Panchs and the Gram Panchayat are answerable to the…………….
(iii) Every village Panchayat is divided into ……….
(iv) The people of Hardas village suggested ……… development programme for the permanent
solution of their problem.
(v) The Gram Panchayat’s main tasle is to implement ………….. programmes for all villages that
come under it.
Ans. (i) Five (ii) Gram Sabha
(iii) Wards (iv) watershed

III.TRUE/FAISE
State whether these sentences are true (T) or false (F).

(i) The Secretary of the Gram Sabha is an elected person.


(ii) There is no link between the Gram Sabha and the Gram Panchayat.
(iii) It is the Gram Sabha that keeps control on the Gram Panchayat.
(iv) The Gram Panchayat meets regularly in order to perform its task efficiently and within given
time limit.
(v) The Gram Panchayat does not collect any local taxes.
Ans. (i) False, (ii) False, (iii) True, (iv) True, (d) False.

IV.MATCHING SKILL

Ans: (i)—(d), (ii)—(c), (iii)—(e), (iv)—(a),

I.VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

1. Who calls the meeting of the Gram Sabha and Gram Panchayat? [V. Imp.]
Ans: It is the Secretary who calls the meeting of the Gram Sabha and Gram Panchayat.

2. What problems do the women of Hardas village face?


Ans: The women of Hardas village have to go to the Suru river which is 3 km away to fetch water.

3. Why is Tijia in favour of some permanent solution to the problem of water shortages?
Ans: Because groundwater levels seem to be going down every year

4.What does Anwar suggest?


Ans: Anwar suggests for watershed development programme.

5.What was the next agenda for the Gram Sabha?


Ans: The finalisation of the list of people below the poverty line (BPL).

6. Why is the Nirmal Gram Puruskar awarded and to whom?


Ans: The Nirmal Gram Puruskar is awarded to the village Panch/panchs for the excellent work done by
him/them in the Panchayat.

7. What is Panchayati Reg System? [V. Imp.]


Ans: Panchayati Raj System is a process through which people participate in their own government.
8. Why are the Panchs and the Gram Panchayat answerable to Gram Sabha?
Ans: Because the members of the Gram Sabha elect them.

VI. SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

1. What various works does a Gram Panchayat do? [V. Imp.]


Ans: A Gram Panchayat does various works. These works include

 The construction and maintenance of water sources, roads, drainage, school buildings and other
common property resources.
 Levying and collecting local taxes.
 Executing government schemes related to generating employment in the village.

2. What are the sources of funds for the Gram Panchayat? [V. Imp.]
Ans: The sources of funds for the Gram Panchayat are:

 Collection of taxes on houses, market places etc.


 Government scheme funds received through various departments of the government through the
Janpad and Zila Panchayats.
 Donations for community works etc.

3. What are the functions of the Zila Parishad?


Ans: The functions of the Zila Parishad Eire :

 It makes developmental plans at the district level.


 With the help of Panchayat Samitis, it also regulates the money distribution among all the Gram
Panchayats.

4. Write a brief note on the three levels of Panchayats. [V. Imp.]


Ans: The Panchayati Raj System is a process through which people participate in their own government.
The Panchayati Raj System is the first tier or level of democratic government. It extends to two other levels.
One is the Block level, which is called the Janpad Panchayat or the Panchayat Samiti. Above the
Panchayat Samiti is the District Panchayat or the Zila Parishad.

5. Why do Gram Sabhas in some states from committees? [Imp*]


Ans: In some states, Gram Sabhas from committees like construction and development committees. These
committees includes some members of the Gram Sabha and some from the Gram Panchayat who work
together to carry out specific tasks.

6. Write a short note on the Gram Sabha.


Ans: The Gram Sabha is a meeting of all adults who live in the area covered by a Panchayat. This could be
only one village or a few villages. In some states, a village meeting is held for each village. Anyone who is
18 years old or more and who has the right to vote is a member of the Gram Sabha.

VII. LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


1. Describe the composition of a Vintage Panchayat. [V. Imp.]
Ans: A Village Panchayat is divided into wards. Each ward elects a representative who is known as the
Ward Member, also called Panch. All the members of the Gram Sabha also elect a Sarpanch who is called
Panchayat President. The Ward Panchs and the Sarpanch from the Gram Panchayat. The tenure of the
Gram Panchayat is five years.
The Gram Panchayat and Gram Sabha have a common Secretary. He is a person whom the government
appoints. Thus, he is not an elected person. The Secretary is responsible for calling the meeting of the
Gram Sabha and Gram Panchayat. He also keeps records of the proceedings of the meeting.

2. Describe the Functions of the Gram Sabha. [V. Imp.]


Ans: The Gram Sabha performs various tasks:

 It keeps control on the Gram Panchayat. It makes the Gram Panchayat play its role and be
responsible.
 It is the place where all plans for the work of the Gram Panchayat are placed before the people.
 The Gram Sabha prevents the Panchayat from doing wrong things which may include misusing
money, or favouring certain people.
 It keeps an eye on the elected representatives and in making them responsible to the persons who
elected them.

NCERT Solutions for Class 6th Social Science Civics


Chapter 6 Rural Administration
1. What is the work of the police?
Ans: The police maintain law and order to establish peace in the society. By doing this, the police provide
security to the general public.

2. List two things that the work of a Patwari includes.


Ans: • Patwari measures land and keeps land records.

 He organises the collection of land revenue from the farmers and provides information to the
government about the crops grown in the area.

3. What is the work of a Tehsildar?


Ans: A Tehsildar has to hear the disputes. He also supervises the work of the Patwari and ensures that
records are properly kept and land revenue is collected. They make sure that the farmers can easily obtain
a copy of their record, students can obtain their caste certificates etc.

4. What issue is the poem trying to raise? Do you think this is an important issue? Why?
Ans: The poem raises the issue of rights for a girl child. A girl should be treated equally in society. She
should be given the same right as a male child is given. Inheritance in the paternal properties should be
equally divided among all the members without any consideration of boy or girl. Dowry is not a
compensation to a girl child. It should be abolished. This poem raises a very justified issue.

5. ‘In what ways are the work of the Panchayat, that you read about in the previous chapter, and the
work of the Patwari related to each other?
Ans: The Patwari organises the collection of land revenue from the farmers and provide information to the
government about the crops grown in the area. With this the Panchayat finalises its strategies regarding
development. It can assess the resources and planning.

6. Visit a police station and find out the work that the police have to do to prevent crime and
maintain law and order in their area especially during festivals, public meetings etc.
Ans: During festivals, public meetings, etc. the police become more active in order to control crime and
maintain law and order. CC TV cameras are installed in the area at different places to keep watch on the
activities of the people. To control the mob they barricade the area. Police personnels are deployed. Some
information booths are also installed. Proper lighting is also made.

7. Who is in-charge of all the police stations in a district? Find out


Ans: The Superintendent of Police (SP) is in-charge of all the police stations in a district.

8. How do women benefit under the new law? ,


Ans: Under the new law sons, daughters and their mothers can get an equal share in the land. This law will
benefit a large number of women. Now, if ever has a problem women can always depend upon their share
of land or property.

9. In your neighbourhood are there women who own property? How did they acquire it?
Ans: There is one woman in my neighbourhood who own property. She acquired a part of this property from her
paternal side and the rest with her own labour and hard work.

Class 6 Social Science Chapter 6 Rural Administration Multiple


Choice Questions
Choose the correct option to complete the statements given below:

(i) Kanungo is the other name of…………


(A)Tehsildar (b) Patwari
(c) Talukdar (d) Land owner

(ii) The person in-charge of the police station is known as …………..


(a) Station master (b) Superintendent of Police
(c) Station House Officer (d) None of the above.

(iii) A heated argument began between Raghu and Mohan because …………….
(a)Raghu had taken over some of Mohan’s land
(b)Mohan had taken over Raghu’s land
(c)Mohan had taken a loan from Raghu and denied to return it
(d)All the above.

(iv) The sub-divisions of a district are known by different names such as ……………
(a) Tehsil (b) Taluka
(c) Both (a) and (b) (d) None of the above.
(v) A daughter wants only………..
(a) Dowry (b) A place of her own
(c) High education (d) Both (a) and (b).

Ans: (i)—(b), (ii)-(c), (iii)—(a), (iv)-(c), (v)—(b).

Class 6 Social Science Chapter 6 Rural Administration Fill in the


Blanks
Fill in the blanks with appropriate words to complete each sentence:

(i)The Patwari maintains and ……… the records of then village.


(ii)Raghu’s uncle was the ……… of the village.
(iii) It is the duty of Station House Officer to write down the …………….. and then investigate them.
(iv) For managing matters relating to land, districts are subdivided into ……………..
(v) Tehsildars, also known as ………….. work under the District Collector.

Ans: (i) updates (ii) Sarpanch


(iii)complaints (iv) sub-divisions
(v) Revenue Officers.

Class 6 Social Science Chapter 6 Rural Administration –


True/False
State whether these sentences are true (T) or false (F).

(i) Hindu Succession Amendment Act, 2005 gave equal rights to daughters.
(ii)Mohan went to the village Sarpanch to make complains about Raghu.
(iii)It is the duty of the District Collector to supervise the work of the Patwaris.
(iv) The Station House Officer was not in the mood to hear Mohan.
(v) The revenue officer organises the collection of land revenue from the farmers.

Ans: (i)—T, (ii)—F, (iii)—F, (iv)—T, (v)—F.

Class 6 Social Science Chapter 6 Rural Administration – Matching


Skills
Match the items in column A correctly with those given in column B.

Column A Column B
(i)Patwari (a) Collect revenue
(ii)Tehsildars (b) Responsible for a group of villages
(iii)Mohan (c) Sons, daughters and their mothers
have equal share in land
(iv) Hindu Succession Act, 2005 (d) An influential person in the village
(v) Raghu (e) A small farmer

Class 6 Social Science Chapter 6 Rural Administration Very Short


Answer Type Questions
1. What is called bund?
Ans: The boundary that separates one land from another is called ‘bund’,

2. What did Mohan notice one morning?


Ans: One morning Mohan noticed that Raghu had shifted the bund by a few feet.

3. How can you say that Raghu was an influential person of the village?
Ans: Raghu’s family owned many fields. His uncle was also the Sarpanch of the village.

4. Where can one registercase? [V. Imp.]


Ans: One can register a case in the police station which comes under his/her area or locality.

5. Why do you think the Station House Officer (SHO) did not want to entertain Mohan?
Ans:It was because Mohan was not an influential person but a small farmer.

6. What are the different names of the Patwari?


Ans:Lekhpal, Kanungo, Karamchari, Village Officer.

7. Mention one responsibility of the Tehsildar? [Imp.]


Ans. He supervises the work of the Patwaris and ensures that records are properly kept and land revenue
is collected.

Class 6 Social Science Chapter 6 Rural Administration – Short


Answer Type Questions
1. What is the work of the revenue department of the government? {V. Imp.]
Ans: The revenue department of the government supervises the work of the Patwari. It ensures that
records are properly kept and land revenue is collected. It also ensures that farmers can easily obtain a
copy of their land record. It is the revenue department that makes the students obtain their caste
certificates. It also resolves the revenue disputes.

2. What would have the Patwari done to resolve the dispute between Mohan and Raghu?
Ans: The Patwari would have measured both Mohan’s and Raghu’s fields and compared them with the
measurements on the map. If they did not match then it would be clear that the boundary of the fields has
been changed.
Class 6 Social Science Chapter 6 Rural Administration – Long
Answer Type Questions
1. Enumerate various works of a Patwari. [V. Imp.]
Ans: A Patwari does various types of works:

 He measures land keeps land records.


 He is responsible for a group of villages.
 He maintains and updates the records of the village.
 He is responsible for organising the collection of land revenue from the farmers and providing
information to the government about the crops grown in the area.

2. Write a brief note on ‘Hindu Succession Amendment Act, 2005’. [V. Imp.]
Ans: Hindu Succession Amendment Act, 2005 brought females on the same level with males. Till recently,
prior to the new law Hindu women did not get a share in the family’s agricultural land. After the death of the
father his property was divided equally only among his sons. But now the situation has been changed. In
the new law sons, daughters and their mothers can get an equal share in the land. The same law will apply
to all states and union territories of the country. The new law will benefit a large number of women. Now
they can enjoy their independent status with equal rights.

NCERT Solutions for Class 6th Social Science Civics


Chapter 7 Urban Administration
1. Why did the children go to Yasmin Khala’s house?
Ans: The children broke the street-light while playing cricket. As its replacement was beyond their reach,
they were very much upset. They didn’t know whom did the street light belong to. They went to Rehana’s
mother who gave them the knowledge that it is the Municipal Corporation of the city that takes care of
replacing lights. She also told them that Yasmin Khala would be the best person because she has just
retired from the Municipal Corporation. She advised the children to go to Yasmin Khala to get their problem
solved.

2. List four ways in which the work of the Municipal Corporation affects the life of a city-dweller.
Ans: The Municipal Corporation affects the life of a city-dweller in several ways:

 It takes care of street lights.


 It ensures that diseases do not break out in the city.
 It runs schools, hospitals and dispensaries.
 It takes care of garbage collection, water supply, keeping the streets and the market clean.

3. Who is a Municipal Councillor?


Ans: A Municipal Councillor is an elected representative of a ward. He is also known as Ward Councillor.

4. What did Gangabai do and why?


Ans: Gangabai and other women of her locality were very much unhappy to find garbage lying all over the
street and spreading foul smell. One day she said that it is the Ward Councillor who they should go to and
protest since they are the ones who elected him. She gathered a small group of women and went to his
house to get their problems solved.

5. How does the Municipal Corporation earn the money to do its work?
Ans: The Municipal Corporation is one of the most important organs of the three-tier government system. It
is responsible for all round development of its designated area. It undertakes all the public facilities and
welfare works like sanitation, water, road, education, health, etc. As these works require fund, so it collects
revenue from the residents living in its corporation area. It levies taxes on property, water and other
services. Taxes are fixed on the measurement and consumption of the services. Taxes are levied on
education and other amenities like owning a hotel, entertainment etc.

6. Discuss
In the two photographs you see different ways of collecting and disposing garbage.
(i) Which way do you think provides safety to the person disposing garbage?
(ii)What are the dangers of collecting garbage in the manner shown in the first photograph?
(iii)Why do you think that proper ways of disposing garbage are not available to those who work in
municipalities?

Ans: (i)The way shown in photo 2 provides safety to the person disposing garbage,
(ii) Collecting garbage in the manner shown in photo 1 is full of dangers. Children are so close to open garbage that
they may fall sick or they may develop symptoms of some deadly disease in the long run. There may be pieces of
broken glasses. While collecting garbage in,this manner, their fingers may
get injured. We see two stray cows around the garbage searching some eatables. These cows may attack these
boys which may take their lives. Thus, there is no safety at all in this way.
(iii) The proper ways of disposing garbage are not available to those who work in municipalities because firstly, the
government has not done proper arrangement for this as yet. It has provided trucks no doubt but their number is not
sufficient. Secondly, the workers working in the municipalities are generally less aware of health and hygeine. They
do not bother whether garbage is being disposed properly or not. Thirdly, the economic condition of the municipalities
is not good.

7. Several poor people in the city work as domestic servants as well as work for the Corporation,
keeping the city clean. Yet the slums in which they live are quite filthy. This is because these slums
seldom have any water and sanitation facilities. The reason often given by the Municipal
Corporation is that the land in which the poor have set up their homes does not belong to them and
that slum-dwellers do not pay taxes. However, people living in middle class neighbourhoods pay
very little in taxes compared to the amount of money the corporation spends on them in setting up
parks, street lighting facilities, regular garbage collection etc. Also as you read in this chapter, the
property taxes collected by the Municipality makes up only 25-30 percent of its money. Why do you
not think it is important that the Corporation should spend more money on slum localities? Why is
it important that the Municipal Corporation provide the poor in the city with the same facilities that
the rich get?
Ans. I think it is important that the corporation should spend more money on slum localities because slum-
dwellers are also a part of our society. They need education, sanitation, rehabilitation and other facilities as
the common people avail. They are also human beings. They lack even basic amenities of life which cause
spread of many diseases among them. They are the citizens of our country. So in order to achieve our
constitutional ideals the Municipal Corporation should provide the poor in the city with the same facilities
that the rich get.

