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Chapter 12 Developing Oral and Online Presentations


Speeches and oral presentations are much like any other messages in that

A) they require similar planning.

B) they require no planning.

C) the interaction between the audience and speaker is similar.

D) they deal with emotional or personal issues to a similar extent.

Answer: A Explanation: A) For the planning stage, oral presentations are no different than other business messages. They require analysis of the situation, gathering of information, selecting the right medium, and organizing the information.


When you prepare a speech or presentation, your first step involves

A) analyzing the situation.

B) choosing the right words.

C) planning the content, length, and style of your speech or presentation.

D) doing all of the above.

Answer: A Explanation: A) Before you begin to organize or gather information, you need to analyze the situation by answering questions such as: What is the purpose of the presentation? Who is the audience for the presentation? What are the important ideas that need to be dealt with in the presentation? In which medium can these ideas be best expressed?


The two most common purposes of business presentations are to

A) analyze and synthesize.

B) regulate and validate.

C) inform and persuade.

D) illustrate and entertain.

Answer: C Explanation: C) By far the most common purposes of presentations are to inform or persuade. Some presentations are made for collaborative purposes, such as when you are leading a brainstorming or problem-solving session.


One of the steps in analyzing your audience is to

A) determine whether your audience is comfortable listening to the language you speak.

B) remember to keep your speech or oral presentation short.

C) define your purpose.

D) prepare a detailed, informative outline.

Answer: A Explanation: A) With an audience that is unfamiliar with your language, you may consider submitting a written version of your work rather than an oral presentation. Most people find reading an unfamiliar language a lot easier than listening to the same material being presented orally.


Selecting the right medium for your presentation is

A) easy—you're simply giving a speech.

B) an important decision since technology offers a number of choices.

C) only an issue when addressing audiences from other cultures.



D) not something you need to think about early on.

Answer: B Explanation: B) While it should be clear that your presentation will be delivered orally, there are many choices within the general oral medium. These choices include a live, in- person presentation, a webcast, webinar, screencast or some other variation of these oral



When organizing a speech or presentation, your first step is to


develop an outline.

B) define the main idea.


write the introduction.

D) decide on the delivery style.

Answer: B Explanation: B) In the organization stage of your speech or presentation, you first need to

define your main idea—the message that you want the audience to take away from the experience. A clear main idea can guide you all the way through the process of developing your content. Whenever you get confused, you can simply refer to your main idea and ask yourself, "What am I trying to say here?"


The best way to clarify your main idea in a presentation is to

A) provide a lengthy handout for your audience to review during your presentation.

B) describe it using jargon and complicated language to emphasize its importance.

C) develop a single sentence that links your subject and purpose to your audience's frame of




allow your audience to gradually figure it out on their own.

Answer: C Explanation: C) A single-sentence main idea is much easier to refer to during the composition of a presentation than a long paragraph. The single-sentence main idea works like a slogan to summarize your goals and objectives in a compact form. If you feel like you are losing your way, simply refer to the single-sentence main idea for direction and focus.


For business presentations, time restraints are usually

A) rigid, permitting little or no flexibility.

B) meaningless—audiences expect presenters to take a little more time than they're allotted.

C) imposed only on lower-level employees.

D) not important if you are presenting to your colleagues.

Answer: A Explanation: A) In the business world, time is usually tight. Do not expect open-ended, unlimited time to present your material. In most businesses, time limits are strictly enforced. For example, at TechCrunch presentations are limited to six to eight minutes.


When using conventional structured slides, try to average one slide for


each minute you speak.

B) every 3 minutes you speak.


every 7 minutes you speak.

D) every 10 minutes you speak.

Answer: B Explanation: B) As a rule of thumb, figure on about one slide for every 3 to 4 minutes of presentation time. Keep in mind that time needs to be reserved for introductions, closings, and other "interruptions."

10) In preparing presentations, keep in mind that audience attention levels and retention rates



drop sharply after




B) 20

C) 45

D) 60

Answer: B Explanation: B) Studies show that audiences can attend to material for about 20 minutes without their attention flagging. So in general, presentations should always aim to stay well

under the 20 minute mark.

11) If you have 10 minutes or less to deliver a presentation


speak as quickly as you possibly can.

