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2018 INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH CONFERENCE

ON ENGINEERING & SCIENCE

“Multi-Disciplinary Art-Science
Towards Future Engineering“

11-12 AUGUST 2018


THE PUTERI PACIFIC HOTEL
JOHOR BAHRU

Organized by:

Faculty of Electrical Engineering


UiTM Johor Branch
CONTENTS

MESSAGE FROM THE RECTOR 5

MESSAGE FROM THE ASSISTANT RECTOR 6

MESSAGE FROM IRCES2018 GENERAL CHAIR 7

KEYNOTE SPEAKERS 8

ORGANIZING COMMITTEE 10

CONFERENCE OVERVIEW 11

CONFERENCE SCHEDULE 12

ABSTRACTS 18
http://www.fkeuitmpg.com/irces2018/irces2018.php
https://www.facebook.com/IRCES2018/

IRCES2018 | 4
MESSAGE FROM THE RECTOR

Assalamua’alaikum w.b.t and Salam Sejahtera.

Dear Participants,

I would like to congratulate all the working committee members of


the 1st International Research Conference on Engineering & Science
(IRCES2018) for their tremendous teamwork effort in realizing the
event. I would also like to express my sincere appreciation to Dr
Nurhani Kasuan, for her strong leadership and continuous support
throughout the preparation for this successful event.

The conference, IRCES2018; with the theme “Multi-Disciplinary Art-Science Towards Future
Engineering” is a platform to develop a cross-disciplinary research and collaboration work
between researchers, engineers, academic staff, and postgraduate students to strengthen the
quality of research findings. We strongly believe that academic institutions and industrial growth
can be achieved through the implementation of effective programs, cross-functional
collaboration and network-building that allows a greater capacity of knowledge sharing. This
event will lead UiTM to draw strength from the initiatives by exploring and mastering various
frontiers of knowledge as it works towards reaching greater heights.

As a host to this conference, we would like to welcome all of you to visit our campus in Bandar
Seri Alam which is only 20 km from the lively and exciting city of Johor Bahru. Not to forget, please
find some time away from your busy schedule or in the future, to explore our main campus that
is in the peacefully charming Segamat district. You will find Segamat to be a welcoming sub urban
city with fascinating taste of our specialty, the one and only Segamat Durian – if you come at the
right time of the year!

I would like to once again extend my deepest appreciation to the organizing committee for
successfully conducting this event. I am confident that IRCES2018 will contribute immensely to
the development of knowledge and let me reiterate my sincere hope that this Conference will
pave ways for potential cooperation which can be expanded to a more comprehensive
collaboration for the benefits of all parties.

I would like to wish all of you a pleasant and fruitful conference.

Thank you.

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR DR AHMAD NAQIYUDDIN BAKAR

IRCES2018 | 5
MESSAGE FROM THE ASSISTANT RECTOR

Assalamua’alaikum w.b.t and Salam Sejahtera.

Dear Participants,

It is with great honour for me and the organizing team to extend our
warmest welcome to all of you, distinguished guests, international
and local speakers, participants and visitors to the International
Research Conference on Engineering & Science (IRCES2018).

With the theme “Multi-Disciplinary Art-Science towards Future Engineering”, we hope this
conference will become a platform to build fruitful networking for future collaboration and
research works. IRCES2018 intends to be an international research event and we welcome
participants from all over the world. I very much welcome the holding of this conference which
gives excellent opportunity for engineers, researchers, and educators from academia and
industry to present and share their works and keep them abreast of latest technology
development.

Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) is Malaysia's largest institution of higher learning in terms of
size and student population. We have experienced phenomenal growth since our inception in
1956 and is still growing. With vast network and a workforce of more than 20,000, the university
offers more than 300 academic programmes in a conducive and vibrant environment to more
than 200,000 students. Our campus in Pasir Gudang consists of five main faculties, with the
capacity of 4,000 students. The university is committed in helping students to achieve the highest
academic qualifications and to prepare themselves for careers in public and private. Our
formation is based on a vision of outstanding scholarship and academic excellence that is capable
of providing leadership in various arenas. In order to prepare such students, we need to have a
synergy between the lecturers and other researchers, engineers, industry players of related fields
and disciplines. This is one of the objectives that we hope to achieve in IRCES2018.

Finally, I hope everyone will benefit from this conference and I hope for more collaboration in
future between UiTM and your esteemed organizations. I wish all of you a pleasant stay in Johor
Bahru.

Thank you.

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR IR DR AHMAD RAFIZAN BIN MOHAMAD DAUD

IRCES2018 | 6
MESSAGE FROM IRCES2018 GENERAL CHAIR

Assalamua’alaikum w.b.t and Salam Sejahtera.

Dear Participants,

It is my greatest honor to welcome all representatives to the


IRCES2018. IRCES2018 has brought together researchers and
innovators from around the world and inspiring them, encouraging
the innovation culture, sharing recent research results and ideas,
improving knowledge and skills and to publish research findings.

IRCES2018 wish to address the needs for rapid and continuous innovations as well as embracing
multi-disciplinary collaboration in order to achieve the Industry Revolution 4.0 and the 21st century
skills development. The outcome from this conference can be further enhanced and eventually
contribute to the society and development of this country.

With that in mind, I would like to once again extend my deepest appreciation to the organizing
committee for successfully conducting this event.

I would also like to express my utmost gratitude and appreciation to the keynote speakers,
Professor Ir Dr Ismail Bin Musirin (UiTM) and Professor Dr Muhammad Sukri Bin Saud (UTM) for
their time and cooperation.

I would like to congratulate the participants for their participation and contribution, and finally,
my sincere appreciation goes to the steering committee for IRCES2018 for their greatest effort
and commitment in making this event a success. I do hope that we gain knowledge, skills, ideas
and benefits from the conference while making new contacts and network.

Once again, thank you for your participation and contribution to the success of IRCES2018 and I
wish all of you a pleasant stay in Johor Bahru.

Thank you

DR NURHANI KASUAN

IRCES2018 | 7
KEYNOTE SPEAKER

PROFESSOR IR DR ISMAIL BIN MUSIRIN


Professor of Power System
Faculty of Electrical Engineering
Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM)

Professor Ir Dr Ismail Bin Musirin obtained his Bachelor of Electrical Engineering (Hons) degree
in 1990 from Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, MSc Pulsed Power Technology in 1992 from
University of Strathclyde, United Kingdom and PhD in Electrical Engineering from Universiti
Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Malaysia in 2005.

He started his career in higher education at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) and completed
his Diploma in Electrical Power Engineering in 1987. He was the Head of Programme for Diploma
of Electrical Engineering, UiTM for 3 years (2004-2007), Head of Department, Electrical Power
Engineering (2007), Deputy Dean, Research and Industrial Networking for 2 years (2008-2010)
and Director for Community of Research UiTM for 4 years (2014-2017).

