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Use of biomass for local district heating (Project 2)

Submitted to Assoc. Professor Dr. Salwan Dihrab


as part of the course of Biomass and Waste Energy

University of Le Havre

The Department of Science and Technology


Master 2 in Renewable Energy and Civil Engineering

Group Members

Charifa El Hadi, Renas Tücer, Omike Chima

01-11-2017

Le Havre

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Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION OF THE CASE .................................................................. 3


1.1 The details regarding chosen settlement......................................................... 3
1.2 Chosen Biomass and Technology Type ............................................................ 3
1.3 Heat Requirements of the settlement ........................................................... 4
1.4 Plant Design Capacity ...................................................................................... 4
CHAPTER 2. Power and Annual Energy Production of the Biogas Power Plant ....... 5
2.1 Needed count of dairy cattles and the source of biomass.............................. 8
CHAPTER 3. Placement of the CHP Biomass plant ....................................................... 9
3.1 Layout design ..................................................................................................... 9
CHAPTER 4. CONCLUSIONS ......................................................................................... 10
LITERATURE ...................................................................................................................... 11
APPENDICES...................................................................................................................... 11

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CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION OF THE CASE
1.1 The details regarding chosen settlement

Figure 1. Touffreville-sur-EU on the map

We chose Touffreville-sur-EU, it is a small village in the East of Le Havre (as can be seen in the map)
in the high Normandy region in the department of Seine-maritime with 197 inhabitants in 2016. It
consists a number of 83 houses and 0 flats, a school, a municipal building and a church. The total
surface area of city is 5.69 km2. In this village we have 20 detached houses and 60 row houses.

1.2 Chosen Biomass and Technology Type,

Due to the existence of regional livestock industry, the biogass obtained from the manure of dairy
cattle is decided to be used as fuel. According to the climatic analyze depending on degree days which
will be discussed later in this report, the settlement needs quite a stable heat energy during 6 months
and the heat requirement peaks in December and January while 4 months in summer there is almost
no need for heat energy. Based on this fact, we decided to build 3 boilers with each 200kW capacity
and the adjust operational capacity according to the season. Assuming there will be a constant
production of manure in the region, a CHP plant is decided to be built in order to use the biogas to
feed the electrical grid when there is no need for heating.

Figure 2. A simple sketch of a Biogas CHP Plant (Jørgensen, 2009)

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1.3 Heat Requirement of the settlement
Touffreville-sur-EU would need sufficient heat supply for a total of eighty-three (83) buildings. The
building categories are shown in the table below:

BUILDING NUMBER
CATEGORY
DETACHED HOUSE 20
(OLD)
ROW HOUSES 60
(OLD)
SCHOOL 1
MUNICIPALITY 1
CHURCH 1

The heat requirements of Touffreville-sur-EU can be calculated from the annual total heat
consumption or linear heat density [1]. This is useful in determining the amount of energy needed to
satisfy the heating or electricity needs of the village.

Annual total heat consumption = 𝑸𝒚 = 𝑸𝒉, 𝒚 + 𝑸𝒘, 𝒚 + 𝑸𝒑, 𝒚

Where

Qh,y = Annual heat consumption for space heating (From building heat Table)

Qw,y = Annual heat consumption for hot water (Arround 20% of Qh,y)

Qp,y = Annual pipe heat loss or the heat loss per meter of pipe W/m (around 15-25 % of Qh,y)

The annual total heat consumption (Qy) is usually measured in GJ. Based on the calculations made,
we estimated that the annual heat consumption for the village is 5178.6 GJ which is 1438.5MWh.