B) limit yourself to four or five main points.


you can assume your audience is already interested.


organize your presentation as you would a brief written message.

Answer: D Explanation: D) Organization for a short presentation should take on the same structure as a brief written message. Choose either a direct or an indirect approach. If your audience is receptive, go ahead and state your conclusions up front. If your audience needs persuading, use an indirect approach and build a case for your position. Spend about two minutes on the introduction, five or six minutes on the body of your message, and the final minutes on reviewing your points and wrapping up your presentation.

12) When organizing a speech, use the indirect approach if your purpose is to audience is

and the

A) entertain, resistant

Answer: C Explanation: C) When the audience is skeptical or hostile, an indirect approach is required. Build your argument gradually. Don't state your conclusions—especially if they are controversial—until you have laid out the groundwork to make them seem plausible.

B) motivate, receptive

C) persuade, resistant D) inform, receptive

13) When preparing an outline for your speech, keep in mind that

A) it can include delivery cues, such as where you plan to pause for emphasis or use visuals.

B) you should keep each item to two- to three-word descriptions of what you will say.

C) you can leave out all transitions.

D) this is not the place to include "stage directions."

Answer: A Explanation: A) Most successful speakers like to plant cues in their outline to know when to pause, introduce visuals, or point out something significant on a visual. The cues give extra structure to the outline and serve as handy reference points during the delivery of the presentation.

14) To reduce the formality of an oral presentation,


deliver your remarks in a conversational tone.

B) use a large room.


seat the audience in rows.

D) do all of the above.

Answer: A Explanation: A) In the everyday business world, almost all presentations should be given in a conversational tone. Exceptions arise when you are giving a formal address or political speech of some type. Even in those situations, a conversational tone is often the best option.

15) Formal speeches differ from informal ones in that

A) formal speeches always include obscure, unfamiliar vocabulary.



B) formal speeches are always much longer.

C) formal speeches are often delivered from a stage or platform.

D) when delivering a formal speech, you should speak more rapidly.

Answer: C Explanation: C) Formal speeches often put the speaker on a level that is above the

audience, on a stage or platform, speaking into a microphone.

16) In the introduction to your presentation, it is important to


discuss the three or four main points on your outline. B) establish credibility.


ask for audience input.

D) boast about your qualifications.

Answer: B Explanation: B) Establishing credibility is easy if you are known well to the audience or recognized as a leader or expert in your field. Otherwise, to establish credibility you need to inform the audience of who you are and why you are qualified to speak on the topic. This may involve saying something along the lines of: "I've been the head of Research Department in Structural Chemistry for the past nine years at Hanfield Laboratory." This introduction gives you credibility from your position and the prestige of your institution.

17) One effective way to arouse interest at the start of a speech is to

A) always start things off with a joke.

B) unite the audience around a common goal.

C) tease the audience by not mentioning specifically what you'll be talking about.

D) do none of the above.

Answer: B Explanation: B) If you can identify a problem that members of your audience care about solving you have usually piqued their interest. You can gain a firm hold on that interest if you show that you can deliver a creative solution to that problem.

18) As a speaker, how you go about establishing credibility depends in part on

A) what time of day you deliver your remarks.

B) whether or not you are a well-known expert in the subject.

C) how you are dressed.

D) the size of your audience.

Answer: B Explanation: B) Being well-known or an expert usually establishes instant credibility with an audience. If you are not well-known or an expert, you need to establish credibility through the force of your personality and the content of your presentation.

19) "Now that we've identified the problem, let's take a look at some solutions" is an example of

A) a transition that is overly specific and promises too much.

B) a good transition between major sections of a speech.

C) a transition that fails to use the proper transitional phrase.

D) a transition that can link two sentences, but not two sections of speech.

Answer: B Explanation: B) The function of a transition is to link ideas. The best transitions tell the audience what they just heard and prepare them for what they are about to hear. This transition accomplishes that—it tells the audience that it just heard about the problem, then it prepares them to hear about solutions to the problem.



20) To hold your audience's attention during the body of your speech


make at least seven or eight main points.

B) include numerous abstract ideas.


relate your subject to your audience's needs.

D) do all of the above.

Answer: C Explanation: C) Audiences listen more intently and care more about a subject when it relates to one of their needs. For example, speaking about banking problems to a non- banking audience has a lot more impact when those banking problems can be directly related to problems faced by ordinary consumers.

