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The Use Literary Local Texts in Teaching 21st Century Philippine Literature

An Action Research in Statistics

Kevin Lloyd V. Hijastro


Masters of Arts in Education
Major in English Language Teaching

Bukidnon State University


Graduate School
City of Malaybalay

I.
II. Abstract

III. Acknowledgement

IV. Context and Rationale

The increasing interest on utilizing local literary texts in teaching 21st century

Philippine literature is an educational trend that develops literary appreciation and language

learning of the students. Teaching and learning literature is hard enough if there is no

appropriate literary pieces especially the goal of the Department of Education nowadays in

teaching 21st century Philippine literature is through regional literature on the first part of the

subject as reflected in the curriculum guide. Where, the DepEd focus the literature teaching on

where the learner is belong and the school is located. However, the existing concerns of the

senior high school teachers of Isulan National High School are the availability of the Philippine

Literature books to be use in teaching, the suitability of literary pieces and the alignment of the

content to the learning competencies in the curriculum guide.

Efforts have undertaken in mainstreaming of the regional literature in educational

institution. The Department of Education through curriculum development has produced

locally the teaching materials and the approval is within the regional and division education

units. In fact, a National Seminar-Workshop on Best Practices in Teaching Contemporary

Philippine Literature from the Region opted to discuss and demonstrate strategies and describe

types of Philippine literature from various regions in terms of their human, cultural and social

significance in teaching contemporary Philippine Arts from the regions (DepEd Advisory no.

24 s. 2016).

Florentino (2014) reaveled that integrating local literature (Cordilleran) in the teaching

of English is culturally relevant literary pieces top the line of preferred literature. It is important
to develop a material that will address the specific needs of these pupils. An educator has to

consider factors that manifest and are appropriate to the thrusts of the current curriculum to

attain optimal learning. In the present action research, the researcher will utilize the local

literary texts of SOCSKSARGEN region that the students would appreciate since it is a

regional literature that is a local color from where they are belong.

Additionally, Florentino (2014) explores on integrating local literature (Cordilleran) in

the teaching of English. This study is done by looking at several factors affecting the choices

of teachers, determining the weaknesses of the learners particularly in English grammar

awareness, creating a sample appropriate activity to address the identified weak areas and the

data were collected primarily via survey, inter-rater and summative tests and treated through

descriptive statistics. The results revealed that the values laden, motivational, in line with the

subject matter, substantial, and culturally relevant literary pieces top the line of preferred

literature. It is important to develop a material that will address the specific needs of these

pupils. The local literature is selectively integrated in the prototype lesson guide issued to the

teachers in line with the objectives and the theme embracing each of the given activities that

will benefit the learners, especially in the Cordilleras, to make them rooted to their cultural

heritage thus attaining the primary objective of the curriculum currently in place. It important

to use local literary texts in teaching literature since it is locally based and the learners would

definitely relate based on the norms, traditions, culture and practices reflected in the genre of a

literary piece.

A study was conducted by Banez (2006) on pedagogical questions on whether recency

or relevance of literary texts in teaching Philippine Literature and the World in Senior High

School. He employed the survey type of descriptive research with a self-made questionnaire.

The result revealed that the respondents assessed both recency and relevance are important

considerations in selecting literary texts for literature instruction. It is also suggested based on
the result that “education program specialists who are in-charge of monitoring the literature

instruction may encourage senior high school teachers to consider both recency and relevance

in supplementing the curriculum guide in 21st Century Philippine and World Literature with

appropriate literary selections for the students” (p.86). It is important to the present study to

choose the local literary text written in contemporary that is recent and relevant to the 21st

century learners.

Contextualization refers to the educational process of relating the curriculum to a

particular setting, situation, or area of application to make the competencies relevant,

meaningful and useful to the learners (Torres, 2015).

Contextualization is defined as “a diverse family of instructional strategies designed to

more seamlessly link the learning of foundational skills and academic or occupational content

by focusing teaching and learning squarely on concrete applications in a specific context that

is of interest to the student” (Perin, 2011; E. Baker, Hope, and Karandjeff 2009; Mazzeo et al.,

2003, pp. 3–4).

Additionally, Perin, (2011) categorized contextualized instruction as employed by

instructors of reading, writing, and mathematics that aims to teach basic skills for the purpose

of meaningful application, the goal of integrated instruction is to teach the disciplinary content,

not basic skills; however, teaching basic skills is a necessary step toward critical thinking about

the content (Pearson, 2010). As instruction must be customize for specific contexts, both

approaches can require considerable effort on the part of instructors.

