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1.1 Introduction

The present cell phones have it all. Today phones have everything ranging from the smallest
size, largest phone memory, speed dialing, video player, audio player, and camera and so on.
Recently with the development of Pico nets and Bluetooth technology data sharing has
become a child's play. Earlier with the infrared feature you can share data within a line of
sight that means the two devices has to be aligned properly to transfer data, but in case of
blue tooth you can transfer data even when you have the cell phone in your pocket up to a
range of 50 meters. The creation and entry of 5G technology into the mobile marketplace will
launch a new revolution in the way international cellular plans are offered. The global mobile
phone is upon the cell phone market. Just around the corner, the newest 5G technologies will
hit the mobile market with phones used in China being able to access and call locally phones
in Germany. Truly innovative technology changing the way mobile phones will be used. With
the emergence of cell phones, which are similar to a PDA, you can now have your whole
office within the phone. Cell phones will give tough competitions to laptop manufacturers
and normal computer designers. Even today there are phones with gigabytes of memory
storage and the latest operating systems .Thus one can say that with the current trends, the
industry has a real bright future if it can handle the best technologies and can produce
affordable handsets for its customers. Thus you will get all your desires unleashed in the near
future when these smart phones take over the market. 5G Network's router and switch
technology delivers Last Yard Connectivity between the Internet access provider and building
occupants. 5G's technology intelligently distributes Internet access to individual nodes within
the building.

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1.2 Definition

5G Wireless Systems is a complete wireless communication with almost no limitation;

somehow people called it REAL wireless world. But till present day 5G wireless system
concept is only theory and not real, so it is not applicable for use. 5G(5th generation mobile
networks or 5th generation wireless systems) is a technology used in research papers and
projects to denote the next major phase of mobile telecommunication standards beyond 4G.
5G is not officially used for any specification or official document yet made public by
telecommunication companies or standardization bodies. New standard releases beyond 4G
are in progress by standardization bodies, but are at this time not considered as new mobile
generations but under the 4G umbrella. The implementation of standards under a 5G
umbrella would likely be around the year of 2020.

1.3 Properties of 5G

 Worldwide cellular phone: Phone calls in any country can be done.

 Higher Connectivity: Connectivity speed of 5G is almost 25Mbps.

 More Power & feature in hand held phones: You’ll have all features of PDA& laptops in
your mobile phone, which makes it more powerful.

 Large phone memory, more dialing speed, more clarity in audio & video.

1.4 5G Standardization

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The current status of the 5G technology for cellular systems is very much in the early
development stages. Very many companies are looking into the technologies that could be
used to become part of the system. In addition to this a number of universities have set up 5G
research units focused more concrete manner, they will be incorporated into the new 5G
cellular system.

The major issue with 5G technology is that there is such an enormously wide variation in the
requirements: superfast downloads to small data requirements for IoT than any one system
will not on developing the technologies for 5G. In addition to this the standards bodies,
particularly 3GPP are aware of the development but are not actively planning the 5G systems
yet. Many of the technologies to be used for 5G will start to appear in the systems used for
4G and then as the new 5G cellular system starts to formulate in a be able to meet these
needs. Accordingly a layer approach is likely to be adopted. As one commentator stated:

 5G is not just a mobile technology.

 It is ubiquitous access to high & low data rate services.

1.5 5G Cellular System Overview

The different generations of cellular telecommunications have evolved; each one has brought
its own improvements. The same will be true of 5G technology.

 First generation, 1G: These phones were analogue and were the first mobile or cellular
phones to be used. Although revolutionary in their time they offered very low levels of
spectrum efficiency and security.

 Second generation, 2G: These were based around digital technology and offered much
better spectrum efficiency, security and new features such as text messages and low
data rate communications.

 Third generation, 3G: The aim of this technology was to provide high speed data. The
original technology was enhanced to allow data up to 14 Mbps and more.

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 Fourth generation, 4G: This was an all-IP based technology capable of providing data
rates up to 1 Gbps.

Any new 5th generation, 5G cellular technology needs to provide significant gains over
previous systems to provide an adequate business case for mobile operators to invest in any
new system.

Facilities that might be seen with 5G technology include far better levels of connectivity and
coverage. The term World Wide Wireless Web or WWWW is being coined for this.

For 5G technology to be able to achieve this, new methods of connecting will be required as
one of the main drawbacks with previous generations is lack of coverage, dropped calls and
low performance at cell edges. 5G technology will need to address this.

1.6 How 5G Works?

Like other cellular networks, 5G networks use a system of cell sites that divide
their territory into sectors and send encoded data through radio waves. Each cell
site must be connected to a network backbone, whether through a wired or wireless
backhaul connection. 5G networks will use a type of encoding called OFDM, which
is similar to the encoding that 4G LTE uses. The air interface will be designed for
much lower latency and greater flexibility than LTE, though.

5G networks need to be much smarter than previous systems, as they're juggling

many more, smaller cells that can change size and shape. But even with
existing macro cells, Qualcomm says 5G will be able to boost capacity by four
times over current systems by leveraging wider bandwidths and advanced antenna

The goal is to have far higher speeds available and far higher capacity per sector, at
far lower latency than 4G. The standards bodies involved are aiming at 20Gbps
speeds and 1ms latency, at which point very interesting things begin to happen.

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1.7 What’s the Frequency?

5G primarily runs in two kinds of airwaves: below and above 6GHz. Low-
frequency 5G networks, which use existing cellular and Wi-Fi bands, take
advantage of more flexible encoding and bigger channel sizes to achieve speeds 25-
50% better than LTE, according to a presentation by T-Mobile exec Karri
Kuoppamaki. Those networks can cover the same distances as existing cellular
networks and generally won't need additional cell sites. Sprint, for example, is
setting up all of its new 4G cell sites as 5G-ready, and it'll just flip the switch when
the rest of its network is prepared. The real 5G innovation is happening at higher
frequencies, known as millimeter wave. Down in the existing cellular bands, only
relatively narrow channels are available because that spectrum is so busy and
heavily used. But up at 28 GHz and 39 GHz, there are big, broad swathes of
spectrum available to create big channels for very high speeds. Those bands have
been used before for backhaul, connecting base stations to remote Internet links.
But they haven't been used for consumer devices before, because the handheld
processing power and miniaturized antennas weren't available. Millimeter wave
signals also drop off faster with distance than lower-frequency signals do, and the
massive amount of data they transfer will require more connections to the landline
Internet. So cellular providers will have to install more, smaller, lower-power base
stations rather than use existing powerful macro cells to offer the multi-gigabit
speeds that millimeter wave networks promise.

1.8 Who’s launching 5G When?

AT&T has proclaimed that it will be first with mobile 5G when it launches a
network in 19 cities by the end of this year. The company has listed its 19 cities and
says that initially there will be one 5G device, a mobile Internet hotspot that we

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think will be a version of the Netagear Nighthawk M1. Phones will come next year.
AT&T will use 38GHz spectrum for its initial rollout.

Verizon is starting out with its fixed 5G home internet service, which is now
available. It will follow with a mobile 5G network in 2019, the carrier has said.
Verizon's first 5G phone could be the Moto Z3, which has a 5G add-on promised for
early next year. The carrier is mostly using 28GHz spectrum.

5G home internet shows one major advantage over 4G: huge capacity. Carriers can't
offer competitively priced 4G home internet because there just isn't enough capacity
on 4G cell sites for the 190GB of monthly usage most homes now expect. This
could really increase home internet competition in the US, where, according to a
2016 FCC report, 51 percent of Americans only have one option for 25Mbps or
higher home internet service. For its part, Verizon said its 5G service would be truly

5G home internet is also much easier for carriers to roll out than house-by-house
fiber optic lines. Rather than digging up every street, carriers just have to install
fiber optics to a cell site every few blocks, and then give customers wireless
modems. Verizon chief network officer Nicki Palmer said the home Internet service
would eventually be offered wherever Verizon has 5G wireless, which will give it
much broader coverage than the carrier's fiber-optic FiOS service.

