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HRES ASSIGNMENT

Gokul Karwa
66

5 Marks
1. What is the importance of understanding environmental studies?
Environmental studies are the scientific study of the environmental system and the
status of its inherent or induced changes on organisms. It includes not only the study of
physical and biological characters of the environment but also the social and cultural
factors and the impact of man on environment.
The importance’s of environmental studies are as follows:

1. To clarify modern environmental concept like how to conserve biodiversity.

2. To know the more sustainable way of living.

3. To use natural resources more efficiently.

4. To know the behaviour of organism under natural conditions.

5. To know the interrelationship between organisms in populations and communities.

6. To aware and educate people regarding environmental issues and problems at local,
national and international levels.

2. Why there is need for public awareness about environment? Mention the various
methods adopted in creating the awareness.
Increasing population, Urbanization and poverty have generated pressure on the natural resources and lead
to a degradation of the environment. TO PREVENT THE ENVIRONMENT FROM FURTHER
DEGRADATION, the supreme court has ordered and initiated environmental protection awareness through
government and non-government agencies to take part in protecting our environment.
Environmental pollution cannot prevented by laws alone. Public participation is equally important with
regard to environmental protection.
Environmental Education (EE) is a process of learning by giving an overall perspective of knowledge and
awareness of the environment. It sensitizes the society about environmental issues and challenges interested
individuals to develop skills and expertise thereby providing appropriate solutions.
Climate change, loss of biodiversity, declining fisheries, ozone layer depletion, illegal trade of endangered
species, destruction of habitats, land degradation, depleting ground water supplies, introduction of alien
species, environmental pollution, solid waste disposal, storm water and sewage disposal pose a serious
threat to ecosystems in forest, rural, urban and marine ecosystems.
Both formal and informal education on the environment will give the interested individual the knowledge,
values, skills and tools needed to face the environmental challenges on a local and global level.

3. State 10 positive actions which can be taken up by youth to conserve and protect the
environment.
 Painting your house? Use a latex paint. Oil-based paints release hydrocarbon fumes.
 Get a tune-up. Properly maintained vehicles get better gas mileage and emit fewer
pollutants.
 Don’t top off your gas tank. Overfilling causes spills that release hydrocarbons and other
toxic chemicals into the air.
 Conserve energy. You’ll lower your utility bills and help avoid peak demands on utility
plants.
 Don’t burn your yard waste. It’s illegal in many areas of Ohio because burning yard waste
releases mold spores, soot, and other contaminants that can aggravate allergies and
cause respiratory problems.
 Plant a tree. Trees absorb carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas.
 Park the car. Walk, bike or use mass-transit whenever you can. Vehicle traffic is a major
contributor to smog.
 Never pour anything – especially waste oil or leftover lawn chemicals – into a storm drain.
It will end up in the nearest stream.
 Don’t trash our streams. Volunteer groups sponsoring annual cleanups find everything
from old tires to old appliances in our waterways.
 Water your lawn in the early morning, when the water will soak in and not evaporate in
the heat of the day.
 Don’t water more than once a week, and then only if it hasn't rained. Established lawns
need only one inch of water a week.
 Don’t water the sidewalk - it won’t grow. Set your sprinkler to keep the water on the lawn.
 Mulch around your landscaping. A three-inch layer of mulch holds moisture and prevents
evaporation, reducing the need to water.
 Use a bucket when you wash the car, instead of the hose. Letting the water run while you
work costs money and wastes water. Only use the hose to rinse.

4. Write short notes on Kyoto Protocol


The Kyoto Protocol, also known as the Kyoto Accord, is an international treaty among
industrialized nations that sets mandatory limits on greenhouse gas emissions.
The greenhouse effect is the warming effect of the sun on greenhouse gases, such as
carbon dioxide, that act to trap this heat in our atmosphere. The more of these gases
that exists, the more heat is prevented from escaping into space and, consequently, the
more the earth heats.

Although the greenhouse effect is necessary for survival on earth, an overabundance of


greenhouse gas emissions increases global warming beyond what is desirable. The
purpose of the Kyoto Protocol is to stabilize human-generated emissions at a level that
will not inflict further harm on the atmosphere.

