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# Chapter 2

Noun clauses

A noun clause is the one which can function as a noun or noun phrase in a complex sentence and which
begins with conjunstion that, an interrogative word or conjunctions if/whether.

Example:

1. We know that the very atoms and molecules of matter are continuously in motion.
2. A rate tells how fast something happens, or howmuch something changes in a certainamount of
time.
3. On a straight and smooth road, we can not feel whether there is any change in your car’s speed.

## 2.1 that- caluse

A that- caluse is the one that starts with ‘that’. This clause can function in the sentence either as
subject, direct object, subject complement, appositive, or adjective complement.

Examples:
1. That all matters are made up of molecules, atoms and other micro bodies has been proven
by scientists.
2. We all know that everybody is always in motion.
3. The assumption is that everybody continues in its state of rest, or of uniform motion in a
right (straight) line (unless compelled to change the state by force impressed upon it)
(Newton’s First Low)
4. Galileo’s assumption, hat free-falling objects have the same value of acceleration, was
proven by himself with worldwide famous experiment at leaning pisa tower.
5. We all know for sure that if we toss our key rings to the air, it will fall back to the ground.

## 2.2 wh-interrogative clause

They have statement word order, even when they occur wthin questions.

Wh + subject + verb

Examples;

1. What galileo really discovered about motion was clarified by isaac newton with his laws of
motion.
2. Newton’s second law states how net force changes something’s velocity.
3. Matter’s resistance to a change in velocity is what we call inertia
4. Our plan, when the experiment is conducted, has not been approved yet.
5. I’m not certain how the bonding force and the contact force work to hold you up when you
stand on firm ground.
6. Frictional force between two solids also depends on how hard the two surface press together.

## 1. Some common adjectives followed by a noun clause:

Afraid certain determined proud
Amused confident horrified sorry
Annoyed conscious happy sure
Anware celighted eager willing

## 2. Some common nouns foliowed by a noun clause

(the) fact (the)idea (the)news rumor(u)r
Pity wonder a good thing miracle

## 3. Some common verbs followed by a noun clause

Acknowledge demonstrate learn resolve
Admit determine make out (=state) reveal (wh)
Agree doubt notive (wh) see (wh)
Allege estimate(wh) observe seem
Announce expect occur to + object show (wh)
Appear fear order state (wh)
Arrange (wh) feel perceive stipulate
Ask (wh) find (wh) presume suggest (wh)
Assume forget (wh) pretend suppose
Assure guarantee promise teach
Beg happen propose tell (wh)
Believe (wh) hear (wh) prove (wh) threaten
Command hope prove think (wh)
Confess imagine (wh) ralize (wh) turn out
Consider imply recognize understand (wh)
Declare indicate (wh) recommend urge
Decide (wh) inform mark vow
Demand insist remember (wh) warn
Request know (wh) remind wish

2.3 if-clause
An if-clause is commonly called a conditional clause in complex sentences. You have learnt
all types of conditional sentences, but in a brief summary, we should recall all such types;
There are four types of conditional sentences :
Type 0 : if ... + present ... + present

This type is used to express one thing that always follows automatically from the other we
can use when instead of if
Examples :
1. If you friend is on your back and you jump, your friend’s weight dissapears from your
back while the two of you are in midair
2. If we heat iron, it expands

## Type 1 : if ... + present ... + will (modal base)

The type is used to express an open condition. It leaves an open question of whether
the action will happen or not.
Examples :
1. If you step down and drink two cups of coffe and then step back on the scale, you’ll
2. If we heat water up to 100 degree celcius, it will evaporate.

## Type 2 : if... + past .... + would (modal past form)

This type is used to express an imagined condition or a presumption for the action
that happens to follow.
Examples :
1. If the astronaut shoved the rock in a horizontal direction, it would take just as
much of a push to accelerate it at, say, 5 feet/second as it would take on earth
2. If we used a larger amount of matter in our experiment, we would conclude that
mass really does not remain the same

## Type 3 : if ... + past perfect ... + would + perfect

This type is used to express something unreal or an imaginary past action, meaning it
did not really happen.

Exmples :

1. If you had worked carefully, you would have found that all the changes in mass that
you observed were withim the axperimental error of your equipment.
Exercise 2.1 combine each pair of sentences bellow into one sentence using the words given in
brackets.

