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Converters in PMSG Wind Power System

Tan Luong VAN 1 , Thanh Dung NGUYEN 2 , Thanh Trang TRAN 2,3 , Huy Dung NGUYEN 4

1

Faculty of Electronics and Telecommunications, Sai Gon University, 273 An Duong Vuong,

Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

2

Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Van Hien University, 665-667-669 Dien Bien Phu,

Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

3

National Key Lab of Digital Control and System Engineering, Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology,

268 Ly Thuong Kiet, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

4

Faculty of Electronics and Automatic Control Engineering, Ho Chi Minh City Electric Power College,

554 Ha Huy Giap, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

dungthd2@yahoo.com

DOI: 10.15598/aeee.v13i2.1161

Abstract. This paper proposes a control scheme of such as no gearbox, high precision, high power density,

back-to-back PWM converters for the permanent mag- and simple control method, except initial installation

net synchronous generator (PMSG) wind turbine sys- costs [1], [2].

tem. The DC-link voltage can be controlled at the

As the scale of wind farms becomes larger and larger,

machine-side converter (MSC), while the grid-side con-

the condition of the grid-connected wind turbines is

verter (GSC) controls the grid active power for a max-

more important. Recently, some countries have issued

imum power point tracking (MPPT). At the grid fault

the dedicated grid codes for connecting the wind tur-

condition, the DC-link voltage controller is designed

bine system to the grid [3], [4]. Also, the smart-grid

using a feedback linearization (FL) theory. For the

and the micro-grid have been researched for the effi-

MPPT, a proportional control loop is added to the

ciency of the power management [5], [6]. However, the

torque control to reduce the influence of the inertia mo-

grid voltage in these systems is more fluctuated than

ment in the wind turbines, which can improve its dy-

that of the conventional grid. Therefore, an advanced

namic performance. The validity of this control algo-

control of the wind power generation system is required

rithm has been verified by the simulation of the 2-MW

for the grid abnormal conditions.

PMSG wind turbine system.

Several solutions have been proposed for the grid

faults in the variable-speed wind turbine systems. For

the low voltage ride-through (LVRT) purpose, a crow-

Keywords bar system consisting an external resistor is connected

in the rotor-side of the doubly-fed induction genera-

DC-link voltage, feedback linearization, MPPT, tor (DFIG) to absorb the active power during the grid

PMSG, sag, swell. fault [7], [8]. The wind turbine keeps operating to

produce the active power, whereas the reactive power

or the voltage at the grid connection is controlled by

the GSC. Nevertheless, during a grid fault and in the

1. Introduction case of a weak grid, the GSC cannot provide suffi-

cient reactive power or voltage support due to its small

In the recent years, the wind power generation has been power capacity and there is a risk of voltage instabil-

concerned as one of the most rapidly growing energy ity. Also, to guarantee the uninterrupted operation of a

sources in the world since the natural resources are DFIG wind turbine during the grid faults, a static syn-

becoming exhausted. In the variable-speed wind tur- chronous compensator (STATCOM) which is installed

bine (WT) systems, a direct-drive wind energy conver- at the point of common coupling (PCC) has been used

sion system based on PMSGs has a lot of advantages

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to inject the reactive power to the grid [9], [10], [11]. voltage, and the GSC controls the active power for the

However, it is not used alone for the DFIG ride-through MPPT.

capability since it cannot protect the rotor-side con-

In some cases, the DC-link voltage control is not

verter (RSC) during a grid fault. On the other words,

regarded as the nonlinear characteristics of the wind

it should be used in addition to the crowbar circuit

power system. By using feedback linearization (FL),

which protects the RSC from the rotor over-current

a linearized system is obtained and then the DC-link

when the grid fault happens.

voltage can be designed by the classical linear control

For the PMSG wind turbine systems, a brak- theory.

ing chopper (BC) with the low cost advantage

For MPPT, in the conventional optimal torque con-

and the simple control has been employed for the

trol method, the torque reference is proportional to

LVRT [12], [13], [14]. However, it is not so easy to

the square of the generator speed and the generator

improve the power quality at the output of the wind

torque is controlled to reach its optimal value which

turbine systems since the BC can just dissipate the

corresponds to the maximum power conversion coef-

power with no capability of returning the power to the

ficient [19], [20]. Due to the relatively low variation

system. Moreover, the STATCOM has been applied

of the generator speed in the large wind turbines, the

to maintain the wind turbine system connected to the

variation of the generator power is also narrow. The

grid during the grid faults [15]. By using this method,

shortcoming of the optimal torque control is the slow

the regulation of the voltage is considerably improved

response time for wind speed variations.