T-Mobile is building a nationwide 5G network on the 600MHz and 28GHz bands

starting in 2019, with full national coverage by 2020.

The speed of a wireless network is tied to how much spectrum you can use for it.
Because T-Mobile is only using an average of 31MHz of spectrum at 600MHz as
opposed to the hundreds of MHz that millimeter wave networks will use, its low-
band 5G network will be a little bit faster than 4G, but not multiple gigabits fast. It
will still have the low latency and many connections aspects of 5G, making it

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usable for gaming, self-driving cars, and smart cities, for instance. In cities, the
millimeter-wave network will be super fast.

"Are we going to see average speeds start to move up by tens of megabits per
second? For sure," T-Mobile CTO Neville Ray said. "We would love to see average
speeds triple, or move to 100Mbps, but that's a journey that's going to take time in
the industry."

Sprint announced its first 5G phone in August, saying an integrated 4G/5G Android
phone from LG will come to its network during the "first half of 2019." Sprint's 5G
will be on the 2.5GHz band, which will give it similar coverage to Sprint's existing
4G LTE network; in fact, it will use the same cell sites. Sprint CTO John Saw said
that means its 5G phones will be slimmer and slicker than 5G phones which use the
new 28Ghz bands.

Phone company OnePlus has committed to releasing a 5G phone in 2019, although

it hasn't said what network it will be for. So far, Apple and Samsung haven't made
any solid commitments to 5G phones for the U.S. They think there will be a 5G
iPhone in 2020.

1.9 Who is inventing in 5G?

Both Nokia and Ericcson have created 5G platforms aimed at mobile carriers rather than
consumers. Ericsson created the first 5G platform earlier last year that claims to provide the
first 5G radio system, although it started 5G testing in 2015.

In early 2017, Nokia launched "5G First", a platform aiming to provide end-to-end 5G
support for mobile carriers.

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2.1 Introduction

The Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystem is evolving towards the deployment of integrated
environments, wherein heterogeneous devices pool their capacities together to match wide-
ranging user and service requirements. As a consequence, solutions for efficient and
synergistic cooperation among objects acquire great relevance. Along this line, this paper
focuses on the adoption of the promising MIFaaS (Mobile-IoT-Federation-asa-Service)
paradigm to support delay-sensitive applications for high-end IoT devices in next-tocome
fifth generation (5G) environments. MIFaaS fosters the provisioning of IoT services and
applications with low-latency requirements by leveraging cooperation among private/public
clouds of IoT objects at the edge of the network. A performance assessment of the MIFaaS
paradigm in a cellular 5G environment based on both Long Term Evolution (LTE) and the
recent Narrowband IoT (NB-IoT) is presented. Obtained results demonstrate that the
proposed solution outperforms classic approaches, highlighting significant benefits derived
from the joint use of LTE and NB-IoT bandwidths in terms of increased number of
successfully delivered. We discusses current standardization situation of 5G and the role
network softwarization plays in order to address the challenges the new generation of mobile
networks must face. This paper surveys recent documentation from the main stakeholders to
pick out the use cases, scenarios and emerging vertical sectors that will be enabled by 5G
technologies, and to identify future high-level service requirements. Driven by those service
requirements 5G systems will support diverse radio access technology scenarios, meet end-
to-end user experienced requirements and provide capability of flexible network deployment
and efficient operations. However, the power consumption issue needs a further improvement
since the application requirements are not fully satisfied. The emerging 5G communication
technology is characterized by the smarter devices and the native support for the M2M

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communication. On that basis, the 5G terminals are capable of joining the existing ZigBee
networks and have the potential to improve the data transmission. In this paper, we
investigate the performance of the ZigBee networks in the 5G environment for different
scenarios. Then a Nearest Access Routing (NAR) algorithm based on the physical depth is
proposed for different communication types. To reduce the loads in ZigBee networks, the
data flow in the neighborhood of 5G terminals is gathered and transmitted via the IP
networks. The simulation results showed that NAR effectively share the communication in
ZigBee networks. It leads to better performances with higher packet delivery ratio, less hop
counts from ZigBee devices, lower latency, fewer packets sent by ZigBee nodes and zero
routing overheads.

2.2 Wireless Technology

Wireless technology refers to technology that allows us to communicate without using cables
or wires. With wireless technologies, people and other entities can communicate over very
long distances. Wireless technology includes RF and IR waves. RF and IR stand for radio
frequency and infrared respectively.

The term may also refer to devices that draw power without using cables. In other words, a
smartphone that we can recharge without wires has wireless technology in it. However, in
most cases, the term refers to communicating without wires or cables.

This article focuses on the term when it refers to communicating without wires.

Wireless technology – Brief history

Wireless technologies in one form or another have been around for a long time. It all started
with German physicist Heinrich Hertz (1857-1894) when he discovered electromagnetic

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The photophone

The first wireless conversation ever occurred in 1880 when Charles Sumner Tainter and
Alexander Graham Bell invented the photophone. They also patented the photophone in that
year. The photophone was a telephone that conducted audio conversation over modulated
light beams.

Radio transmission and wireless telegraphy

Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937), an Italian inventor and electrical engineer, pioneered work
on long-distance radio transmission.

The radio, TV, and satellites

During the 20th century, many types of wireless technologies emerged. The radio, which
Marconi invented, and television, for example, receives broadcast communications without
using wires. Satellites are also examples of wireless technology.

Wireless technology today

Most lay people today think of laptops, tablets, smartphones, and modems (routers) if you
ask them about wireless technology.

The term has become part of our everyday vernacular. For most of us, there are currently two
main types of wireless technology:

1. Local Wi-Fi networks

Wi-Fi is a technology that allows tablets, video game consoles, printers, and smartphones to
communicate with the Internet. Medical devices, laptops, and digital audio players also use

The term ‘Wi-Fi’ emerged in the 1990s from the words ‘Wireless’ plus ‘Fi,’ which was an
arbitrary second element, after ‘Hi-Fi.’ People often mistakenly interpret the term as a short
form of ‘Wireless Fidelity.’

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2. Cellular networks (mobile phone networks)

This technology allows electronic devices to communicate over long distances. One person
in, for example, Alaska, can talk to another person in Australia using their smart phones.
Cellular networks allow them to do that. says the following regarding the definition of the term: “Wireless’ is a broad
term that encompasses all sorts of technologies and devices that transmit data over the air
rather than over wires, including cellular communications, networking between computers
with wireless adapters and wireless computer accessories.”

2.2.1 Types of Wireless Communication Networks

A wireless network is a computer network that uses wireless data connections

between network nodes.

Wireless networking is a method by which homes, telecommunications networks and

business installations avoid the costly process of introducing cables into a building, or as a
connection between various equipment locations. Wireless telecommunications networks are
generally implemented and administered using radio communication. This implementation
takes place at the physical level (layer) of the OSI model network structure.

Examples of wireless networks include cell phone networks, wireless local area
networks (WLANs), wireless sensor networks, satellite communication networks, and
terrestrial microwave networks.

Wireless PAN

Wireless personal area networks (WPANs) connect devices within a relatively small area that
is generally within a person's reach. For example, both Bluetooth radio and
invisible infrared light provides a WPAN for interconnecting a headset to a
laptop. ZigBee also supports WPAN applications. Wi-Fi PANs are becoming commonplace

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(2010) as equipment designers start to integrate Wi-Fi into a variety of consumer electronic
devices. Intel "My Wi-Fi" and Windows 7 "virtual Wi-Fi" capabilities have made Wi-Fi
PANs simpler and easier to set up and configure.

Wireless LAN

A wireless local area network (WLAN) links two or more devices over a short distance using
a wireless distribution method, usually providing a connection through an access point for
internet access. The use of spread-spectrum or OFDM technologies may allow users to move
around within a local coverage area, and still remain connected to the network.

Wireless ad hoc network

A wireless ad hoc network, also known as a wireless mesh network or mobile ad hoc
network (MANET), is a wireless network made up of radio nodes organized in a mesh
topology. Each node forwards messages on behalf of the other nodes and each node performs
routing. Ad hoc networks can "self-heal", automatically re-routing around a node that has lost
power. Various network layer protocols are needed to realize ad hoc mobile networks, such
as Distance Sequenced Distance Vector routing, Associativity-Based Routing, Ad hoc on-
demand Distance Vector routing, and Dynamic source routing.

