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ACTIVITY XI: SERUM AND PLASMA • Transports nutrients, waste products,

PREPARTION hormones, protein, ions, Oxygen,

CO2 and formed elements
May mga analytes na nagrerequire ng • Regulates body temperature
serum or plasma lang • Assists in the regulation of osmotic
and acid-base balance (pH)
Clinical Chem – Serum ang ginagamit na
o Normal pH range: 7.35-7.45
analytes (Glucose, TG, Total Cholesterol)
• Protection (Immune Defense)
Hemoglobin A1C – diabetes (Level of sugar • Prevents excessive blood loss (Clot
for past 3 months) Formation)  Platelets

Clotted Blood – Serum (Red Tube, Yellow



• Clinical
• Microcentrifuged
• Refrigerated - for RNA extraction


• red fluid that circulates inside blood

• Life Span of RBC: 120 Days

After 120 days engulf siya ni spleen

Buffy Coat – Platelets and WBCs, dito
• Consists of formed elements kukunin DNA
(erythrocytes, leukocytes, and
platelets) and a fluid component Pag yellow top
called plasma
- Serum
• Volume of blood in an average
- Thixotropic gel
human adult is 5 L. (VARIES)
- Buffy coat
o Mas mataas sa male kesa
- RBCs
• Circulates in a closed system of Pag may Hepa (PLASMA) – Yellow
vessels Pag hemolyzed (PLASMA) – reddish pinkish
• Have short life spans and are
continuously replaced by
hemopoiesis • 91% Water
• is a clear, straw-colored liquid
*Erythropoiesis – making rbc
portion of the blood in which the
FUNCTION OF BLOOD other cells are suspended.
• transporting medium for cells and a cell nor a clotting factor; it is the
variety of substances vital to the blood plasma with the fibrinogens
human body. removed i.e.
• contains proteins for blood clotting
Serum = Plasma – Clotting Factors
and defending the body against
infection. *Serum doesn’t contain white or red blood
Plasma = water + proteins + dissolved
substances How to know if it’s fully clotted? – Baliktaran
mo parang DQ
1. The blood is mixed with an
appropriate amount of • The blood is collected using a plain
anticoagulant tube without anticoagulant
2. This preparation should be mixed • Allow the blood to clot by leaving it
immediately and thoroughly to undisturbed at room temperature
avoid clotting. which usually takes 15–30 minutes
3. It is then centrifuged for 15 minutes but not longer than 1 hour before
at 2000 -2500 rpm. (xG times gravity) centrifugation.
4. The supernatant fluid is then • It is then centrifuged for 15 minutes
separated and then labeled properly at 2000 -2500 rpm.
• The supernatant fluid is then
Plasma Proteins (COMPOSITION)
separated and then labeled
• 60% Albumin properly
• 35% Globulin
In laboratory plasma and serum can be
• 4% Fibrinogen
separated and measured in order to help
• 1% Other (Blood Protein Content)*
with the diagnosis and monitoring of
*Regulatory Proteins, Lipoproteins, Iron- diseases.
Binding Proteins


• undiluted, extracellular portion of

blood after adequate coagulation is
• The clear liquid that can be
separated from clotted blood
• is about 90% water with dissolved
proteins, minerals, hormones and
carbon dioxide and is an important
source of electrolytes
• In blood, the serum is the
component that is neither a blood
• Obtained normally after a meal due
to elevated chylomicrons
• Characterized by milky or highly
turbid serum
• Lactescence appears when the TAG
(Triglyceride) level reaches 4.6 mM


Icteresia (Icteric serum)

• Intensely yellow serum sample due

to elevated bilirubin value
• Jaundice in a patient is caused by a
bilirubin level of greater than 430 µM
(25 mg/L)
• Bilirubin interferes with tests using
dyes and turbidity tests

Lysis of cells or Laking (Hemolyzed serum)

• Results in leakage of intracellular

• In vitro hemolysis is more common
which may be due to:
1. Use of vacuum tubes
(magsearch ng blood?)
2. Vigorous mixing
3. Effect of alcohol
4. Centrifugation and separation

*pwede rin daw pag na-introduce ang air

sa tube

• Hemolysis is visible only not until a 200

mg/L of hemoglobin level in present

Lactescence (Lipemic serum)