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JLAB-TN-07-037

C100 Helium Vessel, Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code Documentation


W. R. Hicks, E. F. Daly
JLAB-TN-07-037

Introduction
The design of the upgrade helium vessel has been improved upon since the first
transitional cryomodule, SL21. The most significant change has been the incorporation of
a niobium to stainless steel brazed joint allowing for an all-stainless-steel helium vessel
(see Figure 1). The stainless steel design [1] costs less than the titanium version saving
~$160k (in material cost only) for a 10 cryomodule production run. The stainless steel
components are also easier to procure and fabricate than their titanium counterparts.

Figure 1: C100 Helium Vessel

Under normal operating conditions the service temperature of the helium vessel is
~2K. The helium circuit is protected from over-pressurization by a lift-plate type relief
valve [2]. The helium circuit primary relief valve is set at 3.5atm. In the event that the
helium circuit is pressurized to the relief setting and the insulating vacuum is not spoiled,
the helium vessel could experience 4.1atm of internal pressure. Therefore the internal
design pressure used for this analysis is 5atm. The vacuum vessel is protected from over-
pressurization by a lift plate that is set at 1.1atm. In the case that the insulating vacuum is
spoiled and the helium circuit is pumped down the helium vessel could see 1.1atm
external pressure. Therefore the external design pressure used for this analysis is 2atm.
An additional safety feature inherent in the upgrade cryomodule design is the
vacuum vessel. In order to maintain the operating temperature, the cavity string is
suspended inside a vacuum vessel that provides an insulating vacuum. The vacuum vessel
also serves as a protective shroud should catastrophic failure of a helium vessel occur.
Appendix 6151-T1, Vessel Design Documentation, of the JLab EH&S Manual [3]
along with the 2001 ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code [4] was used for this design.
The code contains mandatory requirements, specific prohibitions, and non-mandatory
guidance. The code does not address all aspects of design. Sound engineering judgment
and computer simulations are used to supplement the code. This technical note describes
the design of a stainless steel helium vessel for the 12 GeV Upgrade cryomodule (C100).

Helium Vessel Code Analysis


For the purposes of this analysis, the helium vessel “begins” at the beam line and
“ends” at the supply and return headers (Figure 2). Using code terms, the pressure vessel
consists of a shell, bellows assemblies, nozzles (helium inlet and outlet), formed heads
and unstayed flat heads (transition plate). All the parts are made from 316L stainless

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steel, UNS No. S31603. The appropriate specification number related to the product form
(plate, welded pipe, seamless and welded tube) will be used for all parts. The shell is
fabricated from 10” O.D. tube 0.12” thick. The nozzles are made from ¾” IPS schedule
10 pipe and 3” IPS schedule 10 pipe. The formed heads and flat heads are made from
plate. The helium vessel parts are joined together with TIG welds (no post weld heat
treatment required for austenitic stainless steels in the P-No. 8 group).

Figure 2: Stainless Steel Helium Vessel

The following table summarizes the design data:

Description Design Data


Internal Design Pressure 5 atm
External Design Pressure 2 atm
Operating Temperature ~2 K
Material 316L Stainless Steel
Shell 10 inch OD Tube (0.12 inch wall)
Shell Length 18.06 inch
Head Spherical (4.23 Radius)
Head Thickness 0.1875 inch (min)
Flat Head Thickness 0.42 inch
Helium Supply Nozzle ¾ inch IPS schedule 10 (pipe)
Helium Return Nozzle 3” IPS schedule 10 (pipe)
Helium Capacity 37.6 liters
Helium Vessel Weight 58 pounds

UG-23 Maximum Allowable Stress Values


(a)
The maximum allowable tensile stress values for the 316L stainless steel (UNS
No. S31603) are given in the code, Section II, Part D, Subpart 1, Table 1A, page #66. The
maximum allowable tensile stress values given by the code for plate and welded pipe are

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16.7ksi (based on 2/3 Sy at room temperature). The modulus of elasticity for austenitic
stainless steel (group G) is given in Section II, Part D, Subpart 2, Table TM-1, page #671
as 28.3e6psi at room temperature. The room temperature value is used for this analysis.
(b)
The maximum allowable longitudinal compressive stress is calculated below.
E = 28.3e6 psi
Shell:
tshell = 0.120”
Ro shell = 5”
Ashell = 0.003125 in2
Bshell = 11,750 psi (from figure HA-4 in the code)

Return:
treturn = 0.120”
Ro return = 1.75”
Areturn = 0.0086 in2 These values will be used for the
Breturn = 13,750 psi (from figure HA-4 in the code) external pressure calculations.
Supply:
tsupply = 0.083”
Ro supply = 0.525”
Asupply = 0.02 in2
Bsupply = 15,000 psi (from figure HA-4 in the code)

