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Midterm Examination

Fall 2009
Afaaq_tariq@yahoo.com

STA630 Research Methods (Session – 4)

Asslam O Alikum
STA630 Research Methods 2010 (Session – 4) 100% correct solved with reference
By Afaaq, Shani Bhai n Adeel solved by Afaaq

Remember Us In Your Prayers


Best regard’s
Muhammad Afaaq
Mba 3 rd Finance Group
Afaaq_Tariq@yahoo.com
Owner weblyceum@googlegroup.com
Admin www. weblyceum.com
Manager vu-learning-pk@googlegroups.com
Super Moderator in http://www.virtualinspire.com/
Islamabad
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( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


On which of the following, Scientific knowledge mostly relies?
► Identification of events
► Logical understanding
► Prior knowledge
► All of the given options (Afaaq)
P#4
Science is based on the assumption that all events have antecedent causes that are subject to
identification and logical understanding.

Afaaq_tariq@yahoo.com

Question No: 2 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


What does an empiricist believe?
All the knowledge that we have of life after death can be used in research.
Knowledge in the form of ‘facts’ should be gained through sensory
experience (Afaaq)
How do we actually know the things we know? People told us some of them, we read about some
of them and others we saw, or felt for ourselves. This is at the heart of empiricism - we acquire
knowledge through our sensory perceptions. It follows that the empiricist approach to research is
to gather information through observation of the 'real' world and let theory emerge as a kind of
conclusion. We should not start out with a theory, an empiricist might say, and find facts which
seem to suit. Now, although this discussion might seem a bit too philosophical for some and
consequently, a bit esoteric, most social research depends on 'empirical' data. What this means
is that most research studies include quite a bit of primary data gathering and are not just limited
to musing about what others have said.
Or
http://www.oup.com/uk/orc/bin/9780199202959/01student/cqs/ch01/
Q#2
Research conducted within the British Empire was biased and unreliable.
Research should not always necessarily rely on the scientific methods.

Afaaq_tariq@yahoo.com

Question No: 3 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


All of the following are true about theories, except:
They organize and summarize existing knowledge about a topic.
They are tentative until the facts prove them true. (Afaaq)
They provide possible explanations for the phenomenon under study.
They lead to testable hypotheses through the process of deduction.

Question No: 4 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Which of the following statements it TRUE for operational definition?
It is one that bears no relation to the underlying concept.
It is an abstract, theoretical definition of a concept
A definition of a concept in terms of specific and empirical
measures. (Afaaq)
P # 18
Operational definition is also called a working definition stated in terms of specific testing or
measurement criteria. The concepts must have empirical referents (i.e. we must be able to count,
measure, or in some other way gather thee information through our senses).
It is one that refers to opera singers and their work.

Question No: 5 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Which of the following statements is false about variables?
Discrete variables allow measurement of an infinite number of fractions of units
of measurement.
Discrete variables can only have whole number values.
Continuous numbers can only have whole number values. (Afaaq)
Variables that can take on any value and therefore are not discrete are called continuous.
Continuous measures do not allow for scores that fall between two number
values.

Question No: 6 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


A variable that is presumed to cause a change in another variable is known as:
Discontinuous variable
Dependent variable
Independent variable (Afaaq)
http://www.southalabama.edu/coe/bset/johnson/mcq/mc2.htm
Intervening variable

Afaaq_tariq@yahoo.com

Question No: 7 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Which of the following can best be described as a categorical variable?
Age
Annual income
Grade point average
Religion (Afaaq)

http://www.southalabama.edu/coe/bset/johnson/mcq/mc2.htm
Q #20

Question No: 8 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


‘There is no relationship between higher motivation level and higher efficiency’ is
an example of which type of hypothesis?
Alternative
Correlational
Null (Afaaq)

P # 22

Null Hypothesis
It is used for testing the hypothesis formulated by the researcher. Researchers treat evidence that
supports a hypothesis differently from the evidence that opposes it. They give negative evidence
more importance than to the positive one. It is because the negative evidence tarnishes the
hypothesis. It shows that the predictions made by the hypothesis are wrong. The null hypothesis
simply states that there is no relationship between the variables or the relationship between the
variables is “zero.” That is how symbolically null hypothesis is denoted as “H0”. For example:
H0 = There is no relationship between the level of job commitment
Research