He is currently a Professor of Power System at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti


Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia. He has authored and co-authored 2 books, over
300 papers in international journals and indexed conferences. He is also an international journal
reviewer for IEEE Transactions, Elsevier Science, WSEAS, John Wiley, IET and many more. He has
chaired 13 international conferences for more than 10 years since 2007. He has delivered keynote
speeches at Cambridge University, United Kingdom, Dubai, Korea and Malaysia. His research
expertise includes artificial intelligence, optimization techniques, power system analysis,
renewable energy, distributed generation and power system stability. He is a senior member of
the International Association of Computer Science and Information Technology (IACSIT), member
of Artificial Immune System Society (ARTIST) and member of International Association of
Engineers (IAENG). To date he has examined more than 100 PhD and MSc theses from Malaysia
and overseas. He is also one of the research grant assessors for Ministry of Higher Education
Malaysia (MOHE).

He is currently the member for Board of Studies for UNITEN, UNIKL, UniMAP, UMP, Visiting
Professor at MSU and recently appointed as the Visiting Professor at UTHM. He has delivered
several motivational talks to UTP students, UTP International students, PETRONAS Scholarship
holders, UKM Engineering students and UiTM students.

IRCES2018 | 8
KEYNOTE SPEAKER

PROFESSOR DR MUHAMMAD SUKRI BIN SAUD


Dean
Faculty of Education
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM)

Professor Dr Muhammad Sukri Bin Saud started his education with Diploma of Science at ITM
Kuantan in 1992. In 1996, he completed his Bachelor of Education (Agriculture Science) degree.
He received his Master of Science (Industry/Technology Education) from University of Wisconsin
(USA) in 1998 and awarded with PhD from The Ohio State University, Columbus-Ohio (USA) in
2004. He was the Head of Department of Technical and Engineering Education (May 2005 – April
2009), Deputy Dean (Academic) (August 2010 - Dec 2016) and Deputy Dean (Research,
Innovation, Community and Networking) in Faculty of Education, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia -
UTM (Dec 2016). He is currently a Professor and the Dean in Faculty of Education, UTM.

Professor Dr Muhammad Sukri Bin Saud is actively involved with research and publications
especially on the Curriculum Design and Development in Engineering, Technical and Career
Education and is an expert in Computer Aided Design and Drafting (CADD). He has published his
works in various conferences and journal papers and won multiple research awards in both
national and international levels. In 2014, he was awarded with Anugerah Inovasi Naib Canselor
– Universiti Teknologi Malaysia: Sistem Latihan Mengajar.

He has involved with six MoA/MoU/LoC from Japan, Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia and USA and
was also appointed as editor and reviewer for local and international journals. He was the
President of Technical and Vocational Education (TVET) Association (2005 – 2010) and appointed
as MQA audit panel for accreditation of various higher learning institutions in Malaysia. In 2017,
he was appointed as a committee member in Development of Integrated Instrument for Ratings
and Rankings in TVET Programs in the Ministry of Higher Learning.

To date, he is the member of Regional Asian of Vocational Teacher Education (RAVTE) and
member of Asian Academic Society for Vocational Education and Training (AASVET).

IRCES2018 | 9
ORGANIZING COMMITTEE

Patron I: Professor Emeritus Dato’ Dr Hassan Said


Patron II: Assoc Professor Dr Ahmad Naqiyuddin Bakar
Patron III: Assoc Professor Ir Dr Ahmad Rafizan Mohamad Daud
Advisory: Assoc Professor Dr Zuhaina Zakaria
Professor Dr Nooritawati Md Tahir
General chair: Dr Nurhani Kasuan
General co-chair: Dr Mohamad Zhafran Hussin
Secretary: Farah Yasmin Abdul Rahman
Technical: Dr Muhammad Asraf Hairuddin
Dr Nur Amalina Muhamad
Nur Dalila Khirul Ashar
Nur Iqtiyani Ilham
Ir Ts Dr Ahmad Ihsan Mohd Yassin
Publication: Zahari Abu Bakar
Dr Zakiah Mohd Yusoff
Dr Nor Diyana Md Sin
Norlina Mohd Zain
Noor Fadzilah Razali
Secretariat: Norhalida Othman
Fazlinashatul Suhaidah Zahid
Masmaria Abdul Majid
Noor Hafizah Khairul Anuar
Finance: Noor Hasliza Abdul Rahman
Local arrangement: Khairul Kamarudin Hasan
Mohd Sufian Ramli
Sponsorship: Aznilinda Zainuddin
Website & IT: Ezril Hisham Mat Saat
Promotion & Publicity: Ts Rozi Rifin

IRCES2018 | 10
CONFERENCE OVERVIEW

Saturday, 11th August 2018


08:00 - 08:30 : Registration
08:30 - 08:45 : Arrival of Honorable Guests @ Delima Room, Level 2
: National Anthem & Wawasan Setia Warga UiTM
: Doa Recital

: Welcoming Remark
: Assoc Professor Dr Ahmad Naqiyuddin Bakar
Rector, UiTM Johor Branch

08:45 - 09:15 : Keynote Speech 1 @ Delima Room Level 2


: Professor Ir Dr Ismail Musirin
: Speech Tittle: Growth of Artificial Intelligence:
Integration with Electrical Engineering Research
09:15 – 09:45 : Keynote Speech 2 @ Delima Room Level 2
: Professor Dr Muhammad Sukri Bin Saud
: Speech Tittle: Engineering Education Towards Literate Public

09:45 - 10:00 : Tea Break @ TPPJB Foyer Level 2


10:00 - 12:30 : Session 1 @ Delima Room, Level 2
: Session 2 @ Mutiara Room, Level 2
12:30 - 14:00 : Lunch @ Puteri Café, Lobby
14:00 - 15:00 : Session 3 @ Delima Room, Level 2
: Session 4 @ Mutiara Room, Level 2
15:00 - 15:30 : Tea Break @ TPPJB Foyer Level 2
15:30 - 17:00 : Session 5 @ Delima Room, Level 2

IRCES2018 | 11
CONFERENCE SCHEDULE

Time 01 - ROOM 1 02 - ROOM 2


th
Saturday, 11 August 2018
08:00 - 08:30 REGISTRATION

08:30 - 08:45 OPENING: OPENING CEREMONY BY RECTOR _ ROOM 1 (IRCES2018)

IRCES_KEYNOTE_01 (08.45 AM-09.15AM)_ ROOM 1 (IRCES2018)


08:45 - 09:45
IRCES_KEYNOTE_02 (09.15 AM-09.45AM)_ ROOM 1 (IRCES2018)
09:45 - 10:00 TEA BREAK
IRCES_01: IRCES - SESSION 01 IRCES_02: IRCES - SESSION 02
PAPER ID 1034 PAPER ID 1098
PAPER ID 1031 PAPER ID 1033
PAPER ID 1015 PAPER ID 1057
PAPER ID 1073
PAPER ID 1017
PAPER ID 1072
10:00 - 12:30 PAPER ID 1018
PAPER ID 1023
PAPER ID 1036 PAPER ID 1095
PAPER ID 1044
PAPER ID 1063
PAPER ID 1032
PAPER ID 1047
12:30 - 14:00 LUNCH
IRCES_03: IRCES - SESSION 03
PAPER ID 1060 IRCES_04: IRCES - SESSION 04
PAPER ID 1114
PAPER ID 1105
14:00 - 15:00 PAPER ID 1069
PAPER ID 1101 PAPER ID 1064
PAPER ID 1102