Wireless MAN

Wireless metropolitan area networks are a type of wireless network that connects several
wireless LANs.

 WiMAX is a type of Wireless MAN and is described by the IEEE 802.16 standard.

Wireless WAN

Wireless wide area networks are wireless networks that typically cover large areas, such as
between neighbouring towns and cities, or city and suburb. The wireless connections
between access points are usually point to point microwave links using parabolic dishes on
the 2.4 GHz and 5.8 GHz band, rather than unidirectional used with smaller networks.

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Cellular network

A cellular network or mobile network is a radio network distributed over land areas called
cells, each served by at least one fixed-location transceiver, known as a cell site or base
station. In a cellular network, each cell characteristically uses a different set of radio
frequencies from all their immediate neighboring cells to avoid any interference.

 Global System for Mobile Communications

 Personal Communications Service

 Digital Advanced Mobile Phone Service


Cell phones are used millions and billions of users worldwide. How many of us know the
technology behind cell phones that is used for our communication? I have also intrigued
about the type of technology used in my phone. What are 0G, 1G, 2G, 3G and 4G

0G, 1G, 2G, 3G & 4G ("G" stands for "Generation") are the generations of wireless telecom
connectivity. In 1945, the zero generation (0G) of mobile telephones was introduced. Mobile
Telephone Service, were not officially categorized as mobile phones, since they did not
support the automatic change of channel frequency during calls. 1G (Time Division Multiple
Access and Frequency Division Multiple Access) was the initial wireless telecom network
system. It’s out-dated now. The analog “brick phones” and “bag phones” are under 1G
technology. Cell phones era began with 1G. The next era, 2G has taken its place of 1G. Cell
phones received their first major upgrade when they went from 1G to 2G. This leap
effectively took cell phones from analog to digital. 2G and 2.5G were versions of the GSM
and CDMA connections. And GSM is still the most popular technology, but with no internet.
Fortunately, GPRS, an additional service, is provided over GSM for the purpose of internet
access. GPRS has been developed and thus, EGPRS was created. It's more secure and faster

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than GPRS. Then 3G came, the new Wireless CDMA technology. It is the first wireless
telecom technology that provides broadband-speed internet connection on mobile phones. It
has been specially made for the demand of internet on smart phones. Further development
led to the creation of 3.5G, which provides blazing fast internet connection on phones, up to
the speed of 7.2 MBPS. A smart phone can be connected to a PC to share its internet
connection and 3G and 3.5G are ideal for this. But, as this WCDMA technology is not
available in all regions, it’s not as popular as GSM yet. Before making the major leap from
2G to 3G wireless networks, the lesser-known 2.5G was an interim standard that bridged the
gap. Following 2.5G, 3G ushered in faster data-transmission speeds so you could use your
cell phone in more data-demanding ways. This has meant streaming video (i.e. movie trailers
and television), audio and much more. Cell phone companies today are spending a lot of
money to brand to you the importance of their 3G network.

While the GSM EDGE standard ("2.9G"), DECT cordless phones and Mobile Win MAX
standards formally also fulfill the IMT-2000 requirements and are approved as 3G standards
by ITU, these are typically not branded 3G, and are based on completely different

4G, which is also known as “beyond 3G” or “fourth-generation” cell phone technology,
refers to the entirely new evolution. Developers are now going for 4G (OFDMA), which will
provide internet up to the speed of 1 GBPS! It is said to be able to overcome the problems of
weak network strength and should provide much wider network, making sure that the users
get high-speed connectivity anytime anywhere. No doubt, 4G will open new doors of
revolutionary internet technologies, but for now, 3G and 3.5G are the best. 4G will allow for
speeds of up to 100Mbps. 4G promises voice, data and high-quality multimedia in real-time
form all the time and anywhere.

2.3.1 0 G Wireless Systems

In 1945, the zero generation (0G) of mobile telephones was introduced.0G mobile
telephones, such as Mobile Telephone Service, were not officially categorized as mobile

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phones, since they did not support the automatic change of channel frequency during calls,
which allows the user to move from one cell (the base station coverage area) to another cell,
a feature called "handover".These mobile telephones were usually mounted in cars or trucks,
though briefcase models were also made. Typically, the transceiver (transmitter receiver) was
mounted in the vehicle trunk and attached to the "head" (dial, display, and handset) mounted
near the driver seat. They were sold through WCCs (Wire line Common Carriers, AKA
telephone companies), RCCs (Radio Common Carriers),and two-way radio dealers. The
primary users were loggers, construction foremen, realtors, and celebrities. They used them
for basic voice communication.

2.3.2 1G Wireless System

First Generation wireless technology (1G) is the original analog (An analog or analogue
signal is any continuous signal for which the time varying feature (variable) of the signal is a
representation of some other time varying quantity), voice-only cellular telephone standard,
developed in the 1980s. The main difference between two succeeding mobile telephone
systems, 1G and 2G,is that the radio signals that 1G networks use are analog, while 2G
networks are digital. Although both systems use digital signaling to connect the radio towers
(which listen to the handsets) to the rest of the telephone system, the voice itself during a call
is encoded to digital signals in 2G whereas 1G is only modulated to higher frequency,
typically 150 MHz and up. One such standard is NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephone), used in
Nordic countries, Eastern Europe and Russia. Others include AMPS (Advanced Mobile
Phone System) used in the United States, TACS (Total Access Communications System) in
the United Kingdom, JTAGS in Japan, C-Netz in West Germany, Radiowoman 2000 in
France, and RTMI in Italy. Analog cellular service is being phased out in most places
worldwide. 1G technology replaced 0G technology which featured mobile radio telephones
and such technologies as Mobile Telephone System (MTS), Advanced Mobile Telephone
System (AMTS),Improved Mobile Telephone Service (IMTS), and Push to Talk (PTT).


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1. Developed in 1980s and completed in early 1990’s

2. 1G was old analog system and supported the 1st generation of analog cell phones speed
up to 2.4kbps

3. Advance mobile phone system (AMPS) was first launched by the US and is a 1G mobile

4. Allows users to make voice calls in 1 country

Fig2.3.2: 1G Mobile Phone

Benefits of 1G

 Improve voice clarity

 The network uses the analog signal

 Reduce noise in the line

 Secrecy and safety to data and voice calls

 Consume less battery power


 Poor voice quality

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 Large phone size

 Poor battery life

 No security

 Limited capacity

 Poor hand-off reliability

 Very slow speed

2.3.3 2G Wireless System

2G (or 2-G) is short for second-generation wireless telephone technology. Second

generation2G cellular telecom networks were commercially launched on the GSM standardin Finland
by Radiolinja (now part of Elisa Oyj) in 1991. 2G network allows for much greater penetration intensity.
2G technologies enabled the various mobile phone networks to provide the services such as text
messages, picture messages and MMS (multimedia messages). 2Gtechnology is more efficient. 2G
technology holds sufficient security for both the sender and the receiver. All text messages are digitally
encrypted. This digital encryption allows for the transfer or data in such a way that only the intended
receiver can receive and read it. Second generation technologies are either time division multiple access
(TDMA) or code division multiple access (CDMA). TDMA allows for the division of signal into
timeslots. CDMA allocates each user a special code to communicate over a multiplex physical channel.

Different TDMA technologies are GSM, PDC, iDEN, IS-136. CDMA technology is IS-95. GSM has its
origin from the Group special Mobile, in Europe. GSM (Global system for mobile communication) is the
most admired standard of all the mobile technologies. Although this technology originates from the
Europe, but now it is used in more than 212 countries in the world. GSM technology was the first one to
help establish international roaming. This enabled the mobile subscribers to use their mobile phone
connections in many different countries of the world’s is based on digital signals ,unlike 1G
technologies which were used to transfer analogue signals. GSM has enabled the users to make use

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of the short message services (SMS) to any mobile network at any time. SMS is a cheap and easy way to
send a message to anyone, other than the voice call or conference.