Question No: 9 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


“The higher the level of job satisfaction of the officers the lower the rate of
turnover in an organization”, is a:
Descriptive hypothesis
Relational hypothesis
Relational and directional hypothesis (Afaaq)

P # 22

Relational Hypothesis
These are the propositions that describe a relationship between two variables. The relationship
could be non-directional or directional, positive or negative, causal or simply correlational.
While stating the relationship between the two variables, if the terms of positive, negative, more
than, or less than are used then such hypotheses are directional because the direction of the
relationship between the variables (positive/negative) has been indicated (see hypotheses 3
and 4). These hypotheses are relational as well as directional. The directional hypothesis is the
one in which the direction of the relationship has been specified.
Non-directional hypothesis is the one in which the direction of the association has not been
specified. The relationship may be very strong but whether it is positive or negative has not been
postulated (see hypothesis 2).
Relational and non directional hypothesis

Question No: 10 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Which two of the following are legitimate frameworks for setting out a literature
review:
1. Constructing intertextual coherence, 2. Deconstruction of textual coherence,
3. Problematizing the situation, 4. Resolving discovered problems?
1 and 2
2 and 3
1 and 3 (Afaaq)
Constructing inter-textual coherence (as synthesized, progressive, or non-coherence); an attempt
to find commonality in a range of expressed opinion; and problematizing the situation, an attempt
to reveal a gap in the literature of concept, method or perspective, are ways to think about
providing a review framework.

or

http://www.oup.com/uk/orc/bin/9780199202959/01student/cqs/ch04/?view=Standard
2 and 4

Afaaq_tariq@yahoo.com

Question No: 11 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Which of the following refers to "A review that only demonstrates familiarity with
an area is rarely published but it often is part of an educational program is which
type of review"?
Integrative review
Theoretical review
Self-study review (Afaaq)

P # 26

Self-study reviews increase the reader’s confidence. A review that only demonstrates familiarity
with an area is rarely published but it often is part of an educational program. In to giving others
confidence in a reviewer’s command of field, it has the side benefit of building the reviewer’s self
confidence.
Historical review

Question No: 12 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Which type of review compares how different theories address an issue?
Context review
Integrated review
Methodological review
Theoretical review (Afaaq)

P # 27

Theoretical reviews compare how different theories address an issue.

Question No: 13 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Which of the following functions is performed by theoretical framework?
Elaborates the relationship among the variables
Explains the logic underlying these relationships
Describes the nature, and direction of the relationships
All of the given options (Afaaq)

P # 30

Question No: 14 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


When embarking upon a research project, which of the following issues should
be considered?
That the data from the study will be treated anonymously and confidentially
Coherent research question, pilot work and confidentially (Afaaq)
http://www.uk.sagepub.com/breakwell/downloads/mcq/mcq_02/mcq_02.htm
Pilot work should be carried out to assess the practical issues and feasibility of
the research.
That the research should be based upon a coherent research question

Question No: 15 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Which of the following is least likely to occur as an ethical problem with electronic
research?
Privacy could be invaded.
People are not likely to be able to stop once they have begun participating
(Afaaq)

Because rest of the 3 are the main problems occur in electronic research
Debriefing could be avoided.
Informed consent cannot be completely monitored.

Afaaq_tariq@yahoo.com

Question No: 16 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Mr. Ali has decided to use the tests given at the end of each chapter of the
textbook to measure the achievement levels of the students in his study. Which
of the following BEST describes the end of chapter test?
Operationalized variable (Afaaq)
Independent variable
Variable
Construct

Question No: 17 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Which type of measurement scale describes the typical test scores that range
from 0 to 100?
Nominal
Ordinal
Interval (Afaaq)
P # 53
Ratio

Question No: 18 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Mr. Hasan’s son has applied to a high school in Florida, but the application was
denied solely on his low score on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS). His son
wants to attend this school and contends his current grades and other
standardized test scores speak well to both his past work and future academic
capability. Which of the following characteristics of the ITBS is being questioned
by this student?
Construct validity
Content validity
Predictive validity (Afaaq)
P # 56
Predictive validity:
Criterion validity whereby an indicator predicts future events that are logically related to a
construct is called a predictive validity. It cannot be used for all measures. The measure and the
action predicted must be distinct from but indicate the same construct. Predictive measurement
validity should not be confused with prediction in hypothesis testing, where one variable predicts
a different variable in future.
Look at the scholastic assessment tests being given to candidates seeking admission in different
subjects. These are supposed to measure the scholastic aptitude of the candidates – the ability to
perform in institution as well as in the subject. If this test has high predictive validity, then
candidates who get high test score will subsequently do well in their subjects. If students with
high scores perform the same as students with average or low score, then the test has low
predictive validity.
Concurrent validity