UG-27 Thickness of Shells Under Internal Pressure


(c) Cylindrical Shells (1) Circumferential Stress
The minimum required thickness of the shell and nozzles is calculated below.
P = 73.5 psi
S = 16,700 psi
E = 0.7 (double-welded, no radiograph)
Shell:
RIshell = 4.875”
tshell = 0.031” ………………………………………………. OKAY

Return:
RIreturn = 1.63”
treturn = 0.010” ……………………………………………….OKAY

Supply:
RIsupply = .442”
tsupply = 0.003” ……………………………………………….OKAY

(c) Cylindrical Shells (2) Longitudinal Stress


tshell = 0.015”…………………………………………………OKAY
treturn = 0.005” ………………………………………………..OKAY
tsupply = 0.001” ……………………………………………….OKAY

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UG-28 Thickness of Shells and Tubes Under External Pressure
(c) Cylindrical Shells and Tubes (1) Do/t>10
Shell:
Do/t = 150
L/Do = 1.806
A = .0004
B= 5,500 psi
tshell = 0.067” ……………………………………………….OKAY
PaShell = 49.1 psi ……………………………………………OKAY
Return:
Do/t = 200
L/Do = 1.02
A = .00048
B= 7,000 psi
treturn = 0.0175” ……………………………………………..OKAY
PaReturn = 46.7 psi …………………………………………....OKAY
Supply:
Do/t = 200
L/Do = 1.29
A = .00035
B= 5,000 psi
Tsupply = 0.005”………………………………………………OKAY
PaSupply = 33.3 psi…………………………………………….OKAY

UG-32 Formed Heads, Pressure on the Concave Side


(f) Hemispherical Heads
L = 4.23”
E = 0.65 (table UW-12, type No.2, no radiographic examination)
t = 0.014” ……..……..………………………………………OKAY

UG-33 Formed Heads, Pressure on Convex Side


(c) Hemispherical Heads
Ro = 4.42”
t = 0.1875”
A = 0.0053
B = 12,500 psi
Pa = 531 psi …………………………………………………OKAY

UG-34 Unstayed Flat Heads and Covers


(c)(2)
P = 73.5 psi
C = 0.33
S = 16,700 psi
E = 0.65
t = 0.106”……………………………………………………OKAY

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UG-37 Reinforcement Required in Openings in Shells
(c) Design for Internal Pressure
Return:
d = 3.26”
tr = 0.031”
F = 0.5
tn = 0.12”
fr1 = 1
fr2 = 1
E1 = 1
trn = 0.010”
leg = 0.125”
Aavailable = 0.422 in2
Arequired = 0.050 in2…………………………………………..OKAY
Supply:
d = 0.88”
tr = 0.031”
F = 0.5
tn = 0.083”
fr1 = 1
fr2 = 1
E1 = 1
trn = 0.003”
leg = 0.125”
Aavailable = 0.141 in2
Arequired = 0.014in2...................................................................OKAY

(d) Design for External Pressure


Return:
trn = 0.0175”
F=1
Aavailable = 0.37 in2
Arequired = 0.100 in2…………………………………………..OKAY
Supply:
trn = 0.005”
F=1
Aavailable = 0.127 in2
Arequired = 0.027 in2…………………………………………..OKAY

Appendix 26 Pressure Vessel Expansion Joints


26-1
w = 0.625”
d = 8.75”
q = 0.313”
t = 0.005” …………………………………………………...OKAY

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Brazed Joint
The helium vessel is joined at the beam line to the cavity assembly using a
vacuum furnace brazed joint. A 50/50 Cu/Ag braze alloy is used to join the niobium to
stainless steel. The parts are fitted together using a butt lap joint with radial clearance of .
002” to .004”. No fluxes are used in the brazing process. The part are cleaned in
ultrasonic water using Micro 90 and then rinsed in deionized water for 20 minutes.
Stainless steel parts are etched using 30% nitric acid, 4% hydrofluoric acid, and 66%
water for 1 hour. The niobium parts are etched with a 1:1:1 BCP solution for 1 minute.
The parts are then rinsed in DI water and dried with dry nitrogen and sealed in nylon bags
until brazing. After brazing the parts are visually inspected to insure full flow of alloy
into the brazing gap. A prototype braze assembly [5] was pressure tested to 110% of the
helium vessel design internal pressure. Also, two prototype C100 cavities were tested in
the Horizontal Test Bed (HTB) under expected service conditions with no failures.

Figure 3: Helium Vessel Head Test Fixture

Summary

References
[1] JLab Drawings, CRM-120-7020-1000, CRM-120-7020-0000
[2] JLab Drawing, CRM-100-7030-1000
[3] Jefferson Lab EH&S Manual, March 2007
[4] 2001 ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code
[5] JLab Drawing, CRM-120-7020-0018

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