in both the transient state and the steady-state. How-

ever, the STATCOM can not be used alone without The aforementioned MPPT methods are based on

the BC. Another different solution which employs the the steady state characteristics where the effect of the

energy storage system (ESS) can not only offer a ride- turbine inertia is ignored. Thus, a new method has

through capability but also suppress the output power been proposed for the fast MPPT performance, in

fluctuation of the wind turbine systems [16]. In this which the large inertia effect of the wind turbine was

method, in order to reduce the ESS power capacity investigated. A proportional controller is added to the

that it can absorb the full differential power during the torque control to decrease the effect of the moment of

grid voltage fault, the generator speed can be increased inertia of the wind turbines. To verify the effectiveness

to store the kinetic energy in the system inertia. How- of the proposed algorithm, the simulation results for

ever, the ESS power capacity required for the LVRT is the 2-MW PMSG wind turbine system are provided.

still higher than the level of output power fluctuation

This paper is organized as follows. The modeling

in the wind turbine systems. So, the designed power

of the wind turbine systems is described in Section

capacity of the ESS will be fully utilized only under

2. Next, the PMSG control system consisting of

deep voltage sags for a short time, which occur rarely.

conventional method and proposed method for both

Therefore, this ESS system designed for the extreme

machine-side converter and grid-side converter is an-

case is too expensive.

alyzed in Section 3. Then, the simulation results

In the PMSG wind turbine system, the generator is for the PMSG wind turbine system are investigated in

connected to the grid through the full-scale back-to- Section 4. Finally, the conclusion is presented in

back PWM converters. Normally, DC-link voltage is Section 5.

controlled to be a constant at the grid-side converter,

while the machine-side converter controls the active

power. For grid voltage faults, the grid-side converter

(GSC) in the conventional control method may be out 2. Modeling of Wind Turbine

of control. When the grid fault happens, the DC-link

voltage is excessively increased due to the continuous

Systems

operation of WT and generator. However, the overall

generated power cannot deliver to the grid fully. 2.1. Modeling of Wind Turbines

A few researches have been presented that the DC-

link voltage control schemes are employed at the The output power of WT (Pt ) is determined as [20]:

machine-side converter instead of the grid-side con-

verter [17], [18]. By increasing the generator speed 1

Pt = ρπR2 Cp (λ, β)V 3 , (1)

during the grid voltage sag, the DC-link voltage can 2

be controlled to be constant. However, the response

of the DC-link voltage is still not good although a hy- where ρ is the air density [kg · m−3 ], R is the radius of

brid adaptive PI controller is applied, depending on blade [m], V is the wind speed [m · s−1 ], and Cp (λ, β)

the relationship between the power and energy [17]. In is the power conversion coefficient which is a function

the proposed method, the MSC controls the DC-link of the tip-speed ratio (T SR) and the pitch angle (β),

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dIqs

Rωt Vqs = Rs Iqs + Ls + ωr Lq Ids + ωr λf , (7)

λ= . (2) dt

V

where Ids and Iqs are d, q-axis stator currents, Rs and

The Cp (λ, β) is expressed as: Ls are stator resistance and inductance, Ld and Lq

are d, q-axis inductance, λf is magnet flux, and ωr is

Cp (λ, β) electrical angular speed.

(3) For the generator with surface-mounted permanent

1 1

= c1 c2 − c3 β − c4 β c5 − c6 exp −c7 , magnets, d- and q-axis inductances are the same.

Λ Λ

Then, the electromagnetic torque Te is expressed as:

where

1 1 0.035 3p

= − (4) Te = λf Iqs , (8)

Λ λ + 0.08β 1 + β3 22

and c1 − c7 are the constants [21]. where p is the number of poles.

The turbine torque can be expressed as: The output electrical power can be calculated as:

1 Cp (λ, β) 2

Tt = ρπR3 V . (5) Pg = 1.5(Vqs Iqs + Vds Ids ). (9)

2 λ

turbine systems is expressed as [23], [24]:

dωt

Tt = Jt + Tg + Bt ωt , (10)

dt

where Jt is the combined inertia of the turbine and

generator, Bt is the damping coefficient of turbine, ωt is

the rotor speed of wind turbine, and Tg is the generator

torque.

Converter for Constant DC

Fig. 1: Wind turbine characteristics: (a) Pt −ωt curve, (b) Cp − Voltage

λ curve.