I.MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

Choose the correct option to complete the statement given below.

(iv) Which one is not the job of the Municipal Corporation?


(a)It keeps the streets and markets clean.
(b)It makes gardens and maintains them.
(c)It builds hotels for the tourists
(d)It runs schools, hospitals and dispensaries.

(v) The Municipal Council is found in


(a)Big cities (b) Small towns
(c) villages (d) Metropolitan cities.

Ans: (i)—(d), (ii)—(a), (iii)—(c), (iv)—(c), (v)—(b).

II.FILL IN THE BLANKS


Fill in the blanks with appropriate words to complete each sentence:

(i)Property taxes form only ……………. percent of the money that a Municipal Corporation earns.
(ii) Collecting garbage is quite a………… job.
(iii) The kabadi wallah plays a major role in ………………. household plastic and paper.
(iv) The Ward Councillor is elected by the people of his ………………
(v) Gangabai rushed to the house of………………

Ans: (i) 25-30 (£i) dangerous


(iii) recycling (iv) Ward/area (v) Ward Councillor.

III.TRUE/FALSE

State whether these sentences are true (T) or false (F).

(i) Gangabai was a timid lady.


(ii) Yasmin Khala was a retired judge.
(iii) Pune, being a big city, has a Municipal Corporation.
(iv) Larger houses have to pay less taxes.
(v) The Commissioner and the administrative staff implement the decisions taken by the Councillor’s
Committees and the councillors.

Ans. (i)—F, (ii)—F, (iii)—T, (iv)—F, (v)—T.

IV.MATCHING SKILL

Ans: (i)-c (ii)-e (iii)-a (iv)-b (v)-d

V.VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

1: Who was Yasmin Khala?


Ans: Yasmin Khala was a Municipal Corporation employee.

2. What had children done to the street light?


Ans: They had broken the streetlight while playing.
3. What did children want to know?
Ans: They wanted to know whom did the lights on the streets belong to.

4. Whose duty is it to replace the streetlights?

Ans: It is the duty of the Municipal Corporation of the city to replace the streetlights.

5. Who takes decisions like where a park or a new hospital should go?
Ans: The Ward Councillors usually takes such decisions.

6. What is the difference between the ward Commissioner and the ward Councillors?[V. Imp.]
Ans: The Commissioner is the body elected by the councillors while the Councillors are elected by the
general voters of the world,

7. What is a tax? [V. Imp.]


Ans: A tax is a sum of money that people pay to the government for the services the government provides.

8. What types of taxes people have to pay?


Ans: People have to pay property tax on their homes as well as taxes for water and other services.

9. Name two departments of the Municipal Corporation. [Imp.]


Ans: Water department and garbage collection department,

10. What did the Commissioner advise Gangabai?


Ans:The Commissioner advised Gangabai to get a petition signed by all the adults in the locality saying
that garbage was not being collected.

11. How can common people keep their streets clean?


Ans: They can do this by keeping dustbin/dustbins at home.

VI.SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

1. How are complicated decisions taken? Explain with examples. [V. Imp.]
Ans: (Complicated decisions usually affect the entire city and therefore these decisions are taken by
groups of Councillors who form committees to decide and debate issue. For example, if bus stands need to
be improved or a crowded market place needs to have its garbage cleared more regularly, etc.

2. Write a short note on the topic ‘Sub-contracting’. [Imp.]


Ans: In recent times, in order to save money the Commissioners of several municipalities across the
country had hired private contractors to collect and process garbage. This is known as Sub-Contracting.
This means that the work that was earlier being done by government workers is now being done by a
private company or agency. These contract workers get low salary and their jobs are temporary.

VII.LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


1. Explain the Junctions of the Ward Councillor and the Administrative staff.
Ans: The Ward Councillors are elected members. They are responsible for the welfare of the people of
their wards. They listen their problems and get them solved. Sometimes, they have to take complicated
decisions that affect the entire city. At such moments, groups of councillors who form committees gather
together to decide and debate issues.
While the Councillor’s Committees and the councillors decide on issues, the Commissioner and the
administrative staff implement these decisions.
All of the Ward Councillors meet and they make a budget and the money is spent according to this. The
Ward Councillors try and ensure that the particular demands of their wards are placed before the entire
council. These decisions are then implemented by the administrative staff.

NCERT Solutions for Class 6th Social Science


Geography Chapter 6 Major Landforms of the Earth
1. Answer the following questions briefly.
(a)What are the major landforms?
(b) What is the difference between a mountain and a plateau?
(c)What are the different types of mountains?
(d)How are mountains useful to man?
(e)How are plains formed?
(f)Why are the river plains thickly populated?
(g)Why are mountains thinly populated?
Answer: (a)The major landforms are—mountains, plateaus and plains.
(b)A mountain may have a small summit and a broad base. But a plateau is flat-topped table standing
above the surrounding area.
Example of mountain—The Himalayan mountains.
Example of plateau—The Deccan plateau.
(c)Mountains are of three types—
(i) Fold mountains
(ii)Block mountains
(iii)Volcanic mountains
(d)Mountains are useful to man in a variety of ways:
(i) Mountains are storehouse of water which is the basic need of the human beings. Reservoirs are made
and the water is harnessed for the use of people. Water is used for irrigation and generation of
hydroelectricity.
(ii) Mountains have a rich variety of flora and fauna.
(iii) Mountains provide an idyllic site for tourists. They visit the mountains for their scenic beauty.
(e)Plains are generally formed by rivers and their tributaries. The rivers flow down the slopes of mountains
and erode them. They carry forward the eroded material. Then they deposit their load consisting of stones,
sand and silt along their courses and in their valleys. It is from these deposits that plains are formed.
(f)The river plains are very suitable for human habitation. People get flat land for building houses and for
cultivation. The soil of river plains is very fertile. Hence people live here and cultivate land for their living.
(g) Life is very difficult in mountain areas because of harsh climate. It is quite difficult to grow crops, build
houses or roads in a mountain. Hence, people do not prefer to live here.

2. Tick the correct answer.


(a)The mountains differ from the hills in terms of
(i) elevation (ii) slope (iii)aspect.
(b)Glaciers are found in
(i) the mountains(ii) the plains(iii)the plateaus.
(c)The Deccan plateau islocated in
(i) Kenya(ii) Australia(iii)India.
(d)The river Yangtze flows in
(i) South America(ii) Australia(iii)China.
(e)An important mountain range of Europe is ‘
(i) the Andes(ii) the Alps(iii)the Rockies.
Answer: (a)-(i), (b)-(i), (c)-(iii), (d)-(iii), (e)-(ii).

3.Fill in the blanks.


(a)A………… is an unbroken flat or a low-level land.
(b)The Himalayas and the Alps are examples of…………………… types of mountains.
(c) ……… areas are rich in mineral deposits.
(d)The………… is a line of mountains.
(e) The ……….. areas are most producting for farming.
Answer: (a) plain, (b) young fold, (c) Plateau, (d) range, (e) plain.

THINGS TO DO
1. What kind of landforms are found in your state? Based on the reading of this chapter, say how
they are of use to the people.
Answer: Plains are found in my state. Plains are generally very fertile. Hence, people can easily engage
themselves in farming activities and get high produce. As the land is plain and level, construction of
transport network is very easy. Construction of houses is also carried on large scale. Thus, plains provide
all facilities for human habitation. Perhaps therefore, thick population is found here.

I.Multiple Choice Questions


Choose the correct option to complete the sentences given below:
(i) It is the mountain range of South America.
(a) The Himalayas (b) The Alps
(c)The Andes (d) The Rockies.
(ii) Mt. Kilimanjaro is in
(a) Asia (b) Africa
(c) South America (d) North America.
(iii) Which one sport is not popular in the mountains?
(a) Paragliding (b) Skiing
(c) Hong gliding (d) Football.
(iv) The Hundru falls is in
(a) Chhotanagpur (b) Calcutta
(c) Ranchi (d) Chhattisgarh.
(v) The world’s highest plateau is the
(a) Deccan plateau (b) Tibet plateau
(c) Chhotanagpur plateau (d) East African plateau.
Answer: (i)—(c), (ii)-(b), (iii)-(d), (iv)-(a), (v)-(b).

II.Fill in the Blanks


Fill in the blanks with appropriate words to complete each sentence:
(i) Many of the mining areas in the world are located in the ………………………….. areas.
(ii) The climate of mountains is …………………..
(iii) Mountains vary in their ……………….. and shape.
(iv) The Ural mountains in …………….. have rounded features and low elevation.
(v) Volcanic mountains are formed due to …………………… activities.
(vi) The …………. and terraces are ideal for crop cultivation.
(vii) ………… in the Pacific Ocean is an under sea mountain.

Answer: (i) plateau (ii)harsh


(iii)heights (iv)Russia
(v)volcanic (vi)river basins
(vii) Mauna Kea (Hawaii)
III.True/False
State whether these sentences are true (T) or false (F).
(i) A rich variety of flora and fauna is found in the mountains.
(ii) The Rope Bridge is in Arunachal Pradesh.
(iii) Plateaus are vast stretches of flat land.
(iv) Plains are very useful because they are rich in mineral deposits.
(v) As we go higher, the climate becomes hotter.
(vi) Mt. Fujiyama in Japan is an example of volcanic mountains.
(vii) It is difficult to carry on construction work in plains.
Answer: (i) True, (ii) True, (iii) False, (iv) False, (v) False, (vi) True, (vii) False.

IV.Matching Skill
Match the items in column A correctly with those given in column B.

V.Very Short Answer Type Questions


1. What is internal process? [V. Imp.]
Answer: It is a type of continuous movement within the earth that lead to the upliftment and sinking of the
earth’s surface at several places.

2. What is external process?


Answer: It is the continuous wearing down and rebuilding of the land surface.

3. What is called, erosion?


Answer: The wearing away of the earth’s surface is called erosion.

4. What happens when you go higher?


Answer: The Climate becomes colder.

5. Give examples of young fold mountains.


Answer: The Himalayan Mountains and the Alps.

6. What are the features of young fold mountains? [V. Imp.]


Answer: They have rugged relief and high conical peaks.

7. What is special with Mauna Kea (Hawaii) in the Pacific Ocean?


Answer: It is higher than Mt. Everest being 10,205 metres high.

8.Give example of block mountains.


Answer: The Rhine valley and the Vosges mountain in Europe.
9. Give examples of Volcanic mountains.
Answer: Mt. Kilimanjaro in Africa and Mt. Fujiyama in Japan.

10. Name the plateau which is famous for gold and diamond mining.
Answer: The African plateau.

11. Name some plains of India.


Answer: The Ganga-Brahmaputra plains and the Indo-Gangetic plains.

12. Write some natural calamities. [V. Imp.]


Answer: Earthquakes, floods, cyclone, drought, etc.

13. ‘Quite often we use the land in a wasteful manner’. What do gou mean by ‘wasteful manner’?[V.
Imp.]
Answer: Using fertile land for building houses.

VI.Short Answer Type Questions


1.Write a few features of mountains.
Answer: 1.Mountains are natural elevations of the earth’s surface.
2.They are higher than the surrounding area.
3.Some of them are even higher than the clouds.
4.The climate of mountains is harsh, which makes them less suitable for human habitation.
5.Mountains have steep slopes. Hence, farming is quite difficult here.

2.What are block mountains?


Answer: Block mountains are created when large areas are broken and displaced vertically. The uplifted
blocks are known as horsts and the lowered blocks are known as graben. Examples: The Rhine valley and
the Vosges mountain in Europe.

3.How are plateaus useful for man?


Answer: Plateaus are very useful for man because they have rich mineral deposits. Many of the mining
areas in the world are located in the plateau regions. For example, the African plateau is famous for gold
and diamond mining. The Chhotanagpur plateau in India has huge reserves of iron, coal and manganese.
In the plateau regions, one can find several waterfalls. Many plateaus have scenic spots which attract
tourist on large scale.

4.What are the features of plateaus? [Imp.]


Answer: 1.Plateaus are elevated flat lands. It is a flat topped table land standing above the surrounding
area.
2.Plateaus have one or more sides with steep slopes.
3.Their height often varies from few hundred metres to several thousand metres.
4.Plateaus may be young or old. The Deccan plateau in India is one of the oldest plateaus.
5.The Tibet plateau is the highest plateau in the world.
6.Plateaus are storehouse of minerals like gold, diamond, iron, coal, etc.
5.What are the features of plains? [V. Imp.]
Answer: 1. Plains are vast stretches of flat land.
2.Some plains are extremely level. Others may be slightly rolling and undulating.
3.Plains are usually fertile regions. They are suitable for cultivation.
4.They are usually thickly populated regions.
5.It is easy to build houses, roads etc. in plains.

VI.Long Answer Type Questions


1. What are the major landforms? Write about them in brief [V. Imp.]
Answer: The major landforms are mountains, plateaus and plains.
1.Mountains.They are natural elevation of the earth surface. They are higher than the surrounding area.
Some mountains are veiy high. They are even higher than the clouds. Some mountains have permanently
frozen rivers of ice known as glaciers. Mountains are generally thinly populated regions because the
climate is harsh there. Farming is also not easily possible there. But mountains provide us water. They
have a rich variety of flora and fauna.
2.Plateaus.They are usually flat-topped table land and are higher than the surrounding area. Plateaus may
be young or old. The Deccan plateau in India is one of the oldest plateaus. Plateaus are very useful for
mankind. They have rich deposits of minerals such as diamond, gold, iron, manganese etc. Several water
falls can be found in the plateau regions.
3.Plains.They are vast stretches of flat land. They are mostly formed by rivers and their tributaries. Plains
are usually fertile lands. Hence, thick population is found there. Construction of transport network is easy.
Cultivation is also easy. Plains also provide level land for the construction of houses or buildings. In India,
the Indo-Gangetic plains are the regions where one can find great concentration of population.

2. How many types of mountains are there? Write briefly about each of them with help of diagrams.
Answer: Mountains are of three types—1. Fold Mountains, 2. Block Mountains and 3.Volcanic Mountains.
1.Fold Mountains. The Himalayan Mountains and the Alps are young fold ‘mountains. They have rugged
relief and high conical peaks. The Aravali range is India is one of the oldest fold mountain systems in the
world. The Appalachians in the North America and the Ural mountains in Russia are vaiy old fold
mountains.

2.Block Mountains. These are created when large areas are broken and displaced vertically. The Uplifted
blocks are known as horsts and the lowered blocks are called graben. The Rhine valley and the Vosges
mountains in Europe are examples of such mountain systems.

3.Volcanic Mountains. They are formed by volcanic activity. Mt. Kilimanjaro in Africa and Mt. Fujiyama in
Japan are examples of such mountains.
NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Science Chapter 8
Body Movements
1. Fill in the blanks:
(a) Joints of the bones help in the_____________ of the body.
(b) A combination of bones and cartilages forms the_______________ of the body.
(c) The bones at the elbow are joined by a______________
(d) The contraction of the____________ pulls the bones during
Ans:
(a) movement
(b) skeleton
(c) hinge
(d) muscle

2. Indicate ‘true’ and false’ among the following sentences:


(a) The movement and locomotion of all animals is exactly the same.
(b) The cartilages are harder than bones.
(c) The finger bones do not have joints.
(d) The fore arm has two bones.
(e) Cockroaches have an outer skeleton.
Ans:
(a) False
(b) False
(c) False
(d) True
(e) True

3. Match the items in column I with one or more items of column II:
Column I Column II

(i) Upper jaw (a) have fins on the body

(ii) Fish (b) has an outer skeleton

(iii) Ribs (c) can fly in the air

(iv) Snail (d) is an immovable joint

(v) Cockroach (e) protect the heart

(f) shows very slow movement

(g) have a streamlined body

Ans:
4. Answer the following questions:
(a) What is a ball and socket joint?
(b) Which of the skull bones are movable?
(c) Why can our elbow not move backwards?
Ans:
(a) The rounded end of one bone fits into the hollow space of other bone. This is called ball and socket
joint. Ball and socket joints allow movements in all the directions, e.g. shoulder and hip can be moved in all
directions.
(b) In skull, only lower jaw is movable.
(c) Our elbow cannot move backwards because the elbow has a hinge joint that allows movement in only
one direction.

