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Martial Law in Philippines Good to be Back or Not.

Martial law is the imposition of direct military control of normal civilian functions of

government, especially in response to a temporary emergency such as invasion or major disaster,

or in an occupied territory. A year has passed since Ferdinand Edralin Marcos, a sixth president

of the post-war Republic of the Philippines, placed his country under the "divine guidance" of

martial law and assumed near-dictatorial powers as chief executive and self-proclaimed architect

of a "New Society." President Marcos has offered the threat of Communist subversion and

insurrection, and the need for national discipline and reform as explanations and justifications for

his dramatic proclamation of September 21, 1972. President Ferdinand E. Marcos controls the

Philippines for 2 consecutive terms because of martial law. If we look at it, martial law has good

and bad effects in us as a Filipino citizen. President Marcos is one of the good leader that holds

the Philippines. During the period of President Ferdinand E. Marcos, Philippines are one of the

richest and strong country. We have a good economy before. Throughout the past years,

numerous discussions have taken place over the efficacy of martial law as a "solution" for the

political, social and economic problems of the Philippines.

According to Francisco Katerina, when Marcos signed Proclamation 1081 on September

21, 1972, he cited the communist threat as justification. His diary, meanwhile, said the

proclamation of Martial Law became a "necessity", following the supposed ambush of then

defense secretary Juan Ponce Enrile.

There were subsequent reports that said the ambush was staged, with the Official Gazette

citing Enrile's admission in 1986 that it was faked to justify the imposition of Martial Law.
Through various general orders, Marcos effectively put the entire power of government

under the rule of one man: his own. He was to lead the nation and direct the operation of the

entire government. He ordered the armed forces to prevent or suppress any act of rebellion.

Curfew hours were enforced, group assemblies were banned, privately-owned media facilities

shuttered. Although there are lots of bad happenings during the period of President Marcos, still

there is a good or bright side of it.

Some of us will think that martial law is not good for us but, if we go back to the time

during the period of President Marcos we can see that Philippines before is much more organized

than now. Before, the crime is lesser than today. Although our movement before is limited, we

are not that free before and our freedom to watch the news and hear the news is limited but still

we can walk at night without bothering of what might happen to us.

According to Hays Jeffrey, the impacts of Marcos in Philippines Military force is good.

Ferdinand Marcos was responsible for making the previously nonpolitical, professional Armed

Forces of the Philippines, which since American colonial times had been modeled on the United

States military, a major actor in the political process. This subversion occurred done in two ways.

First, Marcos appointed officers from the Ilocos region, his home province, to its highest ranks.

Regional background and loyalty to Marcos rather than talent or a distinguished service record

were the major factors in promotion. Fabian Ver, for example, had been a childhood friend of

Marcos and later his chauffeur, rose to become chief of staff of the armed forces and head of the

internal security network. Secondly, both officers and the rank and file became beneficiaries of

generous budget allocations. Officers and enlisted personnel received generous salary increases.

Armed forces personnel increased from about 58,000 in 1971 to 142,000 in 1983. Top-ranking

military officers, including Ver, played an important policy-making role. On the local level,
commanders had opportunities to exploit the economy and establish personal patronage

networks, as Marcos and the military establishment evolved a symbiotic relationship under

martial law.

A military whose commanders, with some exceptions, were rewarded for loyalty rather

than competence proved both brutal and ineffective in dealing with the rapidly growing

communist insurgency and Muslim separatist movement. Treatment of civilians in rural areas

was often harsh, causing rural people, as a measure of self-protection rather than ideological

commitment, to cooperate with the insurgents. The communist insurgency, after some reverses in

the 1970s, grew quickly in the early 1980s, particularly in some of the poorest regions of the

country. The Muslim separatist movement reached a violent peak in the mid1970s and then

declined greatly, because of divisions in the leadership of the movement and reduced external

support brought about by the diplomatic activity of the Marcos government.

In this article we can see that President Marcos is a good leader and martial law is not bad

for us, in fact martial law will help us the Filipino citizen and the Philippines to be stronger.