1) Conventional DC-Link Voltage Control

The WT is characterized by (Pt − ωt ) and (Cp − λ)

curves as shown in Fig. 1. In Fig. 1(b), the power The control loop of the pulse-width modulation

coefficient, Cpmax , has its maximum value at the opti- (PWM) converter usually consists of the outer DC-

mal TSR, λopt . Thus, to maximize the Cp , the WECS link voltage controller and inner AC input current con-

must operate at the λopt . However, when the wind troller. The IP DC-link voltage controller is preferred

speed changes, the TSR is out of the optimal value. since it gives less overshoot than the PI-type [26]. The

To keep the optimal TSR, the rotational speed needs controller output is given by:

to be adjusted by the control system. Z

∗ ∗ Pout

Iqs = [−Kp Vdc + Ki (Vdc − Vdc )dt] + . (11)

1.5Vqs

2.2. Modeling of PMSG

The last term in Eq. (11) is a feed-forward control

The stator voltage equations of the PMSG are

component for output power (Pout ). The power bal-

expressed in the synchronous d − q coordinates

ance of the input and output of the DC-link is ex-

as [22], [23], [24]:

pressed as:

2

dIds C dVdc

Vds = Rs Ids + Ls − ωr Ld Iqs , (6) = Pin − Pout , (12)

dt 2 dt

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where C is the DC-link capacitance, Pin is the input where Pg is the generator power, Pgrid is the grid

power of the PWM inverter, which is obtained from power, Pg.loss is the generator loss, Pcap is the DC-

Eq. (9). link capacitor power, Vdc is the DC-link voltage, C is

the DC-link capacitor.

For the PMSG, to achieve maximum torque control

sensitivity, and improve dynamic machine response, From Eq. (18) and Eq. (19), a dynamic equation for

d−axis current (Ids ) in Eq. (9) is controlled to zero. the PMSG wind turbine system is expressed as:

Thus, Eq. (9), Eq. (11) and Eq. (12) are expressed as:

dωt dVdc

Pgrid = Pt −Jt ωt −Bt ωt2 −Pg.loss −CVdc . (20)

dt dt

2 Z

C dVdc ∗

= 1.5Vqs [−Kp Vdc + Ki (Vdc − Vdc )dt]. (13)

2 dt A nonlinear relation between Vdc and ωt is shown

in Eq. (19). This nonlinear equation can be linearized

Expanding Taylor series of the DC-link voltage at op- using a feedback linearization theory, which will be de-

erating point(Vdc0 ) and neglecting higher-order terms, scribed in the following section.

2 2

Vdc = Vdc0 + 2(Vdc − Vdc0 ). (14)

3) Feedback Linearization

From Eq. (13) and Eq. (14), the transfer function

of the DC-link voltage and its reference can be derived A single-input and single-output nonlinear system is

from power balance of the input and output of the DC- expressed as [27], [28]:

link as [26]:

ẋ = f (x) + g(x)u, (21)

1.5Vqs Ki

CVdc ∗

Vdc (s)

∗ = y = h(x), (22)

Vdc (s) 1.5Vqs Kp 1.5Vqs Kp

s2 + s +

CVdc ∗ ∗

CVdc (15) where x is the state vector, u is the control input, y

is the output, f and g are the smooth vector fields,

ωn2 respectively, and h is the smooth scalar function.

= 2 ,

s + 2ξωn s + ωn2 The nonlinear equations in Eq. (18) and Eq. (19) are

expressed in the form of Eq. (21) as follows:

where Vqs = Vmax is the q−axis generator output volt-

age, ωn is the undamped natural frequency and ξ is Pgrid

1

˙dc

V − CV

the damping ratio. From Eq. (15), the proportional dc CVdc

= +

·Pg . (23)

and integral gains are obtained as:

P 1

ω̇t P t

Jt ωt − B ω

t t

Jt − g.loss

Jt ωt

− Jωm

∗

CVdc

Kp = 2ξωn , (16)

1.5Vqs

In Eq. (23), the DC-link voltage is selected as an

∗ output. For the linearization, a relation between input

CVdc

Ki = ωn2 . (17) and output should be delivered. So, the output y in

1.5Vqs

Eq. (22) is differentiated as [29]:

In this research, the controller gains are selected as ẏ = Oh(f + g · u) = Lf h(x) + Lg h(x) · u, (24)

Kp = 14.21 and Ki = 803.87 by setting ξ = 0.707 and

ωn = 80 [rad/s], which are selected by experience. where Lf h(x) and Lg h(x) represent Lie derivatives of

h(x) with respect to f (x) and g(x), respectively. The

2) Nonlinear Modeling Lie derivative is defined as [29]:

∂h

To design the DC-link voltage controller, the dynamic Lf h = Ohf = · f. (25)

∂x

characteristics of wind turbines in the PMSG wind

power system are considered. Neglecting the converter

If Lf h and Lg h are replaced to A(x) and E(x), the

loss, the generator power and the DC-link capacitor

output of the system is obtained as:

power can be expressed as:

dωt ẏ = A(x) + E(x)u, (26)

P g = Pt − J t ω t − Bt ωt2 − Pg.loss , (18)

dt where

dVdc 1 1

Pcap = CVdc = Pg − Pgrid , (19) A(x) = − Pgrid and Ex = . (27)

dt CVdc CVdc

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If a control input u is chosen as: PMSG, the cascaded control structure of the machine-

side converter is composed of the outer generator power

u = E −1 (x)[−A(x) + v], (28) control loop and the inner current control loop. In or-

der to obtain maximum torque at a minimum current,

where v is the equivalent control input to be specified. the d−axis reference current component is set to zero

The resultant dynamics become linear as: and then the q−axis current is proportional to the ac-

tive generator power, which is determined by the DC-

ẏ = v. (29) link voltage controller.

parameter variations, the new control input with an

integral control is given by:

Z

v = ẏ ∗ − k1 e − k2 e dt, (30)

and k2 are the controller gains.