21) At the close of a business presentation

A) audience attention tends to reach its lowest point.

B) be clear about what you want the audience to do next.

C) you should avoid making it obvious that you're about to finish.

D) audiences resent being reminded of the presentation's main ideas.

Answer: B Explanation: B) In the close, you want the audience to come away with an understanding of the message you intended to convey and in many cases you want to motivate the audience to action. To instigate action you need to clearly explain what the audience can and should do after they leave the room.

22) When you have covered all the main points in your speech

A) make sure your concluding remarks are memorable and expressed in a tone that is

appropriate to the situation.

B) wrap up as quickly as possible.

C) avoid using such phrases as "To sum it all up" and "In conclusion."

D) keep it simple with a statement such as, "Well, I guess that's it."

Answer: A Explanation: A) In closing, you want the audience to take away the single message that you

have been trying to communicate to them all along. This is often done by ending with a memorable phrase or particularly insightful comment that appeals to the audience's emotions as well as its intellect.

23) If there is a lack of consensus among the audience at the end of your presentation, you should

A) gloss over it as quickly as possible.

B) make the disagreement clear and be ready to suggest a method for resolving the


C) identify the individuals causing the disagreement and ask them pointed questions.

D) do all of the above.

Answer: B Explanation: B) If the audience lacks consensus then it is your responsibility to highlight this lack of consensus and challenge your audience to remedy the problem. In other words, the audience may not end up agreeing with your solution to the problem, but they should be able to agree that action needs to be taken in order to solve the problem.

24) If your speech or presentation requires the audience to participate in an upcoming project, you should

A) go directly to the question-and-answer session after you cover the main points of your




B) close your speech on a note of uncertainty.

C) close your speech by explaining who is responsible for doing what.

D) lead people to believe that the decision will be easy to carry out.

Answer: C Explanation: C) Calling for vague, undefined action is fairly pointless. If you are calling for action, you need to spell out for your audience precisely who can take the action and how and when that action can be taken. The goal should be that your audience knows precisely what it should do after it leaves the room.

25) You should always close your speech

A) on an encouraging and memorable note.

B) by leaving the audience with a feeling of incompleteness, which you can resolve in the

question-and-answer period.

C) with something dramatic or flamboyant.

D) by introducing some new ideas for the audience to think about.

Answer: A Explanation: A) Clarity and confidence is the key to a good closing. Restate your main issues and leave the audience on a positive note with something substantive that they will remember and take action on.

26) Disadvantages of delivering a presentation from memory include all of the following except


sounding stilted.

B) possibly forgetting your lines.


sounding too informal.

D) all of the above are disadvantages.

Answer: C Explanation: C) A memorized presentation can sound canned and unspontaneous. It can also be confusing if your memorized lines become confused or jumbled. If anything, memorized presentations sound too formal, not too informal.

27) Delivering your presentation by reading it word-for-word is usually a bad idea except when

A) your presentation is very lengthy.

B) you're covering policy statements or legal documents that must be presented verbatim.

C) the presentation is humorous.

D) the audience is hostile.

Answer: B Explanation: B) Reading a presentation should be reserved only for highly formal and legalistic situations in which there is little or no persuasive element in your talk. Otherwise, reading can make a presentation sound stale and unspontaneous.

28) The most effective and easiest mode of speech delivery in nearly all situations is



B) reading from a prepared script.


speaking from an outline or notes.

D) impromptu speaking.

Answer: C Explanation: C) Speaking from notes or an outline requires practice and preparation, but not memorization. Using notes rather than reading from a script allows you to make full eye contract with your audience. You should know your content so well that even if you get completely confused you can still use your command of the subject matter to get back on track.



29) When speaking from notes, it is best to print them on


regular white typing paper.

B) heavy note cards.


brightly colored note cards.

D) your smartphone.

Answer: B Explanation: B) Note cards work well because they can easily be rearranged if for some

reason the structure of your presentation gets disrupted.

30) Rehearsing your presentation on video will

A) help you check your voice, timing, phrasing, and physical gestures.

B) increase your nervousness.

C) most likely ruin your ability to make an effective presentation.

D) rob you of the confidence you need.