Class 6 Science Chapter 8 VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

1. What do you mean by movement?


Ans: The changing position of the body or any part of the body is called movement.

2. At which part does the arm rotate?


Ans: The arm rotates on the round pit-like structure.

3. If you tie a scale with your arm, are you able to bend your elbow?
Ans: No, we cannot bend our elbow.

4. Name the places where two parts of the body are seen to be joined together.
Ans: These places are called joint.

5. If there are no joints then will it be possible to move?


Ans: No, it is not possible.

6. Can bones be bent?


Ans: No, bones cannot be bent.

7. Can we bend our body at every part?


Ans: No, we can bend our body only at joints.

8. How many types of joints are there?


Ans: There are five types of joints in our body

9. Name the various types of joint.


Ans:
(i) Ball and socket joints
(ii) Pivotal joints
(iii) Hinge joints
(iv) Fixed joints
(v) Gliding joints
10. What is cavity in bone?
Ans: The hollow space in the bone is called cavity.

11. Give two examples of ball and socket joint.


Ans:
(i) Joint of upper arm and shoulder.
(ii) Joint of thigh and the hip.

12. Give an example of pivotal joint.


Ans. The joint of skull with backbone.

13. Give two examples of hinge joints.


Ans:
(i) Joints in fingers
(ii) Joints in knee

14. Give an example of fixed joint.


Ans: Joint of cranium skull.

15. Give an example of gliding joint.


Ans: The joint in backbone.

16. What is skeleton?


Ans: The framework of bones in our body is called skeleton.

17. What are ribs?


Ans: The bones of the chest are called ribs.

18. What is rib cage?


Ans: Ribs are joined with backbone to form a box. This box is called rib cage.

19. What are shoulder bones?


Ans: The shoulder bones are formed by the collar bone and the shoulder blade. It connects the upper part
of the chest and bones of the arm.

20. What are pelvic bones?


Ans: The bones which enclose the body part below the stomach are called pelvic bones.

21. What are cartilages?


Ans: Some additional parts of the skeleton which are not as hard as bones and are elastic in nature and
can be bent are called cartilages, e.g. cartilage of ear.

22. Name the three components of skeleton.


Ans: Skeleton is made up of many bones, joints and cartilage.
23. Name the parts of the body which help in movement.
Ans: Contraction and relaxation of muscles and bones and joints help in movement.

24. Name two animals which move without bones.


Ans: (i) Earthworm (ii) Snail

25. Give an example of animal which can walk, climb and fly in the air.
Ans: Cockroaches.

26. Name the organ in cockroach which helps in walking.


Ans: The three pairs of legs in cockroach help in walking.

27. Which part of the cockroach help in flying?


Ans: There are two pairs of wings attached to the breast which help them in flying.

28. Name a bird which can swim in water.


Ans. Duck.

29. What do you mean by streamlined?


Ans: If the body tapers at both the ends then such, shape of the body is said to be streamlined.

30.How does the snake move?


Ans: Snakes have a long backbone and many thin muscles which help in the movement. The snake’s body
curves into many loops. Each loop of the snake gives it a forward push by pressing against the ground.

31. What do you mean by fractured bone?


Ans: Fractured bone means broken bone.

32. Why are fractured bones plastered?


Ans. Plaster keeps broken bones at their right place so that they grow and join properly.

33. Name organs that are protected by the rib cage?


Ans: Heart and Lungs.

34. Why do we need two muscles together to move a bone?


Ans: A muscle can only pull, it cannot push. Thus, two muscles are required to work together to move a
bone. When one muscle contracts, the bone is pulled. When another muscle of the pair pulls, it brings the
bone in its original position.

35. Name three animals that have streamlined body.


Ans: Fish, Birds, Snake.

36. Many people suffer from a problem called arthritis. Explain its connection with movement.
Ans: Arthritis is the pain in joints. With this problem people find difficulty in moving from one place to
another.
37. How is a bird’s body adapted for flying?
Ans: The following adaptations are seen in the body of birds.
(i) Bones are hollow.
(ii) Forelimbs are modified into wings.
(iii) Body is streamlined.

Class 6 Science Chapter 8 SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

1. What are joints? Write the names of various types of joints.


Ans: The places where two parts of the body seem to be joined together are called joints. There are
following types of joints:

1. Ball and socket joints


2. Pivotal joints
3. Hinge joints
4. Fixed joints
5. Gliding joints

2. What is skeleton? Draw a diagram to show the human skeleton.


Ans: The bones in our body form a framework to give a shape to the body. The framework is called
skeleton

3. Write two ways by which we may know the shape of human skeleton.
Ans:
(i) We can know the shape of skeleton by feeling.
(ii) We could know the shape by X-ray images of human body

4:Write the differences between bones and cartilage.


Ans:

Bone Cartilage

(i) They are hard. (i) They are soft.


(ii) They cannot bend. (ii) They can bend.

(iii) They are used to make the framework of whole body. (iii) They help to make some parts of the body.

5. How do the muscles work?


Ans: The muscles work in pairs. When one of them contracts, the bone is pulled in that direction, the other
muscle of the pair relaxes. To move the bone in the opposite direction, the relaxed muscle contracts to pull
the bone towards its original position, while the first relaxes.A muscle can only pull. It cannot push.

6. How does the earthworm move?


Ans: Earthworm does not have bones. It has muscles. During the movement, earthworm first extends front
part of the body keeping the rear portion fixed to the ground. Then it fixes the front and releases the rear
end. It then shortens the body and pulls the rear end forward. In this way by repeating such muscular
expansions and contractions earthworm moves.

7. How does the snail move?


Ans: The rounded structure on the back of the snail is called shell. It is the outer skeleton (exoskeleton) of
snail. When it starts moving a thick structure and the head of the snail may come out of an opening in the
shell. The thick structure is called foot, which is made up of strong muscles. It helps snail in moving.

8. How does fish move in water?


Ans: The body of fish is streamlined. The streamlined shape helps the fish to move in water. The skeleton
of fish is covered with muscles which make the front part of the body to curve to one side and the tail part
swings towards the opposite side. This makes a jerk and pushes the body forward. In this way it moves in
water.

Class 6 Science Chapter 8 LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

1. Explain various kinds of joints found in our body and give example of each.
Ans: There are five types of joints in our body:
(i) Fixed joints: Those joints which do not allow movement are called fixed joint.

(ii) Ball and socket joint: This joint allows movement in all directions. The rounded end of one bone fits
into the hollow space of other bone. For example, joint between upper arm and shoulder.
(iii) Pivotal joint: This type of joint allow movement in all planes, i.e. up and down, side and other planes.
For example, head.
(iv) Hinge joint: The joint which allows movement only in one plane is called hinge joint. For example,
fingers, knees.
(v) Gliding joint: These joints allow only a limited amount of movement of sliding nature of cartilage. For
example, the joints of backbone.
NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Science Chapter 2
Components of Food
Class 6 Science Chapter 2 Textbook Questions Solved

1. Name the major nutrients in our food.


Ans: The major nutrients in our food are carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals.
The table below shows the nutrients present in some food items:

2. Name the following:


(a) The nutrients which mainly give energy to our body.
(b) The nutrients that are needed for the growth and maintenance of our body.
(c) A vitamin required for maintaining good eyesight.
(d) A mineral that is required for keeping our bones healthy.
Ans:
(a) Carbohydrates
(b) Proteins
(c) Vitamin A
(d) Calcium

3. Name two foods each rich in:


(a) Fats
(b) Starch
(c) Dietary fibre
(d) Protein
Ans:
(a) Ghee, butter,
(b) Raw potato, rice,
(c) Spinach, cabbage, carrot, ladies finger, (any two)
(d) Milk, egg, fish, meat, pulses (any two).

4. Tick (/) the statements that are correct, cross (X) those which dire incorrect.
(a) By eating rice alone, we can fulfill nutritional requirement of our body,
(b) Deficiency diseases can be prevented by eating a balanced diet.
(c) Balanced diet for the body should contain a variety of food items.
(d) Meat alone is sufficient to provide all nutrients to the body.

5. Fill in the blanks:


(a) ________ is caused by deficiency of Vitamin D. ,
(b) Deficiency of_________ causes a disease known as beri-beri.
(c) Deficiency of Vitamin C causes a disease known as________________ .
(d) Night blindness is caused due to deficiency of_______________ in our food.
Ans:
(a) Rickets
(b) Vitamin B1
(c) Scurvy
(d) Vitamin A

EXTRA QUESTIONS for Class 6 Science Chapter 2


Class 6 Science Chapter 2 VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

1. Do all meals consist of the same food items?


Ans: No, all meals do not have the same food items.

2. Why should a meal have different food items?


Ans: A meal should have different food items because our body needs different kinds of nutrients for
proper functioning.

3. Do all foods contain all the required nutrients?


Ans: No, all foods do not contain sill the nutrients required by our body.

4. Name two main types of carbohydrates found in our food.


Ans:
(i) Starch (ii) Sugar

5. What are carbohydrates?


Ans: The compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen which provide energy for our body are called
carbohydrates.

6. What happens when two or more drops of iodine solution fall on starch substance?
Ans: The colour of the substance becomes blue-black.
7. If any food item gives blue-black colour with iodine then which nutrient is present in the food?
Ans: Starch.

8. Name two substances which provide carbohydrates.


Ans:
(i) Potato
(ii) Rice/wheat/maize/sugar

9. Name the food nutrient indicated by an oily patch on paper.


Ans:An oily patch on paper shows the presence of fat.

10. Name two energy-providing nutrients.


Ans:
(i) Carbohydrates
(ii) Fats

11. Name a nutrient which helps in repairing the damaged body cells.
Ans: Proteins.

12. Name two nutrients which protect the body from diseases.
Ans:
(i) Vitamins
(ii) Minerals

13. Name two plant food items which provide proteins.


Ans:
(i) Dal (pulses)
(ii) Soyabean

14. Name two sources of proteins provided by animals.


Ans:
(i) Milk
(ii) Eggs

15. Which type of food is called body-building food?


Ans: The food containing proteins is called body-building food.

16. Name two food items which provide fats.


Ans:
(i) Oils
(ii) Ghee

17. Name various types of vitamins.


Ans: Various types of vitamins are:

1. Vitamin A,
2. Vitamin B-complex,
3. Vitamin C,
4. Vitamin D,
5. Vitamin E,
6. Vitamin K.

18. Name a vitamin which represents a group of vitamins.


Ans: Vitamin B-complex.

19. Name two sources of Vitamin A.


Ans:
(i) Fish-oil
(ii) Milk

20. Write two sources of Vitamin B.


Ans:
(i) Liver
(ii) Beans

21. Write two sources of Vitamin C.


Ans:
(i) Orange/lime
(ii) Amla

22. Write two sources of Vitamin D.


Ans:
(i) Fish
(ii) Butter

23. What is roughage?


Ans. The food containing plant fibres which sure also known as dietary fibres is called roughage.

24. What is the main Function of roughage?


Ans: The main function of roughage is to help our body get rid of undigested food.

25. Name some food items which provide roughage.


Ans: Whole grains, fresh fruits and vegetables are the main sources of roughage.

Class 6 Science Chapter 2 SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

1. What are nutrients? Name major nutrients.


Ans: The components of food which are needed by our body for growth and development are called
nutrients. The major nutrients are:
(i) Carbohydrates
(ii) Fats
(iii) Proteins
(iv) Vitamins
(v) Minerals

2. What are the functions of carbohydrates?


Ans: They complete the energy requirements of the body so they are called energy providing food.

3. Write test for detecting the presence of starch.


Ans: Take a piece of the food item. Put 2-3 drops of dilute iodine solution on it. If the colour of the food item
becomes blue-black, then it indicates the presence of starch in the food item.
(i) Food + Iodine — Blue-black colour (starch present)
(ii) Food + Iodine — No blue-black colour (no starch present)

4. What are the functions of proteins?


Ans: Proteins are the most important nutrient. They are called body-building food. They help in the growth
and repair of damaged cells and tissues of the body. They also help our body to fight against infections.
Proteins make our nails, hair and muscles.

5. How can you test presence of proteins in a given food item?


Ans:Take a small quantity of the food item. If the sample is solid, grind it. Put some part of this in a clean
test tube, add 10 drops of water to it and shake the test tube. Now, with the help of a dropper, add two
drops of solution of copper sulphate and 10 drops of solution of caustic soda to the test tube. Shake well
and place the test tube in test tube stand for a few minutes.
Observe colour of the contents of test tube. If colour of the contents turns violet, the food item contains
protein.
Note: Copper sulphate and caustic soda solutions are harmful. Handle them with care.
Food + water + copper sulphate + caustic soda → violet colour → protein is present.

6. What are fats? Name some fat-containing substances.


Ans: The energy rich sources of food are called fats. They provide energy to the body. All types of nuts,
mustard seeds, milk and butter are the major sources of fat. Like carbohydrates, fats also contain carbon,
hydrogen and oxygen but fats contain less oxygen than carbohydrates.

7. Write test for detecting, presence of fat.


Ans: Take small quantity of the food item. Rub it on a piece of white paper. Observe carefully, you will find
that the piece of white paper shows an oily patch on it which indicates that the food item contains fat.

8. What are vitamins? Write various kinds of vitamins.


Ans: They are protective compounds with no energy value. They help in proper body functioning and are
required by the body in very small quantities. Various kinds of vitamins are—Vitamin A, Vitamin B-complex,
Vitamin C, Vitamin D, Vitamin E and Vitamin K.

9. People who eat sea-food do not suffer from Goitre. Explain.


Ans: It is so because sea-food is a rich source of Iodine and Goitre is a deficiency disease caused due to
lack of Iodine.
10. Excess intake of fats is harmful for the body because it causes obesity. Would it be harmful for
the body to take too much of proteins or vitamins in the diet?
Ans. Yes, excess intake of proteins and vitamins in the diet is harmful and may lead to other diseases.

11. Name the vitamin that our body prepares in the presence of sunlight.
Ans: Vitamin D.

12. Name a vitamin that is not present in milk.


Ans: Vitamin C.

13. A patient had stunted growth, swelling on face, discolouration of hair and skin disease. Doctor
advised him to eat a lot of pulses, grams, egg white, milk etc. What is wrong with the patient?
Explain.
Ans: The intake of protein is not enough in his diet and all these symptoms are caused due to deficiency of
proteins.

14. A small child became very thin and lean and later he became so weak that he could not move.
Which nutrients should he eat so as to improve his health?
Ans: Both carbohydrates and proteins.

15. What are the functions of minerals?


Ans: Minerals are protective part of foods occurring naturally and are needed by our body in small amount.
Minerals are essential for proper growth of the body and to maintain good health. They do not provide
energy. Milk, salt, eggs and green leafy vegetables are the main sources of minerals.

16. Write the functions of water in our body.


Ans: Water helps our body to absorb nutrients from the food. It also helps in removing the waste from the
body in the form of urine and sweat. We get water from various types of liquids, fruits and vegetables.

17. What is obesity?


Ans: When a person eats too much fat-containing foods, then the fat gets deposited in his body and he
may end up suffering from a condition called obesity.

18. What are deficiency diseases?


Ans: When a person eats such a food continuously for a long time which may not contain a particular
nutrient, then this condition is called deficiency of that nutrient. Deficiency of one or more nutrients can
cause diseases or disorders in our body. Such type of diseases are known as deficiency diseases.