If the all gains of k1 and k2 are positive, the tracking

error converges to zero. From Eq. (30), we obtain error

dynamics as:

the controller gains are determined and asymptotic

tracking control to the reference is achieved [27], [30]. 3.2. Control of Grid-Side Converter

It is assumed that the solution of Eq. (30) is expressed for MPPT

as:

s1,2 = −α ± jβ (α > 0, β > 0). (32) 1) Optimal Torque Control

j50 which are based on experience, the gains can be

obtained as k1 = 1.5 and k2 = 81.3.

unbalanced grid voltage, in which the generator power

delivered to the grid is restricted. During this grid fault Fig. 3: Wind turbine modeling including the optimal torque

control.

duration, the wind turbine and generator should keep

operating as if they do in the normal condition. Thus,

the power transferred from the generator side may For the small signal analysis, applying a small per-

make an increase in the DC-link voltage. Differently turbation at the operating point (ωt0 , β0 , V0 ) to the tur-

from the conventional control of the AC/DC converter, bine torque in Eq. (10):

the DC-link voltage is controlled by the machine-side

d(ωto + δωt )

converter instead of the GSC. The basic principle is (Tto + δTt ) = Jt

dt (33)

that the generator-side converter should try to adjust

the generator output power to balance the load power +Bt (ωto + δωt ) + (Tgo + δTg ).

need, such that the dc-link voltage can be maintained.

From Eq. (23) to Eq. (32), the block diagram of the As mentioned above, the turbine torque is a function

proposed nonlinear DC-link voltage control is partially of the wind speed, generator speed and pitch angle.

shown in Fig. 2. Unlikely the conventional method, Making the partial derivative from Eq. (5), the turbine

the generator power reference is produced through the torque is expressed as [13]:

DC-link voltage controller instead of the maximum

power point tracking controller. For vector control of a δTt = −Br · δωt + kr,β · δβ + kr,V · δV, (34)

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denotes the gain between the pitch angle and the tur-

bine torque, and kr,V is the gain between the wind

speed and the turbine torque. From Eq. (33) and

Eq. (34), the mechanical torque is rewritten as:

dδωt

Jt +(Bt +Br )δωt = Kr,β δβ −δTg +Kr,V δV. (35)

dt

The generator torque reference from the turbine Fig. 4: Wind turbine modeling including the proposed torque

control.

speed is expressed as:

where

where Jt Bt

3 Jt0 = and Bt0 = (41)

1 R 1 + Kp 1 + Kp

Kopt = ρACp max . (37)

2 λopt and Kp is a proportional gain which determines the

transient performance of the MPPT control.

In the optimal torque control, the torque reference

of the PMSG is linearized at the operating point as It is noticed from Eq. (41) that the inertia moment

follows: (Jt0 ) and the damping coefficient (Bt0 ) are effectively

decreased by the proportional gain, which makes the

Tg∗ (= Tg ) = Tg0 + δTg dynamic response faster. Thus, a large-inertia wind

= Kopt (ωt0 + δωt )2 (38) turbine system can be controlled similarly to a small-

2

≈ Kotp ωt0 + 2Kopt ωt0 δωt , scale one under the torque capability of the system. In

this research, the gain is empirically selected by a trial

where ωt0 is the rotor speed at the operating point. and error, which is 1 for the simulation.

From Eq. (35) and Eq. (38), the transfer function Figure 5(a) and Fig. 5(b) show the MPPT control

between the turbine torque and the rotor speed which block diagrams for the optimal torque control method

are shown in Fig. 3 is obtained as: and the proposed torque control method, respectively.

The torque reference multiplied by the turbine speed

δωt 1

G(s) = = . (39) (ωt ) obtains the optimal power reference. This MPPT

δTt Jt s + Bt + Br + 2Kopt ωt0 control block diagram can be substituted into the cor-

responding part in Fig. 4.

2) Proposed Torque Control

the optimal torque control is restricted since the tur-

bine speed determines the torque reference. To improve

the performance of the MPPT control in the transient

state, the difference between the turbine torque and

the generator torque needs to be large so that the sys-

tem can accelerate or decelerate quickly. In addition,

the MPPT control method has to keep the Cp to be at

the maximum value at the steady state. To satisfy this

requirement, a proportional controller is added to the

optimal torque controller. Then, Fig. 3 is modified to

Fig. 4. From this model, the generator torque reference

is calculated for the MPPT control.

