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Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 RELEVANCE The main aim of our project is to come up with
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 RELEVANCE The main aim of our project is to come up with

1.1 RELEVANCE

The main aim of our project is to come up with a cost efficient lawn mower. A lawn mower is a machine used for cutting grass or lawns. A lawn is any area of grass; mostly tough grass, which is neatly, cut like in a private garden or a public park. Walk behind mowers are designed to be pushed by the operator and typically run on gasoline or electricity. Modern gas powered and electric powered lawn mowers cut grass with a single blade revolving at a high speed parallel to the ground.

Generally, in areas like ours, the conventional methods of grass cutting involved the use of cutlasses, which never met the maximum satisfaction. More so, it is strenuous, time and labour intensive. Therefore, there is the need to develop a low cost mower, which can take care of this operation easily. The objective of the study is to design and develop a locally fabricated peddle powered spiral blade lawn mower affordable by common man.

Aid elderly users or those with disabilities who are unable to fulfil this task themselves.

For users with a busy schedule and rarely find time to mow, etc.

Working range is increased due to absence of main supply wires

It reduces human effort.

1.2 HISTORY

The first lawn mower was invented in 1830 by Edwin Beard Budding .He was said to obtain the idea after watching a machine in a local cloth mill, which

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used a cutting cylinder mounted on a bench to trim clothes for a smooth finish after weaving. Budding realized that a similar concept could be used to cut grass if the mechanism is mounted in a wheel frame to enable the blades rotate close to the lawns surface. These early machines were made of cast iron and featured a large rear roller with a cutting cylinder (reel) in the front. Cast iron gear wheel transmitted power from the rear roller to the cutting cylinder.

In 1832, Ransoms of Ipswich (under license) began the making of Budding‘s mower. This company is today the world‘s largest manufacturer of lawn care equipment. By mid-1850, Thomas Green developed a mower, which used chains to transmit power from the rear roller to the cutting cylinder. It was called ‗Silens Messor‘meaning silent cutter. The machines were found comparatively lighter and quieter than the gear driven machines that preceded them. By late 1890, motorized mowers appeared as light weight petrol engines and small steam power units became available. In US, Colonel Edwin George produced the first gasoline powered mower in 1919. Electric powered mowers and rotary cutting machines emerged in the 1920‘s and 1930‘s. By 1960 the introduction of plastic components greatly reduced cost. Today, new technology has brought new improved versions. Low emission gasoline engines with catalytic converters are introduced to help reduce air pollution. Improved muffling devices are also incorporated to reduce noise. Today, the recent innovation is the rotary hover mower.

1.3 Problem Statement

How can we develop an economic and friendly user domestic purpose lawn mower?

1.4 Objective of Project

1. To build a domestics purpose lawn mower.

2. To produce a user-friendly domestic purpose lawn mower.

3. To conduct and analyze the domestic purpose lawn mower.

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Chapter 2

Chapter 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction This chapter studies various fields that are used for development

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction

This chapter studies various fields that are used for development of a domestic purpose lawn mower. Components such as power motor, switched controller, battery used in this project are discussed. These include software such as PRO E, which are used for design. The lawn mower is used to cut the grass in front of the home. It is also reduced human effort.

2.2 THE BASICS IN GRASS CUTTING

Grass as most other plants grow during a certain period of the year. This can off course differ some depending on where in the world you are. For India, the grass starts to grow in April. From then to June the grass has its high season, which means it‘s grows fast and strong. During this period you can cut the grass 1-2 times a week. What you should think of is to take it easy in the beginning of the growth period as not to stress the grass. The grass is then entering a period of low growing rate, mostly due to the sun, drying the soil.

You should take care not to cut the grass to short if the grass looks dry (turning somewhat yellow). A good rule is to cut about one third of the grass length at a time. The grass can be very sensitive and can be damaged if you cut too much at one time. Then we come to the length. Here it really depends on what kind o a lawn you‘re aiming for. If you want a lawn that you can walk on you should leave at least 4cm of the grass.

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2.2.1 Mulching

When mulching you cut the grass in to small pieces that you leave on the ground to work as a natural fertilizer. The negative side is that you will have to cut more often to let the mower cut the grass correctly.

to cut more often to let the mower cut the grass correctly. 2.2.2 Spreading Figure 2.1

2.2.2 Spreading

Figure 2.1 Mulching

Spreading means that the mower spread the cut grass directly on to the lawn. Depending on the amount of cut grass you might have to rake it together. The downside is the extra work but on the other hand you will have grass to make fresh soil to use in your garden. If you cut the grass when it‘s long another downside can be that the cut grass can suffocate the living grass.

grass when it‘s long another downside can be that the cut grass can suffocate the living

Figure 2.2 Spreading

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2.2R.3 Bagging

Bagging involves a container that directly collects the grass for you to later empty at a pleasant spot. The downside is that it claims more energy from the mower or you to carry it around until you have emptied it.

mower or you to carry it around until you have emptied it. Figure 2.3 Bagging 2.3

Figure 2.3 Bagging

2.3 TYPES OF LAWN MOWERS

2.3.1 Reel (cylinder) mowers

The reel (cylindrical) mower is made of blades on a revolving cylinder, they achieve clean cut by scissors action. As the mower moves forward, the rotating blades come in contact with a stationary bar called the bed knife and placed parallel to the ground. Grass is held by the shearing action of the reel blades against the bed knife. The mower is adjusted to various cutting heights.