## 1. Motion is subject to three laws. Newton himself showed this. (that)

2. “Why does a moving body come to a stop?”. We should take up this question. (of)
3. “What can absolute judgments be made about the nature of motion?”. We must figurem out
this matter. (what)
4. “How does a net force change something’s velocity?” Newton’s second law states this. (the fact)
5. Motions in perpendicular directions are independent of one another. This as been concluded
from experiments conducted. (it.......that)
6. “What does tension mean in a technical sense?”. Do you know the answer? (what/?)
7. “In which cases does a ball come to a stop quickly and in which cases slowly?”. We should
consider this. (In which cases)
8. The smoother the surface on which a body is moving, the father it would roll. We know this
perfectly well from our experiensces. (that)
9. That word centripetal is a adjective used effectively in the case of circular motion. It is important
to note this. (that)
10. “Where does the term inertial come from?”. We shall see a bit later. (where)

Momentum

Momentum refers to moving things. It is a product of the mass of an object and its velocity. Momentum
is why the driver of a car applies the brake to stop the car rather than just taking his foot off the
accelerator. The cas has gathered momentum and will continue to move forward after the driver stops
accelerating it.

Momentum is also commonly used term in sports. A team that has the momentum is one the move and
is going to take some effort to stop. A team that has a lot of momentum is really on the moveand is going
to be hard to stop. Momentum is a physics term; it refers to the quantity of motion that an object has. A
sports team that is on the move has the momentum. If an object is in motion (on the move) then it has
momentum.

Momentum can be defined as “ mass in motion”. All objects have mass; so if an object is moving, then it
has momentum it has its mass in motion.

The amount of momentum that an object has is dependent upon two variables: how much stuff is moving
and how fast the stuff is moving. Momentum depends upon the variables mass and velocity. In terms of
an equation, the momentum of an object is equal to the mass of the object times the velocity of the
object.
In physics, the symbol for the quantity momentum is the lower case “p”. Thus, the above equation can be
rewritten as p = m.v where m is the mass and v is the velocity. The equation illustrates that momentum
is directly proportional to an object’s mass and directly proportional to the object’s velocity.

The units for momentum would be mass units times velocity units. The standard metric unit of momentum
is the kg.m/s. While the kg.m/s is the standard metric unit of momentum, there are a variety of other
units that are acceptable (though not conventional) units of momentum. Examples include kg.mi/hr,
kg.km/hr, and g.cm/s. In each of these examples, a mass unit is multiplied by a velocity unit to provide a
momentum unit. This is consistent with the equation for momentum.

Momentum is a vector quantity. As discussed in an earlier unit, a vector quantity is a quantity that is fully
described by both magnitude and direction. To fully describe the momentum of a 5-kg bowling ball moving
westward at 2 m/s, you must include information about both the magnitude and the direction of the
bowling ball. It is not enough to say that the ball has 10 kg.m/s of momentum; the momentum of the ball
is not fully described until information about its direction is given.

The direction of the momentum vector is the same as the direction of the velocity of the ball. In a previous
unit, it was said that the direction of the velocity vector is the same as the direction that an object is
moving. If the bowling ball is moving westward, then its momentum can be fully described by saying that
it is 10 kg.m/s, westward. As a vector quantity, the momentum of an object is fully described by both
magnitude and direction.

Exercise 2.2. Answer the following questions by referring to the reading passage

## 1. Define momentum i your own words!

2. Why momentum is a vector quantity?
3. Give some examples of momentum in daily life!
4. How can we define mass?
5. Mention the conservation law of momentum!
6. Explain why momentum can be defined as “ mass in motion.”!
7. The amount of momentum that an object has is dependent upon two variables ..... stuff s moving
and ...... the stuff is moving
8. Momentum depends upon the ..... and ....
9. In terms of an equation, the momentum of an object is equal to .....
10. Momentum is directly proportional to an object’s ..... and directly proportional to the object’s ....
2.5 Translation
Exercise 2.3. Translate the reading 2.4 into indonesian
2.6 Writing
Exercise 2.4. Write a short passage decribing physics using noun clause, taht-
clause, if-clause and wh-introgative clause.