15:00 - 15:30 TEA BREAK


IRCES_05: IRCES - SESSION 05
PAPER ID 1050
PAPER ID 1087
PAPER ID 1104
15:30 - 17:00
PAPER ID 1076
PAPER ID 1092
PAPER ID 1099

END OF CONFERENCE

IRCES2018 | 12
IRCES2018 BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Date: 2018‐08‐11

IRCES_01: IRCES - SESSION 01 (10:00 ‐ 12:30 @ Delima Room, Level 2)

10:00- Research Framework for Safety Culture In Malaysian Education Sector: Moderating
10:15 Effect of Safety Knowledge (PAPER ID:1034)
Nor Kamilah Makhtar (Institute of Teacher Education, Malaysia), Balakrishnan
Parasuraman (University Malaysia Kelantan, Malaysia), Mohd Nazri (University
Malaysia Kelantan, Malaysia), Ahmad Rasdan Ismail (University Malaysia Kelantan,
Malaysia)

10:15- Perception of Ergonomic Safety Training among School Teachers in Kelantan,


10:30 Malaysia (PAPER ID:1031)
Ahmad Rasdan Ismail (University Malaysia Kelantan, Malaysia), Nurul Husna Che
Hassan (University Malaysia Kelantan, Malaysia), Muhammad Azwadi Sulaiman
(University Malaysia Kelantan, Malaysia), Nor Kamilah Makhtar (Institute of Teacher
Education, Malaysia), Noor Adilah Hamzah (University Malaysia Kelantan, Malaysia)

10:30- The Influence of Human Factors on the Uncertainty of Refurbishment Projects: A


10:45 Conceptual Approach (PAPER ID:1015)
Ridzuan Yacob (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Masran Saruwono (Universiti
Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Zulhabri Ismail (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia)

10:45- Fast Track Arbitration in the Malaysian Construction Industry (PAPER ID:1017)
11:00 Nur Khodijah Muhd Fadhlullah Ng (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Zulhabri
Ismail (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Norfashiha Hashim (Universiti
Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Nasyairi Mat Nasir (Universiti Teknologi MARA,
Malaysia)

11:00- Analysis of Research Methods in Construction Pollution Related Research


11:15 Approaches (PAPER ID:1018)
Nur Afrina Qistina Ahmad Halmi (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Zulhabri
Ismail (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia)

11:15- Determining Factors On Technical Instructors’ Safety Culture Using Structural


11:30 Analysis Approach (PAPER ID:1036)
Nor Kamilah Makhtar (Institute of Teacher Education, Malaysia), Balakrishnan
Parasuraman (University Malaysia Kelantan, Malaysia), Mohd Nazri Zakaria
(University Malaysia Kelantan, Malaysia), Ahmad Rasdan Ismail (University Malaysia
Kelantan, Malaysia)

IRCES2018 | 13
11:30- A Framework for Malaysian Construction Industry Young Professionals (CIYPs)
11:45 Contractual Employment Contract: A Conceptual Paper (PAPER ID:1044)
Siti Hawa Mohd Kasmuri (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Zulhabri Ismail
(Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Rumaizah Mohd Nordin (Universiti Teknologi
MARA, Malaysia), Norfashiha Hashim (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Mohd
Rashdan Abd Rahman (Federal Government Administrative Centre, Malaysia)

11:45- Video Application Model In Learning Styles Of Moral Education Students In Teacher
12:00 Educational Institution (PAPER ID:1063)
Mohd Razimi Bin Husin (Sultan Idris Education University, Malaysia), Hishamuddin
Bin Ahmad (Sultan Idris Education University, Malaysia), Mahizer Bin Hamzah (Sultan
Idris Education University, Malaysia)

12:00- A Review of Leadership Qualities among Building Refurbishment Project Managers


12:15 (PAPER ID:1032)
Ridzuan Yacob (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Masran Saruwono (Universiti
Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Zulhabri Ismail (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia)

12:15- Vulnerability Assessment of Buildings in Ranau Township: Methodological Design


10:30 (PAPER ID:1047)
Izni Izzati binti Mohamad (Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia), Mohd Zulkifli
Mohd Yunus (Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia), Noor Sheena Herayani Harith
(Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia)

IRCES_02: IRCES - SESSION 02 (10:00 ‐ 12:30 @ Mutiara Room, Level 2)

10:00- Techno-economic Analysis on Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System (GCPV) in


10:15 Mersing, Johor, Malaysia using Homer Simulation (PAPER ID:1098)
Mohd Sufian bin Ramli (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Siti Sufiah bte Abd
Wahid (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Noor Amalina binti Zakaria (Universiti
Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia) Nur Najihah binti Abu Bakar (Universiti Malaysia Perlis,
Malaysia), Khairul Kamarudin bin Hasan (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia),
Shakira Azeehan binti Azli (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia)

10:15- Crushing Behaviour Of Filled Tubes Under Static And Dynamic Loading Conditions:
10:30 A Review (PAPER ID:1033)
Nurul Izzah AR (Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Malaysia), Salwani MS (Universiti
Malaysia Pahang, Malaysia), Mohd Shahril M (Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Malaysia)

10:30- A Study of Palm Oil as an Insulating Medium (PAPER ID:1057)


10:45 N. D. Ahmad (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), S.N.M. Zubir (Universiti
Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), S.S.Ramli (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia),
N. H. Ishak (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), W. S. Saidon (Universiti Teknologi
MARA, Malaysia), NA. Salim (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), M Kamarol
(Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia)

IRCES2018 | 14
10:45- Managing Voltage Fluctuation Issues in Distribution System Connected with
11:00 Distributed Generation Using Decentralized Power Factor Control (PAPER ID:1073)
Tengku Juhana Tengku Hashim (Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Malaysia), Nofri Yenita
Dahalan (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia)

11:00- Electromagnetic Analysis of Different Materials for High Temperature Machine


11:15 (PAPER ID:1072)
M.F Zainudin, R.Aziz (Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Malaysia),
M.Z. Ahmad (Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Malaysia)

11:15- Application of Low Cost Microcontroller In Rapid Control Prototyping for Single
11:30 Phase Back to Back Converter (PAPER ID:1023)
Shamsul Aizam Zulkifli (Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Malaysia),
Suraj Chakraverty (Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Malaysia)