Class 6 Science Chapter 2 LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

1. List various types of nutrients and write the functions of each.


Ans. The various types of nutrients are:
(i) Carbohydrates: They are mainly energy-providing nutrients.
(ii) Fats: They provide energy for the body. They give much more energy than carbohydrates if consumed
in same amount.
(iii) Proteins: They are called body-building foods. Proteins help in the formation and repairing of body
parts. Skin, hair, muscles, enzymes are made up of proteins.
(iv) Vitamins: Vitamins help in protecting our body against disease. They also protect eyes, bones, teeth
and gums.
(v) Minerals: Minerals are essential for proper growth of body and to maintain good health.

2. What is a balanced diet? Write the components of balanced diet.


Ans: A diet which provides the right proportion of all the nutrients that our body needs along with roughage
and water is called balanced diet. The various components of balanced diet are carbohydrates, fats,
proteins, vitamins, minerals, roughage and water.

3. Prepare a chart to show various vitamins and minerals and the disorders caused by their
deficiency.
NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Hindi Chapter 15 –
नौकर

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NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Science Chapter 3 Fibre
to Fabric
Class 6 Science Chapter 3 Textbook Questions Solved

Q.1. Classify the following fibres as natural or synthetic: nylon, wool, cotton, silk, polyester, jute.
Ans. Natural fibres: wool, cotton, jute, silk.
Synthetic fibres: nylon, polyester.

Q.2. State whether the following statements are ‘true’ or false’:


(a) Yam is made from fibres.
(b) Spinning is a process of making fibres.
(c) Jute is the outer covering of coconut.
(d) The process of removing seeds from cotton is called ginning.
(d) Weaving of yam makes a piece of fabric.
(e) Silk fibre is obtained from the stem of a plant.
(g) Polyester is a natural fibre.
Ans.
(a) True
(b) False
(c) False
(d) True
(e) True
(f) False
(g) False

Q.3. Fill in the blanks:


(a) Plant fibres are obtained from____________ and___________ .
(b) Animal fibres are___________ and___________ .
Ans.
(a) cotton plants, jute plants
(b) wool, silk

Q. 4. From which part of the plant cotton and jute are obtained?
Ans.
(i) Cotton – Cotton bolls (from the surface of cotton seeds) (fruit)
(ii) Jute – Stem

Q.5. Name two items that are made from coconut fibre.
Ans.
(i) Ropes
(ii) Mats

Q.6. Explain the process of making yam from fibre.


Ans. Yarns are made up of thin strands called fibres. The process of making yam from fibres is called
spinning. In this process, a mass of cotton wool are drawn out and twisted. This brings the fibres together to
form yarn.

EXTRA QUESTIONS for Class 6 Science Chapter 3

Class 6 Science Chapter 3 VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

Q.1. Name two varieties of cloth materials which are commonly used.
Ans. Cotton, silk/wool.

Q.2. What are fabrics?


Ans. Fabrics mean a woven material, textile or other materials resembling woven cloth.

Q.3. Name some fabrics in your surroundings.


Ans. Bed-sheets, blankets, curtains, table clothes, towels and dusters.

Q. 4. Name the thing which is used to make fabric.


Ans. Yarns.

Q.5. What are yarns made of?


Ans. Yarns are made up of thin strands called fibres.

Q.6. How many types of fibres are there? ,


Ans. There are two types of fibres:
(i) Natural fibres
(ii) Synthetic fibres

Q.7. Name two natural fibres.


Ans.
(i) Cotton
(ii) Jute

Q.8. Name two synthetic fibres.


Ans.
(i) Polyester
(ii) Nylon

Q.9. What material you use for making wicks for oil lamps?
Ans. Cotton wool.

Q.10. Where does cotton wool come from.?


Ans. Cotton wool comes from cotton bolls.
Q.11. What are fruits of cotton plants called?
Ans. Cotton bolls.

Q.12. What type of soil is used to grow cotton plants?


Ans. Black soil.

Q.13. Define ginning of cotton.


Ans. The process of separating fibres from the seeds of cotton is called ginning of cotton.

Q.14. What is jute?


Ans. Jute is a fibre obtained from the stem of a jute plant.

Q.15. Name the states where jute plants are mainly grown in India.
Ans. West Bengal, Bihar and Assam.

Q.16. What is spinning?


Ans. The process of making yarns from fibres is called spinning.

Q.17. Name two hand-operated devices used for spinning.


Ans.
(i) Takli
(ii) Charkha

Q.18. How are fabrics prepared?


Ans. Fabrics are prepared from the yarns by weaving or knitting.

Q. 19. Name the process used to prepare fabrics from yams.


Ans. The processes which used to prepare fabrics are: (i) Weaving and (ii) Knitting.

Q.20. What is weaving?


Ans. The process of arranging two sets of yarns together to make a fabric is called weaving.

Q.21. What is knitting?


Ans. The process in which a single yarn is used to make a piece of fabric is called knitting.

Q.22. Name two methods of knitting.


Ans.
(i) By hands
(ii) By machines

Q.23. Where were the cotton and flax plants cultivated in ancient Egypt?
Ans. Cotton and flax plants were cultivated near the river Nile in ancient Egypt.

Q.24. Name some modem fabrics formed by unstitched piece of fabric. .


Ans. Saree, dhoti, lungi and turban.
Q.25. How are natural fibres better than synthetic fibres?
Ans. The natural fibre absorbs sweat, gives cooling effect and comfort in any season.

Q.26. Are all fibres produced by plants?


Ans. No.

Q.27. Cotton on burning gives paper burning smell and cotton is obtained from plants. Is paper also
obtained from plants?
Ans. Yes, paper is also obtained from plants.

Class 6 Science Chapter 3 SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

Q.1. What do you observe when you are visiting a nearby tailoring shop?
Ans. In a tailoring shop we observe that there are many cuttings of fabrics left over after stitching. We see
that some cuttings are of cotton, some are of silk or wool and some are of synthetic fibres.

Q.2. List the steps involved in the preparation of fabric.


Ans. The following steps are involved in the preparation of fabrics:
(i) Obtaining fibre,
(ii) Preparation of yarn from fibres by spinning,
(iii) When two sets of yarn are involved, yarns are woven on looms to make a fabric. When a single yam is
used, the fabric is prepared by knitting.

Q.3. What are natural fibres? Explain with examples.


Ans. The fibres obtained from plants and animals are called natural fibres. For example, cotton from cotton
bolls, jute from jute plant, silk from cocoon of silkworm and wool from hair of animals like sheep or goat.

Q.4. What are synthetic fibres?


Ans. The fibres which are made from chemical substances or which are not obtained from the plant and
animal sources are called synthetic fibres. For example, polyester, nylon, and acrylic, etc.

Q.5. Explain how jute is obtained from the jute plant.


Ans. The jute plant is normally harvested at flowering stage. The stems of harvested plants are bundled
and immersed in water for 10 to 15 days. The stems rot (the process is called retting) and fibres are
separated by hand. These fibres are converted into yarns to make fabrics (Fig. 3.10).
Q. 6. What are looms?
Ans. The devices on which weaving of fabrics takes place are called looms. The looms are either hand
operated or power operated.

Q. 7. What happens when a yam from a tom sock is pulled?


Ans. When we pull a yarn from a torn sock then a single yarn, gets pulled out continuously as the fabric
gets unravelled. Socks are made up of knitted fabrics from a single yam.

Q. 8. What were the materials used by people in ancient times in place of clothes?
Ans. It appears that in those days people used the bark and big leaves of trees or animal skin and furs in
place of clothes.

Q. 9. What happened when people began to settle in agricultural communities?


Ans. When people began to settle in agricultural communities then they learnt to weave twigs and grass
into mats and baskets. Vines, animal fleece or hair were twisted together into long strands. These strands
were woven into fabrics.

Q. 10. When we bum wool why do we get the smell of hair bum?
Ans. Wool is obtained from the fleece (hair) of sheep, goat, yak etc. This is the reason why burning of wool
resembles the burning of hair.

Q. 11. When we bum nylon, why we do not get the smell of burning paper or burning hair?
Ans. Nylon is a synthetic fibre made from chemicals. On burning nylon these chemicals don’t produce the
smell of burning paper or hair which are natural substances.

Class 6 Science Chapter 3 LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

Q.1. Describe the process of the formation of yam from cotton wool.
Ans. The cotton wool is obtained from cotton plants. The cotton plants are grown in fields. They are usually
grown at the places having black soil and warm climate. The fmits of the cotton plants called cotton bolls
are about the size of lemons. After maturing, the bolls burst open and seeds covered with cotton fibres can
b,e seen. From the cotton bolls cotton is picked by hands. Fibres are then separated from the seeds by
combing. This process is called ginning of cotton. It is done by hand or by machines. These fibres are then
converted into yam.

Q.2. Describe the process of spinning and weaving.


Ans. Spinning: The process of making yarn from fibres is called spinning. In this process fibres from a
mass of cotton wool are drawn out and twisted. By this fibres come together to form a yarn. Spinning can
be done by hand, by takli and charkha. On a large scale, spinning is done with the help of machines.
Weaving: The process of arranging two sets of yarns together t6 make a fabric is called weaving. The
process of weaving can be done on looms. The looms are either-hand operated or power operated.
NCERT Solutions for Class 6th Social Science
Geography Chapter 7 Our Country India
1. Answer the following questions briefly.
(a) Name the major physical divisions of India.
(b) India shares its land boundaries with seven countries – Name them.
(c) Which two major rivers fall into the Arabian Sea?
(d) Name the delta formed by the Ganga and the Brahmaputra
(e) How many States and Union Territories are there in India? Which states have a common capital?
(f) Why do a large number of people live in the Northern Plains?
(g) Why is Lakshadweep known as a coral island?
Answer: (a) Major physical divisions of India:
(i) The Himalayas (ii) The Northern Indian Plains (iii) The Great Indian Desert (iv) The Peninsular Plateau ‘
(v) The Coastal plains (vi) The two groups of Islands.
(b)Pakistan, Nepal , Bhutan, China, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Afghanistan.
(c)The rivers Narmada and Tapi fall into the Arabian Sea.
(d)The Sundarbans delta.
(e)There are 28 states and 7 Union Territories in India. Punjab and Haryana have a common capital, i.e.
Chandigarh.
(f)The Northern Plains are generally flat and level land, having alluvial deposits laid down by the rivers such
as the Indus, the Ganga, the Brahmaputra and their tributaries. These river plains provide fertile land for
cultivation. Hence, a large population prefer to live here.
(g)Lakshadweep is made of corals which are skeletons of tiny marine animals called polyps.

2.Tick the correct answer.


(a)The southern most Himalayas are known as …………….
(i) Shiwaliks (ii) Himadri (iii) Himachal.
(b)Sahyadris is also known as …………
(i) Aravali (ii) Western Ghats (iii) Himadri.
(c)The Palk Strait lies between the countries ……………
(i) Sri Lanka and Maldives
(ii)India and Sri Lanka
(iii)India and Maldives.
(d)The Indian islands in the Arabian sea are known as ……………….
(i)Andaman and Nicobar Islands
(ii)Lakshdweep Islands
(iii)Maldives
(e)The oldest mountain range in India is the ……………
(i) Aravali hills (ii) Western Ghats (iii) Himalayas
Answer: (a)—(i), (b)—(ii), (c)—(ii), (d)—(ii), (e)—(i)

3. Fill in the blanks.


(a)India has an area of about…………..
(b)The Greater Himalayas are also known as……………
(c)The largest state in India in terms of area is……………..
(d)’The river Narmada falls into the……………
(e)The latitude that runs almost halfway through India is ……………….
Answer: (a) 3.28 million sq. km, (b) Himadri, (c) Rajasthan, (d) Arabian, (e) The Tropic of Cancer.
I.Multiple Choice Questions
Choose the correct option to complete the statements given below:
(i) The USA has …………
(a) Two time zones (b) Four time zones
(c) Seven time zones (d) Eight time zones.

(ii)India belongs to the ……………….


(a) Northern Hemisphere (b) Southern Hemisphere
(c) Eastern Hemisphere (d) Western Hemisphere.
(iii)The island neighbours of India are ……………..
(a) Sri Lanka and Lakshadweep (b) Sri Lanka and Maldives
(c)Maldives and Andaman and Nicobar (d)None of the above.
(iv) Which state is the smallest one in terms of area?
(a) Goa (b) Kerala
(c) Uttarakhand (d) Tripura.
(v) The other name of Middle Himalaya is ……………
(a) Himadri (b) Himachal
(c) Shiwalik (d) Great-Himalaya.
(vi) Which island groups were affected by the Tsunami in 2004?
(a) Lakshadweep (b) Maldives
(c) Andaman and Nicobar (d) Both (a) and (c).
Answer: (i)—(c), (ii)— (a), (iii)—(b), (iv)—(a), (v)—(b), (vi)—(c).

II.Fill in the Blanks


Fill in the blanks with appropriate words to complete each sentence:
(i) India is the second most populous country of the world after …………………..
(ii) The Himalayan mountains are divided into …………… main parallel ranges.
(iii) The Great Indian desert lies to the ……………. part of India.
(iv) …….. and ……….. are west-flowing rivers that fall into the Arabian Sea.
(v) Lakshadweep islands are located in the ………………..
(vi) The western coastal plains are very……………….
Answer: (i)China (ii)three
(iii)Western (iv)Narmada, Tapi
(v) Arabian Sea (vi) narrow.

III.True/False
State whether these sentences are true (T) or false (F).
(i) Lakshadweep islands are coral islands.
(ii) The eastern coastal plains are much broader.
(iii) The Northern Indian plains lie to the south of the Himalayas.
(iv) The Bay of Bengal lies east to India.
(v) Canada has five time zones.
(vi) High concentration of population is found in plateaus.
Answer: (i) True, (ii) False, (iii) True, (iv) True, (v) False, (vi) False.

IV.Matching Skill
Match the items in column A correctly with those given in column B.

V.Very Short Answer Type Questions


1. What is the north-south extent of India?
Answer: The north-south extent from Kashmir to Kanyakumari is about 3,200 km.

2. What is the east-west extent of India?


Answer: The east-west extent from Arunachal Pradesh to Kuchchh is about 2,900 km.
3. How does the local time change? [V. Imp.]
Answer: The local time changes by four minutes for every one degree of longitude,

4. What is the difference between the time of sunrise in Arunachal Pradesh and Gujarat?
Answer: The difference between the time of sunrise in Arunachal Pradesh and Gujarat is two hours.

5. On what basis have the states been formed?


Answer: The states have been formed on the basis of languages,

6.What does Himalayas mean?


Answer: Himalaya means the abode of snow (Him + alaya).

7. Where are the world’s highest peaks located? [Imp.]


Answer: The world’s highest peaks are located in the Great Himalayas or Himadri.

8. What is a peninsula?
Answer: A peninsula is a piece of land surrounded by water on all the three sides,

9. Define the term desert.


Answer: A desert is a dry, hot and sandy stretch of land with very little vegetation,

10. Name the two important hill ranges that lie in the peninsula plateau
Answer: The Vindhyas and the Satpuras.

11. What is called the mouth of the river?


Answer: The point where rivers enter the sea is called the mouth of the river,

12. What are called polyps?


Answer: Polyps are very small marine animals.

13. What is the difference between the western coastal plains and the eastern coastal plains? [V.
Imp.]
Answer: The Western coastal plains are very narrow while the eastern coastal plains are much broader.

14. Name the rivers which fall into the Bay of Bengal?
Answer: Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishana and Kaveri.

V.Short Answer Type Questions


1. Mention the political and administrative divisions of India. [V. Imp.]
Answer: India is a vast country. Hence, for administrative purposes, it is divided into 28 states and 7 Union
Territories. Delhi is the capital of India. The formation of states has been made on the basis languages.
Rajasthan is the largest state while Goa is the smallest state in terms of area. These states have been
further divided into districts.
2. Write a short note on the coastal plains of India.
Answer: The coastal plains lie to the West of the Western Ghats and the East of the Eastern Ghats. The
Western coastal plains are narrow while the eastern coastal plains are much broader. There are several
east-flowing rivers such as Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri. These rivers have formed fertile
deltas at their mouth.