This controller is effective only in the transient state

and its effect vanishes in the steady state where the

proposed controller has the same characteristics as the

optimal torque one described above. With the propor- Fig. 5: Block diagram of MPPT control. (a) Optimal torque

tional control loop, the transfer function in Eq. (39) is control. (b) Proposed torque control.

modified as:

δωt 1 Figure 6 depicts the effect of the inertia on the tur-

G0 (s) = = 0 , (40) bine system according to the rotational speed, at the

δTt Jt s + Bt0 + Br + 2Kopt ωt0

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From Eq. (20) and Eq. (42), the grid power reference

is given by:

∗ ∗ ωt dωt

Pgrid = Tg_n · ωt − Jt

dt

(43)

Vdc dVdc

−Bt ωt2 − Pg.loss − C .

dt

∗

ence (Pgrid ) is obtained by applying the MPPT method

from the wind turbines.

Voltage

Fig. 6: Inertia effect on the turbine system with and without

an added proportional gain. In unbalanced grid voltage conditions, the positive-

sequence voltage component in the stationery reference

frame is expressed as [31], [32]:

wind speed of 10 [m · s−1 ], with or without an added

proportional control loop, in which the maximum value + 1 (2e − e − e ) − 1√

(e − egc )

ega 6 ga gb gc j2 3 ga

of the power coefficient, Cpmax is 0.41 at the optimal

TSR of 7.95. + 1 1√

6 (2egb − egc − ega ) − (e − e )

e = gc ga ,

gb

j2 3

For the conventional optimal torque control method,

an inertial torque (Tj ), which leads to acceleration or e+

gc

1

6 (2egc − ega − egb ) −

1√

(e ga − e gb )

j2 3

deceleration of the turbine system, is determined by the (44)

+

difference between the turbine torque and generator where ega , egb , egc and e+ +

ga , egb , egc are the instan-

torque (Tt − Tg∗ ). taneous grid voltages and the positive-sequence com-

It is noted that the electrical power varies faster than ponents, respectively. The j in Eq. (44) means the

the mechanical one due to the turbine and generator phase shift of 90 degrees, which is obtained by using

inertia. If an inertia is large, any change of the tur- all-pass filters [32]. The d-axis voltage calculated from

bine speed will cause a large variation of the generator the positive-sequence component of the grid voltages

power. Then, the kinetic energy is absorbed or released is controlled to be zero, from which the reference grid

so slowly that the performance of the MPPT becomes phase angle for control is determined [31].

slow. Thus, a proportional controller is employed to re- The apparent power delivered to the grid under un-

duce the effects of the inertia moment and the damping balanced conditions is expressed in terms of the posi-

coefficient. With the proposed torque control method, tive and negative sequence components as [33]:

whose block diagram is shown in Fig. 5(b), if the kp

is selected to be 1 as aforementioned, the generator S = 1.5(ejωt e+ −jωt −

∗ dqs + e edqs )

torque reference is decreased to Tg_n . Then, the iner- (45)

tial torque is increased to TJ_n to accelerate the tur- ·(ejωt i+ −jωt − ∗

dqs + e idqs ) ,

bine system more quickly. As can be seen from Fig. 6,

an inertial torque in the proposed method is larger than

where the superscript of “∗” represents a complex con-

that of the optimal torque control method. Thus, the

jugate value, and the superscripts “+” and “−” are the

acceleration of the rotor will be faster.

positive- and negative-sequence components, respec-

tively.

Thus, the apparent power is divided into the active

3) Grid Power Reference power p(t) and the reactive power q(t) [33].

As shown in Fig. 5(b), the maximum power of the wind p(t) = P0 + Pc2 cos(2ωt) + Ps2 sin(2ωt), (46)

turbine is calculated as:

∗

Pt = Tg_n · ωt . (42) q(t) = Q0 + Qc2 cos(2ωt) + Qs2 sin(2ωt), (47)

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the dual current controller for positive- and negative-

P0 = 1.5(Ed+ Id+ + Eq+ Iq+ + Ed− Id− + Eq− Iq− ), sequence components is shown in Fig. 7 [33].

Pc2 = 1.5(Ed+ Id− + Eq+ Iq− + Ed− Id+ + Eq− Iq+ ),

Ps2 = 1.5(Ed+ Iq− − Eq+ Id− − Ed− Iq+ + Eq− Id+ ),

4. Simulation Studies

Q0 = 1.5(−Ed+ Iq+ + Eq+ Id+ − Ed− Iq− + Eq− Id− ),

Qc2 = 1.5(−Ed+ Iq− + Eq+ Id− − Ed− Iq+ + Eq− Id+ ),To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, the

Qs2 = 1.5(Ed+ Id−

+ Eq+ Iq−

− Ed− Id+

− simulation has been carried out using the PSIM soft-

Eq− Iq+ ).

ware for a 2-MW PMSG wind turbine. The parameters

of the wind turbine and generator are listed in Tab. 1

From Eq. (46) and Eq. (47), the power (P0 , Q0 , Ps2 , and Tab. 2, respectively. The DC-link voltage is con-

Pc2 ) can be represented in a matrix form as: trolled at 1,300 V, the DC-link capacitance is 0.1 F,

the switching frequency is 2 kHz, and the grid voltage

Eq+ Ed− Eq−

+

Id+

P0 Ed

is 690 Vrms /60 Hz.

