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Problems of Education in

India and their solutions

Unit v
Primary Education
Lack of Teachers
Shortage of teachers is a prominent factor in
the slow expansion of compulsory education
and this is due to poor remunerations. Due to
poor salaries, no highly qualified person likes
to take up a teacher’s job in a primary school.
Shortage of Funds

It is simply impossible to expect that the local

bodies with their poor financial resources
would go on implementing successfully the
compulsory primary education scheme.
Defective Educational Administration

The burden of primary education in almost

every State rests on local bodies, that is, on
municipal and district boards. Constitutionally,
pressure for the development of primary
education could not be applied on district
Unsatisfactory Teaching Standard

The inadequacy of training schools and poor pay scale

has been responsible for not attracting efficient
teachers to take up jobs as primary school teachers.
Moreover, equipments and reading materials, too, are
insufficient in primary schools due to shortage of
funds. Consequently,, the standard of primary
education is very low.
Defective Curriculum

The old curriculum of primary schools was

defective. It had no scope for the development
of the student’s creative and constructive
faculties nor did it help him in acquiring
practical knowledge.
Difficulties in Constructing School Buildings

It is a complex problem to open schools in

villages and unfortunately most of the Indian
people live in villages. In this period of
fi n a n c i a l s t r i n g e n c y, t h e p r o bl e m o f
constructing school buildings is a difficult one.
Stagnation and Wastage

Figures indicate that only 43 per cent of the students

who join primary school complete the full course.
Inadequacy and Unsuitability of reading materials,
unattractive school buildings and difficult curriculum
are some of the reasons responsible for not attracting
sufficient number of children to schools.
Shortage of School Buildings and Their

Due to shortage of funds the programme of

construction of school buildings could not keep
pace with the expansion of primary education.
Unsuitable buildings and crowded and noisy
atmosphere have severely impeded the growth
of primary education
The Problem of Language

Like many other problems facing primary education, the

one concerning the medium of instruction is also a major
one. In the section of the Indian Constitution dealing with
the languages for compulsory primary education, 15
languages (according to the Amendment made in 1992 for
including Nepalese also), have been mentioned, but in
India as many as 845 languages and dialects are spoken.
Geographical Conditions

India is a country which abounds in rivers, mountains

and forests. In the hilly areas the villages are small
and scattered at a great distance from each other. Due
to shortage of funds it is not possible to open schools
in every village. Parents do not like their children to
walk through difficult hilly terrain in order to attend
schools situated far away from their homes.
Poverty and Ignorance

In many homes it is generally against social custom for the

womenfolk to earn some money even when the entire family
is unable to get two meals a day. Besides, the majority of
the people, being ignorant, do not realise the importance of
education.Therefore, many parents, instead of getting their
children admitted in schools, try to introduce them to some
trade at a tender age in order to supplement their income.
Primary Education
Adoption of technology

Effective use of technological tools in teaching has

many benefits. It will solve the many problems of
infrastructure and quality.
Teacher training

Teachers' training remains one of the most chaotic,

neglected and deficient sectors of India's vast
education system. This needs to be changed as they
virtually hold the destiny of the future generations in
their hands.
More government spending

India targeted towards devoting 6% share of the GDP

towards the educational sector, the performance has
definitely fallen short of expectations. Also funding is
needed to be spend on building infrastructure.
Inclusive education system

Growth in education sector should incorporate all

sections of society like rural, urban poor ,woman
Backward classes etc.
Education policy

Educational policy need frequent update. It should

cover personality development aspect of student It
should also imbibe values of culture and social
Secondary Education
committees and commissions

Different committees and commissions before and after

independence have mentioned various aims of secondary
education. But secondary educational institutions in practice
do not try to materialise those aims. The so-called aims are
practically paper-aims. During pre- independence days the
only aim of secondary education was to secure white-collar
jobs, this is no doubt a very narrow aim.
Secondary education is theoretical, bookish,
narrowly conceived and unpractical

Secondary education is theoretical, bookish,

narrowly conceived and unpractical. It creates
social misfits and does not fulfill the needs of life. It
is not life-centred. It should not increase unemploy-
ment and should help to produce able, self-
dependent and patriotic citizens.
The present secondary education is not
related to productivity

