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CHEMISTRY

INVESTIGATORY
PROJECT
: METAL COUPLING IN
RUSTING OF IRON

NAME: RISHABH JAISWAL


CLASS: XII-B
ROLL NO. :
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CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project has been satisfactorily performed by Master
RISHABH JAISWAL studying in NAVY CHILDREN SCHOOL of class XII-B under the
guidance of Mrs. VISHU KHATIYAN during the academic year 2018-2019.

Signature of Head Of Department Signature of External Examiner

School Stamp

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Acknowledgement
I w o u l d l i k e t o e x p r e s s my sincere g r a t i t u d e to
m y Chemistry mentors Mrs. VISHU KHATIYAN for their
vital support guidance and encouragement without
which this project would not have come forth from my
side.
I would like to express my heartily g r a t i t u d e to the lab
assistants Mrs. SANCHITA, Mr. PANDURANG and Mr.
VIVEK for their support during the making of this project.
I would like to thank my parents and friends who have
helped me with their valuable suggestions and guidance
has been helpful in various phases of the completion of
the project.
I would like to acknowledge the Almighty God who made
all the things possible.

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Index

INTRODUCTION ELECTROCHEMICAL

MECHANISM (Rusting) METHODS OF

PREVENTION OF CORROSION

AIM

MATERIALS REQUIRED

PROCEDURE

OBSERVATION

ASSOCIATED REACTIONS

CONCLUSION

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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INTRODUCTION
Metals and alloys undergo rusting and Corrosion.
The process by which some metals
When exposed to atmospheric condition i.e.,
Moist air, carbon dioxide form undesirable
compounds on the surface is known as corrosion,
The compounds formed are usually oxides. Rusting
is also a type of corrosion but the term is restricted
to iron or products made from it .Iron is easily
prone to rusting making
it’s surface rough. Chemically, rust is a hydrated
ferric oxide.

Titanic‘s bow exhibiting microbial corrosion


Damage in the form of ‘rusticles’

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Rusting an Electrochemical Mechanism

Rusting may be explained by an electrochemical


mechanism. In the presence of moist air containing
dissolved oxygen or carbon dioxide, the commercial
iron behave as if composed of small electrical cells. At
anode of cell, iron passes into solution as ferrous ions.
The electron moves towards the cathode and form
hydroxyl ions. Under the influence of dissolved oxygen
the ferrous ions and hydroxyl ions interact to form
rust, i.e., hydrated ferric oxide.

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METHODS OF PREVENTION OF
CORROSION AND RUSTING
Some of the methods used to prevent corrosion and rusting
are –
Barrier Protection –
In the method , a barrier film is introduced between iron surface and
atmospheric air. The film is obtained by painting, varnishing etc.

Sacrificial Protection –
The metallic iron is covered by a layer of more reactive metal such
as zinc. The active metal losses electrons in preference of iron. Thus,
protecting from rusting and corrosion.

Electrical Protection –
The metallic iron is connected with more active metals like
Magnesium or zinc. The active metal has lower reduction potential
than iron and will lose electron in preference to iron,
This method is used for protecting iron articles which are in
contact
with water.

Anti-Rust Solution –
To retard the corrosion of iron, certain anti-rust solutions are
used .
example – alkaline phosphate and alkaline chromates.
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AIM OF THE PROJECT

In this project the aim is to investigate effect of


the metals coupling on the rusting of iron.
Metal coupling affects the rusting of iron . If
the nail is coupled with a more electro- positive
metal like zinc, magnesium or aluminum
rusting is prevented but if on the other hand, it
is coupled with less electro – positive metals
like copper, the rusting is facilitated.

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MATERIALS REQUIRED

1)Four Petri dishes


2) Four iron nails
3) Beaker
4) Sand paper
5) Wire gauge
6) Gelatin
7) Copper, zinc & magnesium strips
8) Potassium ferricyanide solution
9) Phenolphthalein
10) Bunsen Burner

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Procedure

1. Clean the surface of iron nails with the help of sand paper. Wash
them with carbon tetrachloride and dry on filter paper.