Q0 Eq − E + Eq− − E − Iq+

+

d d Tab. 1: Parameters of wind turbine.

= . (48)

− + −

− +

Rated power 2 MW

q − Ed − Eq Ed Id

Ps2 E

Blade radius 45 m

− − + + − Air density 1.225 kg· m−3

Pc2 Ed Eq Ed Eq Iq Max. power conv. coefficient 0.411

Cut-in speed 3 m/s

Cut-out speed 25 m/s

The second-order components of power (Pc2 , Ps2 ) Rated wind speed 10.6 m/s

due to the unbalanced grid voltage fluctuates not only Blade inertia 6.3 · 106 kg · m2

the DC-link capacitor power but also the real power

delivered to the grid. These two components are con-

Tab. 2: Parameters of 2 MW PMSG.

trolled to zero to eliminate the power fluctuations. The

∗

real power reference (P0 ) is obtained in Eq. (43). The Rated power 2 MW

reactive power reference (Q∗0 ) can be determined from Grid voltage 690 V

unity power factor operation or the grid requirements. Stator voltage/frequency 690 V/60 Hz

Stator resistance 0.008556 Ω

Therefore, the positive- and negative-sequence compo- d-axis inductance 0.00359 H

nents of the current references are expressed as: q-axis inductance 0.00359 H

∗

Id+ Ed+ Ed− Eq−

∗

Eq+

Pgrid

+∗ +

Iq Eq − E + Eq− − Ed−

Q∗

4.1. Proposed MPPT Control

d 0

∗ = −

. (49)

I − E −

− Eq+ Ed+

Figure 8 and Fig. 9 show the dynamic responses of the

d q − Ed

0

optimal torque control (conventional control method)

and the proposed torque control methods, respec-

Iq−∗ Ed− Eq− Ed+

Eq+ 0

tively, when the wind speed changes from 6 m · s−1 to

8 m · s−1 at 20 s and back to 6 m · s−1 at 50 s. For the

easy investigation, the grid is assumed to be normal.

Also, the damping coefficient is neglected in the simu-

lation.

Figure 8(b) shows the power conversion coefficient,

CP , which is recovered to CP max in 1.5 s after the

sudden drop at 20 s. Meanwhile, it takes just 0.6 s

for the proposed torque control method. Compared

with the optimal torque control method, the CP in the

proposed method gives the faster response during the

step-wise change of the wind speed. Also, the actual

turbine power Pt as shown in Fig. 8(c) reaches steady

state after 1.5 sec, while it takes just 0.5 sec for the

proposed torque control method (Fig. 9(c)).

Fig. 7: Control block diagram of the grid-side converter.

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Fig. 8: Responses of optimal torque control in step-wise wind Fig. 9: Responses of proposed torque control in stepwise wind

speed variation: (a) wind speed, (b) power conversion speed variation: (a) wind speed, (b) power conversion

coefficient, (c) actual and maximum available turbine coefficient, (c) stator active power, (d) turbine torque,

power, (d) generator power, (e) generator torque and generator torque and generator torque reference, (e) ac-

generator torque reference, (f) turbine torque, (g) rotor tual and maximum available turbine power, (f) genera-

speed, (h) DC-link voltage. tor speed.

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power is also varied, and then, reaches the steady state

after 4.4 sec. However, in the proposed torque con-

trol method as shown in Fig. 9(d), this value gives the

faster performance than that of the conventional con-

trol method.

The actual generator torque, generator torque refer-

ence, and the turbine torque are illustrated Fig. 8(e)

and Fig. 8(f), respectively. With the conventional

method, the generator torque follows its reference value

and reaches the steady state after 4.5 s. But, with the

proposed method, the actual generator torque, the gen-

erator torque reference and turbine torque as shown in

Fig. 9(e) and Fig. 9(f), respectively, becomes better

when compared with the conventional one. With the

same pattern of the wind speed, the generator speed in

both cases is increased. However, as shown in Fig. 9(g),

the generator speed in the proposed method accelerates

faster than it does in the optimal torque control one, as

illustrated in Fig. 8(g). As a result, more turbine power

can be captured. The proposed torque control method

provides better performance than the optimal torque

control one in transient state due to the proportional

controller.