In most of the western countries secondary education is highly

related to productivity. But this is not so in our country.
Secondary education in India does not help to augment
national production both in agricultural as well as in
industrial. Both the Mudaliar Commission (1952-53) and the
Kothari Commission (1964-66) strongly recommended for
making secondary education productive. But this has not been
achieved at the desired level. The schemes of core periphery
and work experience have failed miserably and the plus- two
stage has not yet been vocationalised as propose.
Little scope for total development of
personality or individuality

In the present system of secondary education there is

little scope for total development of personality or
individuality which is the avowed aim of education in
all ages and in all countries. Adolescent stage which
covers secondary education is the proper stage for such
development. India now requires men of glorified and
sublime personalities and not men of timid characters.
Secondary education has a role to play in this regard.
Little scope for character training

Character is the crown of life. Value education is

essential for character training but our secondary
education does not attach much importance to
education for values such as toleration,
cooperation, fellow-feeling, truthfulness, modesty,
respect to teachers or elders, spirit of self-respect,
faith in national cultural tradition, secularism etc.
Opportunities for leadership training

Secondary education also does not provide opportunities

for leadership training. Students are the future leaders
in different walks of our national life and as such their
traits of leadership should be cultivated when they are
young and sensitive enough. Secondary stage can be
regarded as the breeding ground for leadership training.
Organisation of and participation in co-curricular
activities can help in this regard to a great extent.
Democratic and productive citizenship

We need able, dutiful and self-dedicated citizens for

making our infant democracy a success, who are imbued
with the spirit of intelligent patriotism contributing to
the rapid prosperity of the country. Our secondary
education does not help to develop civic sense in children
and to shoulder gallantly multifarious civic duties and
responsibilities. Independent India requires citizens
trained in democratic values of life and citizenship.
Development of social efficiency

Development of social efficiency is not possible in the

present setup of secondary education in our country.
Every individual has a social self. For an integrated
personality development of this social self is essential
which is neglected by our secondary education.
There is also close relationship between education
and society. If social aspect of education is neglected
no society can prosper and attain the desired growth.
Neglects co-curricular activities

Secondary education today neglects co-

curricular activities. Mere curricular activities
cannot help to develop all round personality of
an individual. Here lies the need of organisation
of a co- curricular activities.
Secondary Education

1.Change in approach

2. Removing psychological bias towards

3. Adopting inclusive policy

4. Inclusive attitude

5. Encouragement through scholarships
Higher Education
System of education

Education is information based rather than

knowledge based. The whole focus is on
cramming information rather than
understanding it and analyzing it.
Gap between education provided and
industry required education

Industry faces a problem to find suitable

employee as education provided is not suitable
for directly working in industry so before that
a company is required to spend large amount
on providing training for employee.
Gender issues

Traditional Indian society suffers from many

kind of discrimination so there are many
hurdles in education of unprivileged sections
of society like women, SC, ST and minority
Costly higher education

Very minimal amount of subsidy is provided

for higher education so if student seeks to get
chances of higher education still he misses
out because of lack of economical resources
Inadequate government Funding

The demand for financial resources far

exceeds the supply. Very small amount is
available for innovative programs and ideas.
Standard of Education
There is a general feeling in India that the situation in
higher education is unsatisfactory and that the average
standard has been deteriorating. The need of
maintaining high standards in education is a common
theme of convocation address in Indian universities. If
our universities are to play their role effectively in
national life, they must aim at achieving and maintaining
the highest standards of teaching and research.
Teaching Personnel

A teacher must be acceptable before his

teaching is accepted. A teacher must be
acceptable to the students with respect to his
behaviour, his mastery over the subject, his
philosophy, attitude and so on
Students Unrest
Majority of the students come from
comparatively or entirely uneducated homes
having no genuine interest or ability for higher
education. It is rather disheartening to note
that a sizable portion of the student population
goes the college just to pass time and take little
or no interest in studies when once admitted.
Higher Education
• Effective vocationalisation
•Imposition of restriction in the establishment of new
•Careful planning and location of new institutions
•Adoption of the policy of selective admission on the
basis of merit keeping in view the weaker sections
•Formulation of definite admission rules
•Adequate provision for enabling talented but
economically weaker students to pursue their studies
on a whole time basis

• Provision for the private candidates for

encouraging self study
•Restructuring the Curriculum
•Teaching and Research
•Medium of Instruction