This technology is beneficial to both the network operators and the ultimate users at the same time. In
comparison to 1G's analog signals, 2G's digital signals are very reliant on location and proximity. If a 2G
handset made a call far away from a cell tower, the digital signal may not be enough to reach it. While a
call made from a 1G handset had generally poor quality than that of a2G handset, it survived longer
distances. This is due to the analog signal having a smooth curve compared to the digital signal, which had
a jagged, angular curve. As conditions worsen, the quality of a call made from a 1G handset would
gradually worsen, but a call made from a 2G handset would fail completely.

 Developed in late 1980s & completed in late 1990s

 Based on digital system

 Speed up to 64 kbps

 Services such are digital voice & SMS with more clarity


1. Fielded in the late 1980s and finished in the late 1990s

2. Planned for voice transmission with digital signal and the speeds up to 64kbps

3. 2G was the digital handsets that we are used today

4. 2G network allows for much greater penetration intensity

Fig2.3.3: 2G Mobile Phone

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Benefits of 2G

The lower powered radio signals require less battery power, so phones last much longer
between charges, and batteries can be smaller.

 The digital voice encoding allowed digital error checking which could increase sound
quality by increasing dynamic range and lowering the noise floor

 The lower power emissions helped address health concerns.

 Going all-digital allowed for the introduction of digital data services, such as SMS
and email.

 Greatly reduced fraud. With analog systems it was possible to have two or
more "cloned" handsets that had the same phone number.

 Enhanced privacy. A key digital advantage not often mentioned is that digital cellular
calls are much harder to eavesdrop on by use of radio scanners. While the security
algorithms used have proved not to be as secure as initially advertised, 2G phones are
immensely more private than 1G phones, which have no protection against


 In less populous areas, the weaker digital signal may not be sufficient to reach a cell
tower. This tends to be a particular problem on 2G systems deployed on higher
frequencies, but is mostly not a problem on 2G systems deployed on lower frequencies.
National regulations differ greatly among countries which dictate where 2G can be

 Analog has a smooth decay curve, digital a jagged steppy one. This can be both an
advantage and a disadvantage. Under good conditions, digital will sound better. Under
slightly worse conditions, analog will experience static, while digital has
occasional dropouts. As conditions worsen, though, digital will start to completely fail,

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by dropping calls or being unintelligible, while analog slowly gets worse, generally
holding a call longer and allowing at least a few words to get through.

 While digital calls tend to be free of static and background noise, the lossy
compression used by the codec’s takes a toll; the range of sound that they convey is
reduced. You'll hear less of the tonality of someone's voice talking on a digital cellphone,
but you will hear it more clearly.

2.3.4 3G Wireless Systems

International Mobile Telecommunications2000 (IMT2000), better known as 3G or 3rdGeneration, is a

generation of standards for mobile phones and mobiletelecommunications services fulfilling specificati
ons by the International Telecommunication Union. The use of 3G technology is also able to transmit
packet switch data efficiently at better and increased bandwidth. 3G mobile technologies proffers more
advanced services to mobile users. The spectral efficiency of 3G technology is better than 2G
technologies. Spectral efficiency is the measurement of rate of information transfer over any
communication system.3G is also known as IMT-2000.

1. Transmission speeds from 125kbps to 2Mbps

2. In 2005, 3G is ready to live up to its performance in computer networking (WCDMA, WLAN and
Bluetooth) and mobile devices area (cell phone and GPS)

3. Data are sent through technology called packet switching

4. Voice calls are interpreted using circuit switching

5. Access to Global Roaming

6. Clarity in voice calls

7. Fast Communication, Internet, Mobile T.V, Video Conferencing, Video Calls, Multimedia
Messaging Service (MMS), 3D gaming, Multi-Gaming etc are also available with 3G phones

Session 2015-2019 Page 21


3G is mostly used with mobile phones and handsets as a means to connect the phone to the
internet or other IP networks in order to make voice and video calls, to download and upload
data, and to surf the Web. 3G refers to the third generation of mobile telephony (that is,
cellular) technology. The third generation, as the name suggests, follows two earlier

The second generation (2G) emerged in the 90's when mobile operators deployed two
competing digital voice standards. In North America, some operators adopted IS-95, which
used Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) to multiplex up to 64 calls per channel in the
800 MHz band. Across the world, many operators adopted the Global System for Mobile
communication (GSM) standard, which used Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) to
multiplex up to 8 calls per channel in the 900 and 1800 MHz bands.

The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) defined the third generation (3G) of
mobile telephony standards IMT-2000 to facilitate growth, increase bandwidth, and support
more diverse applications. For example, GSM could deliver not only voice, but also circuit-
switched data at speeds up to 14.4 Kbps. But to support mobile multimedia applications, 3G
had to deliver packet-switched data with better spectral efficiency, at far greater speeds.

However, to get from 2G to 3G, mobile operators had make "evolutionary" upgrades to
existing networks while simultaneously planning their "revolutionary" new mobile
broadband networks. This lead to the establishment of two distinct 3G families: 3GPP and

The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) was formed in 1998 to foster deployment of
3G networks that descended from GSM. 3GPP technologies evolved as follows.

• General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) offered speeds up to 114 Kbps.

• Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE) reached up to 384 Kbps.

• UMTS Wideband CDMA (WCDMA) offered downlink speeds up to 1.92 Mbps.

• High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) boosted the downlink to 14Mbps.

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• LTE Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA) is aiming for 100 Mbps

Fig2.3.4: 3G Mobile Phone

Benefits of 3G

 The customers will get a high-speed network for their communication which is far
better than the 2G technology, particularly in data communication.

 The customer will get wireless broadband.

 Customers can see video or satellite based programs like TV programs using this

 Customers can use all the facilities at the same time.

 Uninterrupted video streaming on phones.

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 Video calls and big MMS.

 Good for data intensive applications.

 3G is cheaper for providers, however, plans are more expensive due to the high cost
of implementation of the 3G network.

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 The cost of cellular infrastructure , upgrading base stations is very high

 Needs different handsets.

 Roaming and data/voice work together has not yet been implemented

 Power consumption is high

 Requires closer base stations and are expensive

 Spectrum-license costs, network deployment costs and handset subsidies subscribers are

2.3.5 4G Wireless System

4G refers to the fourth generation of cellular wireless standards. It is a success or to 3G and 2G families
of standards. The nomenclature of the generations generally refers to a change in the fundamental nature
of the service, non-backwards compatible transmission technology, and new frequency bands.3G
technologies make use of TDMA and CDMA. 3G(Third Generation Technology) technologies make use
of value added services like mobile television, GPS (global positioning system) and video conferencing.
The basic feature of 3GTechnology (Third Generation Technology) is fast data transfer rates. However
this feature is not currently working properly because, ITU 200 is still making decision to fix the data rates.
It is expected that 2mbit/sec for stationary users, while 348kbits when moving or travelling. ITU
sellvarious frequency rates in order to make use of broadband technologies. Network authentication has
won the trust of users, because the user can rely on its network as a reliable source of transferring data.3G
technology is much flexible, because it is able to support the 5 major radio technologies. These radio
technologies operate under CDMA, TDMA and FDMA.CDMA holds for IMT-DS (direct spread), IMT-
MC (multi carrier). TDMA accounts for IMT-TC (time code),IMT-SC (single carrier). FDMA has only
one radio interface known as IMT-FC or frequency code. Third generation technology is really affordable
due to the agreement of industry. This agreement took place in order to increase its adoption by the users.
3G (Third Generation Technology) system is compatible to work with the 2G technologies. 3G (Third

Session 2015-2019 Page 25


Generation Technology) technologies holds the vision that they should be expandable on demand. The
aim of the 3G (Third Generation Technology) is to allow for more coverage and growth with minimum
investment. The bandwidth and location information available to 3G devices gives rise to applications not
previously available to mobile phone users.