Of all the mowers, a properly adjusted reel mower makes the cleanest cut of the grass, and this allows the grass to heal more quickly. The cut of a well- adjusted cylinder mower is straight and definite, as if cut with a pair of scissors. This clean cut promotes healthier, thicker and more resilient lawn growth that is more resistant to disease, weeds and parasites. Lawn cut with a cylinder mower is less likely to result in yellow, white or brown discolouration as a result of leaf

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shredding. While the cutting action is often likened to that of scissors, it is not necessary for the blades of the spinning cylinder to contact the horizontal cutting bar. If the gap between the blades is less than the thickness of the grass, a clean cut can still be made. If more however, the grass will slip through.

still be made. If more however, the grass will slip through. Figure 2.4 Push lawn reel

Figure 2.4 Push lawn reel mower

There are many variants of the cylinder (reel) mower. Push mowers (illustrated) have no engine and are usually used on smaller lawn areas where access is a problem, where noise pollution is undesirable and where air pollution is unwanted. As the mower is pushed along, the wheels drive gears which rapidly spin the reel.

Typical cutting widths are 10 to 16 inches (410 mm). Advances in materials and engineering have resulted in these mowers being very light and easy to operate and manoeuvre compared with their predecessors while still giving all the cutting advantages of large professional cylinder mowers. Their distinct environmental benefits, both in noise and air pollution, are also strong selling points, something not lost on many international zoos, animal sanctuaries and exclusive hotel groups. The basic push mower mechanism is also used in gangs towed behind a tractor. The individual mowers are arranged in a "v" behind the tractor with each mower's track slightly overlapping that of the mower in front of it. Gang mowers are used over large areas of turf such as sports fields or parks.

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A gasoline engine or electric motor can be added to a cylinder mower to power the cylinder, the wheels, the roller, or any combination of these. A typical arrangement on electric powered machines for residential lawns is for the motor to power the cylinder while the operator pushes the mower along.

The electric models can be corded or cordless. On petrol machines the engine drives both the cylinder and the rear roller. Some variants have only three blades in a reel spinning at great speed, and these models are able to cut grass which has grown too long for ordinary push mowers. One type of reel mower, now largely obsolete, was a powered version of the traditional side-wheel push mower, which was used on residential lawns. An internal combustion engine sat atop the reel housing and drove the wheels, usually through a belt. The wheels in turn drove the reel, as in the push mower.

Greens mowers are used for the precision cutting of golf greens and have a cylinder made up of at least eight, but normally ten, blades. The machine has a roller before and after the cutting cylinder which smooths the freshly cut lawn and minimizes wheel marks. Due to the weight, the engine also propels the mower. Much smaller and lighter variants of the roller mower are sometimes used for small patches of ornamental lawns around flower beds, and these have no engine. Riding reel mowers are also produced.

Typically, the cutting reels are ahead of the vehicle's main wheels, so that the grass can be cut before the wheels push the grass over onto the ground. The reels are often hydraulically powered.

The main parts of a cylinder or reel mower are:

4. Blade reel/cylinder consist of numerous (3 to 7) spiral blades that are attached to a rotating shaft. The blades rotate, creating a scissor-like cutting motion.

5. Bed knife is the stationary cutting mechanism of a cylinder/reel mower. This is a fixed horizontal blade that is mounted to the frame of the mower.

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6. Body frame the main structural frame of the mower onto which the other parts of the mower are mounted.

7. Wheels these help propel the mower in action. Generally, reel mowers have two wheels.

8. Push handle the "power source" of a manually operated reel mower. This is a sturdy T-shape handle that is connected to the frame, wheels and blade chamber.

9. Motor the power source of a reel mower that is powered by gasoline or electric.

2.3.2 Rotary mowers

A rotary mower rotates about a vertical axis with the blade spinning at high speed relying on impact to cut the grass. This tends to result in a rougher cut and bruises and shreds the grass leaf resulting in discolouration of the leaf ends as the shredded portion dies. This is particularly prevalent if the blades become clogged or blunt. Most rotary mowers need to be set a little higher than cylinder equivalents to avoid scalping and gouging of slightly uneven lawns, although some modern rotaries are fitted with a rear roller to provide a more formal striped cut. These machines will also tend to cut lower (13 mm) than a standard four- wheeled rotary. The main parts of a rotary mower are:

2. Cutter deck housing this houses the blade and the drive system of the mower. It is shaped to effectively eject the grass clippings from the mower.

3. Blade mounting and drive system the blade of a rotary mower is usually mounted directly to the crankshaft of its engine, but it can be propelled by a hydraulic motor.

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3. Mower blade a rotary mower generally has one blade that rotates horizontally. The blade features edges that slightly curved up to generate a continuous air flow as the blade rotates, thus creating a sucking and tearing action.

4. Engine may be powered by gasoline or electricity.

5. Wheels rotary mowers generally feature a set of four wheels; two front wheels and two rear wheels.

a set of four wheels; two front wheels and two rear wheels. Figure 2.5 A rotary

Figure 2.5 A rotary mower (viewed from underneath), with a mulching blade that rotates around the center.

2.3.3 Gasoline mower

Internal combustion engines power most rotary push mowers. Such engines are usually four-stroke engines, used for their greater torque. (although a number of older models used two-stroke engines), running on gasoline (petrol) or other liquid fuels. Internal combustion engines used with lawn mowers normally have only one cylinder. Power generally ranges from two to seven horsepower (1.5 to 6.75 kW). The engines usually have a carburetor and require a manual pull crank to start them, although an electric starter is offered on some models. Some mowers have a throttle control on the handlebar with which the operator can adjust the engine speed. Other mowers have a fixed, pre-set engine speed.