Moreover, Mouraz and Leite, (2013) posited contextualization as a prerequisite in

addressing the content and organization of activities to be undertake in the classroom. Students'

engagement in their schoolwork increases significantly, when they learn, why they are learning

the concepts and how those concepts can be use in real-world contexts. Where to contextualize,
teachers must use authentic materials, and anchor teaching in the context of learners’ lives,

(Bringas, 2014).

The localization of the curriculum can allow learning to become more meaningful and

relevant. It supports policy formulation and standard setting for reform of the curriculum and

the impact of this on teacher skills and knowledge. Localization will involve the use of local

materials both as the subject and as object of instruction. Localization will also involve making

the local culture an integral part of the curriculum. The promotion of localized curricula is a

way of encouraging such relevance in very different local, cultural and socio-economic

contexts. It is an important component of the decentralization of education, governance and

management (UNESCO,2010).

Regional literature is under the umbrella of core subject in Senior High School which

is 21st Century Philippine literature from the Philippines and the World, where the first quarter

of the semester focuses on 21st century Philippine Literature from the regions (DepEd, 2013).

It is organized into completely different literary periods with no historical named periods that

will enrich the discussion of every literary output. The subsequent literary periods presented

poems, plays, short stories and variety of essays of representative from the various regions

(Enriquez, 2006). In this study, the researcher will utilize the regional literatures as local

literary texts to be used in developing a supplementary instructional material.

The researcher believes that utilizing local literary texts from the regions would benefit

the teaching and learning process in teaching 21st century Philippine literature.

V. Proposed Innovation, Intervention and Strategy

It is now a trend to strengthen the development of locally produced materials in our

educational curriculum. This includes designing, indigenize and localized the learning resource

material considering the multi-ethnicity of the learners in the Philippines. It is call for every
teachers to gear themselves to participate in the leading innovations of the Department of

Education to produce instructional materials that would benefit their own learners in the

locality.

R.A. No. 10533 of 2009 includes standards and principles to which DepEd shall adhere

to develop the enhanced basic education curriculum, which shall be culture-sensitive,

contextualized and global, using pedagogical approaches that are constructivist, inquiry-based,

reflective, collaborative and integrative. Additionally, the curriculum allow schools to localize,

indigenize, enhance educational and social contexts to develop locally produced teaching

materials to the regional and division education units (DO no. 43, s. 2013, RA 10533). The

examples used in lessons start with those in the locality ; names, situations, setting needed to

give context to test questions or problem-solving exercises are those of the immediate

community ; local materials are used as often as possible in making instructional materials and

local stories are used in the language learning areas (DO 32, s.2015). The regional level and

division units shall encourage approving the production and development of locally produced

teaching materials.

The Learning Resource Management and Development System (LRMDS) developed

by the Department of Education provides the institution the access to quality and relevant

learning resource materials at all levels from regions, divisions, cluster/school level. LRMDS

includes information on quantity and quality and location of textbooks and supplementary

materials, and cultural expertise; access to learning, teaching and professional development

resources in digital format and locates resources in print format and hard copy; standards,

specifications, and guidelines from assessing and evaluating to the publication and delivery to

users.
VI. Action Research Questions

The main purpose of this action research is to test the effectiveness of the develop

Instructional Material in teaching 21st century Philippine Literature. The specific objectives are

the following:

1. What is the mean scores of the respondents in their pretest and posttest using traditional

and utilizing local literary text in the 21st century Philippine literature as instructional

materials;

2. Is there a significant difference between the pretest of the students according to control

group and experimental group?

3. Is there a significant difference between the posttest of the students in the control and

experimental group?

4. Is there a significant difference in the mean difference between the control and

experimental group?

VII. Action Research Methods


a. Participants and other Sources of Data and Information

The study will utilize a quasi-experimental specifically pre-test and post-test A set

of questionnaire is given for the Grade 12 students who are enrolled in two sections

HUMMS under the GAS strand.

The study will be conducted in Isulan National High School, the second biggest

public secondary school in the Division of Sultan Kudarat, Region XII where the teacher

is currently teaching. Isulan National High School Moreover, the school has 5,000 learners

including Junior High School and Senior High School who are enrolled for the school year
2018-2019. Furthermore, Senior High School has 1678 student population where 659 are

Grade 12 students.

b. Data Gathering Methods

Purposive sampling will be used in this study, where 60 participants will


randomly selected in two intact section in HUMMS. The scale will be adopted from the
guidelines which is anchored in the Classroom Assessment for the K to 12 Basic Education
Program (DepEd Order No.8 s.2015), which supports learners’ holistic development in
order for them to become effective lifelong learners with21st-century skills. This policy
aims to give all learners equal opportunity to excel in relation to the standard set by the
curriculum and focus on their own performance rather than to compete with one another. It
recognizes that all students have their unique strengths that need to be identified,
strengthened, and publicly acknowledged.