 Developed in 2010

 Faster & more reliable

 Speed up to 100Mbps

 High performance

Some of the applications are:

1. Mobile TV – a provider redirects a TV channel directly to the subscriber's phone where it can be

2. Video on demand– a provider sends a movie to the subscriber's phone.

3. Video conferencing– subscribers can see as well as talk to each other.

4. Tele-medicine – a medical provider monitors or provides advice to the potentially isolated


5. Location-based services– a provider sends localized weather or traffic conditions to the phone, or the
phone allows the subscriber to find nearby businesses or friends.

6. Mobile ultra-broadband (gigabit speed) access and multi-carrier transmission.

7. Mobile WiMAX(Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access)


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1. 4G is a conceptual framework and a discussion point to address future needs of a highspeed wireless
network .

2. It offer both cellular and broadband multimedia services everywhere3.

3. Expected to emerged around 2010 – 20154.

4. 4G should be able to provided very smooth global roaming ubiquitously with lower cost.

Fig2.3.5: 4G Mobile Phone

Benefits of 4G

 Easy installation: easiest and simplest way to go online

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 Faster speed: 4times faster than its predecessors

 Better signal: more reliable than others in the market

 Wider coverage and better security: can cover up tp 30 miles or more and guarantees
better security

 Flexible package plans

 High capacity and low cost per bit


 New frequencies means new components in cell towers.

 Higher data prices for consumers

 Consumer is forced to buy a new device to support the 4G

 It is impossible to make your current equipment compatible with the 4G network

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2.3.6 5G Wireless System

5G Technology stands for 5th Generation Mobile technology. 5G technology has changed the
means to use cell phones within very high bandwidth. User never
experienced ever before such a high value technology. The 5G technologies include all type
of advanced features which makes 5G technology most powerful and in huge demand in near
future. The gigantic array of innovative technology being built into new cell phones is
stunning. 5G technologies which are on hand held phone offering more power and features
than at least 1000 lunar modules. A user can also hook their 5Gtechnology cell phone with
their Laptop to get broadband internet access. 5Gtechnology including camera, MP3
recording, video player, large phone memory, dialing speed, audio player and much more you
never imagine. For children rocking fun Bluetooth technology and Pico nets has become
in market.

Fig 2.3.6: 5G Mobile Phone

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5G technology going to be a new mobile revolution in mobile market. Through 5G

technology now you can use worldwide cellular phones and this technology also strike the
china mobile market and a user being proficient to get access to Germany phone as a local
phone. With the coming out of cell phone alike to PDA now your whole office in your finger
tips or in your phone. 5G technology has extraordinary data capabilities and has ability to tie
together unrestricted call volumes and infinite data broadcast within latest mobile operating
system.5G technology has a bright future because it can handle best technologies and offer
priceless handset to their customers. May be in coming days 5G technology takes over the
world market. 5G Technologies have an extraordinary capability to support Software and
Consultancy. The Router and switch technology used in 5Gnetwork providing
high connectivity. The 5G technology distributes internet access to nodes within the building
and can be deployed with union of wired or wireless network connections. The current trend
of 5G technology has a glowing future. 5G is the term used to describe the next-generation of
mobile networks beyond the 4G LTE mobile networks of today. The vision of 5G is
becoming clearer as we move closer to 2020. Most experts say 5G will feature network
speeds that are blazingly fast at 20 G/bps or higher and have a latency that is mere

• Next major phase of mobile telecommunication & wireless system

• 10 times more capacity than other

• Expected speed up to 1Gbps

• More faster & reliable than 4G

• Lower cost than previous generation

Benefits of 5G

• High resolution and bi-directional large bandwidth shaping.

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• Technology to gather all networks on one platform.

• More effective and efficient.

• Technology to facilitate subscriber supervision tools for the quick action.

• Most likely, will provide a huge broadcasting data (in Gigabit), which will support
more than 60,000 connections.

• Easily manageable with the previous generations.

• Technological sound to support heterogeneous services (including private network).

• Possible to provide uniform, uninterrupted, and consistent connectivity across the



Though, 5G technology is researched and conceptualized to solve all radio signal problems
and hardship of mobile world, but because of some security reason and lack of technological
advancement in most of the geographic regions, it has following shortcomings:

 Technology is still under process and research on its viability is going on.

 The speed, this technology is claiming seems difficult to achieve (in future, it might
be) because of the incompetent technological support in most parts of the world.

 Many of the old devices would not be competent to 5G, hence, all of them need to be
replaced with new one expensive deal.

 Developing infrastructure needs high cost.

 Security and privacy issue yet to be solved.

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2.5 Comparison from all generation

Comparison in Tabular Form

Techno 1G 2G/2.5G 3G 4G 5G
Data 2 kbps 14.4-64 kbps 2 Mbps 200 Mbps to 1 1Gbps and
Bandwi Gbps for low higher
dth mobility
Standar AMPS 2G:TDMA,CD WCDM Single Unified Single
ds MA,GSM A Standard unified
2.5G:GPRS,E CDMA- Standard
DGE,1xRTT 2000
Technol Analog Digital Broadba Unified IP and Unified IP and
ogy cellular cellular ndwidth seamless seamless
technolo technology CDMA, combination of combination
gy IP broadband,LAN of broadband,
technolo /WAN/PAN and LAN/WAM/P
and wwww
Service Mobile 2G: Digital Integrate Dynamic Dynamic
telephon voice, short d high information information
y(voice) messaging quality access, access,
2.5G: Higher audio, wearable wearable
capacity data video devices devices with
and data AI capabilities
exing CDMA

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Switchi Circuit 2G: Circuit Packet All packet All packet

ng 2.5G: Circuit except
for access circuit
network & air for air
interface; interface
Packet for core
network and
Core PSTN PSTN Packet Internet Internet
Networ network

Handof Horizont Horizontal Horizont Horizontal and Horizontal and

f al al Vertical Vertical

Table2.5: Comparison from all generation

2.5.1 Symbols:


A World Wide Wireless Web is capable of supporting a comprehensive wireless-based Web

application that includes full graphics and multimedia capability at beyond 4G speeds.


Wavelength Division Multiplexing allows many independent signals to be transmitted

simultaneously on one fiber with each signal located at a different wavelength. Routing and
detection of these signals require devices that are wavelength selective, allowing for the
transmission, recovery, or routing of specific wavelengths in photonic networks.

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Wideband CDMA is a technology for wideband digital radio communications of multimedia

and other capacity demanding applications. It is adopted by ITU under the name IMT-2000
direct spread.


Public Switched Telephone Network is a regular voice telephone network.

Spread Spectrum:

It is a form of wireless communication in which the frequency of the transmitted signal is

deliberately varied over a wide range. This results in a higher bandwidth of the signal
than the one without varied frequency.


Time Division Multiple Access is a technology for sharing a medium by several users by
dividing into different time slots transmitting at the same frequency.


Universal Mobile Telecommunications System is the third generation mobile telephone

standard in Europe that was proposed by ETSI.


Wireless Application Protocol defines the use of TCP/IP and Web browsing for mobile


In Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum, a broad slice of bandwidth spectrum is divided into
many possible broadcast frequencies to be used by the transmitted signal.

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Sometimes also known as IS-136 and IMT-CDMA multicarrier(1X/3X) is an evolution of

narrowband radio transmission technology known as CDMA-ONE (also called CDMA or IS-
95) to third generation. 1X refers to the use of 1.25 MHz channel while 3X refers to 5 MHz


Advanced technologies including smart antenna and flexible modulation are keys to optimize
this wireless version of reconfigurable ad hoc networks.


In Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum, the data stream to be transmitted is divided into small
pieces, each of which is allocated a frequency channel. Then the data signal is combined with
a higher data rate bit sequence known as “chipping code” that divides the data according to a
spreading ratio, thus allowing a resistance from interference during transmission.

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2.5.2 Key Concept

 Real wireless world with no more limitation with access and zone issues.

 Wearable devices with AI(Artificial Intelligence) capabilities.

 Internet protocol version 6(IPv6),where a visiting care-of mobile IP address is assigned

according to location and connected network.

 One unified global standard.