Gasoline mowers have the advantages over electric mowers of greater power and distance range. They do create pollution due to the combustion in the

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engine, and their engines require periodic maintenance such as cleaning or replacement of the spark plug and air filter, and changing the engine oil.

2.3.4 Electric mower

Electric mowers are further subdivided into corded and cordless electric models. Both are relatively quiet, typically producing less than 75 decibels, while a gasoline lawn mower can be as loud as 95 decibels or more.

Corded electric mowers are limited in range by their trailing power cord, which may limit their use with lawns extending outward more than 100150 feet (3045 m) from the nearest available power outlet. There is the additional hazard with these machines of accidentally mowing over the power cable, which stops the mower and may put users at risk of receiving a dangerous electric shock. Installing are subdual-current device (GFCI) on the outlet may reduce the shock risk. A variable number (typically 1-4) of 12-volt rechargeable batteries powers cordless electric mowers. Cordless mowers have the manoeuvrability of a gasoline powered mower and the environmental friendliness of a corded electric mower, but are more expensive and come in fewer models.

of a corded electric mower, but are more expensive and come in fewer models . Figure

Figure 2.6 A Cordless electric mower

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2.3.5 Hover mower

Hover mowers are powered rotary push lawn mowers that use an impeller above the spinning blades to drive air downward, thereby creating an air cushion that lifts the mower above the ground. The operator can then easily move the mower as it floats over the grass. Hover mowers are necessarily light in order to achieve the air cushion and typically have plastic bodies with an electric motor. The most significant disadvantage, however, is the cumbersome usability in rough terrain or on the edges of lawns, as the lifting air cushion is destroyed by wide gaps between the chassis and the ground. Hover mowers are built to operate on steep slopes, waterfronts, and high-weeded areas, so golf course greens keepers and commercial landscapers often use them

greens keepers and commercial landscapers often use them Figure 2.7 Hover mower (underside view). 2.3.6 Robotic

Figure 2.7 Hover mower (underside view).

2.3.6 Robotic mower

A border wire around the lawn that defines the area to be mowed contains a robotic mower. The robot uses this wire to locate the boundary of the area to be trimmed and in some cases to locate a recharging dock. Robotic mowers are capable of maintaining up to 5 acres (20,000 m 2 ) of grass. Robotic lawn mowers are increasingly sophisticated, are usually self-docking and contain rain sensors, nearly eliminating human interaction for mowing grass. Multiple robotic mowers can be used to mow an even larger area.

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Figure 2.8 Robotic mower 2.3.7 Tractor pulled mower These are usually in the form of

Figure 2.8

Robotic mower

2.3.7 Tractor pulled mower

These are usually in the form of an attachment to a tractor. The attachments can simply function by the movement of the tractor similar to manual push cylinder mowers, but also sometimes may have powered moving blades. They are commonly mounted on either the side or the back of the tractor.

Figure 2.9 A tractor-pulled mower
Figure 2.9
A tractor-pulled mower

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2.3.8 Zero-turn riding lawn mower

A zero-turn riding lawn mower (colloquially, a z-turn) is a standard riding lawn mower with a turning radius that is effectively zero. Different brands and models achieve this in different ways, but hydraulic speed control of each drive wheel is the most common method. Both commercial duty and homeowner models exist, with varying engine power options, size of cutting decks, fuel type (gasoline or diesel), and prices. A z-turn mower typically drives faster and costs more than a similarly sized conventional riding mower that has steerable front wheels.

Most current models have four wheels: two small swivelling front tires and two large drive tires in the back. Bush Hog mowers sometimes come with a small, pivoting fifth wheel mounted in the centre behind the driver. Instead of controlling the swivelling tires to steer the machine, the large drive tires rotate independently of each other based on the driver's input. They may rotate in opposite directions. The mower can pivot around a point midway between the drive wheels (the classic z-turn), or it can pivot around either one of the drive wheels if one is stationary, or it can turn in a circle of any radius. Reversal of the direction of travel can be accomplished by causing both wheels to rotate in reverse.

of the direction of travel can be accomplished by causing both wheels to rotate in reverse.

Figure 2.10 Zero turn mower

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2.4 Components

2.4.1 DC Motor

DC motor is a device that converts electrical form into mechanical form of

energy. There are many kind of DC motor such as DC motor, separately excited

DC motor and self-excited DC motor. DC current powered DC motor. There are

various voltage input for DC motor and the common voltage input for DC motor

are 3V, 5V, 12V, and 24V. There are advantages for DC motor which are the DC motor perform better than AC motor, and DC motor provide excellent of controlling the speed.

and DC motor provide excellent of controlling the speed. Fig 2.11: DC Motor 2.4.2 3-Pin Switch

Fig 2.11: DC Motor

2.4.2 3-Pin Switch

Based on this diagram above of the internal construction of a rocker switch, you

can

see that it can be in one of two states. It can be turned to one side or turned to

the

other. This allows you to flip a device on or off. The metal bearing snaps

down the switch so that it makes contact with one of two sides, depending on which side the switch is flipped to.

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The rocker switch then can play a role as an on-off switch in the circuit so that it can turn on or turn off different devices in a circuit or the entire circuit itself.