3. Write a short note on the two groups of islands of India.


Answer: The two groups of islands are—Lakshadweep islands and Andaman and Nicobar islands.
Lakshadweep islands are located in the Arabian Sea. These are coral islands located off the coast of
Kerala. The Andaman and Nicobar islands are located in the Bay of Bengal.

4. How are coral islands formed? [V. Imp.]


Answer: Corals are skeletons of very small marine animals called polyps. When the living polyps die, their
skeletons are left. Other polyps grow on top of the hard skeleton which grows higher and higher, thus
forming the coral islands.

5. What do you know about the boundaries of India? Explain in brief. [V. Imp.]
Answer: Our country has a vast geographical expanse. In the north, it is bound by the lofty Himalayas. In
the west, lies the Arabian Sea, in the east it is bound by the Bay of Bengal and in the south lies the Indian’
Ocean.

6.Describe the geographical extent of India. [V. Imp.]


Answer: India has an area of about 3.28 million sq. Km. The north-south extent from Kashmir to
Kanyakumari is about 3,200 km. And the east-west extent from Arunachal Pradesh to Kuchchh is about
2,900 km. The lofty mountains, the Great Indian Desert, the Northern Plains, the uneven plateau surface
and the coasts and islands present a diversity of landforms.

7. Describe the locational extent of India. [Imp.]


Answer: India is located in the northern hemisphere. The Tropic of Cancer (23° 30′ N) passes almost
halfway through the country. From south to north, main land of India extends between 8° 4′ N and 37° 6′ N
latitudes. From west to east, India extends between 68° 7′ E and 97° 25′ E longitudes. If we divide the world
into eastern and western hemisphere, India will belong to eastern hemisphere.
8. Describe the effect of east-west extent of India on time.
Answer: The west to eats extent leads to difference in local time from meridian to meridian. The local time
changes by four minutes for every one degree of longitude. The sun rises two hours earlier in the east, Le.
Arunachal Pradesh than in the west, ie. (Gujarat). The local time of longitude of 82° 30′ E has been taken
as the Indian Standard Time. This longitude is also known as the Standard Meridian of India. Its time is
taken as the standard throughout the country.

VI.Long Answer Type Questions


1. Describe the major physical division of India. [V. Imp.]
Answer: India has a diverse physical features, such as mountains, plateaus, plains, coasts and islands.
1.The Himalayas. The Himalayas stand sentinels in the north. The Himalayas mountains are divided into
three main parallel ranges. The northernmost is the Great Himalaya or Himadri. The world’s highest peaks
are located in this range. Middle Himalayas or Himachal lies to the south of Himadri. The Shiwalik is the
southernmost range.
2.The Northern Indian Plains. They lie to the south of the Himalayas. They are usually level and flat.
These are fertile regions and are suitable for cultivation. Thick population is found here.
3.’ The Great Indian Desert. It lies to the western part of the country. It is a sandy stretch of land. Rainfall
is very poor, hence very little vegetation is found here.
4.The Peninsular Plateau. It is triangular in shape. It lies to the south of northern plains. Its relief is highly
uneven. Numerous hill ranges and valleys are found here. Aravali hills lie to the north-west side. The
Vindhyas and the Satpuras are other important ranges. The Narmada and Tapi flow through these ranges.
These west-flowing rivers fall into the Arabian Sea. On the west of the plateau lie the Western Ghats also
known as Sahyadris. On the east lie the Eastern Ghats. This plateau is rich in minerals like coal and iron
ore.
5.Coastal Plains. They lie to the West of the Western Ghats and East of the Eastern Ghats. The rivers
Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri (all east flowing rivers) fall into the Bay of Bengal. They have
formed fertile deltas at their mouth. <
6.Islands. Two groups of islands are integral part of the country. Lakshadweep islands are located in the
Arabian Sea while Andaman and Nicobar islands lie to the South-east of the Indian mainland in the Bay of
Bengal.

VII.Map Skills
1.On an outline map of India, show its neighbouring countries.
Answer:
2. On an outline political map of India, show all the states and union territories.
Answer:
NCERT Solutions for Class 6th Social Science
Geography Chapter 8 India Climate Vegetation and
Wildlife
1. Answer the following questions briefly.
(a)Which winds bring rainfall in India? Why is it so important?
(b)Name the different seasons in India.
(c)What is natural vegetation?
(d)Name the different types of vegetation found in
(e)What is the difference between evergreen forest and deciduous forest?
(f)Why is tropical rainforest also called evergreen forest?
Answer: (a) Monsoon winds bring rainfall in India. Agriculture in India depends on rains. Good monsoons
mean sufficient rain and a good crop. Hence, monsoon winds Eire very important. Our prosperity depends
on these winds.
(b)The different seasons in India are:
(i) Cold Weather Season (Winter)
(ii) Hot Weather Season (Summer)
(iii) Southwest Monsoon Season (Rainy)
(iv) Season of retreating Monsoon (Autumn).
(c)The grasses, shrubs and trees that grow on their own without any human interference or help are termed
natural vegetation.
(d)The different types of vegetation found in India are:
(i) Tropical evergreen forest (ii) Tropical deciduous forest (iii) Thorny bushes (iv) Mountain vegetation (v)
Mangrove forests.

(f)Tropical rainforest always appears green and therefore it is called evergreen forest.
2. Tick the correct answer.
(a)The world’s highest rainfall occurs in …………
(i) Mumbai (ii) Asansol (iii) Mawsyuram.
(b)Mangrove forests can thrive in………
(i) saline water (ii) fresh water (iii)polluted water.
(c)Mahogany and rosewood trees are found in………..
(i) mangrove forests
(ii)tropical deciduous forests
(iii)tropical evergreen forests
(d)Wild goats and snow leopards are found in…………
(i) Himalayan region (ii)Peninsular region (iii) Gir forests.
(e)During the South-west monsoon period, the moisture laden winds blow from
(i) land to sea (ii) sea to land (iii) plateau to plains.
Answer: (a)—(iii), (b)—(i), (c)—(iii), (d)—(i), (e)—(ii).

3.Fill in the blanks.


(a)Hot and dry winds known as………… blow during the day in summers.
(b)The states of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu receive a great amount of rainfall during the
season of…………..
(c)…… forest in Gujarat is the home of……………
(d)…………….. is a well-known species of mangrove forests.
(e)………….. are also called monsoon forests.
Answer: (a) loo, (b) retreating monsoon, (c) Gir, Asiatic lions, (d) Sundari, (e) Tropical deciduous forests.

I. Multiple Choice Questions


Choose the correct option to complete the statements given below:
(i)Sundarbans is in ………..
(a) Andaman and Nicobar Islands (b) West Bengal
(c) Orissa (d) Madhya Pradesh.
(ii)Which one forms the group of migratory birds?
(a)Siberian Crane, Flamingo and Crow (b)Sparrow, Crow and Stork
(c)Stork, Siberian Crane and Flamingo (d)Duck, Bulbul and geese.
(iii)These places experience moderate climate ………………
(a) Mumbai and Kolkata (b) Patna and Lucknow
(c) Bikaner and Jaisalmer (d) Ranchi and Asansol.
(iv) Elephants and one-homed rhinoceroses are found in the forests of……………………
(a) Assam (b) Gujarat.
(c) Kerala (d)Karnataka.
(v)Wild life week is observed every year in the first week of
(a) November (b) August
(c) September (d) October.
Answer: (i)—(b), (ii)—(c), (iii)—(a), (iv)—(a), (v)—(d).

II. Fill in the Blanks


Fill in the blanks with appropriate words to complete each sentence:
(i)Camels and wild asses are found in the ……….. and the ……….
(ii) ……… in Rajasthan receives least rainfall.
(iii) Tropical Rain Forests occur in the areas which receive ………….. rainfall.
(iv) Cold weather season remains from………… to ………..
(v) The climate of India has been described as ………….. type.
(vi) The roots of the plants kind the………….. , thus, they control soil erosion.
(vii) Parrots, pigeons, geese, etc. are examples of ……….. birds.
Answer: (i) Great Indian desert, Rann of Kuchchh
(ii) Jaisalmer (iii) heavy
(iv) December, February (v) Monsoon
(vi) bind (vii)common

III.True/False
State whether these sentences are true (I) or false (F).
(i) During the winter season, the sun rays fall directly in the region.
(ii)Due to India’s location in the tropical region, most of the rain is brought by monsoon winds.
(iii)Tropical rainforests are not very dense.
(iv) Tropical rainforests are also called monsoon forests.
(v) Thorny buses are found in dry areas of the country.
(vi) Siberian Crane, Stork, Flamingo, etc. migrate to our country in the winter season every year.
Answer: (i) False, (ii) True, (iii) False, (iv) False, (v) True, (vi) True.

IV.Matching Skill
Match the items in column A correctly with those given in column B.

V.Very Short Answer Type Questions


1. What happens in the season of the retreating monsoons? [Imp.]
Answer: Winds move back from the mainland to the Bay of Bengal. ,

2. What is climate?
Answer: Climate is the average weather condition, which has been measured over many years.

3. Name the factors that affect the climate of a place. [Imp.]


Answer: The climate of a place is affected by its location, altitude, distance from the sea and relief.

4. Name the two regions of Rcgasthan which are very hot.


Answer: Jaisalmer and Bikaner.

5. Name the two regions of Jammu and Kashmir which are very cold or freezing cold.
Answer: Drass and Kargil.
6. What do you mean by moderate climate? [V. Imp.]
Answer: Moderate climate refers to the climate which is neither very hot nor very cold.

7. What are called bushes?


Answer: Small plants are called bushes.

8. Where are thorny bushes found?


Answer: Thorny bushes are found in the states of Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Eastern slopes of
Western Ghats and Gujarat.

9. What is the special feature of mountain vegetation?


Answer: The trees are conical in shape.

10. Why is Van Mahotsav arranged? [V. Imp.]


Answer: Van Mahotsav is arranged to awaken people to plant more and more trees.

11. Why are several species of wildlife of India declining? [V. Imp.]
Answer: Due to cutting of forests and hunting, several species of wildlife of India are declining.

12. Name the project started by the government to protect tigers? [Imp.]
Answer: Project Tiger.

13. Name some migratory birds.


Answer: Pelican, Siberian Crane, Stork, Flamingo, Pintail, Duck and Curlew.

VI. Short Answer Type Questions


1. Explain cold weather season and hot weather season.
Answer: During cold weather season (winter), the sunrays do not fall directly in the region. As a result the
temperatures are quite low in northern India. In hot weather season (summer), the sunrays fall directly in
the region. Hence, temperature becomes very high. Hot and diy winds called loo blow during the day time.

2. Why do we experience regional differences in the climate of India? Explain with examples. [V.
Imp.]
Answer: We experience regional differences in the climate of India due to these factors— location of a
place, altitude, distance from the sea and relief. For examples, Jaisalmer and Bikaner in the desert of
Rajasthan are very hot while Drass and Kargil in Jammu and Kashmir are very cold. Coastal places like
Mumbai and Kolkata experience moderate climate. It means these places are neither very hot nor very
cold. Mawsynram in Meghalaya receives the world’s highest rainfall, while Jaisalmer receives least rainfall.

3.Mention the periods of various seasons of India.[Imp.]


Answer: (i) Cold weather season, i.e. winter remains from December to February.
(ii) Hot weather season, summer ranges from March to May.
(iii) Southwest monsoon season, Le. rainy season remains from June to September.
(iv) Season of retreating monsoon, Le. autumn occurs in the month October and lasts upto the month of
November.
4. Mention the main features of thorny bushes.
Answer: (i) Thorny bushes are found in dry areas of the country.
(ii)The leaves are in the form of spines to reduce the loss of water.
(iii)Cactus, khair, babool, keekar are important thorny bushes.
(iv) They are found in the states of Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Eastern slopes of Western Ghats and
Gujarat.

5. Write a note on mountain vegetation.


Answer: Mountains are homes of various species of trees. They are found according to the variation in
height. With increase in height, the temperature falls. At a height between 1500 metres and 2500 metres
most of the trees are conical in shape. Such trees are called coniferous trees. Mountain vegetation includes
trees such as chir, pine and deodar.

6. How are forests important for us? [V. Imp.]


Answer: Forests play a vital role in the life of the human beings and in their absence we can’t imagine life.
Plants release oxygen that we breathe and absorb carbon dioxide. The roots of the plants bind the soil and
in this way check soil erosion. We get several things from the forests, such as wood for furniture, fuel,
fodder, medicinal herbs, honey, lac, gum, fruits etc.Forests provide natural habitat to the wildlife, such as
lions, tigers, elephants, monkeys, etc.As forests are so beneficial for us, we must make efforts to conserve
it.

7. What should we do to conserve wildlife? [V. Imp.]


Answer: We must not involve in hunting and poaching of wild animals. We can refuse to buy things made
from parts of the bodies of animals such as their bones, horns, fur, skins and feathers. It will be an effective
way to conserve wildlife. We should participate in the wildlife week which falls in the first week of October
and try to create awareness of conserving the habitats of the animal kingdom.

VII.Long Answer Type Questions


1. Explain different types of seasons found in India
Answer: Four major seasons are found in India:
(i) Cold Weather Season (Winter). This season occurs in the month of December and lasts upto the
month of February. During this season temperature remains cold in the northern India because the sunrays
do not fall directly in the region. ,
(ii) Hot weather season (Summer). This season starts in the month of March and ends in the month of
May. During this season temperature becomes very hot because the sunrays fall directly in the region. Hot
and dry winds called loo blow during the day time.
(iii)South West monsoon season (Rainy season). This season is marked by the advent and advance of
monsoon. The winds blow from Arabian sea and Bay of Bengal towards the land. They carry moisture with
them. When these winds strike the mountain barriers it begins raining.
(iv) Season of retreating monsoon (Autumn). This is the season of retreating monsoons. During this
season winds move back from the mainland to the Bay of Bengal. The southern parts of India receive
rainfall in this season.

2. Mention different types of vegetation found in India. [V. Imp.)


Answer: Five different types of vegetation is found in India:
(i)Tropical rain forests. These forests are found in the areas which receive heavy rainfall. They are very
dense and sunlight never reach the ground. The trees of these forests shed their leaves at different times of
the year. Therefore, they always appear green are called evergreen forests. Important trees of these forests
are mahogany, ebony and rosewood. They are found in Andaman and Nicobar islands, parts of North-
Eastern states and a narrow strip of the western slope of the Western Ghats.
(ii) Tropical deciduous forests. These forests are also known as monsoon forests and are found in a large
part of the country. They are less dense. They shed their leaves at a particular time of the year. Sal, teak,
neem, peepal and shisham are important trees found in these forests. Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh,
Bihar, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Orissa etc. are home of these forests.
(iii) Thorny bushes. They are found in the dry areas. Cactus, khair, babool and Keekar are important thorny
bushes. They are found in Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, etc.
(iv) Mountain Vegetation. A variety of trees are found in the mountains. They are conical in shape. Hence
trees are called conical trees. Chir, pine and deodar are important trees of these forests.
(v) Mangrove Forests. These forests grow in saline water. They are found in Sundarbans in west Bengal
and in the Andaman and Nicobar islands. Sundari is a well-known species of trees in mangrove-forests.

3. Describe the wildlife of India [V. Imp.]


Answer: Forests are home to wildlife, which include several species of animals and a variety of reptiles,
amphibians, mammals, birds, insects and worms.
The tiger, our national animal, is found ip various parts of the country. Gir forest in Gujarat is the home of
Asiatic lions. Elephants and one-homed rhinoceroses are found in the forests of Assam. Elephants are
found in Kerala and Karnataka. Camels and wild asses are found in the Great Indian desert and the Rann
of Kuchchh respectively. Wild goats, snow leopards, bears, etc. are found in the Himalayan region. Besides
these, monkeys, wolf, jackal, nilgai, cheetal, etc. are other animals found in our country.
Our country is rich in bird life too. Peacock is our national bird. Other common birds are parrots, pigeons,
mynah, geese, bulbul and ducks. Several bird sanctuaries have been established to protect different
species of birds.,
There are hundreds of species of snakes found in India. Cobras and Kraits are important among them.
NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Science Chapter 5
Separation of Substances
NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Science Chapter 5 Textbook Questions Solved

1. Why do we need to separate different components of a mixture? Give two examples.


Ans: Among different components of mixture there are many substances which are harmful or not useful
for us. To remove these harmful or unuseful components we need to separate them. For example:
(a) Tea leaves are separated from the liquid with a strainer while preparing tea.
(b) Stone pieces from wheat, rice or pulses are picked out by hand.