The initial treaty was signed in Kyoto, Japan in 1997. That agreement outlined emissions
targets. Implementation required participating members to create policies and
measures to reduce and offset domestic emissions and increase absorption of
greenhouse gases. Other specifications included requirements for accountability,
compliance and reporting. That agreement expired at the end of 2012. Members agreed
upon an extension of the protocol, effective from 2013 to 2020.

5. Describe Disaster management and how efficient is India in handling such disasters
The United Nations defines a disaster as a serious disruption of the functioning of a
community or a society. Disasters involve widespread human, material, economic or
environmental impacts, which exceed the ability of the affected community or society to cope
using its own resources.

The Red Cross and Red Crescent societies define disaster management as the organisation
and management of resources and responsibilities for dealing with all humanitarian aspects
of emergencies, in particular preparedness, response and recovery in order to lessen the
impact of disasters.

Types of disasters
There is no country that is immune from disaster, though vulnerability to disaster varies. There are
four main types of disaster.

 Natural disasters: including floods, hurricanes, earthquakes and volcano eruptions that have
immediate impacts on human health and secondary impacts causing further death and suffering
from (for example) floods, landslides, fires, tsunamis.
 Environmental emergencies: including technological or industrial accidents, usually involving the
production, use or transportation of hazardous material, and occur where these materials are
produced, used or transported, and forest fires caused by humans.
 Complex emergencies: involving a break-down of authority, looting and attacks on strategic
installations, including conflict situations and war.
 Pandemic emergencies: involving a sudden onset of contagious disease that affects health,
disrupts services and businesses, brings economic and social costs.
Any disaster can interrupt essential services, such as health care, electricity, water, sewage/garbage
removal, transportation and communications. The interruption can seriously affect the health, social
and economic networks of local communities and countries. Disasters have a major and long-lasting
impact on people long after the immediate effect has been mitigated. Poorly planned relief activities
can have a significant negative impact not only on the disaster victims but also on donors and relief
agencies. So it is important that physical therapists join established programmes rather than
attempting individual efforts.

Local, regional, national and international organisations are all involved in mounting a humanitarian
response to disasters. Each will have a prepared disaster management plan. These plans cover
prevention, preparedness, relief and recovery.

6. What is Climate Change? What are its effects?


Climate is usually defined as the "average weather" in a place. It includes patterns of
temperature, precipitation (rain or snow), humidity, wind and seasons. Climate patterns
play a fundamental role in shaping natural ecosystems, and the human economies and
cultures that depend on them. But the climate we’ve come to expect is not what it used to
be, because the past is no longer a reliable predictor of the future. Our climate is rapidly
changing with disruptive impacts, and that change is progressing faster than any seen in
the last 2,000 years.

According to the report, Preparing for a Changing Climate, rising levels of carbon
dioxide and other heat-trapping gases in the atmosphere have warmed the Earth and are
causing wide-ranging impacts, including rising sea levels; melting snow and ice; more
extreme heat events, fires and drought; and more extreme storms, rainfall and floods.
Scientists project that these trends will continue and in some cases accelerate, posing
significant risks to human health, our forests, agriculture, freshwater supplies, coastlines,
and other natural resources that are vital to Washington state’s economy, environment,
and our quality of life.

Because so many systems are tied to climate, a change in climate can affect many related
aspects of where and how people, plants and animals live, such as food production,
availability and use of water, and health risks. For example, a change in the usual timing
of rains or temperatures can affect when plants bloom and set fruit, when insects hatch or
when streams are their fullest. This can affect historically synchronized pollination of
crops, food for migrating birds, spawning of fish, water supplies for drinking and
irrigation, forest health, and more.