By applying the feedback linearization at the MSC,

the generator is controlled to keep the DC-link voltage

to follows its reference well and is maintained within

variation of less than 1 %, as illustrated in Fig. 8 and

Fig. 9(h).

voltage sag: (a) grid voltage, (b) magnified waveform

of the grid voltage, (c) magnified waveform of posi-

tive q-axis voltage, (d) grid phase angle, (e) positive

and negative sequence d − q axis voltage, (f) genera-

Fig. 10: Comparison of performance responses between opti- tor speed, (g) turbine and grid power, (h) turbine and

mal torque control method and proposed torque con- generator power, (i) DC-link voltage.

trol method: (a) power conversion coefficient, (b) gen-

erator output power, (c) Energy.

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of the power conversion coefficient, generator out-

put power and energy, with the same wind profile as

Fig. 8(a), for both optimal torque control and proposed

torque control methods. As can be seen, the MPPT

using the proposed torque control method gives good

performance. It is evaluated that the average power

conversion coefficient with the proposed torque control

method is 0.63 % higher than that of using the optimal

torque control one. Also, with the proposed method,

the energy production is also 0.43 % larger than that

of with the optimal torque control method. Of course,

the energy production will depend on the wind speed

profile and the proportional gain, etc.

balanced voltage sag, in which the wind speed is as-

sumed to be constant (8 m · s−1 ) for easy examination.

The fault condition is 70 % sag in the grid A-phase

voltage for 1 sec (60 cycles), which is between the point

"a" to "b" as shown in Fig. 11(a). Figure 11(b) and

Fig. 11(c) shows the magnified grid voltages and the

magnified grid positive q-axis, respectively, for 6 cycles

just before and after fault. Also, the grid phase an-

gle for control using the phase locked-loop algorithm

under unbalance conditions [31], [32] is illustrated in

Fig. 11(d). Fig. 11(e) shows the positive- and negative-

sequence d − q axis voltages. Due to the grid unbal-

anced voltage sag, the positive-sequence q-axis voltage

is reduced and the negative-sequence d−q voltage com-

ponents appear. During the grid fault duration, the

generator speed is increased to keep the DC-link volt-

age constant as shown in Fig. 11(f). Also, the grid, gen-

erator and turbine powers are illustrated in Fig. 11(g)

and Fig. 11(h). Figure 11(i) shows the DC-link voltage

response, where the maximum voltage variation at the

transient state is about 3.1 %.

unbalance voltage drops (30%-phase A, 40%-phase B,

50%-phase C): (a) Grid voltage, (b) magnified wave-

form of the grid voltage, (c) magnified waveform of

positive q-axis voltage, (d) grid phase angle, (e) posi-

tive and negative sequence d − q axis voltage, (f) gen-

erator speed, (g) turbine and grid power, (h) turbine

Fig. 12: Performance of DC-link voltage control with: (a) PI and generator, (i) DC-link voltage.

control, (b) FL control.

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both the PI control and feedback linearization control

in the same grid fault condition (70 % sag in the grid

A-phase). The proposed method gives faster transient

response and lower overshoot (3.1 % of the maximum

DC-link voltage variation using the feedback lineariza-

tion control is compared with 6.9 % of its variation

using the PI control).

Figure 13 shows the performance of the system for

grid unbalanced voltage sags which are 30 %, 40 %,

and 50 % for phase-A, B-phase, and C-phase voltages,

respectively, for 1 second, which is between the point

"a" to "b" as shown in Fig. 13(a). Figure 13(b) and

Fig. 13(c) shows the magnified grid voltages and the

magnified grid positive q-axis, respectively, for 6 cy-

cles just before and after fault. Also, the reference

grid phase angle using the phase locked-loop algorithm

during transient states as well as unbalance condi-

tions [31], [32] is shown in Fig. 13(d). Figure 13(e)

illustrates the positive- and negative-sequence d−q axis

voltages, in which the positive-sequence q-axis voltage

is reduced during the grid fault duration. Figure 13(f)

shows the generator speed which is increased to main-

tain the DC-link voltage to follow its reference. The

turbine, generator and grid powers are illustrated in

Fig. 13(g) and Fig. 13(h). Figure 13(i) shows the DC-

link voltage response, in which its voltage variation is

controlled within 0.38 %.

Figure 14 shows the comparison of the responses of

the DC-link voltage for both the conventional PI con-

trollers and the feedback linearization method in the

same grid fault condition (30 %, 40 %, and 50 % sags

for phase-A, B-phase, and C-phase voltages, respec-

tively). It is apparent that the proposed method gives

faster response and lower overshoot than the conven-

tional PI (0.38 % of the variation of the DC-link voltage

using the feedback linearization control is compared

with 1.15 % of its variation using the PI control).

voltage swell: (a) grid voltage, (b) magnified waveform

of the grid voltage, (c) magnified waveform of posi-

tive q-axis voltage, (d) grid phase angle, (e) positive

and negative sequence d − q axis voltage, (f) genera-

tor speed, (g) turbine and grid power, (h) turbine and

generator, (i) DC-link voltage.