2. What is winnowing? Where is it used?


Ans: Winnowing is used to separate heavier and lighter components of a mixture by wind or by blowing air.
This process is used by farmers to separate lighter husk particles from heavier seeds of grain.

3. How will you separate husk or dirt particles from a given sample of pulses before cooking?
Ans: Husk or dirt particles can be separated by winnowing, being lighter they wall fly away from pulses.

4. What is Sieving? Where can it be used?


Ans. Sieving is a process by which fine particles are separated from bigger particles by using a sieve. It is
used in flour mill or at construction sites. In flour mill, impurities like husks and stones are removed from
wheat. Pebbles and stones are removed from sand by sieving.
5. How will you separate sand and water from their mixture?
Ans. We will separate sand and water by sedimentation and decantation method. First we leave this
mixture for some time. After some time, the sand which is; heavier is settled down at the bottom. After that
we wall pour water into another container and the mixture will be separated.

6. Is it possible to separate sugar mixed with wheat flour? If yes, how will you do it?
Ans. Sugar can be separated from wheat flour by sieving. Due to difference in the size of particles, sugar
will stay on sieve and wheat flour will pass through it.

7. How would you obtain clear water from a sample of muddy water?
Ans. We will obtain clear water from a sample of muddy water by the process of filtration.
A filter paper is one such filter that has very fine pores in it. Figure 5.12(a, b) shows the steps involved in
using a filter paper. A filter paper folded in the form of a cone is fixed in a funnel. The mixture is then poured
on the filter paper. Solid particles in the mixture do not pass through it and remain on the filter.

8. Fill in the blanks:


(a) The method of separating seeds of paddy from its stalks is called .
(b) When milk, cooled after boiling, is poured onto a piece of cloth the cream (malai) is left behind
on it. This process of separating cream from milk is an example of ______.
(a) Salt is obtained from sea water by the process of ____________ .
(b) Impurities settled at the bottom when muddy water was kept overnight in a bucket. The clear
water was then poured off from the top. The process of separation used in this example is called
____________.
Ans.
(a) threshing
(b)filtration
(b) evaporation
(d) sedimentation and decantation

9. True or false?
(a) A mixture of milk and water can be separated by filtration.
(b) A mixture of powdered salt and sugar can be separated by the process of winnowing.
(c) Separation of sugar from tea can be done with filtration.
(d) Grain and husk can be separated with the process of decantation.
Ans.
(a) False
(b) False
(c) False
(d) False

10. Lemonade is prepared by mixing lemon juice and sugar in water. You wish to add ice to cool it.
Should you add ice to the lemonade before or after dissolving sugar ? In which case would it be
possible to dissolve more sugar ?
Ans. We should add ice after dissolving sugar. When the temperature is high then more sugar can be
dissolved. After mixing ice it gets cool and less sugar will dissolve in it.

EXTRA QUESTIONS for Class 6 Science Chapter 5


Class 6 Science Chapter 5 VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

1. What is strainer?
Ans. Strainer is a kind of sieve which is used to separate a liquid from solid.

2. Name the method used to separate cream from curd.


Ans. Centrifugation.

3. How will you separate mango from a mixture of mango and apple?
Ans. By picking.

4. You are given a mixture of salt and sand. Can you separate them by picking?
Ans. No, we cannot separate them by picking.

5. Name the method used to separate the pieces of stone from grain.
Ans. Handpicking.

6. How can you separate grains from stalk?


Ans. We separate grains from stalk by threshing.

7. What types of material can we separate by using handpicking?


Ans. The materials having different size and colour can be separated by handpicking.

8. Name the other methods used to separate solid materials of different size.
Ans. Sieving.

9. Name the process used to separate heavier and lighter components of a mixture.
Ans. Winnowing.

10. Can the above stated method be used if both the components have same weight?
Ans. No, this method cannot be used.

11. What is evaporation?


Ans. The process of conversion of water into vapour is called evaporation.

12. Name the method by which we get salt from ocean water.
Ans. Evaporation.

13. Define condensation.


Ans. The process of conversion of water vapour into liquid form is called condensation.

14. Write opposite process of evaporation.


Ans. Condensation.
Class 6 Science Chapter 5 SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

l. What is mixture?
Ans. When two or more than two substances are mixed together in any ratio then it is called a mixture.

2. Write various methods of separation of components from their mixture.


Ans.

1. Handpicking
2. Threshing
3. Winnowing
4. Sedimentation
5. Decantation
6. Filtration
7. Evaporation
8. Condensation

3. Define the term handpicking.


Ans. The process used to separate slightly larger particles from a mixture by hand is called handpicking.
For example: Stone pieces can be separated from wheat or rice by handpicking.

4. What do you mean by threshing? Where is it used?


Ans. Threshing is a process in which we separate grain from stalks. This process is used by farmer to
separate gram, wheat, rice, mustard seeds in his field.

5. Write three methods of separation.


Ans. Handpicking, threshing and winnowing.

6. How will you separate oil and water from their mixture?
Ans. Oil, being lighter than water, will float on it. Two distinct layers are formed and slowly oil is allowed to
flow into another container and is separated from water. Separating funnel can also be used to separate the
two.

7. What is evaporation?
Ans. The process of conversion of water into vapour is called evaporation. This process takes place
continuously where water is present. Common salt from sea water is obtained using this method.

8. Define winnowing.
Ans. The process is used to separate components from a mixture in which one component is heavier or
lighter than other is called winnowing. Winnowing is done with the help of wind or by blowing air.

9. What do you mean by sieving? Give an example.


Ans. Sieving allows the fine flour particles to pass through the holes of the sieve while the bigger particles
or impurities remain on the sieve. For example, in a flour mill, impurities like husk and stones are removed
from wheat before grinding it.

10. Match the column:


Class 6 Science Chapter 5 LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

l. What is threshing?
Ans. Threshing is a process that is used to separate grain from stalks. In this process the stalks are beaten
to free the grain seeds. Sometimes threshing is done with the help of bullocks. Machines are also used to
thresh large quantities of grain.

2. Describe the method to obtain salt from sea water.


Ans. Sea water contains many salts mixed in it. One of them is common salt, when sea water is allowed to
stand in shallow pits, water gets evaporated by sunlight and slowly turns into water vapour. In a few days,
the water evaporates completely leaving behind the solid salts. Common salt is then obtained from this
mixture of salts by further purification.

3. What is decantation?
Ans. Decantation is a process, of separation of insoluble solids from liquid. The suspension of solid
particles in liquid is allowed to stand for some time. The solid particles then settle down at the bottom of the
container and clean water goes up. Without disturbing the settled particles the clean water is transferred
into other container.

4. Where is decantation used? Give two examples.


Ans.
(i) Decantation is used to separate insoluble solids or liquid from liquid. Rain water is a mixture of mud and
water. It is purified by decantation.
(ii) Oil and water also get separated by this method because oil floats up.

5. How will you prepare cheese (paneer)?


Ans. For making paneer, a few drops of lemon juice sire added to milk as it boils. This gives a mixture of
particles of solid paneer and liquid. The paneer is then separated by filtering the mixture through a fine cloth
or strainer.

6. Explain the method that can be used for separating the following mixture:
(i) Sand and husk
(ii) Wheat, sugar and stalk
(iii) Water and petrol
(iv) Rice and salt
(v) Sand and salt
Ans.
(i) Mixture of sand and husk: Sand and husk can be separated by the method of winnowing.
(ii) Mixture of wheat, sugar and stalk: For separating stalk from the mixture we should follow the winnowing
method because milk is lighter than other two components and get separated. Wheat and sugar can be
separated by sieving because they are in different sizes.
(iii) Mixture of water and petrol: Water does not dissolve in petrol. So, it can be separated by the use of
separating funnel.
(iv) Mixture of rice and salt: Rice and salt can be separated by sieving.
(v) Mixture of sand and salt: Sand and salt is mixed with water, salt dissolves in water and sand can be
separated solution by sedimentation and decantation followed by filtration. After that using evaporation
common salt is separated.

NCERT Solutions for Class 6th Social Science


Geography Chapter 8 India Climate Vegetation and
Wildlife
1. Answer the following questions briefly.
(a)Which winds bring rainfall in India? Why is it so important?
(b)Name the different seasons in India.
(c)What is natural vegetation?
(d)Name the different types of vegetation found in
(e)What is the difference between evergreen forest and deciduous forest?
(f)Why is tropical rainforest also called evergreen forest?
Answer: (a) Monsoon winds bring rainfall in India. Agriculture in India depends on rains. Good monsoons
mean sufficient rain and a good crop. Hence, monsoon winds Eire very important. Our prosperity depends
on these winds.
(b)The different seasons in India are:
(i) Cold Weather Season (Winter)
(ii) Hot Weather Season (Summer)
(iii) Southwest Monsoon Season (Rainy)
(iv) Season of retreating Monsoon (Autumn).
(c)The grasses, shrubs and trees that grow on their own without any human interference or help are termed
natural vegetation.
(d)The different types of vegetation found in India are:
(i) Tropical evergreen forest (ii) Tropical deciduous forest (iii) Thorny bushes (iv) Mountain vegetation (v)
Mangrove forests.

(f)Tropical rainforest always appears green and therefore it is called evergreen forest.

2. Tick the correct answer.


(a)The world’s highest rainfall occurs in …………
(i) Mumbai (ii) Asansol (iii) Mawsyuram.
(b)Mangrove forests can thrive in………
(i) saline water (ii) fresh water (iii)polluted water.
(c)Mahogany and rosewood trees are found in………..
(i) mangrove forests
(ii)tropical deciduous forests
(iii)tropical evergreen forests
(d)Wild goats and snow leopards are found in…………
(i) Himalayan region (ii)Peninsular region (iii) Gir forests.
(e)During the South-west monsoon period, the moisture laden winds blow from
(i) land to sea (ii) sea to land (iii) plateau to plains.
Answer: (a)—(iii), (b)—(i), (c)—(iii), (d)—(i), (e)—(ii).

3.Fill in the blanks.


(a)Hot and dry winds known as………… blow during the day in summers.
(b)The states of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu receive a great amount of rainfall during the
season of…………..
(c)…… forest in Gujarat is the home of……………
(d)…………….. is a well-known species of mangrove forests.
(e)………….. are also called monsoon forests.
Answer: (a) loo, (b) retreating monsoon, (c) Gir, Asiatic lions, (d) Sundari, (e) Tropical deciduous forests.

I. Multiple Choice Questions


Choose the correct option to complete the statements given below:
(i)Sundarbans is in ………..
(a) Andaman and Nicobar Islands (b) West Bengal
(c) Orissa (d) Madhya Pradesh.
(ii)Which one forms the group of migratory birds?
(a)Siberian Crane, Flamingo and Crow (b)Sparrow, Crow and Stork
(c)Stork, Siberian Crane and Flamingo (d)Duck, Bulbul and geese.
(iii)These places experience moderate climate ………………
(a) Mumbai and Kolkata (b) Patna and Lucknow
(c) Bikaner and Jaisalmer (d) Ranchi and Asansol.
(iv) Elephants and one-homed rhinoceroses are found in the forests of……………………
(a) Assam (b) Gujarat.
(c) Kerala (d)Karnataka.
(v)Wild life week is observed every year in the first week of
(a) November (b) August
(c) September (d) October.
Answer: (i)—(b), (ii)—(c), (iii)—(a), (iv)—(a), (v)—(d).

II. Fill in the Blanks


Fill in the blanks with appropriate words to complete each sentence:
(i)Camels and wild asses are found in the ……….. and the ……….
(ii) ……… in Rajasthan receives least rainfall.
(iii) Tropical Rain Forests occur in the areas which receive ………….. rainfall.
(iv) Cold weather season remains from………… to ………..
(v) The climate of India has been described as ………….. type.
(vi) The roots of the plants kind the………….. , thus, they control soil erosion.
(vii) Parrots, pigeons, geese, etc. are examples of ……….. birds.
Answer: (i) Great Indian desert, Rann of Kuchchh
(ii) Jaisalmer (iii) heavy
(iv) December, February (v) Monsoon
(vi) bind (vii)common

III.True/False
State whether these sentences are true (I) or false (F).
(i) During the winter season, the sun rays fall directly in the region.
(ii)Due to India’s location in the tropical region, most of the rain is brought by monsoon winds.
(iii)Tropical rainforests are not very dense.
(iv) Tropical rainforests are also called monsoon forests.
(v) Thorny buses are found in dry areas of the country.
(vi) Siberian Crane, Stork, Flamingo, etc. migrate to our country in the winter season every year.
Answer: (i) False, (ii) True, (iii) False, (iv) False, (v) True, (vi) True.

IV.Matching Skill
Match the items in column A correctly with those given in column B.

V.Very Short Answer Type Questions


1. What happens in the season of the retreating monsoons? [Imp.]
Answer: Winds move back from the mainland to the Bay of Bengal. ,

2. What is climate?
Answer: Climate is the average weather condition, which has been measured over many years.

3. Name the factors that affect the climate of a place. [Imp.]


Answer: The climate of a place is affected by its location, altitude, distance from the sea and relief.

4. Name the two regions of Rcgasthan which are very hot.


Answer: Jaisalmer and Bikaner.

5. Name the two regions of Jammu and Kashmir which are very cold or freezing cold.
Answer: Drass and Kargil.

6. What do you mean by moderate climate? [V. Imp.]


Answer: Moderate climate refers to the climate which is neither very hot nor very cold.

7. What are called bushes?


Answer: Small plants are called bushes.

8. Where are thorny bushes found?


Answer: Thorny bushes are found in the states of Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Eastern slopes of
Western Ghats and Gujarat.
9. What is the special feature of mountain vegetation?
Answer: The trees are conical in shape.

10. Why is Van Mahotsav arranged? [V. Imp.]


Answer: Van Mahotsav is arranged to awaken people to plant more and more trees.

11. Why are several species of wildlife of India declining? [V. Imp.]
Answer: Due to cutting of forests and hunting, several species of wildlife of India are declining.

12. Name the project started by the government to protect tigers? [Imp.]
Answer: Project Tiger.

13. Name some migratory birds.


Answer: Pelican, Siberian Crane, Stork, Flamingo, Pintail, Duck and Curlew.

VI. Short Answer Type Questions


1. Explain cold weather season and hot weather season.
Answer: During cold weather season (winter), the sunrays do not fall directly in the region. As a result the
temperatures are quite low in northern India. In hot weather season (summer), the sunrays fall directly in
the region. Hence, temperature becomes very high. Hot and diy winds called loo blow during the day time.

2. Why do we experience regional differences in the climate of India? Explain with examples. [V.
Imp.]
Answer: We experience regional differences in the climate of India due to these factors— location of a
place, altitude, distance from the sea and relief. For examples, Jaisalmer and Bikaner in the desert of
Rajasthan are very hot while Drass and Kargil in Jammu and Kashmir are very cold. Coastal places like
Mumbai and Kolkata experience moderate climate. It means these places are neither very hot nor very
cold. Mawsynram in Meghalaya receives the world’s highest rainfall, while Jaisalmer receives least rainfall.

3.Mention the periods of various seasons of India.[Imp.]


Answer: (i) Cold weather season, i.e. winter remains from December to February.
(ii) Hot weather season, summer ranges from March to May.
(iii) Southwest monsoon season, Le. rainy season remains from June to September.
(iv) Season of retreating monsoon, Le. autumn occurs in the month October and lasts upto the month of
November.