11:30- Non-linear and Linear Baseline Energy Modeling Comparative Studies in


11:45 Educational Buildings (PAPER ID:1095)
Rijalul Fahmi Mustapa (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Nofri Yenita Dahlan
(Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Ahmad ihsan Mohd Yassin (Universiti
Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Atiqah Hamizah Mohd Nordin (Universiti Teknologi
MARA, Malaysia), Mohd Ezwan Mahadan (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia),
Norlee Husnafeeza Ahmad (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Norhalida Othman
(Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia)

IRCES_03: IRCES - SESSION 03 (14:00 ‐ 15:00 @ Delima Room, Level 2)

14:00- BER Performance of Ultra-Wideband Signal in Optical Transmission Line


14:15 (PAPER ID:1060)
Chung Gwo Chin (Multimedia University, Malaysia), Lee Chu Liang (Multimedia
University, Malaysia), Lim Zheng Yang (Multimedia University, Malaysia), Lee It Ee
(Multimedia University, Malaysia)

14:15- Performance Comparison of Zirconia, Bismuth and Silica-doped Erbium Fiber for
14:30 Optical Amplification (PAPER ID:1105)
Sufian Mohamad (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Arni Munira Markom
(Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Mukul Chandra Paul (CSIR-Central Glass and
Ceramic Research Institute, India) and Sulaiman Wadi Harun (University of Malaya,
Malaysia)

14:30- Design of Capacitive Power Transfer (CPT) for Low Power Application using Power
14:45 Converter Class E trigger by Arduino Uno Switching Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)
(PAPER ID:1101)
KK.Hasan (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Shakir Saat (Universiti Teknikal
Malaysia, Malaysia), Y Yusof (Universiti Teknikal Malaysia, Malaysia, Muhammad Asraf
H. (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Zakiah Mohd Yusoff (Universiti Teknologi
MARA, Malaysia), NM Meor Shaari (Universiti Teknikal Malaysia, Malaysia)

IRCES2018 | 15
14:45- Haven-Garden System: An Alternative Garden for Temperate-Plants with
15:00 Microcontroller Application (PAPER ID:1102)
Maryam Saadah Aris Fadzallah (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Maizura Mohd
Sani (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Murizah Kassim (Universiti Teknologi
MARA, Malaysia) , Mashitah Mohd Hussein (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia)

IRCES_04: IRCES - SESSION 04 (14:00 ‐ 15:00 @ Mutiara Room, Level 2)

14:00- Effect of Polysulfone Content on Forward Osmosis Membrane Performance


14:15 (PAPER ID:1114)
Haikal Mustafa (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Munirah Onn (Universiti
Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Aznilinda Zainuddin (Universiti Teknologi MARA,
Malaysia), Siti Mariam bt Mohammad Iliyas (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia),
Goh Pei Sean (Universtiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia) and Ahmad Fauzi Ismail
(Universtiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia)

14:15- Titania-Coated Magnetite Particles for As(V) Removal from Water (PAPER ID:1069)
14:30 N.K. Devaraj (Multimedia University, Malaysia), L.S. Ganapathe (Multimedia
University, Malaysia), S.R. Elghazali (Multimedia University, Malaysia), A.S.M. Mukter-
Uz-Zaman (Multimedia University, Malaysia), H.Y. Wong (Multimedia University,
Malaysia)

14:30- Binary Effect of Palm Oil Fuel Ash and Eggshell Waste Powder on Heat of Hydration
14:45 for Mortar (PAPER ID:1064)
Zalipah Jamellodin (Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Malaysia), Mohamad Arif
Jamaly (Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Malaysia), Norazreen Nor Azhar
(Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Malaysia), Masni A. Majid (Universiti Tun
Hussein Onn Malaysia, Malaysia), Norhafizah Salleh (Universiti Tun Hussein Onn
Malaysia, Malaysia), Noor Azlina Abd Hamid (Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia,
Malaysia), Suraya Hani Adnan (Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Malaysia)

IRCES_05: IRCES - SESSION 05 (15:30 ‐ 17:00 @ Delima Room, Level 2)

15:30- A Review of Expert System Applied in Real Estate Valuation (PAPER ID:1050)
10:45 Justine Prita Kusuma Ahmad Borhannuddin (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia),
Abdul Hadi Haji Nawawi (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Edie Ezwan Mohd
Safian(Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Malaysia)

15:45- An Investigation of the Characteristics and Performance of Hybrid Routing Protocol


16:00 in (MANET) (PAPER ID:1087)
Omar Ismael Al-Sanjary (Management & Science University, Malaysia), Ahmed
Abdullah Ahmed (Kurdistan Technical Institute, Iraq), Hewa Majeed Zangana
(Computer and Information Technology Nawroz University, Iraq), Musab A. M Ali
(Management & Science University, Malaysia), Mohammed Hazim Alkawaz
(Management & Science University, Malaysia), Saeed Hameed Aldulaimi (Applied
Science University, Bahrain)

IRCES2018 | 16
16:00- FKEPG-LIMS: Fakulti Kejuruteraan Elektrik Kampus Pasir Gudang Lab Inventory
16:15 Management System (PAPER ID:1104)
Farah Yasmin Abdul Rahman (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Nurhani
Kasuan(Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Ezril Hisham Mat Saat (Universiti
Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Noor Hasliza Abdul Rahman (Universiti Teknologi MARA,
Malaysia), Nur Iqtiyani Ilham (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Siti Noor Suhana
Jamil (Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia)

16:15- Determination of CCT Due to Interconnected Link Tripping using the OMIB and EAC
16:30 (PAPER ID:1076)
Nur Ashida Salim (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Jasronita Jasni (Universiti
Putra Malaysia, Malaysia), Norfishah Ab Wahab (Universiti Teknologi MARA,
Malaysia), Nur Fadilah Ab Aziz (Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Malaysia),
Nur Azzammudin Rahmat (Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Malaysia)

16:30- A Review on Indoor Air Quality Monitoring using IoT at Campus Environment
16:45 (PAPER ID:1092)
Anindya Ananda Hapsari (Management & Science University, Malaysia), Asif Iqbal
Hajamydeen (Management & Science University, Malaysia), Muhammad Irsyad
Abdullah (Management & Science University, Malaysia)

16:45- Gamification of educational technology: a narrative review (PAPER ID:1099)


17:00 Muhamad Aldiansyah (Management & Science University, Malaysia),
Adam Jaharadak (Management & Science University, Malaysia)

IRCES2018 | 17
ABSTRACTS

IRCES_01: IRCES - SESSION 01 (10:00 ‐ 12:30 @ Delima Room, Level 2)

1034. Research Framework For Safety Culture In Malaysian Education Sector: Moderating Effect of
Safety Knowledge

Nor Kamilah Makhtar (Institute of Teacher Education, Malaysia), Balakrishnan Parasuraman (University
Malaysia Kelantan,Malaysia), Mohd Nazri (University Malaysia Kelantan,Malaysia), Ahmad Rasdan Ismail
(University Malaysia Kelantan, Malaysia)

The main purpose of the conceptual paper is to discuss development of a proposed conceptual framework
in exploring the relationship between psychological, behaviour and situational dimension towards safety
culture in Malaysian education sector focusly in Vocational College (VC). Previous literature showed fewer
frameworks that have been established in occupational sector. A quantitative method was adopted, in
which sample for the study was limited to vocational instructors that only teach enginering technology
courses. The paper discusses possible relationship between all three dimensions with safety culture and
offers a conceptual framework based on Cooper’s Reciprocal Safety Cuture Model. Additional research is
needed to empirically validate the proposed conceptual framework in the other organisation under
education sector in Malaysia such as primary and secondary school, boarding school and also
Matriculation College. This paper could assist top management and teachers in school to have deeper
understanding of the importance of creating a positive safety culture at the workplace. The proposed
conceptual framework could be used as a leading indicator for future research in this area especially in
education sector.