Answer: A Explanation: A) Seeing yourself on video gives you a chance to improve all phases of your delivery. Be analytical as you watch. Look for opportunities to slow down or speed up. In some cases, you may discover that you want to eliminate—or add—an entire section.

31) When checking the location of your presentation in advance, you should

A) not worry about seating arrangements—they have no effect on how you deliver your


B) always request a whiteboard, even if you aren't sure you will need it.

C) find out whether the venue offers a projection system that you will be expected to use.

D) do all of the above.

Answer: C Explanation: C) Nothing is worse or more nerve-racking than trying to deal with a malfunctioning projection system as you begin your talk. Make sure that the system is functional and compatible with your material well in advance of your presentation.

32) Which of the following is not a good way to deal with speaking anxiety?

A) Prepare more material than necessary.

B) Focus on being perfect.

C) Take a few deep breaths before speaking.

D) Have your first sentence memorized and on the tip of your tongue.

Answer: B Explanation: B) Focusing on being perfect is not a wise strategy. Instead, focus should be placed on not worrying about being perfect. No presentation is ever perfect, so feeling pressure for perfection is pointless and counterproductive.

33) In business presentations, the "backchannel" is

A) the "notes" portion of an electronic slide, which only the presenter can see.

B) subtle, nonverbal cues the presenter sends during the presentation.

C) electronic communication among audience members during the presentation.

D) password-protected electronic slides that only certain audience members are allowed to

view. Answer: C Explanation: C) Typical backchannel conversation is done via Twitter, Facebook, or IM as audience members communicate among themselves as the presentation is taking place.



34) Sending preview materials to the audience prior to an online presentation

A) will cause most audience members to ignore what you present later.

B) suggests that you are not confident.

C) can be helpful.

D) is an example of the backchannel in action.

Answer: C Explanation: C) Allowing the audience to become more familiar with your material usually increases interest and improves the reception you receive from your audience. Some doubters warn to withhold some of your slides so as not to "give away" the ending of your presentation.

35) Because you can adapt to your audience while you are speaking, it's not as important to research your audience for an oral presentation. Answer: FALSE Explanation: Adapting to an audience and making major changes in a presentation is something that a speaker should do only if forced to because of poor audience reception. To avoid being forced to make changes, find out who your audience is ahead of time and plan a presentation that is well-suited to them.

36) You will communicate more successfully with a multilingual audience if you speak slowly and distinctly and pause frequently. Answer: TRUE Explanation: Other keys to successful speaking to multilingual audiences: Repeat key words and phrases frequently. Use gestures and body language to communicate. Rely on visuals to provide support for your presentation.

37) Planning a business presentation is similar to organizing a written message. Answer: TRUE Explanation: There is little difference in planning for a business message or a business presentation. Both types of communication require analyzing the situation, gathering information, selecting the right medium, and organizing the information you have gathered.

38) You should be able to summarize the main idea for a speech in a single sentence that links your subject and purpose to the audience's frame of reference. Answer: TRUE Explanation: If you are unable to summarize your main idea in a single sentence, it probably means that your main idea is unclear. Keep working on your presentation until the main idea can be expressed in a single sentence.

39) If you have 10 minutes or less to deliver your presentation, you should organize it much as you would a brief written message. Answer: TRUE Explanation: As with a brief written message, choose either a direct or an indirect approach. If your audience is receptive, go ahead and state your conclusions up front. If your audience needs persuading, use an indirect approach and build a case for your position.

40) Even when you expect your audience to be skeptical, the direct approach is always best for presentations.



Answer: FALSE Explanation: A direct approach can backfire badly with a skeptical audience. By stating your conclusions right away, your audience is likely to immediately disagree with you. This can cause you to lose credibility, which in turn can cause the audience to tune out and stop listening.

41) If your purpose is to analyze, persuade, or collaborate, you should organize your speech around conclusions and recommendations or a logical argument. Answer: TRUE Explanation: Your conclusions and recommendations are the focus of what you want to say. So organize your entire presentation to use them to their best advantage. First, set up your conclusions and recommendations in the most effective way possible. Then deliver them with clarity. Finally, restate your conclusions and recommendations and point out their advantages to your audience.

42) Simplicity of organization is important only if your speech is short. Answer: FALSE Explanation: Simplicity is important whether your presentation is long or short. In long speeches especially, audiences can lose focus and start to tune out. A simple message that is frequently repeated can avoid audiences losing their way.