Fig. 14: Performance of DC-link voltage control with: (a) PI

control, (b) FL control.

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a grid unbalanced voltage swell. The fault condition is

10 % swell in the grid A-phase voltage for 1 sec (60 cy-

cles), which is between the point "a" to "b" as shown

in Fig. 15(a). The magnified grid voltages and the

magnified grid positive q-axis for 6 cycles just before

and after fault are shown in Fig. 15(b) and Fig. 15(c),

respectively. In addition, the grid phase angle for con-

trol under fault conditions is illustrated in Fig. 15(d).

Figure 15(e) shows the positive- and negative-sequence

d − q axis voltages. The positive-sequence q-axis volt-

age is increased and the negative-sequence d − q volt-

age components occur due to the grid unbalanced volt-

age swell. As shown in Fig. 15(f), the generator speed

is increased to maintain the DC-link voltage constant

during the fault duration. Also, the grid, generator

Fig. 16: Performance of DC-link voltage control with: (a) PI

and turbine powers are illustrated in Fig. 15(g) and control, (b) FL control.

Fig. 15(h). Figure 15(i) shows the response of the DC-

link voltage, in which the variation of the maximum

voltage at the transient state is about 0.385 %. References

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About Authors

[25] VAN, T. L. Power quality control of variable-speed

wind turbines systems. Gyeongsan, Korea: Yeung- Tan Luong VAN was born in Vietnam. He received

nam University, 2012. Ph.D. thesis. the B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees in electrical engineering

from Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology, Ho

[26] SUL, S. Control of electric machine drive sys-

Chi Minh city, Vietnam, in 2003 and 2005, respec-

tem. New York: Wiley-IEEE Press, 2011.

tively, and Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from

ISBN 9780470876541.

Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, South Korea in

[27] LEE, D.-C., G.-M. LEE and K.-D. LEE. DC- 2013. His research interests include power converters,

bus voltage control of three-phase ac/dc PWM machine drives, wind power generation, power quality

converters using feedback linearization. IEEE and power system.

Transactions on Industry Applications. 2000,

vol. 36, iss. 3, pp. 826–833. ISSN 0093-9994. Thanh Dung NGUYEN born in Vietnam in

DOI: 10.1109/28.845058. 1979. He received Engineer degree in program Electri-

cal and electronic engineering from Ho Chi Minh City

[28] DELFINO, F., F. PAMPARARO, R. PROCOPIO University of Technology and Education, Vietnam,

and M. ROSSI. A feedback linearization control in 2002, Master degree of Science in Electrical and

scheme for the integration of wind energy conver- electronic engineering, University of Transport and

sion systems into distribution grids. IEEE Systems Communications, Vietnam, in 2007, and Ph.D. degree

Journal. 2012, vol. 6, iss. 1, pp. 85–93. ISSN 1932- in Technical Cybernetics and Informatics from Tomas

8184. DOI: 10.1109/JSYST.2011.2163002. Bata University in Zlin in 2012. His research interests

include secure encryption, optimization, chaos syn-

[29] SLOTINE, J.-J. E. and W. LI. Applied nonlinear

chronization, and wind power generation system.

control. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1991.

ISBN 978-0130408907.

Thanh Trang TRAN was born in Vietnam in

[30] CHEN, C.-T. Linear system theory and design. 1979. He received the B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees in

Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999. ISBN 978- electrical –electronics engineering from Ho Chi Minh

0199959570. city University of Technology, National University in

Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam, in 2001 and 2004, respec-

[31] IBRAHIM, A. O., T. H. NGUYEN, D.-C. tively, and the Ph.D. degree in display engineering

LEE and S.-C. KIM. A fault ride-through from Yeungnam University, South Korea in 2012. His

technique of DFIG wind turbine systems research interests include modeling and simulation

using dynamic voltage restorers. IEEE of micro-nano electron devices, display engineering,

Transactions on Energy Conversion. 2011, photovoltaic systems, and renewable energy.

vol. 26, iss. 3, pp. 871–882. ISSN 0885-8969.

DOI: 10.1109/TEC.2011.2158102. Huy Dung NGUYEN was born in Vietnam.

He received B.Sc. degree in electrical engineering

[32] LEE, G.-M., D.-C. LEE and J.-K. SEOK. Con-

from Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology and

trol of series active power filters compensating

Education, Vietnam, in 1993. His research interests

for source voltage unbalance and current harmon-

include power converters and renewable energy.

ics. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics.

2004, vol. 51, iss. 1, pp. 132–139. ISSN 0278-0046.

DOI: 10.1109/TIE.2003.822040.

c 2015 ADVANCES IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING 95

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