1031. Perception of Ergonomic Safety Training among School Teachers in Kelantan, Malaysia

Ahmad Rasdan Ismail (University Malaysia Kelantan, Malaysia), Nurul Husna Che Hassan (University
Malaysia Kelantan, Malaysia), Muhammad Azwadi Sulaiman (University Malaysia Kelantan, Malaysia), Nor
Kamilah Makhtar (Institute of Teacher Education, Malaysia), Noor Adilah Hamzah (University Malaysia
Kelantan, Malaysia)

Ergonomic safety is one the most important issues affecting educational institutions especially the school.
Perception of ergonomic safety training among school teachers is crucial to identify the suitable methods to
prevent the more ergonomic problem in future. This study was conducted to analyze teachers’ perception of
ergonomic safety in school to gauge the training requirements on ergonomic safety. Ergonomic safety training
in school is important as improving good body posture. For this study, a set of survey questionnaires was
distributed to 400 school teachers from 111 schools randomly selected from the 10 District Education Offices
in Kelantan, Malaysia. Results were then analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). From
the results, 32% of respondents were male, and 68% of them were female. Descriptive analysis showed that
school teachers understood ergonomic safety as 78% of them possessed basic safety knowledge, while 22% of
them lacked basic knowledge of safety. They mostly agreed that ergonomic safety should include in
occupational safety and health training in school. This study suggests that school teachers must undergo
ergonomic safety training to promote and improve ergonomic safety in school. Higher awareness and more
information about ergonomic safety will help teachers teach their students about important of ergonomic

IRCES2018 | 18
safety and create a safer environment in their school. As a conclusion, teachers and students having a similar
role to ensure ergonomic safety and their commitment will likely reduce the number of ergonomic problem in
school.

1015. The Influence of Human Factors on the Uncertainty of Refurbishment Projects: A Conceptual
Approach

Ridzuan Yacob (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Masran Saruwono (Universiti Teknologi MARA,
Malaysia), Zulhabri Ismail (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia)

The number of building refurbishment works has increased drastically in the past few years in Malaysia.
The key features of such projects are unique, high in uncertainties, especially when it involves structural
modification which is sensitive, dangerous and difficult operations as well as the high number of services
involved. In spite of many conducted research, uncertainty has always been identified as one of the
reasons for poor project performance. It is mainly due to fewer considerations of the human factor
compared to the technical issues, whereas the issue is questionable in a real situation. This is a
conceptually based paper which aims to determine and understand in general the influence of human
factor on the uncertainty of refurbishment projects. The method used for this study is based on reviews
of related journals, chapter in books and conference proceeding papers from the search engine,
including Scopus, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, EBSCOhost, and Google Scholar, with the range of
years selected from 1997 to 2017, 146 potential articles were identified, and 57 included after screening
and assessed for eligibility. The findings of this study form the basis for an extended investigation to
identify the effect of human factors on the uncertainty of building refurbishment projects in Malaysia.

1017. Fast Track Arbitration in the Malaysian Construction Industry

Nur Khodijah Muhd Fadhlullah Ng (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Zulhabri Ismail (Universiti
Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Norfashiha Hashim (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Nasyairi Mat Nasir
(Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia)

The Malaysian construction industry’s growth had reached 8.2 per cent, or RM140 billion in 2015 and 7.4
per cent or RM166 billion in 2016 followed by an astounding average growth of 11 per cent during the
implementation of the 10th Malaysia Plan in early 2017. In the construction industry, differences in
perceptions may exist among project participants, hence, conflicts are inevitable and can quickly turn into
disputes. It can be resolved or settled through litigation and Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR).
Arbitration is the most established and well – sought after method. Even so, the arbitral process takes a
long time which leads to the Fast Track Arbitration approach. It is expected that the Fast Track Arbitration
approach can minimise time and optimise cost. However, to date, there is no established data on the
application of Fast Track Arbitration. Thus, this conceptual paper intends to develop a framework for the
application of Fast Track Arbitration to the Malaysian construction industry. This paper further discusses
the objectives which include the exploration of existing practices of Fast Track Arbitration, the
determining factors of its application, the identification of challenges and finally the establishment of the
conceptual framework. The chosen exploratory sequential mixed method was designed to achieve the
objectives by using interviews and questionnaires as tools to analyse data by using purposive sampling.
Therefore, this paper is expected to propose a framework by driving the implementation of Fast Track
Arbitration in the Malaysia construction industry by providing a sufficient baseline and reference for a
good development.

IRCES2018 | 19
1018. Analysis of Research Methods in Construction Pollution Related Research Approaches

Nur Afrina Qistina Ahmad Halmi (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Zulhabri Ismail (Universiti
Teknologi MARA, Malaysia)

The research method is defined as containing numerous research types, explanatory and evaluative data
analysis approaches, as well as qualitative and quantitative approaches, with various data collection
methods, such as semi-structured interview, survey interview, intensive literature review, and survey
questionnaire. This paper, presents a review and the analyses of prior research methods implemented to
address issues that revolve around construction pollutions by observing several selected peer-reviewed
journal articles. As such, 28 journal articles were selected from peer review journals published since 2000
until 2018. The journal articles were retrieved from online scholarly databases. The viability of study
results is closely related to the research methods employed. As a result, the outcomes of this review
indicate that qualitative research methods, such as doctrinal method, semi-structured interview, personal
interview, focus groups discussion, grounded theory, and case study, are the common approaches
employed in research studies. Such research techniques are deemed appropriate and reliable for
implementation in future researches. In addition, a majority of researchers appear to apply the qualitative
method, in comparison to the quantitative approach. Thus, an effective analysis method should be able
to identify the pattern of research approaches employed for non-experimental studies to address
construction pollution issues. Furthermore, the findings of this study are useful for future researchers who
wish to probe into the subject matter of construction pollution issues.