Rocker switches are common components in many different types of electronic circuits that allow power to be turned on or off.

electronic circuits that allow power to be turned on or off. Fig 2.12 3-Pin Switch 2.4.3

Fig 2.12 3-Pin Switch

2.4.3 Cutter

This will be used for the primary function of the mower i.e. to cut the grass. Depending on the design, more than one cutter can be used in synchronization as well. Also cutters with different shape or number of blades can be used for the purpose of getting the required cutting speed.

shape or number of blades can be used for the purpose of getting the required cutting

Fig 2.13: Cutters

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2.4.4 Battery

It will provide the energy for the working of the robot. The battery of a two wheelers will be able to provide enough power to drive the robot for its working or independent multiple batteries can be used for better performance.

multiple batteries can be used for better performance. 2.4.5 Wheels Fig 2.14: Battery These will be

2.4.5 Wheels

Fig 2.14: Battery

These will be required for the cause of the motion of the body of the robot. The choice of the wheels largely depends on the shape and size of the grass. It will also depend on the required ground clearance of the robot. As treads of the tires can contribute significantly to the performance of the mower, great caution is needed during the decision to choose the particular tires.

performance of the mower, great caution is needed during the decision to choose the particular tires.

Fig 2.15 Wheel

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2.5 Path Planning

Path planning is a term whereby describe the motion of a robot which is planed accordingly. Sometime path planning also defined as motion planning as it main function is to plan a robot motion. Many robot produce nowadays and this technique still use by every industry that build robots. Path planning can be say as the basic motion algorithms that allow the robot to move around at a specific workspace with predefined path. With predefined path, the robot will not get lost or go out of their workspace. With the guided path, the robot knows the way they should go. Several approaches have being used for programming the path planning of a robot.

1. Path Recording

2. Off-line path programming

3. Joint trajectory programming

Several important notes to be considered when design or program a robot path.

This is to ensure that the robot can be control easily.

a) Continuity of position, velocity and acceleration.

b) Precise control of motion

c) Mid-range motion

2.5.1 Path Recording

Path record is the basic and easy way of programming the robot path. It used the technique whereby human will operate the robot and the robot simply record any movement move by the human. It will record the path given and will play back the path according to the record it hold. This technique was easy as the robot record every coordinate of the movement and no need any programming skill for

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the user. It is very simple but there are some problems whereby it need power the robot to program and it is difficult to place robot which are big and heavy.

2.5.2 Off-line path programming

Off-line path programming is the technique of computerize programming without power on any robot. Here the path will be programmed with the guide equation and all the data will be gain from a specific table plot by the user. The computer will calculate the path according to the information and the robot to follow it. Behalf of the computerize programming, this technique does not take into account of the acceleration of the robot.

2.5.3 Joint trajectory programming

Join trajectory programming is the technique where all the joint of robot were specified at a time into a computer control. This way the joint movement of a robot is calculate through computer and faster than Cartesian method. This also does not require any inverse kinematic calculation. Joint space description can be programmed off line or teaching method. Through this method, the initial and final speed and acceleration can be specified and get the accurate results.

2.6 Computer Aided Software

Computer software will be used in this project to modeling and design of a robot. There is much computer software and each of them has their own function. Human used computer software to ease their design. With computer software, one can perform their task efficiently and fast. Below is the example of computer software:

PRO E

2.6.1 PRO E

Creo Elements/Pro (formerly Pro/ENGINEER), PTC's parametric, integrated 3D CAD/CAM/CAE solution, is used by discrete manufacturers for mechanical engineering, design and manufacturing.

Pro/ENGINEER was the industry's first rule-based constraint (sometimes called "parametric" or "vibrational") 3D CAD modelling system. [5] The parametric

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modelling approach uses parameters, dimensions, features, and relationships to capture intended product behaviour and create a recipe, which enables design automation and the optimization of design and product development processes. Companies whose product strategy is family-based or platform-driven, where a prescriptive design strategy is fundamental to the success of the design process by embedding engineering constraints and relationships to quickly optimize the design, or where the resulting geometry may be complex or based upon equations use this design approach. Creo Elements/Pro provides a complete set of design, analysis and manufacturing capabilities on one, integral, scalable platform. These required capabilities include Solid Modelling, Surfacing, Rendering, Data Interoperability, Routed Systems Design, Simulation, Tolerance Analysis, and NC and Tooling Design.

Creo Elements/Pro can be used to create a complete 3D digital model of manufactured goods. The models consist of 2D and 3D solid model data, which can also be used downstream, in finite element analysis, rapid prototyping, tooling design, and CNC manufacturing. All data are associative and interchangeable between the CAD, CAE and CAM modules without conversion. A product and its entire bill of materials (BOM) can be modelled accurately with fully associative engineering drawings, and revision control information. The associativity functionality in Creo Elements/Pro enables users to make changes in the design at any time during the product development process and automatically update downstream deliverables. This capability enables concurrent engineering design, analysis and manufacturing engineers working in parallel and streamlines product development processes.

engineers working in parallel – and streamlines product development processes. Fig 2.16: PRO E Interface 19

Fig 2.16: PRO E Interface

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2.7 Different designs

There are various designs of the Automatic Lawn Mower possible depending of different factors. These factors include source of energy, mode of control, number of grass cutters, type of sensors etc. These are discussed in brief as

Type of energy source: There can be two different designs depending upon the source of power used. First is using conventional battery. A rechargeable battery will provide power to drive the motors for the motion of the mower i.e. motion of the wheels and the motion of the grass cutter. Second choice is to use power of solar energy to drive the mower. For this a solar panel will be required and setup to convert that energy gathered to be converted into usable form and magnitude. The choice of the mode of energy will be affected by the factors like difficulties in producing required power by using solar panel, added weight of solar panel, difficulties of integrating solar panel into the circuit and cost factors.