4. Mention the main features of thorny bushes.


Answer: (i) Thorny bushes are found in dry areas of the country.
(ii)The leaves are in the form of spines to reduce the loss of water.
(iii)Cactus, khair, babool, keekar are important thorny bushes.
(iv) They are found in the states of Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Eastern slopes of Western Ghats and
Gujarat.

5. Write a note on mountain vegetation.


Answer: Mountains are homes of various species of trees. They are found according to the variation in
height. With increase in height, the temperature falls. At a height between 1500 metres and 2500 metres
most of the trees are conical in shape. Such trees are called coniferous trees. Mountain vegetation includes
trees such as chir, pine and deodar.

6. How are forests important for us? [V. Imp.]


Answer: Forests play a vital role in the life of the human beings and in their absence we can’t imagine life.
Plants release oxygen that we breathe and absorb carbon dioxide. The roots of the plants bind the soil and
in this way check soil erosion. We get several things from the forests, such as wood for furniture, fuel,
fodder, medicinal herbs, honey, lac, gum, fruits etc.Forests provide natural habitat to the wildlife, such as
lions, tigers, elephants, monkeys, etc.As forests are so beneficial for us, we must make efforts to conserve
it.

7. What should we do to conserve wildlife? [V. Imp.]


Answer: We must not involve in hunting and poaching of wild animals. We can refuse to buy things made
from parts of the bodies of animals such as their bones, horns, fur, skins and feathers. It will be an effective
way to conserve wildlife. We should participate in the wildlife week which falls in the first week of October
and try to create awareness of conserving the habitats of the animal kingdom.

VII.Long Answer Type Questions


1. Explain different types of seasons found in India
Answer: Four major seasons are found in India:
(i) Cold Weather Season (Winter). This season occurs in the month of December and lasts upto the
month of February. During this season temperature remains cold in the northern India because the sunrays
do not fall directly in the region. ,
(ii) Hot weather season (Summer). This season starts in the month of March and ends in the month of
May. During this season temperature becomes very hot because the sunrays fall directly in the region. Hot
and dry winds called loo blow during the day time.
(iii)South West monsoon season (Rainy season). This season is marked by the advent and advance of
monsoon. The winds blow from Arabian sea and Bay of Bengal towards the land. They carry moisture with
them. When these winds strike the mountain barriers it begins raining.
(iv) Season of retreating monsoon (Autumn). This is the season of retreating monsoons. During this
season winds move back from the mainland to the Bay of Bengal. The southern parts of India receive
rainfall in this season.

2. Mention different types of vegetation found in India. [V. Imp.)


Answer: Five different types of vegetation is found in India:
(i)Tropical rain forests. These forests are found in the areas which receive heavy rainfall. They are very
dense and sunlight never reach the ground. The trees of these forests shed their leaves at different times of
the year. Therefore, they always appear green are called evergreen forests. Important trees of these forests
are mahogany, ebony and rosewood. They are found in Andaman and Nicobar islands, parts of North-
Eastern states and a narrow strip of the western slope of the Western Ghats.
(ii) Tropical deciduous forests. These forests are also known as monsoon forests and are found in a large
part of the country. They are less dense. They shed their leaves at a particular time of the year. Sal, teak,
neem, peepal and shisham are important trees found in these forests. Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh,
Bihar, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Orissa etc. are home of these forests.
(iii) Thorny bushes. They are found in the dry areas. Cactus, khair, babool and Keekar are important thorny
bushes. They are found in Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, etc.
(iv) Mountain Vegetation. A variety of trees are found in the mountains. They are conical in shape. Hence
trees are called conical trees. Chir, pine and deodar are important trees of these forests.
(v) Mangrove Forests. These forests grow in saline water. They are found in Sundarbans in west Bengal
and in the Andaman and Nicobar islands. Sundari is a well-known species of trees in mangrove-forests.

3. Describe the wildlife of India [V. Imp.]


Answer: Forests are home to wildlife, which include several species of animals and a variety of reptiles,
amphibians, mammals, birds, insects and worms.
The tiger, our national animal, is found ip various parts of the country. Gir forest in Gujarat is the home of
Asiatic lions. Elephants and one-homed rhinoceroses are found in the forests of Assam. Elephants are
found in Kerala and Karnataka. Camels and wild asses are found in the Great Indian desert and the Rann
of Kuchchh respectively. Wild goats, snow leopards, bears, etc. are found in the Himalayan region. Besides
these, monkeys, wolf, jackal, nilgai, cheetal, etc. are other animals found in our country.
Our country is rich in bird life too. Peacock is our national bird. Other common birds are parrots, pigeons,
mynah, geese, bulbul and ducks. Several bird sanctuaries have been established to protect different
species of birds.,
There are hundreds of species of snakes found in India. Cobras and Kraits are important among them.

NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Hindi Chapter 14 –


लोकगीत

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NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Hindi Chapter 15 –
नौकर

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NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Hindi Chapter 10 – झ ाँसी
की र नी

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NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Hindi Chapter 14 –
लोकगीत

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NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Science Chapter 11
Light Shadows and Reflection
Topics and Sub Topics in Class 6 Science Chapter 11 Light Shadows and Reflection:

Topic Name+

Section Name +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

11 Light, Shadows and Reflections

11.1 Transparent, opaque and translucent objects

11.2 What exactly are shadows?

11.3 A pinhole camera

11.4 Mirrors and reflections

1. Rearrange the boxes given below to make a sentence that helps us understand opaque objects.

Ans:
2. Classify the objects or materials given below as opaque, transparent or translucent and luminous
or non-luminous:
Air, water, a piece of rock, a sheet of aluminium, a mirror, a wooden board, a sheet of polythene, a
CD, smoke, a sheet of plane glass, fog, a piece of red hot iron, an umbrella, a lighted fluorescent
tube, a wall, a sheet of carbon paper, the fame of a gas burner, a sheet of cardboard, a lighted torch,
a sheet of cellophane, a wire mesh, kerosene stove, sun, firefly, moon.
Ans:

3. Can you think of creating a shape that would give a circular shadow if held in one way and a rectangular
shadow if held in another way?
Ans: Yes, there are many things which give a circular shadow if held in one way and a rectangular shadow if held in
another way. For example: a cylinder, a circular disc etc.
4. In a completely dark room, if you hold up a mirror in front of you, will you see a reflection of yourself in the
mirror?
Ans: No, in a completely dark room no image will be formed because there is no light in the room so no reflection of
light takes place and no image will be formed.

Class 6 Science Chapter 11 VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

1. Whether the moon is luminous or non-luminous body?


Ans: Moon is non-luminous body.

2. What is umbra?
Ans: Umbra is the dark region behind object facing light which does not receive light at all.

3. How does a light ray travel?


Ans: Light ray travels in a straight line.

4. Give one natural source of light.


Ans: Sun is a natural source of light.

5. What is shadow?
Ans: Shadow is the dark space behind an opaque object where light does not reach.

6. What is penumbra?
Ans: The less darker shadow formed penumbra.on the periphery of dark shadow is called penumbra.

Class 6 Science Chapter 11 SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

1. State difference between a luminous and a non-luminous body.


Ans: The bodies which emit light are called luminous bodies. Example: sun, stars, burning candle etc.
The bodies which does not emit light are called non-luminous bodies. Example: moon, earth, blackboard.

2. Why is the moon not considered as a luminous body?


Ans: Moon is non-luminous body because it shines by reflecting the sunlight falling on it.

3. What is an incandescent body? Give example.


Ans: The bodies which emit light when heated to a very high temperature are called incandescent bodies.
Example: electric bulb.

4. When does a shadow form?


Ans: Shadow is formed when light does not reach behind the opaque object kept in the path of light
5. Draw a diagram to illustrate the formation of umbra and penumbra.
Ans:

6. What are the essential conditions for the formation of shadow?


Ans:
(1) There should be an opaque material.
(2) There should be a source of light and screen.
The object must be placed in the path of light. Then shadow is formed on the screen.

7. Define reflection of light.


Ans: When light rays after striking the smooth and shiny surface return to same medium, this phenomenon
is called reflection of light.
8. Write difference between shadow and image.
Ans:

9. How will you convert a glass sheet into a translucent sheet?


Ans: There are following two methods to convert glass sheet into a translucent sheet:
(i) By smearing a thin layer of oil on glass sheet.
(ii) By covering a side of sheet by butter paper.

10. What is shadow? How does the colour of an opaque object affects the colour of the shadow?
Ans: A dark outline or patch formed by an opaque object that blocks light coming from a source of light is
called shadow. The colour of an opaque object does not affect the colour of the shadow.

11. Write the differences between umbra and penumbra.


Ans:

12. What do we need in order to see a shadow?


Ans: We need: (i) A source of light (ii) a screen (in) an opaque object.

13. What do you mean by scattering of light?


Ans: When a beam of light falls on a rough surface it is turned back in different directions. It is called
scattering of light.

14. A and B are facing the mirror and standing in such a way that A can see B and B can see A.
Explain this phenomenon.
Ans: The light rays from A falls on the mirror and gets reflected and reaches B, the light from B falls on the
mirror and reflects to reach A. The path of light is just reversed as shown.

15. ‘X’ is 20 cm away from the mirror. If he moves few steps closer to the mirror what will happen to
the image

Ans: The size of the image will be same as the size of the object.
16.Write the mirror image of ‘SMART’?
Ans: THAM8

17. Have you ever seen an ambulance? It is written in the form of mirror image on vehicles. Explain
why it is done so and give the mirror image of AMBULANCE.
Ans: The mirror image of AMBULANACE is aovt/yuaMA.
It is written so on the vehicles for the people to see in their rear view mirrors, read it correctly and
immediately give way to the vehicle as it carries patients who need urgent medication.

18. You have to cost the shadow of your pencil on the wall with the help of candle in a dark room.
How can you obtain the shadow of same size, small size and big size of the same pencil?
Ans: (a)The shadow of the pencil will be small when the pencil is taken close to the wall and away from the
candle.
(b)The shadow will be big in size when the pencil is taken closer to the candle.
(c)To get the same sized shadow as the pencil is, adjust the distance between the wall, pencil and candle
at equal distances.

Class 6 Science Chapter 11 LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

1. What is reflection of light? Explain reflection of light with the help of an activity.
Ans: When light rays fall on a highly polished (e.g. mirror) smooth surface and return to the same medium,
it is called reflection of light.
Activity to show reflection of light: This activity should be done at night or in a dark room. Ask your friend to
hold a mirror in his hand at one corner of the room. Stand at another comer with a torch in your hand.
Cover the glass of torch with your fingers and switch it on. There should be small gap between your fingers.
Direct the beam of torch-light on to the mirror that your friend is holding. Adjust the direction of torch so that
patch of light falls on your friend standing in the room. This activity shows the reflection of light also that
light travels in straight line.

2. Explain the manner in which light travels with the help of an activity.
Ans: Take a comb and fix it on one side of a thermacol sheet. Fix a mirror on the other side as shown in
figure. Spread a dark coloured sheet of paper between the mirror and the comb. Send a beam of light from
a torch through the comb. You get a pattern of light similar to that shown in figure. This activity explains the
manner in which light travels and gets reflected from a mirror.

3. Explain that light has the property of rectilinear propagation.


Ans: We take three pieces of cardboard. Place them one on the top of one another and make a hole in the
middle of each cardboard by using a thick nail. Erect these cards up on the table at a short distance away
from each other. Take a candle which is of the same height as the holes in the cards. Light the candle and
place it in front of the cards. We see that the light of candle is visible only when the holes on cards lie in a
straight line. If we disturb them the light of candle disappears. This experiment shows that light propagates
in a straight line.
NCERT Solutions for Class 6th Social Science Civics
Chapter 9 Urban Livelihoods
1. Read and discuss the following description of the living conditions of workers who come to the labour
chowk.
Most workers that we find at the labour chowk cannot afford permanent accomodation and sleep on
pavements near the chowk, or they pay Rs. 6 a night for a bed at a nearby night shelter run by the
Municipal Corporation. To compensate for the lack of security, local tea and cigarette shops function as
banks, moneylenders and safety lockers, all rolled into one. Most workers leave their tools at these shops
for the night for safe keeping and pass on any extra money to them. The shopkeepers keep the money
safety and also offer loans to labourers in need.
Source : Aman Sethi, Hindu on-line
Ans: Students are suggested to discuss on the above theme in the class in the presence of their teacher.

2. Complete the following table and discuss how their work is different:

Benefits
Security of Work on their
Name Place of work Earnings
work own or
received
employed

Bachchu

Manjhi Rs 100 a day

Harpreet
Work on their
Vandana
own

Nirmala No security

Sudha Company Rs. 30,000 p.m.

Ans:

Security of
Name Place of work Earnings Benefits Work on their own or
work
employed
received

Bachchu

Manjhi Road Rs 100 a day No security No benefits Work on his own

Harpreet They are


Their job is
Vandana Showroom Flexible planning to buy Work on their own
secured
a flat and car.

Garment She can earn

Nirmala factory Rs. 80 a day No security extra money by Employed

working late.

Holidays,
Company medical
She gets regular Her job is
Sudha office Employed
salary. secured
facilities

3.In what ways is a permanent and regular job different from a casual job? Discuss.
Ans: In a permanent and regular job an employee gets a regular salary every month. Besides, a regular
salary he gets other benefits such as savings for old age, holidays, medical facilities for his family, etc.
Thus, his job is secured. But casual workers avail no job security. If workers complain about their pay or
working conditions, they are asked to leave. They are also expected to work very long hours. They don’t get
other benefits like permanent employees.

Q.4.What benejits does Sudha get along with her salary?


Ans: Sudha is a permanent worker with a company. She gets several benefits along with her salary:

 Savings for old age. A part of her salary is kept in a fund with the government. She will earn interests
on these savings. When she retires from this job she will get this money in the form of pension.
 Sudha gets off on Sundays and national holidays. She also gets some days as annual leave.
 Medical facilities for her family. The company pays Sudha medical expenses up to a certain amount
for her and her family members. She gets medical leave if she falls ill and her salary is not cut if she
takes this leave.
5.Fill in the following table to show the services provided by people in markets which you msit frequently.

Name of the shop or office Nature of the service provided

Name of the shop or office Nature of the service provided

Garment showroom It provides clothes as per the requirement of the customer.

Shop selling utensils, footwear,


They provide household things.
electronic goods, etc.

Banks They provide security and growth to our money.

Note: Students are suggestec to add more.

I.MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

Choose the correct option to complete the statements given below:

(i) Vandana is a ……………


(a)Doctor (b) Sales manager
(c) Dress designer (d) Dentist.

(ii) The authority that issues a licence to the permanent shops is the
(a) Municipal corporation (b) Electricity department
(c) Home Ministry (d) None of the above.
(iii) Nirmala works in a ……………
(a) Showroom (b) Garment factory
(c) Company (d) Call centre.

(iv)Workers who are employed on casual basis usually get ……………………


(a) Handsome salary (b) Poor salary
(c) Medical leave (d) Both (a) and (b).

(v) Foreign companies usually set up call centres in India because


(a)They can get people who will work for lower wages
(b)They can get people who can speak English
(c)They can get cheap land to establish the centre
(d)Both (a) and (b).

Ans:(i)—(c), (ii)—(a), (iii)—(b), (iv)—(b), (v)—(d).

II.FILL IN THE BLANKS

Fill in the blanks with appropriate words to complete each sentence:

(i) There are almost ……… street vendors in the country working in …………………
(ii) Those who work in government departments get a ……………….. salary every month.
(iii) It is the……… that decides on which day of the week the market has to remain closed.
(iv) Call Centres in ………. cities provide a new form of employment to the people.
(v )Street vending is now recognised as a general benefit and as a………………… of people to earn their
…………… •

Ans. (i) one crore, urban (ii) regular (iii) Municipal Corporation
(iv) big (y) right, livelihood.

III.TRUE/FALSE

State whether these sentences are true (T) or false (F).

(i)A large number of people in the city work on the streets.


(ii)Shops on streets are usually temporary structures.
(iii)Call Centres are usually seen in small towns.
(iv)Casual workers can complain about their pay or working conditions.
(v) Permanent workers get only medical facilities.