1036. Determining Factors On Technical Instructors’ Safety Culture Using Structural Analysis Approach

Nor Kamilah Makhtar (Institute of Teacher Education, Malaysia), Balakrishnan Parasuraman (University
Malaysia Kelantan,Malaysia), Mohd Nazri Zakaria (University Malaysia Kelantan, Malaysia), Ahmad
Rasdan Ismail (University Malaysia Kelantan, Malaysia)

Studies on safety culture have been increasing recently and several proposed models have been
developed and evaluated to identify their key dimensions contributed to many occupational sectors.
However, less of safety culture studies focused at education sector especially in Malaysia. This study aims
to seek a deeper understanding of the structures of safety culture in Malaysian education sector mainly
at Technical and Vocational Education Training (TVET). The objective also to investigate the relationship
between psychological, behaviourial and situational dimension with safety culture, and to find out what
can be done by the top management to increase safety culture in education sector. Data was collected
from 391 Vocational Colleges’ (VC) instructor all over Malaysia that being selected using multistage
sampling. Data was analyzed using SPSS 24 and SmartPLS-Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) technique.
Partial least squares analysis revealed Influence of Peers, Safety Knowledge, Safety Communication,
Safety Rules, Personnel Protective Equipment and Safety Training plays a pivotal role in inspiring the safety
culture among the instructor. Assessment of Importance Performance Matrix Analysis (IPMA) showed
that Safety Knowledge, Safety Rule, Influence of Peers and Safety Training are very important factors in
determining a safety culture due to their relatively higher importance values compared to the rest of the
variables. The study will help to improve safety culture in education sector and expected to bring in more
safety awareness among instructor, which will inevitably bring in a culture of safe behavior. The ultimate
result will be a substantial reduction or elimination in safety-related incidents and make an education
sector as a safe workplace. Only a very few have examined the safety culture factors among VCs’ instructor
as one of the TVET organisastion, and the used of Smart PLS is a novel idea, with the post analysis of IPMA
gives an indicator to the top management of TVET’s education and Malaysia Ministry Of Education (MOE)

IRCES2018 | 20
in build safety culture in this sector. Compliance of OSHA 1994 is seen as a good measure to build an
education sector as a safe workplace.

1044. A Framework for Malaysian Construction Industry Young Professionals (CIYPs) Contractual
Employment Contract: A Conceptual Paper

Siti Hawa Mohd Kasmuri (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia) , Zulhabri Ismail (Universiti Teknologi
MARA, Malaysia), Rumaizah Mohd Nordin (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Norfashiha Hashim
(Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Mohd Rashdan Abd Rahman (Federal Government Administrative
Centre, Malaysia)

As the construction industry is important to the Malaysian economy, employment issue should be
managed accordingly. However, there is lack of employment protection under the Malaysian employment
legislation for employees with earnings of RM 2,000–RM 5,000 (USD 486–USD 1,213) per month and are
also categorised as the young professionals. Even with additional jurisdiction given to the Director General
of Labour, the minimum protection is not mandatory to be imposed, hence resulting in unfair employment
practices. This paper aims to propose the conceptual framework for future study. This study adopts the
approach in reviewing literatures to confirm the findings from preliminary interviews conducted with the
labour officers from the Department of Labour (DoL) of Peninsular Malaysia. It is confirmed that the
fairness element in employment can be achieved through roles played by the organisations and supports
given from policymakers. The finding encourages good employment practices with fairness element as
the focal point that benefits the industry and policymakers.

1063. Video Application Model In Learning Styles Of Moral Education Students In Teacher Educational
Institution

Mohd Razimi Bin Husin (Sultan Idris Education University, Malaysia), Hishamuddin Bin Ahmad (Sultan Idris
Education University, Malaysia), Mahizer Bin Hamzah (Sultan Idris Education University, Malaysia)

The purpose of this study is to explore the specific trends and situations in video use in learning styles of
moral education students in teaching institute. This is a case study in which data were collected through
interviews. This study was conducted on six students. The semester four were chosen through purposive
sampling from two teaching institute in Malaysia. The construct and internal validity were verified by
experts while the external validity verification was supported by the findings from other studies with
existing theories. Data of the study were analyzed by applying the constant comparison techniques of the
use of digital devices using the Nvivo software. This comparison is to identify the themes of the use of
video, and its characteristics, and needs of students. The Physiological Stimulus of Dunn and Dunn
Learning Styles Model was used as guidance in the interviews because this model was the most suitable
to be applied to students with Physiological Stimulus. The results of the analysis showed that the use of
the video need to emphasize three aspects that is the factors student tend to watch video in Learning,
type of video, and video effects required by students to memorize the content knowledge and enabled
them to participate in the discussions of the topic taught. The research had produced the learning
guidelines on the use of video and its model on video use in learning styles of moral education students
in teaching institute which could be used by instructors in their professional practice in the lecture room.

IRCES2018 | 21
1032. A Review of Leadership Qualities among Building Refurbishment Project Managers

Ridzuan Yacob (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Masran Saruwono (Universiti Teknologi MARA,
Malaysia), Zulhabri Ismail (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia)

This paper provides a review of potential leadership qualities among building refurbishment project
managers. The scope of work in refurbishment projects are very much different compared to new building
projects. Among key features associated with refurbishment projects are unique, risky, high complexity,
and inherent with uncertainty factors that are constant throughout a project’s lifecycle. Besides that,
these projects have always been identified with reasons for poor project performance, which encompass
time, cost, and quality aspects. Despite receiving more attention in recent years, most previous research
that provided solutions for the issues had narrowly focused on technical measures instead of human
impact elements, whereby leadership qualities amongst project managers were not examined. This study
aims to identify potential leadership qualities among building refurbishment project managers. Moreover,
the relationship between uncertainty factors and performance of refurbishment projects mediated by the
qualities will also be determined. A literature search was conducted and relevant articles were sought
from search engine including Science Direct, Emerald Publishing, Taylor & Francis and Google Scholar,
with the range of years selected from 1997 to 2017, 125 articles were identified, however, only 70
remained after the second stage of the screening process. Finally, a research model was proposed and
this will serve as the basis for extended research on leadership qualities among project managers to
support management of uncertainties in refurbishment projects.

1047. Vulnerability Assessment of Buildings in Ranau Township: Methodological Design

Izni Izzati binti Mohamad (Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia), Mohd Zulkifli Mohd Yunus (Universiti
Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia), Noor Sheena Herayani Harith (Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia)

Structural damage usually happen during earthquake events. This had cause damage of properties and
even worse, loss of lives. Vulnerability is a degree which buildings are exposed to a harmful and
destruction and in this case, it’s to earthquake incident. The fast development in urbanization prompt
higher hazard from seismic events; even in area of moderate seismicity such as this city. This study address
the rapid evaluation of a large number of buildings in Ranau township involving steps to determine hazard,
assessing buildings stock and computing vulnerability with a scoring method using FEMA 154 form. The
selected area were selected based on building data from local municipality. Two types of buildings were
assessed; commercial buildings and residential buildings. The basic structural score was determined based
on building types. Modifier score is a major factors that give impacts to structural performance during
earthquake. These two types scores will determined the final score of the building and its vulnerability.
The results of the investigation reveals a different level of vulnerability and the areas where early
precaution and modification are needed because of the high vulnerability risk. This method can be applied
for further analysis in other seismic-prone area.