Mode of control: Depending upon this, again two different designs can be made. First is use of sensors to control the motion of the mower. Mower will make use of sensors like Proximity Sensor, Ultrasonic Sensor etc to detect the presence of the physical obstacles and with help of micro controller, path of the mower can be determined. The second option is to use a remote control to drive and control the mower remotely. This can be achieved by integrating the R/C into the electronic circuit of the mower. The choice of The mode of control will be affected by the factors like difficulty of integrating R/C into the electronic circuit, the range of the radio control and the cost factors.

Number of cutters: The number of the cutters to be used can also result into different type of designs of the mower. The use of multiple cutters can be there. It can result in increase of the cutting speed or amount of grass cut in given time but it has limitations like increased cost factor, increase in energy demands, and increase in the physical dimensions of the mower to accommodate the extra number of cutters.

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2.8 Working of the device

In general, a robot lawn mower can operate in three distinct modes: remote control, teach control and automatic operation. For remote control operation, the human commands must be executed in the mobile lawn mower. Also, sensory information such as motor speed, blade status, tactile information and an image of the local environment can be transmitted to the operator to provide a "telepresence" in which the operator senses enough information about the environment to perform the proper action. The general telepresence concept is still being researched and more information is needed in some situations. In teach mode, the storage capacity of the microcomputer is used to store command and encoder information so that repetitive operations can be performed. In some operations, the use of a given home position for calibration may provide enough accuracy for simple repetitive operations. In the general case, an absolute global positioning system such as the target update method for navigation is required to provide accurate teach programming or automatic operation. With this capability, full region filling algorithms may be implemented for lawn mowing.

The working of the device is all dependent on the electronic circuitry that is to be designed.

1. Capturing the environment data: It involves the collection of data regarding the obstacles present in the course of the cutting of grass, obstacles present in the path of the device. It is to be done with the help of various sensors that are to b used in the device.

2. Processing the data: It involves processing the data collected by the sensors with help of a central unit. The central unit to be used in this device is a micro-controller.

3. Actions: It involves the actions the micro-controller will take after processing the data acquired. It will be based on the programming done into the micro-controller and the pre fed instructions. The actions involve mainly the motion control of the device.

The working of the device also depends on 4 main mechanisms. The main mechanisms to be used are

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Collision Detection Mechanism: This is to deal with the obstacles present in the path of device. This is to be achieved with the help of sensors or micros witches. The difference between the two is that whereas in case of collision detection sensor, there will be no physical contact with the obstacle, it will not be the same if micro switches are to be used. In case of micro switches, there will be collision with the obstacles and then the device will turn away from it.

Grass Cutting Mechanism: As this is basically a lawn mower, so this is the important part of the device. This mechanism is to be used to cut the grass, which is the primary function of the lawn mower. It is to be achieved with help of a grass cutter and a motor to run this cutter. The number of cutters can be more than one depending on the design of the mower. Also the motion of the cutter can be controlled with help of timer as to when to switch it off.

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Chapter 3

Chapter 3 METHODOLOGY 23

METHODOLOGY

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3.1 Introduction

This chapter discusses the method use to design an automatic lawn mower. There several steps taken to complete the task. Before starting to build a robot, many initial steps have taken such as research on automatic lawn mower which is discuses in Chapter 2.

on automatic lawn mower which is discuses in Chapter 2. Fig 3.1: Research Methodology Flow This

Fig 3.1: Research Methodology Flow

This chapter will be separated into two sections:

Hardware Implementation

Software Implementation

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Hardware part includes the sensors, motors, wheels that are used in the project while the software part includes the modeling in CATIA and the programming in Arduino environment.

in CATIA and the programming in Arduino environment. 3.2 Hardware Implementation In this section, the hardware

3.2 Hardware Implementation

In this section, the hardware selection will be discussed. The hardware that will

be included in this project is DC motor, ultrasonic sensor, battery, wheels, chassis

etc.

3.2.1 DC motor

Figure 3.3 shows the motor that will be used in constructing automated lawn mower. It can operate at a range of 12V to 24V. It has higher torque which made it easier. DC motor is a device that converts electrical form into mechanical form of energy. There are many kind of DC motor such as DC motor, separately excited DC motor and self-excited DC motor. DC current will power DC motor. Specs

Type: DC Gear Motor Voltage: 12 V Current: 300mA (max) Wattage: 3.6 W

RPM: 80 for wheels

1000 for cutter

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Fig 3.1: Gear DC Motor 3.2.2 Motor Controller This motor controller has the ability to

Fig 3.1: Gear DC Motor

3.2.2 Motor Controller

This motor controller has the ability to control the direction of the motor. The component used to build this controller are 5V relay, transistor 9013, power transistor and 10 k Ω resistor. Figure 3.5 shows the motor controller circuit diagram which function to control the motor direction of motor and also the PWM of the motor. The input signal for this system is u1, u2, u3 and u4 which use to control motor direction. Whereas the bottom of the circuit is the PWM input signal which use to control the motor speed. For clockwise rotation, the input pin u1 and u4 will be set to high and the u2 and u3 pin set as low. On the other hand. For anticlockwise direction, pin u2 and u3 will set as to high and pin u1 and u4 will set as low. Setting high to the transistor will activate the transistor whereas setting low will deactivate the transistor.

