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0 (de) vizualizări9 paginiA Direct Method of-Estimating Settlements in Sand From S.P.T. Values

May 03, 2019

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A Direct Method of-Estimating Settlements in Sand From S.P.T. Values

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A Direct Method of-Estimating Settlements in Sand From S.P.T. Values

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R. H. G. PARRY, M.A, PhD. FLGE,
University of Cambridge
‘A direct method of estimating settlements in sand from S.P.T. values
SYNOPSIS
A simple method is presented for calculating s
in the Standard Penetration Test.
foundation below grade, the thickness of the c
ettlenents directly from N values measured
Factors taken into account include the depth of
sompressible sand layer, stress changes in
the ground due to filling or excavating, and ground water conditions.
INTRODUCTION
‘The Standard Penetration Test (SPT) is a
wholly empirical field test, but in the
author's view it will give consistent res~
alts providing it is performed and inter-
preted with care, In particular any cor-
Felation between the SPT and soil behaviour
Such as settlement or bearing capacity can
only be expected to apply for one type of
soil. In this paper studies are made in
relation to free draining sands - i.e.,
Sands in which the pore pressure set up
around the spoon by a blow of the hanmer
are dissipated before the next blow is made.
In the writer's view, too, the test should
be carried out in boreholes of 0.1 m dia~
meter or les
Existing methods of estimating settlements
in sands from the SPT have developed from
correlations made between the settlement of
test plates in deep excavations and measur-
ed SPT values in the underlying sand, des~
Gribed by Terzaghi and Peck (1948). Design
charts were drawn up by Peck, Hanson and
‘Thornburn (1953) on the basis of extrapol-
ating from test plate to full size found-
ations using the formula:
fa 4 @
a BF
a+By)
were
bg = settlement of foundation of
width 8
py = settlement of unit size test
plate
B= width of foundation
B= width of test plate
In the early use of this method the influ-
ence of effective overburden pressure on
measured SPT values was ignored, and as a
result settlements were usually overestin-
ated. The use of modified values of N was
Suggested by Sutherland (1963) and Alpan
(1964), and resulted in much better cor-
relation with observed settlements. However,
these methods still rely on Equation 1 which
case records published by Bjerrum and
Eggestad (1961) have shown can lead to large
errors in estimating settlements.
Another deficiency of the present methods is
that no account is usually taken of stress
changes in the ground due to site grading
and foundation excavations. Any method
Which ignores the influence of stress on
soil deformation characteristics must be
open to question. An example where stress
changes due to site grading have been taken
into account has been published by D'Appol-
onia et al (1968).
‘The spr is
ple method
a simple test and demands a sim-
Of interpretation. A method of
estimating settlements is proposed here by
the author which makes direct use of the
measured blow count values of N rather than
modified values. Justification for this
comes from the fact that two of the most im-
portant factors determining the modulus of
Geformation of sand are the voids ratio and
confining pressure. These two factors also
have a major influence in determining N
values, as shown by Gibbs and Holtz (1957).
‘The method described below also takes acc-
ount of known stress changes in the ground
occurring after site investigation, but be-
fore or during the life of the structure.
PROPOSED METHOD OF CALCULATING SETTLEMENTS
It is known from field observations that
foundation settlement, p, under working
loads is governed by the width of the loaded
area B, the magnitude of the bearing pres~
Sure q/and the deformation modulus of the
soil, If it is assumed that measured N
values and soil deformation characteristics
both depend primarily on the voids ratio
and the confining pressure in free draining
Sands, and so may bear a direct relation-
ship to each other, then a simple equation
29
16630
can be written which takes account of By q
and deformation characteristics as follows=
pead (2)
Ma
where a = a constant, and the SPr value N,
is used in place of 4 deformation modulu:
‘This form of equation is assumed to apply
where the load factor against shear failure
of the foundation is at least 2.5.
Eq.2 applies for surface loading or loading
in backfilled excavations and the value of
N, used in Eq.2 is a weighted average val-
ul of N within the depth of significant
stressing (about 28) below the foundation.
A suggested method of obtaining this value,
giving additional weight to values at shal-
low depths below foundation level, is set
out in Appendix A, Tt is also suggested
in Appendix A that it is often sufficiently
accurate tg take Ny as the value of N at a
depth of 7% below Foundation level, if N
values are varying fairly consistently with
depth within the stressed zone.
It does not follow from Eq.2 that the ratio
of settlenent of two foundations with the
Same unit load q and widths By and Bz will
be in the direct proportion Bj/B,. Settle-
ment of two foundations of widths B, and By