Effects of Climate Change


Arctic sea ice is melting. The summer thickness of sea ice is about half of what it was in
1950. Melting ice may lead to changes in ocean circulation. Plus melting sea ice is
speeding up warming in the Arctic.
Glaciers and permafrost are melting. Over the past 100 years, mountain glaciers in all
areas of the world have decreased in size and so has the amount of permafrost in the
Arctic. Greenland's ice sheet is melting faster too.
Sea-surface temperatures are warming. Warmer waters in the shallow oceans have
contributed to the death of about a quarter of the world's coral reefs in the last few
decades. Many of the coral animals died after weakened by bleaching, a process tied to
warmed waters.
The temperatures of large lakes are warming. The temperatures of large lakes world-
wide have risen dramatically. Temperature rises have increased algal blooms in lakes,
favor invasive species, increase stratification in lakes and lower lake levels.
Heavier rainfall cause flooding in many regions. Warmer temperatures have led to
more intense rainfall events in some areas. This can cause flooding.
Extreme drought is increasing. Higher temperatures cause a higher rate of evaporation
and more drought in some areas of the world.
Crops are withering. Increased temperatures and extreme drought are causing a decline
in crop productivity around the world. Decreased crop productivity can mean food
shortages which have many social implications.
Ecosystems are changing. As temperatures warm, species may either move to a cooler
habitat or die. Species that are particularly vulnerable include endangered species, coral
reefs, and polar animals. Warming has also caused changes in the timing of spring
events and the length of the growing season.
Hurricanes have changed in frequency and strength. There is evidence that the number
of intense hurricanes has increased in the Atlantic since 1970. Scientists continue to
study whether climate is the cause.

7. Write a short note on solid waste management?


Solid-waste management, the collecting, treating, and disposing of solid material that is
discarded because it has served its purpose or is no longer useful. Improper disposal of
municipal solid waste can create unsanitary conditions, and these conditions in turn can
lead to pollution of the environment and to outbreaks of vector-borne disease—that is,
diseases spread by rodents and insects. The tasks of solid-waste management present
complex technical challenges. They also pose a wide variety of administrative,
economic, and social problems that must be managed and solved.

Early waste disposal


In ancient cities, wastes were thrown onto unpaved streets and roadways, where they
were left to accumulate. It was not until 320 bce in Athens that the first known law
forbidding this practice was established. At that time a system for waste removal began
to evolve in Greece and in the Greek-dominated cities of the eastern Mediterranean. In
ancient Rome, property owners were responsible for cleaning the streets fronting their
property. But organized waste collection was associated only with state-sponsored
events such as parades. Disposal methods were very crude, involving open pits located
just outside the city walls. As populations increased, efforts were made to transport
waste farther out from the cities.

After the fall of Rome, waste collection and municipal sanitation began a decline that
lasted throughout the Middle Ages. Near the end of the 14th century, scavengers were
given the task of carting waste to dumps outside city walls. But this was not the case in
smaller towns, where most people still threw waste into the streets. It was not until
1714 that every city in England was required to have an official scavenger. Toward the
end of the 18th century in America, municipal collection of garbage was begun in
Boston, New York City, and Philadelphia. Waste disposal methods were still very crude,
however. Garbage collected in Philadelphia, for example, was simply dumped into the
Delaware River downstream from the city.

Generation and storage


Rates of solid-waste generation vary widely. In the United States, for example, municipal
refuse is generated at an average rate of approximately 2 kg (4.4 pounds) per person
per day. Japan generates roughly half this amount, yet in Canada the rate is 3 kg (almost
7 pounds) per person per day. In some developing countries (e.g., India) the average
rate can be lower than 0.5 kg (1 pound) per person per day. These data include refuse
from commercial, institutional, and industrial as well as residential sources. The actual
rates of refuse generation must be carefully determined when a community plans a
solid-waste management project.

8. What is acid rain and what are its effects?

Acid rain is a result of air pollution. When any type of fuel is burnt, lots of different
chemicals are produced. The smoke that comes from a fire or the fumes that come out of
a car exhaust don't just contain the sooty grey particles that you can see - they also
contains lots of invisible gases that can be even more harmful to our environment.

Power stations, factories and cars all burn fuels and therefore they all produce polluting
gases. Some of these gases (especially nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxide) react with the
tiny droplets of water in clouds to form sulphuric and nitric acids. The rain from these
clouds then falls as very weak acid - which is why it is known as "acid rain".

The Effects of Acid Rain


Acid rain can be carried great distances in the atmosphere, not just between countries but
also from continent to continent. The acid can also take the form of snow, mists and dry
dusts. The rain sometimes falls many miles from the source of pollution but wherever it
falls it can have a serious effect on soil, trees, buildings and water.
Forests all over the world are dying, fish are dying. In Scandinavia there are dead lakes,
which are crystal clear and contain no living creatures or plant life. Many of Britain's
freshwater fish are threatened, there have been reports of deformed fish being hatched.
This leads to fish-eating birds and animals being affected also. Is acid rain responsible for
all this? Scientists have been doing a lot of research into how acid rain affects the
environment.

