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La Segunda Revolución Industrial, se inició a mediados del siglo XIX (c.

1850 - 1970), fue una


segunda fase de la Revolución Industrial, implica una serie de desarrollos dentro de la industria
química, eléctrica, de petróleo y de acero. Otros progresos esenciales durante este período
incluyen la introducción de los buques de acero movidos a vapor, el desarrollo del avion y de la
locomotora de vapor, la producción en masa de bienes de consumo, el enlatado de alimentos,
refrigeración mecánica y otras técnicas de preservación y la invención del teléfono
electromagnética. La Segunda Revolución Industrial se considerada sólo una fase de la
Revolución Industrial, ya que, desde un punto socio-tecnologico, no habia una clara ruptura
entre las dos, de hecho, la Segunda Revolución Industrial fue un fortalecimiento y
perfeccionamiento de las tecnologías de la Primera Revolución Industrial.

- El Motor de explosion (motor de combustion interna, motor Diesel): Esta maquina reemplazo
al motor a vapor, mediante el empleo de un nuevo combustible, que es el petroleo. lo
perfecciono en 1897, el ingeniero aleman Rudolf Diesel (1858-1913).

Thomas Alva Edison- La Electricidad: (Alumbrado publico):Fue obra de Tomas Alva


Edison(1847-1913). en principio creo a la lampara incandescente (1879). Posteriormente, fue
mejorando con filamentos de corteza de bambu y mas tarde, con el de metal. El alumbrado
publico mejoro las condiciones de vida diaria, en el mundo entero. años despues del
descubrimiento (1866) se comenzo con la primera gran instalacion hidroelectrica en las
cataratas de Niagara.

- El Telegrafo electrico: Aparato construido por el norteamericano Samuel Morse (1791-1872),


en 1837. Permitia, por entonces, la transmision instantanea y a distancia de un alfabeto
especial, de puntos y rayas, que representaba las letras. Este codigo fue universalmente
adoptado. Las primeras lineas se tendieron para el uso de ferrocarriles y de los gobiernos de
Inglaterra (1839), Estados Unidos (1844) y Francia (1856). En 1866, Cyrus W. Field instalo lineas
telegraficas a traves de los mares, logrando la comunicacion entre Estados Unidos y Europa

- El Telegrafo sin hilos: (Aparecio debido al descubrimiento de las ondas electricas en la


atmosfera). Fue invento de Guillermo Marconi (1874-1937), se popularizo entre las dos
guerras mundiales, al desarrollarse la radio difusion. Años despues , se descubrio la television,
generalizandose su uso, en 1936, en inglaterra y 1941, en los Estados Unidos de norteamerica.
Despues del ultimo conflicto mundial se ha logrado transcendentes progresos en la
comunicacion de masas.

- El Cinematografo: instrumento inventado por los hermanos Luis y Augusto Lumiere. Hizo su
aparicion entre las novedades de fines del siglo XIX. La primera exhibicion se realizo en Paris,
en 1893. en el siglo XX, se combino con la celula fotoelectrica para lograr el funcionamiento del
cine sonoro.

- El Aeroplano: La navegacion aerea tuvo sus inicios en los ensayos de los hermanos
Montgolfier y Giffard, quienes realizaron vuelos en los globos aerostaticos y dirigibles,
respectivamente. Mas tarde, los hermanos Wright utilizaron un aparato más pesado que el
aire: el aeroplano. Este vehiculo comenzo a ser utilizado como arma de combate, despues de
la Primera Guerra Mundial. En 1919, se efectua la primera travesia aerea del atlantico.

Leonardo da Vinci (Leonardo di Piero da Vinci) Loudspeaker.svg listening (Vinci, April 15,
14522-Amboise, May 2, 1519) was a Florentine polymath of the Italian Renaissance. He was at
the same time a painter, anatomist, architect, paleontologist, artist, botanist, scientist, writer,
sculptor, philosopher, engineer, inventor, musician, poet and urban planner. He died
accompanied by Francesco Melzi, to whom he bequeathed his projects, designs and paintings.
After spending his childhood in his hometown, Leonardo studied with the Florentine painter
Andrea de Verrocchio. His first important works were created in Milan at the service of Duke
Ludovico Sforza. He then worked in Rome, Bologna and Venice, and spent the last years of his
life in France, at the invitation of King Francis I.

Frequently described as an archetype and symbol of the man of the Renaissance, a universal
genius, as well as a humanist philosopher whose infinite curiosity can only be compared to his
inventive capacity, Leonardo da Vinci is considered one of the greatest painters of all time and,
probably, is the person with the greatest number of talents in multiple disciplines that has ever
existed. As an engineer and inventor, Leonardo developed ideas very ahead of his time, such
as the helicopter, the battle car, the submarine and the automobile. Very few of their projects
came to be built (including the machine to measure the elastic limit of a cable), since most
were not realizable during that time. As a scientist, Leonardo da Vinci made much progress in
knowledge in the areas of anatomy, civil engineering, optics and hydrodynamics.

Its most famous historical association is painting. Two of his best known works, La Gioconda
and La Última Cena, copied and parodied on several occasions, as well as his drawing of the
Vitruvian Man, which would come to be taken up again in numerous derivative works.
However, only about 20 of his works are known, mainly due to his constant (and sometimes
disastrous) experiments with new techniques and his chronic inconstancy. This small number
of creations, together with his notebooks with drawings, scientific diagrams and reflections On
the nature of painting, they constitute a legacy for successive generations of artists.

He was born on Saturday, April 15, 1452 "in the third hour of the night", that is, three hours
after the Hail Mary: at ten thirty. It has been discussed whether the birth took place in the
castle of Vinci, city about 25 km in a straight line from Florence, or in the maternal house of
Anchiano, a hamlet about two kilometers from Vinci. Leonardo, descendant of a rich family of
Italian nobles, was illegitimate son: his father, Messer Piero Fruosino di Antonio (notary,
chancellor and ambassador of the Republic of Florence) made Caterina pregnant, a humble
young woman from a peasant family, 910 who has been suspected of being a slave in the
Middle East. Martin Kemp, Professor Emeritus of History of Art at the University of Oxford,
after researching the Tuscan archives, discovered documents that would confirm the date of
birth and that took place in the paternal country house, just over a kilometer from Vinci, his
mother being a local peasant Fifteen years old, Caterina di Meo Lippi. Piero was already
engaged in marriage and the child was given to the paternal grandfather, Antonio da Vinci,
who probably gave a certain amount to the mother as a dowry so that she could get married.
In declarations of taxes of 1457, Antonio declared that his grandson lived with him and
Caterina appears married with a farmer, Antonio I gave Piero Buti, with that had five hijos.

Leonardo, or Lionardo according to his baptismal act, was baptized and spent his first five
years in his father's house in Vinci, where he was treated as a legitimate son. He had five
godmothers and five godparents, all of them inhabitants of the town. Leonardo received
learned to read and write and acquired knowledge of arithmetic. However, he practically did
not learn Latin, the basis of traditional teaching. The fact that it had a chaotic orthography
shows that its instruction was not free of loopholes; in any case it was not that of a university
student.

At that time, modern conventions in the names of people had not yet developed in Europe, so
that only large families made use of the patronymic surname. The people of the village used to
be designated by their name, to which are attached all kinds of useful details: the name of the
father, the place of origin, a nickname, the name of the teacher in the case of craftsmen, etc.
Therefore, the name of the artist would be Leonardo di Piero da Vinci, whose meaning is
"Leonardo, son of the master Piero de Vinci"; the term "da" is not capitalized because it is not
a surname. Leonardo himself simply signed his works as "Leonardo" or