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Fig 3.2: Motor controller circuit diagram Specs Type: L293D Motor Drive IC Voltage: 5V DC

Fig 3.2: Motor controller circuit diagram

Specs Type: L293D Motor Drive IC Voltage: 5V DC

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3.2.3 3- Pin Switch

Based on this diagram above of the internal construction of a rocker switch, you can see that it can be in one of two states. It can be turned to one side or turned to the other. This allows you to flip a device on or off. The metal bearing snaps down the switch so that it makes contact with one of two sides, depending on which side the switch is flipped to. The rocker switch then can play a role as an on-off switch in the circuit so that it can turn on or turn off different devices in a circuit or the entire circuit itself.

Rocker switches are common components in many different types of electronic circuits that allow power to be turned on or off.

electronic circuits that allow power to be turned on or off. Specs Voltage: 12v Current: 2A

Specs

Voltage: 12v

Current: 2A

3.2.4 Battery

Fig 3.3 3-Pin Switch

It will provide the energy for the working of the robot. The battery of a two wheelers will be able to provide enough power to drive the robot for its working or independent multiple batteries can be used for better performance. Two 6V batteries were attached in series to provide the required 12V.

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Specs Fig 3.4 Battery Use: Powering the components Nos: 2 Type: Li- Ion Rechargeable Voltage:

Specs

Fig 3.4 Battery

Use: Powering the components

Nos: 2

Type: Li- Ion Rechargeable

Voltage: 6V DC, Total 12V

3.2.5 Rare Wheels

These will be required for the cause of the motion of the body of the robot. The choice of the wheels largely depends on the shape and size of the grass. As treads of the tires can contribute significantly to the performance of the mower, great caution is needed during the decision to choose the particular tires.

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Fig 3.5 Rare Wheel Specs Use: Movement of Robot Nos: 2 Diameter: 10 cm Width:

Fig 3.5 Rare Wheel

Specs

Use: Movement of Robot

Nos: 2

Diameter: 10 cm

Width: 4 cm

Shaft Hole: 6mm

3.2.6 Front Wheel

This wheel is the trolley wheel, which is easily moved in every direction. So, that wheel is used to move in any direction of the lawn mower.

Specs

Use: Movement of robot Nos: 2 Diameter: 10 cm Width: 4 cm Shaft Hole: 6 mm

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Fig 3.6 Front wheel 3.2.7 Pipe A pipe is a method used to pass information

Fig 3.6 Front wheel

3.2.7 Pipe

A pipe is a method used to pass information from one program process to another. Unlike other types of inter process communication, a pipe only offers one-way communication by passing a parameter or output from one process to another. The information that is passed through the pipe is held by the system until the receiving process can read it.

Plastic pipe is a tubular section, or hollow cylinder, made of plastic. It is usually, but not necessarily, of circular cross-section, used mainly to convey substances, which can flow liquids and gases (fluids), slurries, powders and masses of small solids. It can also be used for structural applications; hollow pipes are far stiffer per unit weight than solid members are.

Plastic pipework is used for the conveyance of drinking water, waste water, chemicals, heating fluid and cooling fluids, foodstuffs, ultra-pure liquids, slurries, gases, compressed air and vacuum system applications.

Plastic Pipes are classified by their ring stiffness. The preferred stiffness classes as described in several product standards are: SN2, SN4, SN8 and SN16, where SN is Nominal Stiffness (kN/m2). Stiffness of pipes is important if they are to withstand external loadings during installation. The higher the figure, the stiffer the pipe.

After correct installation, pipe deflection remains limited but it will continue to some extent for a while. In relation to the soil in which it is embedded, the plastic

31

pipe behaves in a 'flexible' way. This means that further deflection in time depends of the settlement of the soil around the pipe.

The pipe follows the soil movement or settlement of the backfill, as technicians call it. This means that good installation of pipes will result in good soil settlement. Further deflection will remain limited.

For flexible pipes, the soil loading is distributed and supported by the surrounding soil. Stresses and strains caused by the deflection of the pipe will occur within the pipe wall. However, the induced stresses will never exceed the allowed limit values.

The thermoplastic behaviour of the pipe material is such that the induced stresses are relaxing to a low level. It has to be noted that induced strains are far below the allowable levels.

This flexible behaviour means that the pipe will not fail. It will exhibit only more deflection while keeping its function without breaking.

However, rigid pipes by their very nature are not flexible and will not follow ground movements. They will bear all the ground loadings, whatever the soil settlement. This means that when a rigid pipe is subject to excessive loading, it will reach the limit for stress values more quickly and break.

It can therefore be concluded that the flexibility of plastic pipes offers an extra dimension of safety. Buried Pipes need flexibility.

be concluded that the flexibility of plastic pipes offers an extra dimension of safety. Buried Pipes

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Fig 3.7 Pipe 33
Fig 3.7 Pipe 33

Fig 3.7 Pipe

33

Specs

Pipe diameter: 3.175 cm

4pcs @13 cm

1pcs @10 cm

10pcs@5 cm

8pcs @8 cm

2pcs @18 cm

1pc

@30 cm

T-joint: 11pcs

L-joint: 8pcs

Socket: 3pcs

Reducer: 1pcs

3.3.1 Modelling Design in PRO E

Creo has a good surface modelling capabilities also. Using commands like Boundary blend and Sweep, we can create surface models. Advance options like Style (Interactive Surface Design Extension - ISDX) and Freestyle provide more capabilities to designer to create complicated models with ease.