9. What is rain water harvesting? What are its objectives and how is it achieved?
Rainwater harvesting is the accumulation and deposition of rainwater for reuse on-site,
rather than allowing it to run off. Rainwater can be collected from rivers or roofs, and in
many places the water collected is redirected to a deep pit (well, shaft, or borehole), a
reservoir with percolation, or collected from dew or fog with nets or other tools. Its uses
include water for gardens, livestock, irrigation, domestic use with proper treatment, and
indoor heating for houses etc. The harvested water can also be used as drinking water,
longer-term storage and for other purposes such as groundwater recharge.

Objectives of Rain Water Harvesting

1. To meet the increasing demand of water.


2. To reduce the run-off which chokes the drains?

3. To avoid the flooding of roads.

4. To raise the underground water table.

5. To reduce groundwater pollution.

6. To reduce soils erosion.

7. Supplement domestic water needs.

10. Why do earth quakes occur? Explain the case of any earthquake that occurred in India.
Earthquakes are usually caused when rock underground suddenly breaks along a fault.
This sudden release of energy causes the seismic waves that make the ground shake.
When two blocks of rock or two plates are rubbing against each other, they stick a little.
They don't just slide smoothly; the rocks catch on each other. The rocks are still pushing
against each other, but not moving. After a while, the rocks break because of all the
pressure that's built up. When the rocks break, the earthquake occurs. During the
earthquake and afterward, the plates or blocks of rock start moving, and they continue
to move until they get stuck again. The spot underground where the rock breaks is
called the focus of the earthquake. The place right above the focus (on top of the
ground) is called the epicenter of the earthquake.
The case of any earthquake that occurred in India.
26th Jan 2001 : A Case Study of Gujarat Earthquake :The Impact of Catastrophes on
National and Regional Economies

11. Why do we refer to Environmental Protection Act 1986 as an Umbrella Act? State
major Environmental Protection Rules, 1986.
In the wake of Bhopal tragedy, the Government of India enacted the Environment
(Protection) Act, 1986 (EPA) under article 253 of the constitution. The purpose of
the Act is to act as an "umbrella" legislation designed to provide a frame work for
Central government co-ordination of the activities of various central and state
authorities established under previous laws, such as Water Act & Air Act.

The potential scope of the Act is broad, with "environment" defined to include water,
air and land and the inter-relationships which exist among water, air and land, and
human beings and other living creatures, plants, micro-organisms and property.

However the Delhi Pollution Control Committee has been vested with the powers
under the provisions under Section 5 the Central Government may, in exercise of its
powers and performance of its function under this act, issue directions in writing to
any person, officer or any authority and such person, officer or authority shall be
bound to comply with such directions which includes (a) the closure, prohibition or
regulation of any industry, operation or process; or (b) stoppage or regulation of the
supply of electricity or water or any other service (The Central Government has
delegated the powers vested in it under Section 5 of the Act to DPCC) to be verified.

Under Section 6 :
The Central Government may by notification in the official Gazette make rules to regulate
environmental pollution.

Under Section 7 :
No person carrying on any industry, operation or process shall discharge or emit or permit
to be discharged or emitted any environmental pollutants in excess of prescribed standards.

Under Section 8 :
No person shall handle or cause to be handled any hazardous substance except in
accordance with such procedure and after complying with such safeguards as may be
prescribed (These are explained in detail under Hazardous waste management rules).

Under Section 10 :
Any person empowered by the Central Government in this behalf has a right to enter any
premises all at reasonable times in order to carry out the purpose of this Act.

Under Section 11 :
The Central Government or any officer empowered by it on this behalf has power to take for
the purpose of analysis, samples of air, water, soil or other substance from any factory,
premises or other place in the prescribed names and analysis of such sample may be
produced an evidence in case of a legal proceeding.