43) In preparing a speaking outline for your presentation, you should avoid cluttering it with complete sentences. Answer: FALSE Explanation: Major points and transitional sentences should be written out as complete sentences.

44) The speech outline is not an appropriate place to include notes about the visual aids you plan to use. Answer: FALSE Explanation: In a speech outline, you need to provide cues and reminders for setting up visuals, pausing for questions, or repeating major points. These cues and reminders should be placed right in the outline so you will see them while you are speaking.

45) Your speech outline is a good place to include annotations about the specific body language or gestures you want to use. Answer: FALSE Explanation: It would be fairly pointless to write notes that say, "Raise my hand at this point." Gestures and body language are effective only if they arise spontaneously out of a genuine emotion, not a pre-planned emotion.

46) In general, you should use a conversational style when speaking to small groups and a more formal style for large groups who are unfamiliar with you. Answer: TRUE Explanation: The larger and more unfamiliar the audience, the more formal the tone should be. So you should adopt a fairly formal tone with a large audience whom you don't know.

47) A good introduction arouses audience interest, establishes your credibility, and prepares the



audience for what will follow. Answer: TRUE Explanation: A good introduction that makes audiences eager to hear more can set the tone for a successful overall presentation. That is why it is worth spending extra time developing your introduction so it is razor sharp.

48) Of the total time you spend writing your oral presentation, you should devote only a minimal amount to writing your introduction. Answer: FALSE Explanation: A good introduction can make or break a speech. If the introduction is poor, the audience tends to lose interest. If the introduction is good, you have your audience "eating out of your hand." For this reason, it is worth spending extra time on the introduction, not minimal time.

49) When discussing topics of profound importance to your audience, you can usually count on having their attention as soon as you introduce your main idea. Answer: TRUE Explanation: The trick is to find issues that your audience really cares about that can be linked to your message. If you can combine an issue that the audience cares about to what you care about—your main topic—you are likely to deliver a successful speech.

50) Asking, "Did you know that almost 90% of American homeowners are underinsured?" would be a good way to get the audience's attention at the beginning of a presentation on homeowner's insurance. Answer: TRUE Explanation: Compelling questions can arouse keen interest in an audience. Just make sure your question is relevant and you can relate it constructively to the main message you want to deliver.

51) One good way to arouse audience interest during the introduction of your presentation on a new product line would be to pass out samples of the product. Answer: TRUE Explanation: Appealing to several sensory modalities can arouse interest in an audience. Most audiences don't experience the sense of touch in an oral presentation, so a sample that is a physical object that they can touch can be effective in getting your audience's attention.

52) If you have no working relationship with your audience, you have only a few minutes to convince them that what you have to say is worth listening to. Answer: TRUE Explanation: If you are totally unfamiliar to an audience, they tend to be impatient. If you don't establish credibility in a few short minutes they will begin to tune you out. For this reason, be sure to use some of your "best material" at the very beginning of your talk.

53) One good way to establish credibility is by exaggerating your qualifications. You can always correct any misconceptions later in your speech. Answer: FALSE Explanation: Being honest is critical to credibility. If the audience detects that you are not being straight it will give up on you almost instantly.



54) Having someone else (such as a master of ceremonies) introduce you can help establish your credibility as a speaker. Answer: TRUE Explanation: Banking on the credibility of another person is a legitimate way to establish your own credibility. The person introducing you is vouching for you as someone who is worth listening to.

55) Giving your audience a preview of what you'll be talking about will reduce their interest and attention. Answer: FALSE Explanation: A written preview in many instances can enhance interest and attention. For example, providing slides or a table of contents can cause prospective audience members to say, "I want to hear that."

56) Transitional words and phrases such as, "Now that we've covered


are generally less

important in oral presentations than in written reports. Answer: FALSE Explanation: Transitional words and phrases are just as important in oral presentations as they are in written presentations. Good transitional words and phrases can make the difference between a confused audience and a focused audience that enjoys every word of your presentation.

57) To keep an audience's attention, try to present every point you make in light of the audience's needs and values. Answer: TRUE Explanation: Relating to the basic needs and values of the audience is the key to an effective presentation. Find areas of common interest between your topic and the audience's concerns. For example, if you are presenting budget information, relate the budget you are talking about to the family budget of the people in your audience.