Table 3

Scoring Scheme for the students response on 21st Century Philippine Literature
Scale Qualitative Interpretation
Description
41-50 Outstanding Student has exemplary performance and
mastery on the activities of the 21st Century
Philippine Literature.
31-40 Very Satisfactory Student has high average performance and
mastery on the activities of the 21st Century
Philippine Literature.
21-30 Satisfactory Student has average performance and mastery
on the activities of the 21st Century Philippine
Literature.
11-20 Fairly Satisfactory Students has fair performance and mastery on
the activities of the 21st Century Philippine
Literature.
0-10 Did not meet Student has poor performance and mastery on
Expectations the activities of the 21st Century Philippine
Literature.

c. Data Analysis Plan


The research manuscript will be using instrument that are highly validated by
individuals who are masters of the academic schedule and the planning coordinator that
ensures the academic curriculum at the basis of thorough and proper implementation. After
the schedule has been agreed and set, questionnaires are yielded for the purpose of the
determination of the significance of the research variables. Written communication is as
well to be initiated to the principal for appropriate response of the study.

The researcher will use appropriate statistical treatments To determine the


effectiveness of the develop activities in the academic performance of students as well as
the teacher’s performance mean will be used.

VIII. Plans for Dissemination and Utilization


The proposed utilization of Local literary texts in teaching 21st century Philippine
literature will be introduced to the academe especially in Grade 12 Senior High
School of Isulan National High School through the administration. If found to be
effective and significant a collaborative scheme the respondents and the curriculum
planning committee will be enjoined to participate. Further, it would be a way to
train more teachers to develop their own instructional materials in the purpose of
serving a comprehensive, holistic and developed academic structure in consonance
to teaching learning process.
Table 1. Descriptive Statistics: Pre-test by Group
Variable Group N Mean StDev

Pre-test HUMMS3 50 30.22 6.705

HUMMS4 50 19.68 6.393

The table 1 shows that pretest of group 1 performed better compared to group 2. It
suggest that the group 1 has outstanding performance as observed in their mean result. It means
that the students have exemplary performance and mastery on the activities of the 21st Century
Philippine Literature.
It may happen that the group 1 is composed of students from HUMMS 3 which are very
much diligent in their studies and considered as independent learners compared to group 2
which are the HUMMS 4 students Meyer et.al (2008) found some evidence of the benefits of
independent learning, including: improved academic performance; increased motivation and
confidence; greater student awareness of their limitations and their ability to manage them; and
enabling teachers to provide differentiated tasks for students. In addition, Masui et. Al (2014)
in their study showed that academic performance in higher education influenced by
controllable variable, i.e. study time or being diligent. Meanwhile the table have shown the
standard deviation of the two groups are most likely similar. It means that the dispersion of
responses in each group are likely the same.

Table 2. Descriptive Statistics: Post-test by Group

Variable Group N Mean StDev


Post-test HUMMS 3 50 42.8 5.107
HUMMS 4 50 29.78 7.41

The table 2 shows the student mastery on the 21st century Philippine Literature
activities. As shown, the group 1 performed better compared to group 2. It suggests that the
group 1 were outstanding during the conduct of the activities. It means that the students have
exemplary performance and mastery on the activities of the 21st Century Philippine Literature.
On contrary, the group 2 performed less as suggested by their mean. Students from the different
groups differ in their responses. Group 1 are those students who received and used the
developed Instructional Materials to enhance the learning activities in teaching 21st century
Philippine Literature. Consequently, they achieve high performance compared to group 2 who
received traditional teaching materials on the said activity.

Two-Sample T-Test and CI: Pre-test, Group

Two-sample T for Pre-test

Group N Mean StDev T-Value P-Value

HUMMS 3 50 30.22 6.7


8.04 0.000
HUMMS 4 50 19.68 6.39

Table 3 Two-Sample T-Test and CI: Post-test, Group

Two-sample T for Post-test


Group N Mean StDev T-Value P-Value
HUMMS 3 50 42.8 5.11
HUMMS 4 50 29.78 7.41 10.23 0.000

The table 3 presents that the T-test results on the posttest of the students according to
their group. It reveals that there is a significant differences as suggested by their p-value=0.000
which is lower than 0.005 level of significance. Therefore, the null hypothesis, which tells that
‘both group 1 and group 2 have the same performance’, is not accepted. Hence, the alternative
hypothesis, which tells that ‘group 1 and group 2 have significant differences’, is accepted. In
consideration to the groups, group 1 have used the developed the Instructional Material for 21st
century Philippine Literature on their activities. On the other hand, group 2 used the traditional
Instructional Material that is not contextualized. Selga (2013) emphasized that the developed
instructional material contributes to the achievement of specific objectives of the subject, provides
for the development of higher cognitive skills, is well organized and well-designed, and it is suitable to
the vocabulary level and ability of the students.