 Dynamic Ad hoc Wireless Networks(DAWN), essentially identical to Mobile ad hoc

network(MANET), Wireless mesh network(WAN) or wireless grids, combined with
smart antennas, cooperative diversity and flexible modulation.

 User centric(or cell phone developer initiated) network concept instead of operator-
initiated(as in 1G) or system developer initiated(as in 2G,3G and 4G) standards.

 Pervasive networks providing ubiquitous computing: The user can simultaneously be

connected to several wireless access technologies and seamlessly move between
them(See Media independent handover or vertical handover,IEEE 802.21, also expected
to be provided by future 4G releases). These access technologies can be a 2.5G,3G,4G or
5G mobile networks, Wi-Fi, WPAN or any other future access technology. In 5G, the
concept may be further developed into multiple concurrent data transfer paths.

 Cognitive radio technology, also known as smart-radio: Allowing different radio

technologies to share the same spectrum efficiently by Adaptively finding unused
spectrum and adapting the transmission scheme to the requirements of the technologies
currently sharing the spectrum. This dynamic radio resource management is achieved in
a distributed fashion, and relies on software defined radio.

 High altitude stratospheric platform station(HAPS) system.

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 Group cooperative relay: A major in beyond 4G system is to make the high bit rates
available in a large portion of the cell, especially to users in an exposed position in
between several base stations. In current research, this issue is addressed by cellular
repeaters and macro- diversity techniques, also known as group cooperative relay, as
well as by beam division multiple access (BDMA).

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Technical Specification of 5G Technology

3.1 Problem Statement

5G simply refers to the next and newest mobile wireless standard based on the IEEE
802.11ac standard of broadband technology. We can say that – 5G Wireless Technology
denotes the proposed next major phase of mobile telecommunications standards beyond the
current 4G standards. Rather than faster Internet connection speeds, 5G planning aims at a
higher capacity than current 4G, allowing a higher number of mobile broadband users per
area unit, and allowing consumption of higher or unlimited data quantities in gigabyte per
minute and user. This would make it feasible for a large portion of the population to consume
high-quality streaming media many hours per day on their mobile devices, also when out of
reach of wifi hotspots. 5G research and development also aim at the improved support of
machine to machine communication, also known as the Internet of things, aiming at lower
cost, lower battery consumption, and lower latency than 4G equipment. With a huge array of
innovative features, now your Smartphone would be more parallel to the laptop. You can use
broadband internet connection; other significant features that fascinate people are more
gaming options, wider multimedia options, connectivity everywhere, zero latency, faster
response time, and high-quality sound and HD video can be transferred to another cell phone
without compromising the quality of audio and video.

The most distinguishing feature of 5G Network is that the network will be based on the User
experience, System Performance, enhanced performance, business models and Management
& Operations. 5G will utilize the advance access technologies such as Beam Division
Multiple Access (BDMA) and none and quasi-orthogonal or Filter Bank Multicarrier
(FBMC) Multiple Access. The new advanced technology called Fog Computing is going to

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support the 5G development; this will help in achieving the low latency, high mobility, high
scalability and real-time execution.

5G Wireless Technology uses UWB (Ultra Wide Band) networks with higher Band Width at
low energy levels. Band Width is of 4000 Mbps, which is 400 times faster than today’s
wireless networks. It uses a smart antenna and CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access). 5G
will be the single unified standard for different wireless networks, including LAN
technologies, LAN/WAN, WWWW – World Wide Wireless Web, unified IP & seamless
combination of broadband. It follows Master Core technology to be operated in parallel
multimode including all IP network mode and 5G network mode. In this mode (as shown in
the image given below), it controls all network technologies of RAN and Different Access
Networks (DAT). Any service mode can be opened under 5G New Deployment Mode as
World Combination Service Mode (WCSM). WCSM is a wonderful feature of this
technology; for example, if a teacher writes on the whiteboard in a country – it can be
displayed on another whiteboard in any other part of the world besides conversation and
video. Further, new services can be easily added through parallel multimode service.

3.2 What is 5G Technology?

5G is the term used to describe the next-generation of mobile networks beyond LTE mobile
networks. At least four major phone carriers in the US -AT&T, Verizon, T-Mobile, and
Sprint- have solid plans to introduce their mobile 5G networks in 2019. AT&T has even
started trials with 5G mobile hotspots in 12 cities. Verizon is advertising a 5G home network
(however, Verizon’s offering does not align with what standard bodies are defining as 5G).
The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) has released several reports on the
standards for the 5G network that it refers to as the International Mobile Telecommunications
(IMT)-2020 network. The 3GPP is a mobile industry standards body that created its own
standards for 5G New Radio specifications, published in December 2017. Both mobile
operators and vendors participate in the 3GPP specification process. According to ITU
guidelines, 5G network speeds should have a peak data rate of 20 Gb/s for the downlink and

Session 2015-2019 Page 39


10 Gb/s for the uplink. Latency in a 5G network could get as low as 4 milliseconds in a
mobile scenario and can be as low as 1 millisecond in Ultra Reliable Low Latency
Communication scenarios. Not only will people be connected to each other but so will
machines, automobiles, city infrastructure, public safety and more. 5G networks are also
designed to have always-on capabilities and aim to be energy efficient by minimizing how
much power a modem uses based on the amount of traffic going through it. One reason it
took so long to define 5G is because its architecture and deployment depended on how it was
going to be used, which was made more clear with the IMT-2020 report. Video traffic has
become a key factor in the demand for a faster network. Video traffic is expected to grow
from 56 exabytes used globally in 2017 to 240 exabytes globally in 2022. Higher data speeds
are now warranted for applications such as streaming video, video conferencing, and virtual
reality. To achieve this type of performance, the network will likely need a lot of small cell
coverage and will take advantage of higher bandwidth spectrum.

3.3 Research Work

Existing research work in mobile communication is related to 5G technology.

In5G, researches are related to the development of World Wide Wireless Web (WWWW),
Dynamic Adhoc Wireless Networks (DAWN) and Real Wireless Communication. 5G
technology is to make use of mobile phones within very high bandwidth. The 5G
communications standard will be the means for connecting billions of devices and sensors,
introducing the age of the Internet of Things (IoT). It will also revolutionize consumers’ lives
by transforming major industries and enabling future-world services such as smart
cities/homes, automated cars, virtual reality (VR)/augmented reality (AR), robotics,
holograms, and telesurgery. Most 5G research has focused on these kinds of essential use
cases—and the technologies that will make them possible:

 Multiple input, multiple output (MIMO). 5G research in MIMO has found that the
technology enables base stations to support many more antennas than 4G base stations.
With MIMO, both the source (transmitter) and the destination (receiver) have multiple

Session 2015-2019 Page 40


antennas, thus maximizing efficiency and speed. MIMO also introduces interference
potential, leading to the necessity of beam forming.

 Millimeter waves. Millimeter waves are broadcast at frequencies between 30 GHz

and 300 GHz, compared with the bands below 6 GHz used for 4G LTE. The new 5G
networks will be able to transmit very large amounts of data—but only a few blocks at a
time. Although 5G research has found that the standard will offer the greatest benefits
over these higher frequencies, it will also work in low frequencies as well as unlicensed
frequencies that Wi-Fi currently uses, without creating conflicts with existing WiFi
networks. For this reason, 5G networks will use small cells to complement traditional
cellular towers.

 Network Functions Virtualization (NFV). NFV offers a new way to design, deploy,
and manage networking services. Essential to 5G research is the fact that NFV decouples
the network functions—such as network address translation (NAT), firewalling, intrusion
detection, domain name service (DNS), and caching, to name a few—from proprietary
hardware appliances so that they can run in software.

 Small cells. Small cells are low-powered portable base stations that can be placed
throughout cities. Carriers can install many small cells to form a dense, multifaceted
infrastructure. Small cells’ low-profile antennas make them unobtrusive, but their sheer
numbers make them difficult to set up in rural areas. According to 5G research,
consumers should expect to see ubiquitous 5G antennas, even in their own homes.