Question No: 19 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Which of the following is the appropriate way in which to view the reliability of
observational data?
Test-retest
Parallel forms
Internal consistency (Afaaq)
A method of establishing the reliability of a questionnaire with a single administration by examining how
strongly its questions are related to one another.
Interobserver reliability

Question No: 20 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Which of the following BEST describes an assessment that examines students'
ability to conduct a chemistry experiment in the lab?
Performance assessment (Afaaq)
Interest inventory
Aptitude
Standardized test

Question No: 21 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Which of the following functions is performed by the Odinal scale?
Categorize
Distance
Order (Afaaq)

P # 53

or
http://www.rasch.org/measess/met-26.pdf
Unique origin
Question No: 22 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
In which way does a ratio scale measurement differ from an interval
measurement?
It implies the existence of an absolute zero value. (Afaaq)

http://www.uk.sagepub.com/breakwell/downloads/mcq/mcq_03/mcq_03.htm
It measures larger or smaller scores on some underlying dimension.
It requires the mutual exclusivity of all cases.
It requires that exhaustiveness is applied to all observations.

Question No: 23 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Which of the following is NOT the implication of Ordinal scale?
Characteristics of nominal scale
Rank the object
Does not provide magnitude of object
Provide rate (Afaaq)

Question No: 24 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Which of the following statements is correct about validity and reliability?
When internal validity is high, external validity is low (Afaaq)
When internal validity is high, there is no change in external validity
When internal validity is high, external validity is also high
All of the given options

Afaaq_tariq@yahoo.com

Question No: 25 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Which of the following is a threat to the internal validity of an experimental
design?
Maturation (Afaaq)

http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/tutorial/Kong/Design%20to%20rule%20out%20th
reats.htm
Or

Maturation is the term given to the impact that natural changes in the participants
may have on the dependent variable. b, c and d are threats to the external
validity of an experimental research design.
Interaction of setting and treatment
Interaction effects of pre-testing
Reactive effects of experimental arrangements

Question No: 26 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Which of the following statements relates to concurrent validity?
The measure apparently reflects the content of the concept in question.
A criterion is employed on which cases are known to differ. (Afaaq)

http://www.oup.com/uk/orc/bin/9780199284986/01student/cqs/ch06/?view=Standard

Or

An example of concurrent validity is the use of the criterion of absenteeism to


measure job satisfaction.
A future criterion is employed on which cases are known to differ.
A measure is gauged by comparing it to measures of the same concept
developed through other methods.

Question No: 27 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


A measure has high internal consistency reliability when:
Multiple observers make the same ratings using the measure.
Participants score at the high end of the scale every time they complete the
measure.
Multiple observers obtain the same score every time they use the measure.
Each of the items correlates with other items on the measure. (Afaaq)

This form of reliability is used to judge the consistency of results across items on the same test.
Essentially, you are comparing test items that measure the same construct to determine the tests
internal consistency. When you see a question that seems very similar to another test question, it
may indicate that the two questions are being used to gauge reliability. Because the two
questions are similar and designed to measure the same thing, the test taker should answer both
questions the same, which would indicate that the test has internal consistency.

Question No: 28 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Research may differ along a series of dimensions. Which of the following may be
applied to this statement?

The type of data collected.


The data-collection technique.
The level of manipulation used to elicit data collection.
All of the given options. (Afaaq)

Afaaq_tariq@yahoo.com

Question No: 29 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Which of the following statement refers to cross-sectional design?
► A comparison of two or more variables over a long period of time
► The collection of data from more than one case at one moment in time
(Afaaq)

http://www.google.com.pk/search?hl=en&biw=800&bih=406&defl=en&q=define:Cr
oss-sectional+design&sa=X&ei=lmT8TIeFCM7LrQf-14T0Bw&ved=0CBcQkAE
► One that is devised when the researcher is in a bad mood
► A study of one particular section of society, e.g. the middle classes

Question No: 30 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Which of the following is a legitimate purpose of a research plan?
► It forces you to think through every aspect of a study.
► It provides detailed procedures to guide the conduct of the study.
► It provides clear roadmap of the study. (Afaaq)
► Writing a plan facilitates the evaluation of it.