1.4 Plant Design Capacity


With an estimated value of the annual energy consumed by buildings, we calculated the plant design
capacity of the proposed biogas CHP plant. This can be determined using the formula below:

𝒏𝒉 𝒏𝒉

𝝓𝒓, 𝒅 = 𝑺 . ∑ 𝝓𝒊 + 𝑺𝜟 . ∑ 𝜟𝝓𝒊 + 𝝓𝒑
𝒊=𝟏 𝒊=𝟏

Where

𝝓𝒓, 𝒅 (kW) = Plant design capacity required

𝝓𝒊, kW (from the building heat table) = The capacity for heating of each consumer (house)

𝜟𝝓𝒊, kW = The capacity for hot water of each consumer (house)

𝝓𝒑 , kw = The pipe heat loss from the pipe network (arround 4% of 𝝓𝒊)

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S = Coincidence factor (not all consumers have the same requirement at the same time)

𝟎. 𝟑𝟖
𝑺 = 𝟎. 𝟔𝟐 +
𝒏𝒉
nh : number of houses

For industrial quarters, S can be equal to 1

For number of houses less than 50 then


𝒏𝒉−𝟎.𝟓 (𝟓𝟏−𝒏𝒉)
𝑺𝜟 = 𝟓𝟎

Where nh : number of houses

For number of houses more than 50, 𝑺𝜟 = 𝟎

From our calculations, our coincidence factor (S) for each building category is as shown below:

BUILDING CATEGORY NUMBER COINCIDENCE


FACTOR (S)
DETACHED HOUSE 20 0 (80 houses in
(OLD) total)

ROW HOUSES (OLD) 60 0 (80 houses in


total)
SCHOOL 1 1
MUNICIPALITY 1 1
CHURCH 1 1

Using the required formula, we obtained our plant design capacity value as 421KW.

NOTE: We used the building heating values that apply to Denmark because we could not obtain
corresponding building heating values for France.

CHAPTER 2. Power and Annual Energy Production of the Biogas CHP Plant

In the previous chapter, required annual heat energy and installed capacity was calculated as 1438.5
MWh and 421 kW respectively. In this chapter, this values are re-calculated taking the degree days
approach into account. Also, annual and monthly heat and electricity production and required volume
of biogas and tons of manure are calculated.

In order to distribute the total heat requirement by month, the degree-days method is used. The base
temperature is taken as 100C degree. After distributing the annual needed heat energy into months,

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it is seen that for the coldest month 438MWh is needed. Except for December and January the need
is below 200MWh.

Distrubution of heat energy requirement (MWh) by month


500
450
400
350
300
250
MWh

200
150
100
50
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Months from January to December

Figure 1. Distribution of heat energy requirement (MWh) by month

In order to generate 438MWh in a month 608kW installed capacity is required and this capacity is
greater than the number found in previous chapter (421kW). This difference is mainly due to the
extreme temperature difference between the months. Therefore, the new sizing for the power plant
is determined as 600kW. This study suggests 3 boilers each with 200kW capacity. In order to meet
the demand, January and December power plant will operate in full capacity (3 boilers), February and
November 2 boilers will be operational while rest of the year only 1 unit (200kW) will be producing
energy. Operational capacity of the plant over the year can be seen below.

Operational Capacity (kW) according to months


700
Operational Capacity (kW)

600

500

400

300

200

100

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Months from January to December

Figure 2. Operational Capacity (kW) according to months

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When the total generation and the heat requirement graphs put together, it can be seen that there is
an energy surplus for most of the year. In this study, it is assumed that there is a smooth transition
between heat and power generation which is not possible with the current technology. Electrical
efficiency is limited to 40% (Jørgensen, 2009). Based on these assumptions, the plant will generate
1856 MWh heat and 734 MWh electrical energy annually totalling to 2592MWh energy. If the plant
is operated at full capacity (3 boilers) throughout the year, this figure would be equivalent to 5184
MWh. The plant produces 1856MWh heat instead of the total calculated need 1438MWh. This is
mainly due to the limited electrical efficiency. As can be seen below, in summer months, where there
is almost no need for heat, plant can convert 40% of the energy into electricity and the rest leaves the
plant as heat.

Distribution of Energy Production by month (MWh)


500
450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0

Produced Heat Energy Produced Electrical Energy Needed Heat Energy

Until here, the monthly and annual produced energy is calculated. From now on, we will proceed on
to find amount of needed biogas thus cow manure amount. Biogas’ calorific value is taken as 17250
kJ/m3 (4.79kWh/m3) (Nielsen, 2004). It is assumed that the boiler operates with 85% efficiency and
there is no loss in the other parts of the system. Therefore, the annual need is found to be 636400m3
biogas. Optimum retention time for cattle manure is chosen as 18 days (see Figure 3).