Philippines and United States has a great relationship when Marcos imposes the martial

law in the Philippines. According to Hays Jeffrey, relations with the United States remained most

important for the Philippines in the 1970s, although the special relationship between the former

and its ex-colony was greatly modified as trade, investment, and defense ties were redefined. The

Laurel-Langley Agreement defining preferential United States tariffs for Philippine exports and

parity privileges for United States investors expired on July 4, 1974, and trade relations were

governed thereafter by the international General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).

During the martial law period, foreign investment terms were substantially liberalized, despite
official rhetoric about foreign "exploitation" of the economy. A policy promoting

"nontraditional" exports such as textiles, footwear, electronic components, and fresh and

processed foods was initiated with some success. Japan increasingly challenged the United States

as a major foreign participant in the Philippine economy.

Throughout this article it proves that martial law makes the Philippines much better than

now in terms of economy, political and military powers. In terms of economy, during the first

years of martial law, the economy benefited from increased stability, and business confidence

was bolstered by Marcos's appointment of talented technocrats to economic planning posts.

Despite the 1973 oil price rise shock, the growth of the gross national product (GNP) was

respectable, and the oil-pushed inflation rate, reaching 40 percent in 1974, was trimmed back to

10 percent the following year. Between 1973 and the early 1980s, dependence on imported oil

was reduced by domestic finds and successful energy substitution measures, including one of the

world's most ambitious geothermal energy programs. Claiming that "if land reform fails, there is

no New Society," Marcos launched highly publicized new initiatives that resulted in the formal

transfer of land to some 184,000 farming families by late 1975.

Martial law introduced us to a new society. According to Hays Jeffrey, Marcos claimed

that martial law was the prelude to creating a "New Society" based on new social and political

values. He argued that certain aspects of personal behavior, attributed to a colonial mentality,

were obstacles to effective modernization. These included the primacy of personal connections,

as reflected in the ethic of ‘utang na loob’ , and the importance of maintaining in-group harmony

and coherence, even at the cost to the national community. A new spirit of self-sacrifice for the

national welfare was necessary if the country were to equal the accomplishments of its Asian

neighbors, such as Taiwan and the Republic of Korea (South Korea). Despite Marcos's often
perceptive criticisms of the old society, Marcos, his wife, and a small circle of close associates,

the crony group, now felt free to practice corruption on an awe-inspiring scale.

Under the provisions of martial law, Marcos shut down Congress and most newspapers,

jailed his major political opponents, assumed dictatorial powers, and ruled by presidential

decree. During the early years of martial law, the economy improved, benefiting from increased

business confidence and Marcos's appointment of talented technocrats to economic planning

posts. But over the next few years, major segments of the economy gradually were brought under

the control of the Marcos crony group. Monopolies controlled by Marcos cronies were

subsidized heavily, seriously depleting the national treasury. The previously apolitical,

professional armed forces were used by Marcos to enforce martial law and ensure his political

survival. Even after Marcos rescinded martial law in January 1981, he continued to rule with

virtual dictatorial powers. Thus, it came as no surprise that Marcos won an overwhelming victory

in the June 1981 presidential election, an election that was boycotted by most opposition forces.

According to Lonely Planet: “With martial law imposed, the Philippines was plunged

into a darkness reminiscent of the Japanese occupation - only this time it was at the hands of a

fellow Filipino. A curfew was imposed, the media was silenced or taken over by the military,

international travel was banned and thousands of anti-government suspects were rounded up and

thrown into military camps. An estimated 50, 000 of Marcos' opponents were jailed, exiled or

killed. Marcos then set about raising revenue by handing over great tracts of prime land to

foreign investors and imposing heavy taxes on those who could least afford them.”
Martial law, some of us wanted it and some of us will contradict about it. Before I end

my essay I will leave you a question. Would you like to live under martial law or will you live as

what we are right now?


Referrence:

Francisco, K. (2016 September 22). Martial Law, the dark chapter in Philippine history.

Retrieved from https://www.rappler.com/entertainment/news/212515-celebrities-artists-

remember-martial-law-anniversary

Hays, J. (2008). Martial law years under Ferdinand Marcos. Retrieved from

http://factsanddetails.com/southeast-asia/Philippines/sub5_6b/entry-3844.html