2. Wind a clean zinc strip around one nail, a clean copper wire around
the second and clean magnesium strip around the third nail.Put all
these three and the fourth nail in Petri dishes so that they are not in
contact with each other.

3. Preperation of Agar-Agar solution. Heat about three gram of agar-


agar in 100 ml of water taken in a beaker until solution
becomes clear. At about 1 ml of 0.1 M potassium ferri-cyanide
solution, 1 ml of phenolphthalein solution and stir well the contents.

4. Fill the petridishes with hot agar-agar solution in such a way that
only lower half of the nails are covered with the liquids.

5. Keep the covered petridishes undisturbed for one day or so.

6. The liquid sets to a gel on cooling .Two types of patches are


observed around the rusted nail, one is blue and the other pink.
Blue patch is due to the reaction between ferrous ions and potassium
ferricyanide to form potassium ferro-ferricyanide KFe[Fe(CN)6]
where as pink patch is due to the formation of hydroxyl ions which
turns colorless phenolphthalein to pink.

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OBSERVATION

S.No. Metal Pair Colour of Nails Rust


the patch
1 Iron-Zinc Pink No
2 Iron-Magnesium Pink No
3 Iron-Copper Blue Yes
4 Iron-Nail Blue Yes

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Associated reactions

The rusting of iron is an electrochemical process that begins with the


transfer of electrons from iron to oxygen. The iron is the reducing agent
(gives up electrons) while the oxygen is the oxidising agent (gains
electrons). The rate of corrosion is affected by water and accelerated
by electrolytes, as illustrated by the effects of road salt on the corrosion
of automobiles.
The key reaction is the reduction of oxygen
O2 + 4e- + 2H2 O ⟶ 4OH-
 Because it forms hydroxide ions, this process is strongly affected by
the
presence of acid. Indeed, the corrosion of most metals by oxygen is
accelerated at low pH.
Providing the electrons for the above reaction is the oxidation of
iron that may be described as follows:
Fe ⟶ Fe2+ + 2e-
 The following redox reaction also occurs in the presence of water
and is crucial to the formation of rust:
4Fe2+ + O2 ⟶ 4Fe3+ + 2O2-

 In addition, the following multistep acid-base reactions affect the


course of rust formation:

Fe2+ + 2H2 O ⟶ Fe(OH)2 + 2H+


Fe3+ + 3 H2O ⟶ Fe(OH)3 + 3H+

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as do the following dehydration equilibria:

Fe(OH)2 ⟶ FeO + H2O

Fe(OH)3 ⟶ FeO(OH) + H2O

2FeO(OH) ⟶ Fe2O3 + H2O

From the above equations, it is also seen that the corrosion products
are
dictated by the availability of water and oxygen. With limited dissolved
oxygen, iron(II)-containing materials are favored, including FeO and
black lodestone or magnetite(Fe3O4). High oxygen concentrations
favor ferric materials with the nominal formulae Fe(OH)3 – xOx/2 .
The nature of rust changes with time, reflecting the slow rates of the
reactions of solids.

Furthermore, these complex processes are affected by the presence of


other ions, such as Ca2+, both of which serve as an electrolyte, and
thus accelerate rust formation, or combine with the hydroxides and
oxides of iron to precipitate a variety of Ca-Fe-O-OH species.

Onset of rusting can also be detected in laboratory with the use


of ferroxyl indicator solution. The solution detects both Fe2+ ions and
hydroxyl ions. Formation of Fe2+ ions and hydroxyl ions are indicated
by blue and pink patches respectively.

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CONCLUSION

It is clear from the observation that coupling of iron with


more electropositive metals such as zinc and magnesium
resists corrosion and rusting of iron. Coupling of iron with
less electropositive metals such as copper increases
rusting.

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Bibliography

1. www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rust
2. www.class12guide.wordpress.com
3. www.academia.edu/Metal_Coupling

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Thank You

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