IRCES2018 | 22
IRCES_02: IRCES - SESSION 02 (10:00 ‐ 12:30 @ Mutiara Room, Level 2)

1098. Techno-economic Analysis on Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System (GCPV) in Mersing, Johor,


Malaysia using Homer Simulation

Mohd Sufian bin Ramli (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Siti Sufiah bte Abd Wahid (Universiti
Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Noor Amalina binti Zakaria (Universiti Teknologi Malaysia,Malaysia) Nur
Najihah binti Abu Bakar (Universiti Malaysia Perlis,Malaysia), Khairul Kamarudin bin Hasan (Universiti
Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Shakira Azeehan binti Azli (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia)

Power generation relies heavily on fossil fuels such as coal, crude oil and natural gas to produce electricity.
Fossil fuels are non-renewable which will eventually dwindle becoming too expensive. Therefore world
nowadays are going towards sustainable renewable energy that are constantly replenished and will never
run out. Malaysia also has introduced Feed-In Tariff (FiT) in order to promote and encourage consumer to
shift towards renewable energy. Among all renewable energies available in Malaysia, solar photovoltaic
(PV) is seen to be the most promising renewable energy in Malaysia. This paper presents the techno-
economic analysis of a grid-connected photovoltaic (GCPV) system installation for a house in Mersing,
Johor, Malaysia. Techno-economic feasibility study is done using HOMER software. Design specifications
of PV panels and inverters which include the size, type, cost and rating are selected based on the load
profile and solar radiation data at Mersing. The result from GCPV system designed is the electricity export
and import data obtained which then be analyzed to examine the feasibility of the system installed. FiT
rates have been taken into account in the analysis. At the end of this paper, suitability of utilizing GCPV
system in a house at Mersing, Johor, Malaysia has been discussed whereby the configuration with PV
rating of 5kW and 5kW converter gives the optimum result with total NPC and COE of $2587 and
$0.030/kWh respectively. In terms of economic analysis, with simulated payback period of 14 years, the
total revenue of the optimum configuration exceeds initial capital cost with an amount of $1083 per year.
Technically, 56% of electricity is generated from the PV array which equals to 6595kWh/yr. At FiT rate of
RM0.7775/kWh, 33% of electricity production is sold to the grid with a total payment of RM238.24⁄month.

1033. Crushing Behaviour Of Filled Tubes Under Static And Dynamic Loading Conditions: A Review

Nurul Izzah AR (Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Malaysia), Salwani MS (Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Malaysia),
Mohd Shahril M (Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Malaysia)

Crash box structure is one of the safety requirements that should be considered in vehicle design to ensure
the safety of the passengers. This paper was developed to summarize the simulation and experimental
study that has been conducted regarding the energy absorption capability of thin-walled tubes. The
energy absorption structure can be made of metal or composite thin-walled tubes with various
configurations. These thin-walled structures were filled with foams, honeycomb or composite to enhance
the energy absorption capability. A few types of foam-filled and honeycomb-filled with the addition of
composite to enhance the energy absorption were discussed in this paper. Trigger mechanism with foam-
filled was also introduced to increase the energy absorption and protect the passenger during a collision.
A functionally graded thickness of the wall and functionally graded density of foam were introduced in
form of simulation study to investigate the effect of the graded configuration on energy absorption

IRCES2018 | 23
capability. In author’s opinion, the most promising or more capable filler among all that has been
discussed is functionally graded foam which was recently the investigated using finite element simulation.

1057. A Study of Palm Oil as an Insulating Medium

N. D. Ahmad (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), S.N.M. Zubir (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia),
S.S.Ramli (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), N. H. Ishak (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), W. S.
Saidon (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), NA. Salim (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), M
Kamarol (Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia)

A power transformer is the main component in a power system network. The most used insulating
material in the transformer is mineral oil because of the high properties and best performance. Insulating
oil is very important to protect transformer from any hazard condition. However, the oil can affect the
environment, high in cost and unpredictable quantity because it is a natural source. The study of palm oil
as insulating medium is suggested as Malaysia is the second largest country that produces palm oil. Palm
oil has many benefits and easy to produce without need too much guard after the planting. The aim of
this research is to study the characteristic of palm oil that can benefit as transformer oil, compare the
differences of palm oil with respect to the mineral oil used in the high power transformer, and test its
characteristic. Three experiments conducted are palm oil are breakdown voltage, tan delta, and aging
determination. The results show that palm oil has future to be the renewable and biodegradable
alternative. As the properties of palm oil used in the transformer has maximum dielectric field strength,
low tan delta and can withstand the long aging process.

1073. Managing Voltage Fluctuation Issues in Distribution System Connected with Distributed
Generation Using Decentralized Power Factor Control

Tengku Juhana Tengku Hashim (Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Malaysia),Nofri Yenita Dahalan (Universiti
Teknologi MARA, Malaysia)

Power quality issues has evidently become one of the most important issues in power system studies.
With the integration of distributed generations (DGs) in the power system, the issue of voltage control
has become very important as the power system has become dynamic due to the bidirectional power
flow. Delivering power while maintaining acceptable voltage limits has become a challenge for the
distribution network operators (DNOs). In order to maintain power delivery to the customers whilst
maintaining good power quality, the DNOs has undertaken several measures including implementing
several voltage control methods to ensure that the voltage limits in the power system are within
permissible limits. This includes the centralized and decentralized voltage control methods in the system
connected with DGs. The decentralized voltage control method has also become an acceptable option
due to its ease in having limited communication and lower costs in the system. One of the decentralized
voltage control method which has been widely used is the power factor control (PFC) method. The IEEE
14 bus distribution test system has been used and integrated with DGs to show the effectiveness of the
PFC method in managing the voltage fluctuation issues in the distribution system.

IRCES2018 | 24
1072. Electromagnetic Analysis of Different Materials for High Temperature Machine

M.F Zainudin, R.Aziz (Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Malaysia), M.Z. Ahmad (Universiti Tun Hussein
Onn Malaysia, Malaysia)

Permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) consist of permanent magnet at the rotor to produce a
constant magnetic field. Permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) classified into two categories
which is Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (IPMSM), and Surface Permanent Magnet
Synchronous Motor (SPMSM). For IPMSMs, permanent magnet is embedded inside the rotor core while
for SPMSMs, the permanent magnet is attached at the surface of the rotor. IPMSMs offers high torque
and power density. However, it produce high cogging torque compared to SPMSMs. The performances of
IPMSMs also related to the permanent magnet materials that used to produce constant magnetic flux for
the motor. In this research, design study of 8 pole 12 slot, V-shaped permanent magnet with various rotor
topology is studied to compare the performances with different permanent magnet materials. The
permanent magnet materials that have been selected are Neodymium-Iron Boron (NdFeB), AlNiCo, and
Samarium-Cobalt (SmCo). Initially, design procedures of IPMSM including parts drawing, material and
condition setting, the properties setting are all explained. Then, coil arrangement test is conducted to
perform 3 phase armature coil arrangement. Then, no load analysis is conducted to analyse cogging
torque, flux linkage, flux distribution and back-EMF of motor followed by load analysis which analyse the
torque speed characteristics, output power, and efficiency of the motor with different permanent magnet
materials. No load analysis and load analysis is conducted using finite element analysis of JMAG Designer
14.0. Finally, it is found that the best permanent magnet material for IPMSM is NdFeB due to the capability
to produce high output torque and efficiency based on the analysis conducted.