58) The ending is the least important part of a presentation. Answer: FALSE Explanation: The close is a critical part of a presentation. Without a good close, all of the work you did in the rest of the talk gets wasted. The close should leave your audience with your "take-away" message. The close should also motivate your audience to take any actions that you deem necessary.

59) As you conclude your presentation, it is vital to emphasize whatever you want your listeners to do or think. Answer: TRUE Explanation: Many presentations end with a call to action. If you want to move your audience to action, the close is where you should spell that action out explicitly.

60) When concluding a presentation, don't bore your audience by restating points you already made in the body. Answer: FALSE Explanation: Restating key points is one of the main jobs of a close. Rather than bore your audience, restating ideas helps cement the ideas in their memory.



61) You should always end business presentations in a cheerful, optimistic tone—even if it means glossing over obvious disagreements among your audience members. Answer: FALSE Explanation: You want to end on a positive note, but you do not want to disrespect the views of the audience. If there is disagreement in the air, don't try to hide it. Make the best of the disagreement by challenging your audience to find a solution to the problem that you both can live with.

62) At the close of an action-oriented presentation, it is unprofessional to "baby" the audience a visual that lists the action items, deadlines, and the name of the person or team responsible. Answer: FALSE Explanation: Spelling out actions explicitly by no means constitutes "babying" the audience. If you want action to be carried out, you need to be explicit about who should carry out the action, where they should carry it out, and when they should carry it out.

63) If you sense a lack of consensus at the end of your presentation, you should acknowledge it and be ready to suggest a method for resolving the differences. Answer: TRUE Explanation: Disagreement with the audience should not be papered over. Acknowledge any discord and agree to disagree with your audience. Tell your audience that you will continue to look for a way to resolve your conflict and hope that they will be working toward the same end.

64) To make your presentation memorable, your ending should be spontaneous and impromptu. Answer: FALSE Explanation: After an otherwise successful presentation, you don't want to end your time on the stage by having nothing to say. For that reason, plan your closing remarks carefully. Try to leave the audience with something meaningful and memorable.

65) Memorizing an entire business presentation is generally not very effective. Answer: TRUE Explanation: Memorized talks tend to sound canned and stilted. A much better idea is to work from notes and practice repeatedly.

66) Making a presentation with the help of an outline or notes is the most effective and easiest delivery mode. Answer: TRUE Explanation: Using notes or an outline rather than reading or memorizing the talk keeps a presentation sounding fresh and spontaneous. The notes or outline keep the speaker on track.

67) You should never ask to see the location for your presentation in advance, since doing so shows a lack of confidence. Answer: FALSE Explanation: Scouting the location of your presentation can be an important element of success. By checking the room carefully, you can head off technical problems such as projection systems, and get a feel for the acoustics of the room.



68) Skilled presenters are quick to put a stop to audience members engaging in "backchannel" communication during a presentation. Answer: FALSE Explanation: Rather than try to fight against backchannel communication, it is a better idea to embrace the use of Twitter and other sites to chatter during presentations. View backchannel communication as a form of instant feedback.

69) When delivering presentations online, it is especially important to ask the audience for frequent feedback. Answer: TRUE Explanation: Encourage audience members to speak up if they are genuinely confused or feel the need for additional discussion on a topic. If their request is overly disruptive, politely dismiss it and tell the requester to take up the issue with you later.

70) The purpose of most business presentations is to inform or Answer: persuade


Many reports combine more than one purpose. For example, an internal

company report might be given to inform decision-makers of a problem and to try to persuade them to address the problem.

71) Early in the planning stages of a speech, you should develop a(n)


Answer: audience Explanation: An audience profile not only identifies who the audience is—potential clients, for example, or citizens who are affected by your plan to build a factory—but also how receptive they are likely to be. Potential clients, if they bother to come to a presentation, are likely to be highly motivated. Citizens whose lives are being disrupted by factory plans, on the other hand, are likely to be skeptical or even hostile.

72) The

of a speech should be expressed in a one-sentence statement that

links your subject and purpose to your audience's frame of reference. Answer: main idea Explanation: The advantage of a one-sentence statement is that it is a good measure of how clear the main idea is. If you have trouble expressing your main idea in a single sentence, it

is a strong indication that your main idea needs clarification.