Table 4 Two-Sample T-Test and CI: Post-test, Distance

Two-sample T for Post-test


Group N Mean StDev T-Value P-Value
HUMMS 3 54 36.41 9.35
HUMMS 4 46 36.15 8.91
0.14 0.889

The table 4 presents that the T-test results on the posttest of the students according to
their group. It reveals that there is no significant differences as suggested by their p-
value=0.889 which is higher than 0.005 level of significance. Therefore, the null hypothesis,
which tells that ‘group 1 and group 2 have no significant differences’, is not accepted. Hence
alternative hypothesis, which tells that ‘both group 1 and group 2 have the same performance
in terms of their distance’, is accepted. In consideration to the groups, group 1 and group 2
have no significant differences as shown in their p-value. Also, the scores are closely related
as shown in their means. It means that regardless of the distance either the students came from
the town proper or barrio, there is no significant differences in the learning of students specially
in the 21st century Philippine literature.

Table 5 One-way ANOVA: Post-test versus EconStat

Analysis of Variance for Post-test


Level N Mean StDev P-value
1 33 44.424 4.161
2 34 38.176 4.933 0.000
3 33 26.212 6.112

The table 5 presents that the Analysis of Variance on the posttest of the students
according to their economic status. It reveals that there is a significant differences as suggested
by their p-value=0.000 which is lower than 0.005 level of significance. Therefore, the null
hypothesis, which tells that ‘rich students, average students and poor students have the same
performances in the activities, is not accepted. Hence, the alternative hypothesis, which tells
that ‘rich students, average students and poor students have significant differences in the
activities’, is accepted.
In consideration to the level of the socio-economic status of the students, level 1
perform outstanding that student has exemplary performance and mastery on the activities of
the 21st century Philippine literature among other levels as shown in their mean. It also suggests
that the standard deviation or the scores are not scattered. On the other hand, level 2 which is
considered the average students perform very satisfactory that student has high average
performance and mastery on the activities of the 21st Century Philippine Literature.
Meanwhile, level 3 which is are the poor students perform satisfactory or that student has
average performance and mastery on the activities of the 21st Century Philippine Literature. It
suggest that learners who are poor perform less as shown in their means and their scores are
disperse or scattered as shown in the standard deviation.
It means that the rich students have more access on the instructional materials in
learning 21st century Philippine literature over the internet, online libraries and even can bought
books in the bookstore. On the other hand, average students in terms of their socio economic
status have limited access on the learning materials available online, books available and other
learning resources. Lastly, poor students have no access on the internet due to lack of internet
connection and no books available since they cannot purchase. Johnson (2011) emphasized
that Internet access and as children become more proficient with computers, teachers have the
opportunity to use the Internet to increase student learning. Thus, students can learn more
especially those have the access in the internet and financial stability who can purchase
instructional materials and books in the books store.

IX. References

Bañez, R.M. (2006). Recency or Relevance: A Quest for Pedagogical Framework in


Teaching Philippine and World Literature in Senior High School. Asia Pacific Journal
of Multidisciplinary Research, Vol. 4, No. 4, November 2016
Florentino, L.O. (2014). Integrating Local Literature in Teaching English to First Graders
under K-12 Curriculum. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, Vol. 4, No. 7, pp.
1344-1351, July 2014

Meyer, B. et.al (2008) What is independent learning and what are the benefits for students?
London: Department for Children, Schools and Families Research Report 051, 2008

Chris Masui, Jan Broeckmans, Sarah Doumen, Anne Groenen & Geert
Molenberghs (2014) Do diligent students perform better? Complex relations between student
andcourse characteristics, study time, and academic performance in higher education, Studies
inHigher Education, 39:4, 621-643, DOI: 10.1080/03075079.2012.721350

Selga M.C. R. (2013) Instructional Materials Development: A Worktext in Science, Technology and
Society. LCCB Development Education Journal of Multidisciplinary Research. Vol. 2 no. 1 (2013)

Johnson, M. (2011) USING THE INTERNET TO IMPROVE STUDENT LEARNING AND ACHIEVEMENT.
Retrieved from https://www.nmu.edu/sites/DrupalEducation/files/UserFiles/Files/Pre-
Drupal/SiteSections/Students/GradPapers/Projects/Johnson_Matt_MP.pdf