By using the fundamental abilities of the software about the single data source principle, it provides a rich set of tools in the manufacturing environment in the form of tooling design and simulated CNC machining and output.

Tooling options cover specialty tools for moulding, die-casting and progressive tooling design.

Creo Elements/Pro offers a range of tools to enable the generation of a complete digital representation of the product being designed. In addition to the general geometry tools, there is also the ability to generate geometry of other integrated design disciplines such as industrial and standard pipe work and complete wiring definitions. Tools are also available to support collaborative development.

A number of concept design tools that provide up-front Industrial Design concepts can then be used in the downstream process of engineering the product. These range from conceptual Industrial design sketches, reverse engineering with point cloud data and comprehensive free-form surface.

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3.3.2 Working of DPDT Switch

DPDT is a double pole double throw switch; this is equivalent to two SPDT switches. It routes two separate circuits, connecting each of two inputs to one of two outputs. The position of the switch determines the number of ways in which each of the two contacts can be routed.

of ways in which each of the two contacts can be routed . Fig 3.8 DPDT

Fig 3.8 DPDT

Whether it is in ON-ON or ON-OFF-ON mode they functions like two separate SPDT switches operated by the same actuator. Only two loads can be ON at a time. A DPDT can be used on any application that requires an open and closed wiring system, an example of which is railroad modelling, which makes use of small scaled trains and railways, bridges and cars. The closed allows for the system to be ON at all times while open allows for another piece to be turned ON or activated through the relay.

From the circuit below, connections A, B and C form one pole of the switch and connections D, E and F form the other. Connections B and E are common in each of the poles.

If the positive power supply (Vs) enters at connection B and the switch is set to the top most position, connection A becomes positive and the motor will rotate in one direction. If the switch is set to the lower most position, the power supply is reversed and connection D becomes positive then the motor will rotate in the opposite direction. In the centre position, the power supply is not connected to the motor and it does not rotate. This type of switches are mainly used in various motor controllers where speed of that motor is to be reversed.

35

Fig 3.9 DPDT Circuit Along with these switches, reed switch is also discussed in this

Fig 3.9 DPDT Circuit

Along with these switches, reed switch is also discussed in this article below.

Along with these switches, reed switch is also discussed in this article below. Fig 3.10 Lawn

Fig 3.10 Lawn Mower circuit Diagram

36

Chapter 4

Chapter 4 RESULT 37

RESULT

37

4.1 Introduction

A

lawn mower (also named as mower or lawnmower) is a machine utilizing one

or

more revolving blades to cut a grass surface to an even height. The height of

the cut grass may be fixed by the design of the mower, but generally is adjustable by the operator, typically by a single master lever, or by a lever or nut and bolt on each of the machine's wheels. The blades may be powered by manual force,

with wheels mechanically connected to the cutting blades so that when the mower

is

pushed forward, the blades spin, or the machine may have a battery-powered

or

plug-in electric motor. The most common self-contained power source for

lawn mowers is a small (typically one cylinder) internal combustion engine. Smaller mowers often lack any form of propulsion, requiring human power to move over a surface; "walk-behind" mowers are self-propelled, requiring a human only to walk behind and guide them. Larger lawn mowers are usually either self-propelled "walk-behind" types, or more often, are "ride-on" mowers, equipped so the operator can ride on the mower and control it. A robotic lawn mower ("lawn-mowing bot", "mowbot", etc.) is designed to operate either entirely on its own, or less commonly by an operator by remote control.

Two main styles of blades are used in lawn mowers. Lawn mowers employing a single blade that rotates about a single vertical axis are known as rotary mowers, while those employing a cutting bar and multiple blade assembly that rotates about a single horizontal axis are known as cylinder or reel mowers (although in

some versions, the cutting bar is the only blade, and the rotating assembly consists

of flat metal pieces which force the blades of grass against the sharp cutting bar).

There are several types of mowers, each suited to a particular scale and purpose. The smallest types, non-powered push mowers, are suitable for small residential lawns and gardens. Electrical or piston engine-powered push-mowers are used for larger residential lawns (although there is some overlap). Riding mowers, which sometimes resemble small tractors, are larger than push mowers and are suitable for large lawns, although commercial riding lawn mowers (such as zero- turn mowers) can be "stand-on" types, and often bear little resemblance to residential lawn tractors, being designed to mow large areas at high speed in the shortest time possible. The largest multi-gang (multi-blade) mowers are mounted on tractors and are designed for large expanses of grass such as golf courses and municipal parks, although they are ill-suited for complex terrain.

4.2 Model

Computer software is to be used in projects to modelling and design of a robot. There is much computer software and each of them has their own function.

38

Human used computer software to ease their design. With computer software, one can perform their task efficiently and fast. PRO E has been used for the modelling of the project. Different views of the model are:

and fast. PRO E has been used for the modelling of the project. Different views of
and fast. PRO E has been used for the modelling of the project. Different views of

Fig 4.1 pro e model

39

4.3 Performance Factors

The device has to be evaluated on some factors to find out its working efficiency or if it is convenient or not practically. Some of the factors are:

Cutting Time: It is one of the basic and most important factors as how much time does the device take to cut the required or pre set area of the garden. As time is the most valuable resource these days, this factor becomes most important in determining the usability of the device.