Under Section 15 :
Whoever fails to comply with or contravenes any of the provisions of this Act, or the rules
made or orders or directions issued thereunder, shall, in respect of each such failure or
contravention, be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to fire years
with fine which may extend to one lakh rupees, or with both and in case the failure or
contravention continues, with additional fine which may extend to five thousand rupees for
every day during which such failure or contravention continues after the conviction for the
first failure or contravention.

12. Briefly explain the steps in obtaining Environmental Clearance.


Getting environmental clearance involves a process covering aspects like screening,
scoping and evaluation of the upcoming project. The main purpose behind
environmental clearance is to assess the impact of the proposed/ upcoming project on
the environment and people and, in turn, to try to abate/ minimize the same to the
maximum extent possible.
The various steps involved in environmental clearance are
discussed as follows:
I. Screening:
1. The process begins with identifying the location of proposed unit by the entrepreneur. If the
proposed location of unit does not agree with the existing prescribed guidelines, the entrepreneur
has to identify some other alternative location for his / her unit.

II. Scoping:
The entrepreneur then assesses if the proposed unit falls under the purview of environmental
clearance as per the Government of India’s notification issued on 27thJanuary 1994. If it is
mentioned in schedule of the notification, the entrepreneur is required to conduct an
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) study either directly or through a consultant.
III. Evaluation:

The final step involved in the process of environmental clearance is environmental evaluation.
The documents submitted by an entrepreneur are first scrutinized by a multi-disciplinary staff
functioning in the Ministry of Environment and Forests who may also undertake site-visits
wherever required, interact with the entrepreneur and hold consultations with experts on specific
issues as and when necessary.
After this preliminary scrutiny, the proposals are placed before specially constituted
committees of experts whose composition is specified in the EIA Notification. Such
committees, known as ‘Environmental Appraisal Committees’ have been constituted for
each sector such as River Valley Industries, Mining etc. and these committees meet
regularly to appraise the proposals received in the Ministry.

On the basis of the exercise described in the foregoing paragraphs, the Appraisal
Committees make their recommendations for approval or rejection of particular projects.
The recommendations of the Committees are then processed in the Ministry of
Environment and Forests for approval or rejection.

13. Environment, Environmental Pollutant, Hazardous substances

Environmental Pollutant
Environmental pollution is “the contamination of the physical and biological
components of the earth/atmosphere system to such an extent that
normalenvironmental processes are adversely affected”.

“Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the environment that


cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or that
damage the environment” which can come “in the form of chemical substances,
or energy such as noise, heat or light”. “Pollutantscan be naturally occurring
substances or energies, but are considered contaminants when in excess of
natural levels.”

Pollution is “the addition of any substance or form of energy (e.g., heat,


sound, radioactivity) to the environment at a rate faster than the environment
can accommodate it by dispersion, breakdown, recycling, or storage in some
harmless form”.

“Pollution is a special case of habitat destruction; it is chemical


destructionrather than the more obvious physical destruction. Pollution occurs
in all habitats—land, sea, and fresh water—and in the atmosphere.”
Hazardous substances
The EPA’s role under the HSNO Act is the regulation of pesticides, dangerous goods, household
chemicals and other dangerous substances. This means we put controls in place to manage the
risks of hazardous substances to safeguard people and the environment.

Hazardous substances, including petrol, solvents, industrial chemicals, agrichemicals, household


cleaners and cosmetics, need to be approved before they can be used in New Zealand.

Approvals are also sometimes needed for the people who use them (such as explosives handlers),
as well as the locations they are in, and certain types of storage facilities and equipment (for
example tanks, gas cylinders).

The pages below will help you to determine what a hazardous substance is, check whether a
substance is approved.

Environment
Environment is what is around something. It can be living or non-living things. It includes
physical, chemical and other natural forces. Living things live in their environment. They
constantly interact with it and change in response to conditions in their environment. In the
environment there are interactions between animals, plants, soil, water, and other living and non-
living things.

The word 'environment' is used to talk about many things. People in different fields of
knowledge (like history, geography or biology) use the word environment differently.
Electromagnetic environment is radio waves and other electromagnetic radiation and magnetic
fields. The galactic environment refers to conditions between the stars.

In psychology and medicine a person's environment is the people, physical things, places, and
events that the person lives with. The environment affects the growth and development of the
person. It affects the person's behavior. It affects the person's body, mind and heart.