 Software Defined Networking (SDN). Whereas today’s network hardware integrates

both the control and data planes, 5G research incorporates the notion of separating these
planes. This separation allows network equipment to be externally configured through
independent management software, thereby improving flexibility, facilitating centralized
control, and ensuring easy network slicing.

 Spectrum sharing. Shared and unlicensed spectrum will permit 5G networks to offer
greater capacity, better spectrum utilization, and unique deployment scenarios. A key

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takeaway from 5G research is that spectrum sharing will allow mobile operators with
licensed spectrum as well as those without licensed spectrum to take advantage of 5G
New Radio (5G NR) technologies.

The Importance of 5G Research

In the preceding topics and areas, 5G research has given operators and vendors valuable
opportunities to understand and influence the performance and power of 5G.

Additional 5G Research Resources

 5G Standards: What You Need to Know

 5G Trials in the United States—Steps Toward Standardization

 The Top 5G Use Cases

 What Are the Top 5G Security Challenges?


Architecture of 5G is highly advanced; its network elements and various terminals are
characteristically upgraded to afford a new situation. Likewise, service providers can
implement the advance technology to adopt the value-added services easily.

However, upgradeability is based upon cognitive radio technology that includes various
significant features such as ability of devices to identify their geographical location as well as
perceptively can catch and respond radio signals in its operating environment. Further, it
promptly distinguishes the changes in its environment and hence respond accordingly to
provide uninterrupted quality service.

 5G wireless technology defines by OSI layer1 and layer2, for these two layers the 5G
mobile network is likely to be based on Open Wireless Architectural(OWA).

Session 2015-2019 Page 42


 OWA is the combination Physical layer and Data link layer.

 All mobile networks will use mobile IP.

 5G mobile terminals have transport layer that is possible to be downloaded and installed
is an Open Transport Protocol (OTP).

 This Open Transport Protocol is the combination of Transport layer and Session Layer.

 Application layer provides intelligent Qos(Quality of Service) management over variety

of networks and possibility for service quality testing & storage of measurement
information in information database in the mobile terminal.

GPRS (General Packet Radio Service)

a) It is used to transmit data at 60kb/sec.

b) It also consumes less battery during sending and receiving mail or to browse internet.

EDGE (Exchanged Data Rate for GSM Evolution)

a) It is an advanced version of GPRS.

b) It provides a data speed of 473kb/sec.

LTE (Long Term Evolution)

a) LTE is a standard for mobile communication for high speed wireless data connection
between mobile data device using radio signal.

b) Speed up to 100mbps.

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3.4.1 Terminal Design

Fig3.4.1: Mobile terminal design of 5G

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4.1 Comparison with OSI Model

Let us compare the protocol stack of 5G wireless with the OSI Model using the fig. below.

Table4.1: Comparison with OSI Model

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Physical layer + Data link layer = OWA

 OSI layer 1 i.e. Physical layer & OSI layer 2 i.e. Data link layer define the wireless

 For these two layers the 5G mobile network is likely to be based on Open Wireless
Architecture (OWA)


All mobile networks will use mobile IP.

 Each mobile terminal will be FA (Foreign Agent).

 A mobile can be attached to several mobiles or wireless networks at the same time.

 The fixed IPv6 will be implemented in the mobile phones

 Separation of network layer into two sub-layers:

a. Lower network layer (for each interface)

b. Upper network layer (for the mobile terminal)

Fig4.3: Network Layer

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Transport layer + Session layer = OTP

 Wireless network differs from wired network regarding the transport layer.

 In all TCP versions the assumption is that lost segments are due to network congestion.

 In wireless, the loss is due to higher bit error ratio in the radio interface.

 5G mobile terminals have transport layer that is possible to be downloaded & installed
which is based on Open Transport Protocol.


Presentation layer + Application layer = Application layer (5G)

 Provides intelligent QoS (Quality of Service) management over variety of networks.

 Provides possibility for service quality testing & storage of measurement information in
information database in the mobile terminal.

 Select the best wireless connection for given services.

 QoS parameters, such as, delay, losses, BW, reliability, will be stored in DB (Database)
of 5G mobile.

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5.1 Introduction

It is highly advanced; its network elements and various terminals are characteristically
upgraded to afford a new situation. Likewise, service providers can implement the advance
technology to adopt the value-added services easily. However, upgradeability is based upon
cognitive radio technology that includes various significant features such as ability of devices
to identify their geographical location as well as weather, temperature, etc. Cognitive radio
technology acts as a transceiver (beam) that perceptively can catch and respond radio signals
in its operating environment. Further, it promptly distinguishes the changes in its
environment and hence responds accordingly to provide uninterrupted quality of service.

Fig5.1 (a) Functional Architectural of 5G Mobile network

As shown in the following image, the system model of 5G is entirely IP based model
designed for the wireless and mobile networks. The system comprising of a main user
terminal and then a number of independent and autonomous radios access technologies. Each
of the radio technologies is considered as the IP link for the outside internet world. The IP
technology is designed exclusively to ensure sufficient control data for appropriate routing of
IP packets related to a certain application connections i.e. sessions between client
applications and servers somewhere on the Internet.

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Below figure shows the system model that proposes design of network architecture for 5G
mobile systems, which is all-IP based model for wireless and mobile networks
interoperability. The system consists of a user terminal (which has a crucial role in the new
architecture) and a number of independent, autonomous radio access technologies. Within
each of the terminals, each of the radio access technologies is seen as the IP link to the
outside Internet world. However, there should be different radio interface for each Radio
Access Technology (RAT) in the mobile terminal. For an example, if we want to have access
to four different RATs, we need to have four different accesses – specific interfaces in the
mobile terminal, and to have all of them active at the same time, with aim to have
this architecture to be functional. Applications and servers somewhere on the Internet.

Routing of packets should be carried out in accordance with established policies of the user.
Application connections are realized between clients and servers in the Internet via sockets.
Internet sockets are endpoints for data communication flows. Each socket of the web is a
unified and unique combination of local IP address and appropriate local transport
communications port, target IP address and target appropriate communication port, and type
of transport protocol. Considering that, the establishment of communication from end to end
between the client and server using the Internet protocol is necessary to raise the appropriate
Internet socket uniquely determined by the application of the client and the server.

This means that in case of interoperability between heterogeneous networks and for the
vertical handover between the respective radio technologies, the local IP address and
destination IP address should be fixed and unchanged. Fixing of these two parameters should
ensure handover transparency to the Internet connection end-to-end, when there is a mobile
user at least on one end of such connection. In order to preserve the proper layout of the
packets and to reduce or prevent packets losses, routing to the target destination and vice
versa should be uniquely and using the same path. Each radio access technology that is
available to the user in achieving connectivity with the relevant radio access is presented with
appropriate IP interface. Each IP interface in the terminal is characterized by its IP address
and net mask and parameters associated with the routing of IP packets across the network.

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Fig5.1 (b) Protocol Layout for the elements of the proposed architecture of 5G

Internet side of the proposed architecture, and as such represents an ideal system to test the
qualitative characteristics of the access technologies, as well as to obtain a realistic picture
regarding the quality that can be expected from applications of the user towards a given
server in Internet (or peer). Protocol setup of the new levels within the existing protocol
stack, which form the proposed architecture, is presented in Figure (Protocol Layout for the
Elements of the Proposed Architecture).

The network abstraction level would be provided by creating IP tunnels over IP interfaces
obtained by connection to the terminal via the access technologies available to the terminal
(i.e., mobile user). In fact, the tunnels would be established between the user terminal and
control system named here as Policy Router, which performs routing based on given policies.
In this way the client side will create an appropriate number of tunnels connected to the
number of radio access technologies, and the client will only set a local IP address which will
be formed with sockets Internet communication of client applications with Internet servers.
The way IP packets are routed through tunnels, or choosing the right tunnel, would be served
by policies whose rules will be exchanged via the virtual network layer protocol.

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This way we achieve the required abstraction of the network to the client applications at the
mobile terminal. The process of establishing a tunnel to the Policy Router, for routing based
on the policies, are carried out immediately after the establishment of IP connectivity across
the radio access technology, and it is initiated from the mobile terminal Virtual Network-level
Protocol. Establishing tunnel connections as well as maintaining them represents basic
functionality of the virtual network level (or network level of abstraction).