Cut grass condition: Whether the cut made to the grass is clean or not and if the grass cut is uniform or not are two very important factors in determining the usage of the device as the desired outcomes are uniform cutting and clean cutting of the grass.

Human and obstacle detection and avoiding: Since the device is to be made automatic, this factor is important as it is directly related with the cutting time. If the device avoids the obstacles frequently and easily, it will reduce the cutting time and the entire work will be done in lesser time. Also it will help in saving the energy required.

Cutting Pattern: Cutting pattern is an important part because if the mower does a crisscross pattern, it will cross same area of grass more than once resulting in the more time taken for cutting and hence more energy consumed.

Power requirements: Power requirements are easily one of the most important factors in deciding the efficiency of the device. The power required will decide the cutting time for required area and also the cutting area in given period of time.

40

         

Fig 4.2: Path 1 of Lawnmower



Fig 4.3: Graph of grass cut

41

              
Fig 4.4: Path 2 of Lawnmower

42

Chapter 5 PROJECT MANAGEMENT           
Chapter 5
PROJECT MANAGEMENT
43

5.1 Introduction

Project management is to allow all project goals to be achieved under specific time frame. Such goal are organizing, controlling, and planning the projects flow. The primary constraints faced during conducting this project were research time, research budget, research time and human resources. Below is the Gantt chart which clearly shows the flow of timeline management for this project. Next, cost estimation on component used for this project is done to ensure that a minimum budget project cost. Several market surveys have been done to achieve this requirement.

5.2 Bill of Material

S.N

Component

Nos

Price per Part

Total Price

1.

Front Wheel

2

220

440

2.

Rare Wheel

2

175

350

3.

Gear motor

2

200

400

4.

High speed motor

1

150

150

5.

Clamp

5

10

50

6.

Pipe

8ft.

16

128

7.

Battery

1

1000

1000

8.

T-Joint

11

22

242

9.

L-Joint

8

20

160

10.

Socket

5

20

100

11.

Spray Paint

1

130

130

12.

Cutter blade

4

30

120

13.

DPDT Switch

4

20

80

14.

Rocker Switch

1

10

10

15.

Reducer

2

50

100

44

16.

Nut & Bolts

4

10

40

17.

Wires and accessories

-------

------

500

     

Total

3600

Table 5.1 Bill of Materials All prices are in INR (Indian National Rupee)

45

Chapter 6

Chapter 6 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 46

CONCLUSION AND

RECOMMENDATION

46

6.1 Conclusion

The domestic purpose lawn mower with several features has been proposed.

Several related works has been studied in order to gain idea on how to build the

domestic lawn mower. Most research is on the robot path planning using variety

technique. All the technique used are mainly aim for the shortest path, consume

less energy.

Besides that, 2D and 3D model have been designed according to the specification required such as circuit placement and sensor placement. The structure was user friendly and economic which were achieving the objective.

6.2 Recommendation

The performance of this machine is slightly away from the desired requirement.

Therefore some recommendation has been list out for future improvement.

6.3 Hardware improvement

The design of the machine may undergo some changes such as larger the cutting

blade so that the diameter is almost the same size of the width of the machine.

The increase of the diameter of the blade making larger area will be cover when

cutting operation is done. Special wheel can be applied such as wheel with some

thorn which will grip the grass stronger to prevent slipping occur. Higher torque

motor would be recommended so that it can help to maintain the machine to move

at slower speed and overcome friction between the machine and grass surface.

6.4 Advantages

This lawn mower has many advantages, some of which are:

It reduces human effort.

It has simpler design than most commercial mowers.

This type of mower is cheaper than commercial mowers.

47

It has wider range more than conventional mechanical mowers due to absence of main supply wire.

It aids elderly users or those with disabilities who are unable to fulfil this task themselves.

6.5 Some Project Work Images

users or those with disabilities who are unable to fulfil this task themselves.  6.5 Some

48

49
49

49

50

50

51
51

51

fig 6.1 working in project images 52
fig 6.1 working in project images 52

fig 6.1 working in project images

52

References

1. M. Wasif (2011). Design and Implementation of Autonomous Lawn-Mower

Robot Controller. 2011 7th International Conference. 5-6 September. Emerging Technologies (ICET), 1-5.

2. Smith, J., S. Campbell, and J. Morton. (2005). Design and Implementation of

a Control Algorithm for an Autonomous Lawn Mower. Circuits and Systems. 7

10 August. Midwest Symposium, 456-459.

3. Ousingsawat, J. and M.G. Earl. Modified Lawn-Mower Search Pattern for

Areas Comprised of Weighted Regions. American Control Conference. 9-13 July. 918-

923.

4. Mohammad Baloch, T. and K. Timothy Thien Ching. (2008). Design and

modelling a prototype of a robotic lawn mower. Information Technology,.

International Symposium. 25-28 August. 1-5.

5. Hicks, R.B. and Hall, E. A Survey of Robot Lawn Mowers. SPIE Intelligent

Robotics and Computer Vision Confrence.

6.

http://spt06.chez-alice.fr/01/accueil.htm

7.

http://www.robomow.com/robomow/howitworks/

8.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robotic_lawn_mower

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