Sunteți pe pagina 1din 6

CHAPTER II

LITERATURE OF REVIEW

This chapter presents several theories applied in the study. It aims to give clear
understanding of role play, types of role play, role play in teaching vocabulary, how to teach using
role play, the procedure in using role play, definition of vocabulary, and teaching vocabulary.

2.1 The Definition of Role Play

In writer views on defining role play. Role play is a technique which involves fantasy or
imagination to be someone else in a specific situation. This technique had requirement for the
player to work together and arrange the dialog and act like what they have arrange before. The
student or the player do the action based on the character which they have chosen. The role play
will running well to the end as long as they follow the regulation. While the acting is going on, the
student should make improvisation in developing the regulation which have been set in. Role play
is interpreted as referring to changes in a person’s behaviour to perform roles, both social roles
as a society and imaginary roles such as in a theatre. The oxford dictionary define role play as a
change in a person’s behaviour to fulfil social roles. Whereas in the field of psychology role play
defined as a method that invite students to play a role as well as in the theatre, and pretend to be
someone else, such as playing police and thief, doctor and patient, seller and customer.

Santrock (1995:275) said that role play is fun activity and carried out by a group of people
to get pleasure. In the field of psychology, role play is a method used for guidance and counselling.
Santrock believe that role play method can be used to help the student solving their frustration
while learning English.

Van Fleet (2001) argue that role play also can be used as therapy for someone who has
difficulty with himself, develop adaptive behaviour, controlling himself from being aggressive,
increase his sense of sympathy, and can solve problems effectively and wisely.

Corsini (1996) states that role play can be used as a tool to diagnose and know someone
by observing their behaviour when acting out roles spontaneously to situations or events that occur
in real life. In addition, the role play technique can be used as a medium of teaching through the
modelling process of group members. Role play learning models will be more effective in
mastering skills related to interpersonal, by observing various ways in solving predetermined
problems.
Role play in the world of education is one of mastering learning material through
developing students’ imagination and appreciation. Development of imagination and appreciation
is carried out by the student by acting out life characters in real life or inanimate objects.

2.1.2 Role play in Teaching and Learning

Akmadh Sudrajad said on his article pendekatan Pembelajaran (Gogel;2010) Role


play is one of the learning method which integrated with interpersonal relationship, especially to
students’ real life. Role play is one of the active game that there were purpose, a rule, and involve
an happiness inside the game (Jill Hadfield:1986). According to davies in his article ROLE
PLAYING GAME (2010), Employing role play in vocabulary teaching and learning can help the
students in reach their purpose. Direktor Pembinaan SMK (2013) said There were four
assumptions constitute that this learning method better than another method that is:

1. Emphasize a situation based on the experience here and now.


2. Give a chance for expressing the students’ feeling which never known without impersonate
other.
3. Assume that emotion and idea can bring to the awareness level and then it will be
increased by process of group.
4. Assume that the psychology process which hidden is attitude, moral value, feeling, and
students believe can bring to awareness level by implementing role play spontaneously
and after that analysed.

In education point of view, this method has advantage which another method did not have it. The
advantage of this method is:

1. Learning media cooperative interpersonal


2. Role play is good and correct media for Learning language
3. The students can take decision fasted and can explore their full expression
4. Media evaluation experience while the game is running.
5. Give strong impression and ever lasting memories
6. Give gratify experience
7. Increasing optimism in their oneself
8. Developing feel of friendship and unity
9. Increasing the students professional skills
2.2.1. What is Vocabulary
A word is a complex phenomenon. All languages have words. Language emerges first as
word, both historically, and it terms of the way each of us learned our first and any subsequent
languages. In Longman dictionary (2003: p.1843) English Vocabulary is defined as “all the words
that someone knows or uses”.
Addition, burn 1972:297 (In Nur Indah 2015) stated that vocabulary is stock of word which
use by a person. Vocabulary is central of language without vocabulary we are not able to
communicate each other. Zimmerman 1998 defined vocabulary as the critical importance thing in
teaching English.
Vocabulary is all words in language which is used by the people to convey an ideas or feeling. It
refers to word which use to communicate in oral and written language. In order that, students must
be able to be flexible in using words that they recognize and understand.
It is not only confined to meaning of words but also includes how vocabulary in a language is
structured. Students’ aim to be reached in learning vocabulary process is primarily their ability to
recall word at will and to recognize it in its spoken and written form.