Question No: 31 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


A study design in which the researcher might create_______ to establish cause-
and-effect relationship is called Experimental Design.
► An artificial setting, control some variables and manipulates the
independent variable (Afaaq)
An experiment involves the creation of a contrived situation in order that the researcher
can manipulate one or more variables whilst controlling all of the others and measuring
the resultant effects
► A natural setting, control some variables and manipulates the dependent
variables
► An artificial setting, control some variables and manipulates the dependent
variable
► All of the given options

Question No: 32 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Which of the following kinds of survey research gathers data through
questionnaires administered once to the sample?
► Longitudinal, observation
► Cross-sectional, observation
► Longitudinal, self-report
► Cross-sectional, self-report (Afaaq)

http://wps.prenhall.com/chet_airasian_edresearch_7/5/1490/381582.cw/index.html

Question No: 33 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Which of the following is NOT an example of a problem with using survey
research to investigate behaviour?
► Respondents tend to answer by giving the most socially desirable answer.
► Respondents may inadvertently omit key terms in the question.
► Respondents may not give an honest reply to what they see as a threatening
question.
► Respondents may be unwilling to reveal information as they believe they
are likely to be identified. (Afaaq)

An advantage of social survey research is that the researcher can ensure that the
anonymity of the respondent is maintained by administering the same questions to each
individual.

Question No: 34 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Which of the following statements might assist response rates?
► Please photocopy the questionnaire five times and pass on to your work
colleagues.
► Please make sure that the questionnaire is completed with a fountain pen.
► Please read the attached journal article on the ontological foundations of
positivism prior to completing the questionnaire.
► Please put the completed questionnaire in the enclosed stamped
addressed envelope and place in the mail out tray. (Afaaq)

Enclosing a stamped addressed envelope is very important if the researcher


wishes to achieve an acceptable response rate.

Afaaq_tariq@yahoo.com

Question No: 35 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Which of the following is NOT a source of literature review?
► Scholarly Books
► Dissertations
► Policy Reports and Presented Papers
► Story book (Afaaq)

P # 28

Question No: 36 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


The most critical area of an article to read is;
► Introduction
► Abstract
► Results section (Afaaq)
► Limitations

Question No: 37 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


The Introduction section of the research plan;
► Gives an overview of prior relevant studies.
► Contains a statement of the purpose of the study.
► Relates previous studies, denote purpose and research questions.
(Afaaq)

http://www.southalabama.edu/coe/bset/johnson/mcq/mc3.htm
► Concludes with a statement of the research questions and, for quantitative
research, it includes the research hypothesis.

Question No: 38 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Time consumed in mall intercept interview is representing which of the following
type?

► High
► Moderate (Afaaq)
► Low
► Nill

Question No: 39 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Which of the following is True for survey research?
► Survey research is a subset of experimental research.
► Survey research is often used in experimental research. (Afaaq)

http://wps.prenhall.com/chet_airasian_edresearch_7/5/1490/381582.cw/index.html
► Survey research is never used in experimental research.
► Survey research is always used in experimental research.

Question No: 40 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Which of the following is to convince reviewers that the researcher is capable of
successfully conducting the proposed research project?
► Literature review
► Research question
► Research proposal (Afaaq)

The Research Proposal


A research proposal is a document that presents a plan for a project to reviewers foe evaluation. It
can be a supervised project submitted to instructors as part of an educational degree (e.g. a
Master’s thesis or a Ph.D. dissertation) or it can be a research project proposed to a funding
agency. Its purpose is to convince reviewers that the researcher is capable of successfully
conducting the proposed research project. Reviewers have more confidence that a planned project
will be successfully completed if the proposal is well written and organized, and carefully
► Research project
Question No: 41 ( Marks: 10 )

What are various type of variables that can be identified during research. Explain
with suitable example.
STA630 Research Methods 2010 (Session – 4) 100% correct solved with reference
By Afaaq, Shani Bhai n Adeel solved by Afaaq

Remember Us In Your Prayers


Best regard’s
Muhammad Afaaq
Mba 3 rd Finance Group
Afaaq_Tariq@yahoo.com
Owner weblyceum@googlegroup.com
Admin www. weblyceum.com
Manager vu-learning-pk@googlegroups.com
Super Moderator in http://www.virtualinspire.com/
Islamabad
0346-5329264

If u like me than raise your hand with me


If not than raise ur standard

That’s about me … !