 It uses UWB (Ultra Wide Band) networks with higher BW at low energy levels.

 This BW is of 4000 Mbps, which is 400 times faster than today’s wireless networks.

 It uses smart antenna either Switched Beam Antennas or Adaptive Array Antennas.

 It uses CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access).


 5G will be single unified standard of different wireless networks, including LAN

technologies, LAN/WAN, WWWW- World Wide Wireless Web, unified IP & seamless
combination of broadband.

 Software defined radio, Packet layer, Implementation of Packets, Encryption, Flexibility,


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Features, Applications, Advantages, Achievements, Limitations

and Future Scope

6.1 Features of 5G

 5G technology offer high resolution for crazy cell phone user and bi-directional large
bandwidth shaping.

 The advanced billing interfaces of 5G technology makes it more attractive and effective.

 5G technology also providing subscriber supervision tools for fast action.

 The high quality services of 5G technology based on Policy to avoid error.

 5G technology is providing large broadcasting of data in Gigabit which supporting

almost 65,000 connections.

 5G technology offer transporter class gateway with unparalleled consistency.

 The traffic statistics by 5G technology makes it more accurate.

 Through remote management offered by 5G technology a user can get better and fast solution.

 The remote diagnostics also a great feature of 5G technology.

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 The 5G technology is providing up to 25 Mbps connectivity speed.

 The 5G technology also support virtual private network.

 The new 5G technology will take all delivery service out of business prospect

 The uploading and downloading speed of 5G technology touching the peak. The 5G
technology network offering enhanced and available connectivity just about the world.

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6.2 Application of 5G

High-speed mobile network

5G will revolutionize the mobile experience with supercharged wireless network, which can
support up to 10 to 20 GBPS of data download speed. It is equivalent to a fiber optic Internet
connection accessed wirelessly. Compared to conventional mobile transmission technologies,
voice and high-speed data can be simultaneously transferred efficiently in 5G.

Low latency is one of the most important features of 5G technology which is significant for
autonomous driving and mission critical applications. 5G networks are capable of latency
less than a millisecond.

5G will be using new radio millimeter waves for transmission. It has much higher bandwidth
compared to lower LTE bands and capable of huge data rate.

Entertainment and Multimedia

Analysts found that 55 percentage of mobile Internet traffic has been used for video
downloads globally in 2015. This trend will increase in future and high definition video
streaming will be common in future.

5G will offer a high definition virtual world on your mobile phone. High speed streaming of
4K videos only takes few seconds and it can support crystal clear audio clarity.

Live events can be streamed via wireless network with high definition. HD TV channels can
be accessed on mobile devices without any interruptions. Entertainment industry will hugely
benefit from 5G wireless networks. HD virtual reality games are getting popular and many
companies are investing on VR based gaming. High speed 5G network can offer better
gaming experience with high speed Internet.

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Internet of Things- Connecting Everything

Internet of Things (IoT) is another broad area for development using supercharged 5G
wireless network. Internet of Things will connect every object, appliances, sensors, devices
and applications into Internet. IoT applications will collects huge amount of data from
millions of devices and sensors. It requires an efficient network for data collection,
processing, transmission, control and real-time analytics.

Smart Home

Smart home appliances and products are catching up the market today. Smart home concept
will utilize 5G networks for device connectivity and monitoring of applications. 5G wireless
network will be utilized by smart appliances which can be configured and accessed from
remote locations, closed circuit cameras will provide high quality real-time video for security

Logistics and Shipping

Logistic and shipping industry can make use of smart 5G technology for goods tracking, fleet
management, centralized database management, staff scheduling and real-time delivery
tracking and reporting.

Smart Cities

Smart city application like traffic management, Instant weather update, local area
broadcasting, energy management, smart power grid, smart lighting of street, water resource
management, crowd management, emergency response etc.… can use reliable 5G wireless
network for its functioning.

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Smart Farming

5G technology will be used for agriculture and smart farming in future. Using smart RFID
sensors and GPS technology, farmers can track location of livestock and manage them easily.
Smart sensors can be used for irrigation control, access control and energy management.

Fleet Management

Many companies are using smart tracking devices for fleet management, 5G technology will
provide much better solutions for location tracking and fleet management.

Healthcare and mission critical applications

5G technology will support medical practitioners to perform advanced medical le procedures

with reliable wireless network connected to another side of the globe. Connected classrooms
will help students to attend seminars and important lecturers.

People with chronic medical conditions will benefit from smart devices and real-time
monitoring. Doctors can connect with patients from anywhere anytime and advice them
when necessary. Scientists are working on smart medical devices which can perform remote

Security and Surveillance

5G wireless technology is one the best solution for security and surveillance due to higher
bandwidth and unlicensed spectrum.

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6.3 Advantages

 5G provides data bandwidth of 1Gbps or higher.

 5G is globally accessible.

 5G provides dynamic information access beneficial to domestic user.

 5G is available at low cost.

6.4 Ongoing Achievements

5G-PHOS aims at a new front haul architecture known as cloud radio access network (C-
RAN) for increasing scalability, manageability, and flexibility of mobile systems where both
fiber and wireless solutions are combined to support ultra-high bandwidth in the V-band
region, ultra-low latency, and dense coverage.

 Adaptive array transceiver technology operative in mmWave frequency bands for

outdoor cellular. Advanced NLOS communication up to 200mm.

 Achieved maximal data rate of 35.3 Gbps at an average mobility of 10kmh.

 Comprehensive analysis of the mmWave propagation and channel model for different

 Achieved a record braking data rate of 40Gbps.

 Successfully achieved communication on 1GHz bandwidth at 70GHz frequency.

6.5 Limitation

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Though, 5G technology is researched and conceptualized to solve all radio signal problems
and hardship of mobile world, but because of some security reason and lack of technological
advancement in most of the geographic regions, it has following shortcomings:

 Technology is still under process and research on its viability is going on.

 The speed, this technology is claiming seems difficult to achieve (in future, it might be)
because of the incompetent technological support in most parts of the world.

 Many of the old devices would not be competent to 5G, hence, all of them need to be
replaced with new one — expensive deal.

 Developing infrastructure needs high cost.

 Security and privacy issue yet to be solved.


 The future enhancement of 5G Technology and its beyond(6G) will be incredible as it

combines with artificial intelligence(AI)

 One can able to control his intelligent Robot using his mobile phone.

 Human life will be surrounded by artificial sensors which could be communicating

with your mobile phones.

 Mobile can automatically type the message what your brain thinks.

 Possibility of communicating between planets (i.e, a person on Earth can

communicate with astronaut on some other planet by using his mobile) without any

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Conclusion and Recommendation

While the future is becoming more difficult to predict with each passing year, we should
expect an accelerating pace of technological change. We conclude that nanotechnology,
Cloud computing, All IP are the next great technology. The development of the mobile and
wireless networks is going towards higher data rates and all-IP principle. 5G Wireless
Technologies is more intelligent technology, which will interconnect the entire world without
limits. It is designed to provide unbelievable and extraordinary data capabilities, unhindered
call volumes, and vast data broadcast. Our world would have universal and uninterrupted
access to information, communication, and entertainment that will open a new dimension to
our lives and will change our lifestyle meaningfully. Moreover, governments and regulators
can use this technology as an opportunity for the good governance and can create healthier
environments, which will definitely encourage continuing investment in 5G, the next
generation technology.

It is expected that the implementation of 5G Wireless Technologies would take four more
years from now to make it usable for the people. We need more time to develop its
functionality. We need more research on its users and security. The speed, it is promised to
serve is hard to achieve and we need high infrastructure for 5G wireless technology
Deployment. So, we can see there are various challenges to overcome. So we can expect its
deployment in 2020. Currently, the United States and South Korea are leading in the
implementation of 5G. The South Korean government has reportedly invested $1.5billion in
5G research and promised a trial of 5G in 2017.

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