2.2.2. What is the Important of Vocabulary


Vocabulary can be defined as words that must be known to communicate effectively: word
in speaking (expressive vocabulary) and words in listening (receptive vocabulary), an extensive
body of research exists on teaching and learning vocabulary. This research clearly about point of
vocabulary has always been continuous to be a significant goal in literacy and learning.
Vocabulary is one of the most important aspects to master English. According to McCarty
1990 “no matter how well the students well in grammar, no matter how they successfull and
mastered the sound of second language, without words to express a wide range of meanings,
communication in a second language just cannot happen in any meaningfull way”. It can be said
that vocabulary is the basic skill in Language teaching becuase without vocabulary, students are
not be able to express their idea in a second language. By mastering it, students will be able to
improve their knowledge, especially English language. Moreover, vocabulary is a group of words
in a language. People use vocabulary which is arranged into sentences to express their opinion,
thinking and also idea in their society.
Students need to master vocabulary to improve their English Language. The vocabulary
is a basic language skill for how the students well listen, speak, read, and, write. The students will
be difficult in understanding the material from their teacher if they are lacking of vocabulary.
2.2.3 Kinds of Vocabulary
In this part the researcher shown the kinds of vocabulary which stated by Brown 2010:11
(In Nur Indah 2015). That is:
A. Reading vocabulary
Reading vocabulary is all vocabulary which he or she can find or recognize when they are reading
something For example: English book, Magazine, Newspaper, and letter.
B. Listening Vocabulary
Listening vocabulary is all the words which he or she can recognize when they are listen
something. Example: listen someone speech, listen a music.
C. Writing vocabulary
All of words which he or she can used and employ in writing. Contrary with the previous types
above, writing vocabulary is by its user.

D. Speaking vocabulary
Speaking vocabulary is all of the words which he or she can use in a speech.
Hatch and Brown(1995:369) divided two kinds of vocabulary

2.2.5 The Strategies of Teaching Vocabulary


There are many techniques to teach English vocabulary. In order to decide the appropriate
strategy to teach the students. The teachers should understand first about their learning style.
Knowing the students learning style is important to find the suitable strategy or technique which
make the students can get clear understanding about the vocabulary given. Lockit (1997) suggest
three categories of children learning style:
A. Visual learners
Which mean they learn everything through seeing. Every single person have their own style of
learning that can be come through hands eyes and ears.
B. Auditory learners
The students which have this learning style will easily through verbal lessons and everything that
allows them to speak out while learning. They can get the information through listening and
interpreting information. They use music and song for help them memorizing the words.
C. Kinesthetic learners
The kinesthetic learner are enjoying to move their body while learning. Students with this kinds of
learning style will be easier to learn while moving their body, rather than just sitting and listening.
Sitting with longer period will make them sleepy and lost focus.
Teachers have to can use more than one strategy to teaching vocabulary, so that students do not
feel bored. The best way of learning vocabulary is when the meaning of the words is illustrated,
for example by a picture, an action, or a real object. In teaching vocabulary, we can use strategies
in grammar translation method. According Fauziati (2002: 150), classroom techniques of grammar
translation method are synonyms/ antonyms, fill in the blank, memorizationand, translating. There
are several strategies of teaching vocabulary according to nunan (2005: 141): Meaning-focused
input activities, Deliberate learning activities, Fluency activities, Meaning-focused output activities.

2.2.6. Procedure of Teaching Vocabulary


According Schumacher and Deshler (1992:56) in Fauziati (2010:150) this is an individual’s
way of organizing and using a particular set of skills in order to learn content or accomplish other
task more effectively and efficiently in school as well as in nonacademic setting. Fauziati
(2010:150) language learning strategy is simply refers to an individual‟s approach to complete the
task. According Fauziati (2010:66), she said, teachers can devise various activities which relevant
for promoting vocabulary learning. Several sample activities presented here can be integrated into
second language instruction to promote vocabulary learning and to support language skill
development. Successively we present semantic network, memorization, guessing from the
context, the word will approach and collocations.

2.2.7. The Strategies Used by the Teacher in Teaching Vocabulary


1) Memorization
This was done to make the students to understand the reading text easier. Teacher also directly
translated difficult words encountered in text. This strategy was believed to develop vocabularies
of the students. Mostly, the teacher used memorization to improve the students vocabulary. In
every meeting the teacher always wrote new vocabulary related with the reading material in the
whiteboard. She asked the students to write and memorized the words.
2. Synonym/ antonym
In this activity, the teacher helped the students to translate the difficult word. However, she
did not directly translate in Indonesia, but she often used the synonyms of that words or she used
that word in context to make the students easy to understand their meaning. The teacher mostly
used Indonesia language to explain the material. The teacher explained the generic structure,
goal, and function of procedure text. After that, she asked the students to provide examples about
procedure text. This strategy was found at the first, second and third observation. The writer did
not find this strategy in the fourth observation, because the fourth observation was used for daily
exam. Synonym/antonym strategy was used by the teacher when there was students asked about
difficult vocabulary, teacher did not directly give the meaning of the word but the teacher gave the
students the familiar synonym or antonym of that word.

3. Translating
The other strategy that the researcher found was translating. In this strategy the teacher did not
directly give the meaning of the word which the students asked her, but the teachers used that
word in a simple sentence to make the students understand. So students would think and knew
the meaning of the word without having to be told directly by the teacher.
4. Fill in the Blank
In this case, the teachers provide the students with an incomplete text and asked the
students to complete the text by selecting the words that have been provided. After the students
finished the exercise, the teacher discussed the students‟ answers. Based on the interviews with
teachers, the writer also found that one of the strategies used by the teacher to improve students’
vocabulary was fill in the blank.