Ans. (i)—T, (ii)—T, (iii)—F, (ziv)—F, (v)—F.

IV.MATCHING SKILL

Match the items in column A correctly with those given in column B.


Column A Column B

(i) Harpreet and Vandana (a) Works as a Marketing Manager


(ii) Bachchu Manjhi (b) Works as a tailor
(iii) Sudha (c) Business persons
(iv) Nirmala (d) Work as helpers to masons
(v) Daily wage workers (e) Rickshaw puller
.
Ans. (i)—(c), (ii)—(e), (iii)—(a), (iv)—(b), (v)—(d).

V.VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

1. Name some activities which are carried out on the streets.


Ans: Vending, hair-cutting, shoe-repairing, flower-selling etc.

2. What was found in a Survey of Ahmedabad city? [V. Imp.]


Ans: In a survey of Ahmedabad city it was found that 12 percent of all the workers in the city were people
working on the street.

3. What types of things do vendors usually sell?


Ans: Vendors usually sell things that are often prepared at home by their families who purchase, clean, sort
and make them ready to sell.

4. How was street vending looked upon till recently?


Ans.Street vending was till recently looked upon only as an obstruction to traffic and to people walking.

5.How is it looked upon now?


Ans: It is now looked upon as a general benefit and as a right of people to earn their livelihood.

6. Mention two features of business persons. [Imp.]


Ans: (i)They own their own shops or business.
(ii)They employ a number of workers as supervisors and helpers.

7. What is essential for the permanent shops? [V. Imp.]


Ans: They must have a licence to do business.

8. Define ‘labour chowk’.


Ans: Labour chowk is a place where daily wage labourers wait with their tools for people to come and hire
them for work.

9.What is the normal working day in a garment factory?


Ans: In a garment factory a normal working day begins at 9 a.m. and finishes only by 10 p.m.
10. What is a Call Centre? [V. Imp.]
Ans: A Qall Centre is a centralised office that deals with problems and questions that consumers /
customers have regarding goods purchased and services like banking, ticket booking, etc.

11. Mention two features of permanent jobs.


Ans: • Men having permanent jobs get a regular salary with perks and other benefits eveiy month.

 They can expect their job to continue for a long period of time.

VI.SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

1. How do hawkers manage their work? [V. Imp.]


Ans. Hawkers work on their own. They organise their own work. They know how much to purchase, as well
as where and how to set up their shops. Their shops are usually temporary structures. Sometimes just
some boards or papers spread over discarded boxes or may be canvas sheet hung up on a few poles.
They may also use their own carts or simply a plastic sheet spread on the pavement. They can be asked to
dismantle their shops at any time by the police.

2. Mention some drawbacks of casual jobs. [V. Imp.]


Ans. • In casual jobs, workers are not expected to complain about their pay or working
conditions. If they dare to do this, they are instantly asked to leave.

 Casual jobs do not provide security protection if there is ill-treatment.


 Casual workers are expected to do work for long hours.
 Even if they don’t complain, they can be asked to leave when workload is less.

3. What works does Sudha do?


Ans. Sudha works as a Marketing Manager in a company which manufactures biscuits. The factoiy where
the biscuits are made is outside the city. Sudha supervises the work of 50 salespersons who travel to
different parts of the city. They get orders from shopkeepers and collect payments from them. She has
divided the city into six regions and once a week she meets the salespersons of each region. She checks
their progress report and discusses problems they face. She has to plan the sales in the entire city and
often has to work late and travel to different places.

VII.LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

1. What are various ways of earning livelihood in the urban areas? Discuss. [V. Imp.]
Ans. People in urban areas are engaged in a variety of activities in order to earn their living. Some are
doing the work of a cobbler while some are barbers busy with their work. A number of people earn their
livelihood by pulling rickshaw. Vendors are also seen here and there selling household articles. In urban
areas showrooms of different items can be seen. These showrooms are run by businesspersons. These
people employ a number of workers as supervisors and helpers for their showrooms. Several urban people
are engaged in Factories where they work for long hours. They don’t have job security still they continue
their work because they don’t have other option. But there are also people who do office work with full job
security. They get regular salary and enjoy other benefits of job like savings for old age, holidays, medical
facilities etc.

Working in Call Centres is a new form of employment in big cities. It has attracted a large number of young
men and women. Thus, we see that with a growing population, job opportunities have also increased and
people are availing these opportunities according to their talent and aptitude.

2. Write in brief on ‘Call Centres’.


Ans. Call Centres in big cities are providing new job opportunities to young and enthusiastic men and
women. A Call Centre is a centralised office that deals with problems and questions that
consumers/customers have regarding goods purchased and services like banking, ticket booking, etc. Call
Centres are generally set up as large rooms with work stations that include a computer, a telephone set
and supervisor’s stations.
India has become a major centre not only for Indian companies but also foreign companies. They set up
Call Centres here as they can get people who can speak english and will work for lower wa
NCERT Solutions for Class 6th Social Science Civics
Chapter 8 Rural Livelihoods
1.You have probably noticed that people in Kalpattu are engaged in a variety of nonfarm work. List
five of these.
Ans: (i) Making baskets, utensils, pots, bricks bullock-carts etc.
(i)Teaching
(ii)Washing clothes
(iii)Weaving
(iv)Repairing cycle.

2. List the different types of people you read about in Kalpattu who depend on farming. Who is the
poorest among them and why?
Ans: These people are Thulasi, Sekar and Ramalingam.
Thulasi is the poorest among them. It is because she has no land of her own. She works on Ramalingam’s
field and earns Rs. 40 per day. Although she is not satisfied with her wages, yet she continues her work in
Ramalingam’s field because of the fact that she can depend on him.

3. Imagine you are a member of a fishing family and you are discussing whether to take a loan from
the bank for an engine. What would you say?
Ans: I would say that it is better to take a loan from bank for this purpose than to go to a moneylender.
Money lenders usually charge high rate of interest which pushes the borrowers in great hardships.

4. Poor rural labourers like Thulasi often do not have access to good medical facilities, good
schools, and other resources. You have read about inequality in the first unit of this text. The
difference between her and Ramalingam is one of inequality. Do you think this is a fair situation?
What do you think can be done? Discuss in class.
Ans: No, this is not a fair situation. There should be a ceiling of land. It will help everyone to have some
land where one can earn one’s livelihood. Opportunity should be equal for all. Primary education should be
made compulsory. Efforts should be made to promote education among the poor. It will help them know
their rights and other awareness.

5. What do you think the government can do to help fanners like Sekar when they get into debt?
Discuss.
Ans: Government can provide assistance to farmers like Sekar. Interest-free loan or loan at the lowest rate
can help him. Seeds, fertilizers and pesticides can also be provided to him on subsidised rate.

6. Compare the situation of Sekar and Ramalingam by filling out the following table:

Sekar Ramalingam
Land cultivated

Labour required

Loans required

Selling of harvest

Other work done by them

Ans.

Sekar Ramalingam ,

Land cultivated Two acres. Twenty acres.

Labour required No labour required. He hires labour.

He requires loan for seeds,


He takes loans from govt, bank for
Loans required fertilizers, pesticides etc. He takes
establishing a rice mill.
loan from the trader.

Selling of harvest
He sells a few bags of paddy to pay
back the loan.

He has a hybrid cow, whose milk he He owns a rice mill and a shop
Other work done by them
sells in the local milk cooperatives. selling seeds, pesticides etc.

I.MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

Choose the correct option to complete the statements given below:

(i) Ramalingam has …………


(a)Thirty acres of land (b)Twenty acres of land
(c) Ten acres of land (c)Five acres of land

(ii) Thulasi earns ………..


(a) Rs. 40 per day (b) Rs. 60 per day
(c)Rs. 70 per day (d) Rs. 100 per day

(iii) Thulasi sold her cow to ……… .


(a)Purchase jewellery
(b)Pay the instalment of the loan that she took from bank
(c) Pay the fees of her daughter
(d)Pay back the money she borrowed from Ramalingam.

(iv) The percentage of large farmers in India is …………..


(a) 80 (b) 20
(c)10 (d) 5

(v) Which one is not a farming activity?


(a) Ploughing (b) Harvesting
(c) Basket making (d) Weeding.

Ans. (i)—(b), (ii)—(a), (iii)—(c), (iv)—(b), (v)—(c).

II.FILL IN THE BLANKS

Fill in the blanks with appropriate words to complete each sentence:

(i)The people of Chizami village do ………………………………………….. farming.


(ii) Nearly ……. of all rural families are agricultural labourers in India.
(iii) Sekar has a hybrid cow, whose milk he sells in the local ………………
(iv) In some villages in central India, both farming and ……………….. from forest are important sources of
livelihood.
(v) The people of Pudupet village earn their living by………………

Ans: (i) terrace (ii) two fifth


(iii) milk cooperative (iu) collection
(v) fishing

III.TRUE/FALSE

State whether these sentences are true CD or false (F).

(i)Ramalingam is a big farmer having twenty acres of land.


(ii) Sekar takes loan from Thulasi and buys seeds and fertilizers.
(iii) In coastal areas we find fishing villages.
(iv) In India 60 percent farmers are small Farmers.
(v) Sekar takes help of other small farmers at the time of harvesting.

Ans. (i) True, (ii) False, (iii) True, (iv) False, (v) True.

IV.MATCHING SKILL

Match the items in column A correctly with those given in column B.

Ans: (i)—(c), (ii)—(f), (iii)—(e), (iv)—(b), (v)-(a),(vi)-d

V.VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

1. What is the main crop of Kalpattu village?


Ans: The main crop of Kalpattu village is paddy.

2. How is Ramalingam different from others according to Thulasi?


Ans: Unlike others, Ramalingam does not go looking for cheaper labour from other villages. Whenever
there is work, he calls Thulasi.
3. What does Thulasi’s husband do when he finds no work on the farm?
Ans: In such situation he finds work outside either loading sand from the river or stone from the quarry
nearby.

4. Why did Thulasi borrow from Ramalingam?


Ans: She did so for her daughter’s treatment.

5. How did she pay back the loan to Ramalingam.


Ans: She paid back her loan to Ramalingam by selling her cow.

6 Name some other activities which poor families in rural areas often do for the household apart
from farming. [V. Imp.]
Ans: Collecting firewood, getting water and grazing cattle.

7. Why do people migrate? [V. Imp.]


Ans: People migrate from rural to urban areas to find job. .

8. How much land does Sekar own?


Ans: Sekar owns two acres of land.

9. How does he pay back the loan to trader?


Ans: He pays back the loan to trader by selling his paddy to him at a lower price.

10. Why does Sekar need to earn some extra money?


Ans: Whatever he produces last only eight months. So, he needs to earn some extra money.

11. What work does Sekar do at Ramalingam’s rice mill?


Ans: He helps Ramalingam collect paddy from other farmers in the neighbouring villager.

12. Why do farmers like Sekar need to borrow money?


Ans: They need to borrow money to purchase basic things like seeds, fertilizers and pesticides.

13. Why do fishermen go far into the sea?


Ans: They go far into the sea to get a better catch.

14. During which period do fish breed?


Ans: They breed during the monsoon.

15. How do fishermen manage during the monsoon period?


Ans: During the monsoon period fishermen survive by borrowing from the trader.

VI.SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


1. Describe different types of work that Sekar do for a living. [Imp.]
Ans: Sekar is a small farmer having only two acres of land. He grows paddy in his field with the help of his
family members. He also works in Ramalingam’s rice milk. He helps him collect paddy from other farmers is
the neighbouring villages. He also has a hybrid cow, whose milk he sells in the local milk cooperative.

2. List the three situations in which crops can be ruined. [V. Imp.]
Ans: The three situations in which crops can be ruined are :
(a)If the seeds are not of good quality.
(b)If pests attack the crop.
(c)If the monsoon does not bring enough rain.

3. Write a brief note on the lifestyle of the people of Chizami.


Ans: Chizami is a village in Phek district in Nagaland. The people of this village do terrace farming. They
have their own individual fields. But, they also work collectively in each other’s fields. They form groups of
six or eight and take an entire mountain side to clean the needs on it. Each group eats together once their
work for the day is over.

VII.LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

1. Write a short note on the lives of fishing families. [V. Imp.]


Ans: Fishing families usually live close to the sea. Their lives revolve around the sea and fish. One can find
rows of catamarans and nets lying around their houses. Their day usually starts from 7 O’clock in the
morning. This is the time when there is a lot of activity on the beach. After catching fish the fishermen return
with their catamarans. Women then gather to buy and sell fish.They do not go to the sea for at least four
months during the monsoon because this is when the fish breed. During these months they survive by
borrowing from the trader. And thus, they are forced to sell the fish to that trader later on.The lives of
fisherfolk are full of risks. Whenever there is a storm, they have to suffer a lot. In 2004, the tsunami hit them
badly. They were the worst sufferers.

2. What different activities are done by the people of Kalpattu village?


Ans: Kalpattu is coastal village in Tamil Nadu. As the village is surrounded by low hills, paddy is the main
crop here. Most of the families earn a living through agriculture. Besides agriculture, people do many non-
farm activities such as making baskets, utensils, pots, bricks, bullock carts, etc. The village has no dearth of
service providers like blacksmiths, nurses, teachers, washermen, weavers, barbers, cycle repair mechanics
and so on. One can find here shopkeepers and traders too. There is a bazaar where a variety of small
shops such as tea shops, grocery shops, a tailor, seed shop etc. can be found. There are some coconut
groves around the village. A group of people earn their living by working in mango orchards. In the village,
there are small farmers as well as big farmers. There are landless labourers too who work in other’s field.

3. Under which circumstances poor farmers find themselves unable to pay back their loans? What
happens after that?
Ans: Poor farmers are bound to take loans for agriculture purpose. Sometimes they successfully pay back
the loans but there are also moments when they fail to do that in time because of crop failure. This is a very
tough time for them. For the family to survive, they have to borrow more money. Soon the loan becomes so
large that no matter what they earn, they are unable to repay. This is when we can say they are caught in
debt. Whenever this situation occurs, farmers become helpless. Their helplessness to repay the loan
sometimes compel them to commit suicide.
1. भू टमक :
संसार में यदि सब से कीमती (Costliest) और मूल्यवान कोई (Valueable) वस्तु है तो वह
है समय । कहते हैं दक बीता समय कभी वापस नहीं आता । अं ग्रेजी में कहावत
(Proverb) है - Time once gone can never be regained . जो व्यक्ति समय का उदित
उपयोग (Use) करना सीख लेता है , वह ससार में सिा सुखी रहता है ।

2. उद हरण:
दवद्वानों (Scholars) का कहना है दक हर कायय हमें समय पर करना िादहए । दहन्दी
सादहत्य के महान संत कबीर िास जी का कहना है :

”क ल्ह करै सो आज कर, आज करे सो अब । पल में परलय होयग , बहुरर करे ग कब


।।”
अर्ाय त् कल का कायय हमें आज ही और आज का कायय हमें अभी कर लेना िादहए क्ोंदक
हार् से गया अवसर (Opportunity) कभी वापस नहीं आता । यह कहावत (Proverb) भी
प्रिदलत है दक पलभर का िू का आिमी कोसों दपछड़ जाया करता है और उदित पल को
पहिान कर िलने वाला व्यक्ति अपनी मंदजल (Destination) अपने समय पर पा ले ता है ।

इस संिभय में (In this Context) कछु ए और खरगोश (The Hare and Tortoise) की कहानी
भला कौन नहीं जानता ? इस संसार में आज तक दजतने भी महापुरुष हुए हैं , उन सबने
समय के इस मूल्य को जान दलया र्ा ।

3. ल भ और उपसं ह र:
समय के मूल्य को पहिान लेने वाला व्यक्ति ही संसार में समय पर सफल (Successful)
होता है । यही नहीं, ऐसा व्यक्ति ही सं सार के सभी प्रकार के सुख-आनन्द का अदिकारी
होता है और अपने शरीर की मृत्यु के बाि भी िु दनया में अमर रहता है ।