would only be in the ratio of Bi/Bz where
Newas constant with depth.
INFLUENCE OF PERMANENT EXCAVATION, WATER
TABLE AND THICKWESS OF COMPRESSIBLE SAND
SERATON
Permanent Excavation
If a foundation is placed in a permanent
excavation as shown in Fig.1 the stress at
any point below the unloaded foundation is
different to that when N was measured, ass~
tuning it was measured from natural ground
surface. “This is not true if the foundation
is placed in a completely back-filled ex-
cavation and the arguments in this section
apply only to the case of the permanent ex-
cavation. q.2 can be used directly for
the backfilled excavation, having due re~
gard to other possible modifying factors
discussed below.
FIG.1
Foundation geometry. Nz is obtained
from measured values of N as des-
cribed in Appendix A.
Tt will be assumed here that N is directly
proportional to the mean effective stress,
py rather than the effective overburden
pressure at a given relative density. The
relationship between Nj, the true value of
N after excavation, and N, before excav-
ation is given by Eq.3, if the soil density
remains constant.
Py 3
No" Ma Be a
where p = 1/3(o!+0i+03)
P before excavation at depth
BP below foundation level
p after excavation and before
applying foundation load, at
depen 22 below foundation
Level
Putting _ 4, w
cn =
D-H
and replacing Ny by Np in Bqg.3 gives:
on og 6
TB, «6
Xa
where N, is the weighted average of measur-
ed.N values at the time of the site
investigation, before the excavation is
made, Values'of p, and p, are discussed
below.
If the relationship between horizontal eff-
eftive stress 0, and vertical effective
stress 0}, at any point is k,, then
Po = V3 oy (+2 kg)
:'+ at a depth below foundation level
Po = 1/3 y'(D40.75 B) (142 ky) (7)
the effective density of the
where y'
soil.
‘The at rest value of k, for sands which
have not experienced preconsolidation pres-
sures greater than the existing overburden
is given to a good approximation by the
Jaky (1948) equation:
kel sing «@
for 9! = 30°, k, = 0.5 and for ¢* = 40%,
ky = 0.36.
Likely to occur under most field conditions,
‘and where the soil has experienced higher
preconsolidation pressures or where there
Bre ground water movements k, will be high~
er, and may theoretically © attain the
full passive value, although this again
is unlikely under most field conditions.
‘These are the minimum values
167It is suggested here that an average k,
0.5 should be assumed unless a more acc-
urate value is known, i.e. from Eq.7
Po = 0-67 y* (D + 0,758) o
Pe
‘The value of k, immediately below the base
of an excavati8n will usually exceed the
value before excavation and may attain
values as high as the full passive value
(e.g. 4.5 for ¢" = 40°), although this
would ba unusual, It will be arbitrarily
assumed here that k, increases linearly
with excavation dep&h D as given by the
expression:
x,
>
co = O05 + 0.25 B
oy
‘ase expression is assuned to apply when
<2 <10. the value of py at a depth
PE below an excavation depth D is given by:
b
0,50 yeu + 0.25 B
hos
Po, , 7542)
ees ay
Pe a + 0.258)
‘This expression is plotted as C, against
in Fag.2.
D
a
5:0)
FIG. 2 Relationship between settlement
factor C, and the ratio D/B where
D is the depth of permanent
foundation excavation and 5 is the
width of the foundation.
Water Table
‘The water table conditions must be consider-
ed in using Eg.6, No correction is needed
for surface footings or footings in back-
168
at
filled excavations if the water table does
not rise after the site investigation and
during the life of the structure. If it is
expected to rise, the measured N values
should be reduced in direct proportion to
the change in effective overburden in the
field.
If a permanent excavation is taken down
below the water table, it will be necess-
ary to draw the water down at least to the
excavation level. The worst case then
arises if loading is applied with water at
this level. Taking a point 38 below found
ation level (see Appendix a for signific-
ance of this point), it can be shown that
the vertical effective stress at this point
before excavation is (taking yy = kY)t
(op)y = Fo + dy + Bd
and after excavation ist
wy, $= 38
The ratio of these stresses, therefore, is
33,
(yg _ +0, + 3%)
ww ed
But some of this is taken into account in
factor Cy = i.e, an amount:
Gp, +e
moe (a2)
7
Dividing (12a) by (12b) gives c,, the amount
settlements calculated from Eq.6 must be
multiplied by to give a correction for the
Presence of water
= 1 + 3p where 000, <0
p+e
Where D,, > D the appropriate equation can be
found by assuming C, is given by Bq.13a
with D, = Dy and c, = 1.0 where D, - D= 2B.
(4. the water has an influence only within
a depth of 25 below foundation level. Ass~
(3a)
uming C, is linear between the above limits
ives
us D, (2B + D-D,)
c=
1+ gieocrsiy where 0<(,-D)<2B
Thickness of Compressible Sand stratum
The thickness 7 of the compressible sand
stratum below the foundation must be taken
into account by multiplying the p values
from Eq.6 by the factor C, where C, is plot~
ted against 1/B in Fig.3. ‘This curve has
been determined on the assumption that in a
uniform soil half the settlenent occurs
within a depth of 38 below foundation level
and the remaining half within a depth 32 to
2B below the foundation. (See appendix #A).

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