Figure 3. The optimum retention time for different biomass sources

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It is assumed that 1 tons of manure will create 20.5 m3 of biogas and with the addition of organic
vegetable fat (2-5%) final product biogas will be increased 2.5 times. Based on this figures, the required
annual cattle manure is calculated as 12400 tonnes. According to David B, 1998, a 500-600 kg dairy
cattle produces 115 pounds of manure on average which equals to 52kg. In the light of such
information, the average needed amount of cattle is calculated as 661 (during December and January
1322 cow, and during November and February 881 cow are needed). Monthly needed biogas (m3) and
manure (in tons) can be seen below.

Required amount of manure and biogas

120000
100000
80000
60000
40000
20000
0

Required manure (in tonnes) Produced biogas (m3)

2.1 Needed count of dairy cattle and the source of biomass

The major raw materials (fuel) for the proposed Biogas plant will be sourced from:

 Manure obtained from dairy cattle


 Vegetable Fat

Since the village has several agricultural lands for cattle grazing, it would be convenient to source for
manure that is readily available throughout the year. The manure from the different farms will be
collected using a distribution network whereby farm or land owners will be rewarded for sending cow
manure to the centralised biogas plant. Also, we proposed to set up several hectares of grass land that
can feed a certain number of cows to produce steady supply of manure for the Biogas plant. Vegetable
fat will be used to increase gas production, which in turn will boost the total energy output produced
by manure only. The capacity factor of Vegetable fat is usually given as 2.5. This type of fat can be
easily sourced from margarine production (Riepma, 1970),in dairy farms especially from beef.

The major gas component of biogas is methane. This gas is primarily responsible for the high calorific
value of biogas. The calorific value of biogas is given as: 17250 KJ/m3 and we obtained the total volume
of required biogas as: 636400 m3. The calculated volume of biogas required to meet annual heating

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(1438.5 MWh) requirement of Toufreville-sur-EU. The retention time for the hog manure is 18 days.
The shorter the retention time the faster the decomposition of the manure to produce methane. If
we extend the retention time beyond 18 days, we risk producing ammonia instead of methane.

CHAPTER 3. Placement of the CHP Biomass plant:

3.1 layout design

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CHAPTER 4. CONCLUSION

Anaerobic digestion is an efficient and renewable energy technology that can produce biogas from a
variety of biomasses such as animal manure. In developing countries this technology is widely used
for the production of biogas using local biomasses, but there is little information about the value of
these biomasses for energy production (T. T. Cu, T. X. Nguyen, J. M. Triolo, L. Pedersen, V. D. Le, 2015).

The combustion of organic plant or animal matter has a calorific value that can be harnessed to
produce heat or electricity, also for other reason which provides a solution to the problem of how to
manage municipal and farm waste, especially in the area we chose.

In conclusion we can say that the biomass it an important source of energy in general for its important
calorific value, and the animal manure in particular, as the case in our assignment, knowing that it is
the second largest source of renewable energy in the world.

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LITERATURE

David B, F. (1998). Energy Aspects of Manure Management. Dairy Cattles, Illinois Livestock Trail.
Retrieved from http://livestocktrail.illinois.edu/dairynet/paperDisplay.cfm?ContentID=274
Jørgensen, P. J. (2009). Biogas Green Energy. PlanEnergi. Aarhus University. Retrieved from
http://scitech.au.dk/fileadmin/DJF/Kontakt/Besog_DJF/Oevelsesvejledning_og_baggrundsmat
eriale/Biogas_-_Green_Energy_2009_AU.pdf
Nielsen, P. H. (2004). Heat and power production from pig manure. Retrieved from
http://gefionau.dk/lcafood/processes/energyconversion/heatandpowerfrommanure.htm
Riepma, S. F. (1970). Butter and Margarine Background. In The Story of Margarine. Retrieved from
http://www.madehow.com/Volume-2/Butter-and-Margarine.html
T. T. Cu, T. X. Nguyen, J. M. Triolo, L. Pedersen, V. D. Le, P. D. Le. (2015). Biogas Production from
Vietnamese Animal Manure, Plant Residues and Organic Waste: Influence of Biomass
Composition on Methane Yield. PMC US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of
Health. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4283175/

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