73) A presentation

helps you organize your material and can serve as the foundation

of your speaking notes. Answer: outline Explanation: An outline is the best organizing tool for a presentation. The outline can be referred to directly during the presentation, or the outline can be used to develop speaking notes.

74) For a large audience and an important event, you will generally need to establish a(n) atmosphere and to deliver your remarks on a stage or platform. Answer: formal Explanation: Formal events include any large gathering such as a gala, a political speech, or a meeting of stockholders. The tone and delivery at these kinds of events should be formal.


75) The


to your presentation aims to capture the audience's attention.

Answer: introduction Explanation: The introduction should do three things: arouse the audience's interest, establish credibility, and preview the main message of the presentation.

76) When making a presentation to an unfamiliar audience, you need to establish quickly by listing your qualifications. Answer: credibility Explanation: Listing your qualifications is just one way to establish credibility. Other ways include being introduced by a person who is familiar to the audience, listing your accomplishments, and using the force of your argument and your personality to win the audience over.

77) Effective introductions often unite the audience around a common

, such as

helping solve a problem or capitalizing on an opportunity. Answer: goal Explanation: Common goals that interest the audience can bring the audience to a point where it is ready to hear your message.

78) In the body of your presentation, it is vital to

the ideas you are presenting around

a common theme. Answer: connect Explanation: Great ideas will not carry a presentation all by themselves. Those ideas must

be linked together by the speaker to present a coherent overall message. The connection between ideas is typically done by using transitional words, phrases, and sentences.

79) If there is a lack of

at the end of your presentation, acknowledge it and be ready

to offer a method for resolving the differences. Answer: consensus Explanation: Disagreement cannot be ignored or swept "under the rug." Do not expect to resolve major conflicts by the time your presentation ends, but try to leave your audience thinking about constructive rather than destructive solutions to the situation.

80) The easiest and most effective delivery mode for most business presentations is speaking from Answer: notes Explanation: Speaking notes developed from a solid outline provide the best platform for guiding a presentation from start to finish. Some speakers speak from the outline directly rather than creating speaking notes.

81) If you're addressing an audience that doesn't speak your language, consider using a(n) to put your speech into terms they can easily understand. Answer: interpreter Explanation: For non-English speakers, speak slowly and clearly, repeat key words and phrases frequently, use gestures and body language freely, and rely on visuals to provide support for your presentation.

82) You can overcome

related to public speaking by concentrating on your message



and your audience, not on your fears.


Explanation: Being nervous is an indication that you care about your issue and your audience. Rather than be surprised by anxiety, expect to be nervous and try to channel the extra energy it provides.

anxiety nervousness

83) To help keep your audience's attention during a presentation, illustrate your ideas with

diagrams, photographs, charts or other

connect with the audience, and help people remember your message more effectively. Answer: visuals Explanation: Visuals can be a major organizing feature of your presentation. For example, many effective speakers organize their presentations around their slides.


will enliven your message, help you

84) The

refers to "a line of communication created by people in an audience to

connect with others inside or outside the room, with or without the knowledge of the speaker." Answer: backchannel Explanation: Backchannel communication is done using Twitter, Facebook, or IM. While the presentation is taking place, audience members communicate with one another. Some speakers actually "tune in" to the backchannels and use them to field questions after they are finished speaking.

85) List the four steps involved in planning an oral presentation. Answer: (1) Analyze the situation. (2) Gather information. (3) Select the right medium. (4) Organize the presentation.

86) You've been asked to give a presentation on cybercrime. List two steps that can help you define the main idea of your presentation, and then provide an example of the second step. Answer: The first step is to figure out the one message you want audience members to take away with them. Then compose a one-sentence summary that links your subject and purpose to your audience's frame of reference. An example would be, "With cybercrime more common than ever, the public needs to be smarter about using the web."

87) In a longer presentation, how does your purpose influence the way you organize your material? Answer: If the purpose is to inform, use a direct approach and a structure imposed naturally by the subject (importance, sequence, etc.). If the purpose is to analyze, persuade, or collaborate, organize the material around conclusions and recommendations or around a logical argument.

88) Briefly explain the difference between a planning outline and a speaking outline. Answer: Whereas a planning outline is very detailed and includes all the points you plan to cover in your presentation, a speaking outline is much simpler.

89) List two goals to achieve in the body of a business presentation. Answer: (1) Make sure that the organization of your presentation is clear and (2) maintain your audience's interest in your topic.



90) Briefly describe the three tasks that an effective closing to a presentation should accomplish and give an example of a sentence that would be an ineffective ending. Answer: (1) Restate your main points—emphasize what you want the audience to do or think. (2) Describe the next steps—explain who is responsible for doing what. (3) End on a strong note—make your final remarks encouraging and memorable. An ineffective ending would be "Well, I guess that's about all I've got." (Answers will vary.)

91) List the four delivery methods for oral presentations. Answer: Reciting from memory, reading, speaking from notes, and impromptu speaking

92) Briefly explain how nervousness can actually improve the quality of your presentation. Answer: Nervousness is an indication that you care about your audience, your topic, and the occasion. Such stimulation can give you the extra energy you need to make your presentation sparkle.

93) Define "backchannel" and describe the risks and benefits it provides for business presenters. Answer: The backchannel refers to electronic communication among audience members and/or outsiders that occurs during a presentation. It allows audience members to research the speaker's claims (and spread the word if they believe any are shaky) and gives hostile audience members extra leverage. It can also, however, enable supportive audience members to build support for the speaker's message, expand on it, and spread it to a larger audience. It can also enable speakers to receive valuable real-time feedback on the presentation.

94) When planning a presentation, what does it mean to "analyze the situation"? Briefly explain each of the tasks involved. Answer: Analyzing the situation involves defining your purpose, developing an audience profile, and assessing the circumstances in which you will speak. The purpose of most business presentations is to inform or to persuade, although some may involve collaboration. Developing an audience profile requires anticipating what sort of emotional state your audience is likely to be in and determining whether your audience is comfortable listening in the language you speak. Finally, assessing the circumstances of your presentation involves considering everything from the size and layout of the room to the types of equipment to which you will have access.

95) Describe the four steps to organizing a presentation effectively. Answer: (1) Define the main idea—what do you want the audience to walk away with? (2) Limit your scope—tailor the material to fit the time limit. (3) Choose your approach—direct for supportive audiences and indirect for resistant audiences. (4) Outline your content—keep it audience-centered for maximum effectiveness.

96) What six stages should you go through in preparing an effective outline for a presentation? Answer: The first stage is to state your purpose and main idea. Doing so enables you to make sure everything you add later relates to these components of your presentation. The second stage is to organize your major points and subpoints in a manner that is logical and



effective. Third, identify your introduction, body, and close. Fourth, show your connections by writing out in sentence form the transitions you plan to use to move from one part to the next. Fifth, show your sources by preparing your bibliography carefully. Sixth, choose a title for your presentation that will let your audience know what to expect. Coming up with a title is especially important if your speech will be publicized ahead of time or introduced by someone else.

97) List and briefly explain six strategies for holding your audience's attention during a business presentation. Answer: (1) Relate your subject to your audience's needs—present every point in light of how it will affect the listeners. (2) Anticipate your audience's questions—anticipate listener questions and address them in the body of your speech. (3) Use clear, vivid language— familiar words, short sentences, and concrete examples. (4) Explain the relationship between your subject and familiar ideas—show how your subject is related to ideas that your listeners already understand. (5) Ask opinions or pause for questions or comments—this lets the audience change from listening to participating. (6) Illustrate your ideas with visual aids. Doing so will enliven your message and help your audience remember it more effectively.

98) Offer some practical suggestions for overcoming anxiety related to public speaking. Answer: (1) Stop worrying about being perfect—everyone makes mistakes. (2) Prepare more material than necessary. Extra knowledge will reduce your anxiety. (3) Practice. The more familiar you are with your material, the less nervous you will be. (4) Visualize your success. Use the few minutes before you start to tell yourself that you're ready. (5) Remember to breathe. (6) Be ready with your opening line. Have your first sentence memorized and ready to go. (7) Be comfortable. (8) Take a three-second break if you sense that you're starting to race. (9) Maintain eye contact with friendly audience members. (10) Keep going—things usually get better as you move along and your confidence increases.