1023. Application of Low Cost Microcontroller In Rapid Control Prototyping for Single Phase Back to
Back Converter

Shamsul Aizam Zulkifli (Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia,Malaysia), Suraj Chakraverty (Universiti Tun
Hussein Onn Malaysia, Malaysia)
This project is carried out in order to develop a Rapid Control Prototyping (RCP) process using a PI control
which can be employed in a low cost microcontroller device for online measurement. Therefore, the
Raspberry PI has been chosen for beeing set as a real-time response and combined with a closed loop
feedback control. Here, a back to back converter has been developed using the Matlab-Simulink in order
to interface in real time processing system. At the end, all the results have shown the desired output
which responses to the target referenced which has been observed in real-time using Matlab Graphical
User Interface model. It indicates that, the selected low cost microcontroller can be used as a real time
measurement for reducing the total cost of experimented setup, ensure safety of the system and increase
the accuracy of the system.

1095. Non-linear and Linear Baseline Energy Modeling Comparative Studies in Educational Buildings

Rijalul Fahmi Mustapa (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Nofri Yenita Dahlan(Universiti Teknologi
MARA, Malaysia), Ahmad ihsan Mohd Yassin (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Atiqah Hamizah
Mohd Nordin (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Mohd Ezwan Mahadan (Universiti Teknologi MARA,
Malaysia), Norlee Husnafeeza Ahmad (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Norhalida Othman
(Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia)

IRCES2018 | 25
Baseline energy model is a powerful tool in describing energy consumption for any buildings at a certain
period of time. Baseline energy model main task is to predict the energy consumption if energy
conservation measures were implemented for energy saving calculation purposes. A simple and practical
approach to model a baseline energy utilizing linear regression method is undeniable to be inferior. Linear
regression work best with energy consumption that behaves linearly but a practical and simple approach
to model a baseline energy for energy consumption that behaves in a non-linear manner have to be
establish. Thus, this paper main intention is to model a baseline energy using Non-Linear Auto Regressive
with Exogenous Input Model with Artificial Neural Network (NARX-ANN) method as the model estimator.
Two buildings in a University compound will be used to model the baseline energy consumption. Multiple
regression model will be used in order to compare the results of the baseline energy models developed
with NARX-ANN method. It is found that NARX-ANN performs better in terms of error measurement. It is
hoped that a better baseline energy models can be developed in order to provide less error if energy
saving calculation purpose will be implemented.

IRCES_03: IRCES - SESSION 03 (14:00 ‐ 15:00 @ Delima Room, Level 2)

1060. BER Performance of Ultra-Wideband Signal in Optical Transmission Line

Chung Gwo Chin (Multimedia University, Malaysia), Lee Chu Liang (Multimedia University, Malaysia), Lim
Zheng Yang (Multimedia University, Malaysia), Lee It Ee (Multimedia University, Malaysia)
The main interest of ultra-wideband (UWB) system is that it can coexist with the current radio system with
minimal or no interference, which indeed benefits the radio service provider to avoid paying expensive
spectrum licensing fees. However, UWB system has a limited propagation distance, typically up to 10
meters. Thus, optical UWB technology has been proposed recently to overcome this problem. In this
paper, Matlab simulation has been done to study the performance of the UWB signal in the optical
transmission line. Bit error rate (BER) performance has been compared using minimum mean square error
(MMSE) equalizer with varying tap length. Results indicate that the distance of the UWB signal
transmission can be extended using optical fibre as long as the sampling rate does not cause the optical
multipath channel to generate too much interference.

1105. Performance Comparison of Zirconia, Bismuth and Silica-doped Erbium Fiber for Optical
Amplification

Sufian Mohamad (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Arni Munira Markom (Universiti Teknologi
MARA, Malaysia), Mukul Chandra Paul (CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, India) and
Sulaiman Wadi Harun (University of Malaya, Malaysia)
Zirconia-based Erbium-doped fiber amplifier (Zr-EDFA) is improved material optical fiber with more than
4000 ppm erbium-doped concentration to solve global demand for huge capacity carrying data
information, high speed transmission and long haul with specific devices of compactness. Thus, the length
of Zr-EDFA is only 50 cm as gain medium. At input pump power -30 dBm, the highest optical gain is 34 dB
(1530 nm wavelength) whereas 21 dB (1535 nm wavelength) at -10 dBm. Besides, the flatness gain 21 dB
with fluctuation of 1 dB is recorded for Zr-EDFA. For performance comparison, Bismuth-based Erbium-
doped fiber amplifier (Bi-EDFA) and Silica-based Erbium-doped fiber amplifier (Si-EDFA) were also
investigated.

IRCES2018 | 26
1101. Design of Capacitive Power Transfer (CPT) for Low Power Application using Power Converter
Class E trigger by Arduino Uno Switching Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)

KK.Hasan (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Shakir Saat (Universiti Teknikal Malaysia, Malaysia),
Y Yusof (Universiti Teknikal Malaysia, Malaysia, Muhammad Asraf H. (Universiti Teknologi MARA,
Malaysia), Zakiah Mohd Yusoff (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), NM Meor Shaari (Universiti
Teknikal Malaysia, Malaysia)

This research presents a Capacitive Power Transfer (CPT) for Low Application using Arduino Uno Switching
Pulse Width Modulation (PWM). Basically, CPT system consists of primary side dc-to-ac resonant
converter, which converts dc into high frequency ac energy and transfer to the secondary side receiver
via energy medium transfer. The secondary side is not connected electrically with primary and, therefore,
can be movable (linearly or/and rotating), giving flexibility, mobility, and safety for supplied loads. This
CPT using TC 4422 and Class E MOSFETs as the main components that powering the circuit supported by
Arduino Uno technologies as an action in Pulse Width Modulation (PWM). Advantage of this circuit is the
Class E MOSFETs is a low switching method of losses. To be technically, the performance CPT of 250 kHz
operated frequency analyzed by technically and experimental works that powered by DC voltage
(Adapter) which is 12V and through TC44422 and Class E MOSFETs Circuits. Lastly, a prototype of CPT is
successfully developed with air gaps is 0.1cm between the two plates and produced enough power from
transmitter to receiver plate in order to powering the devices. From the result experimental, the
prototype can produces 85.49% of efficiency transmit power converter and can receive at secondary plate
power at 5.85 Volt peak, 250kHz. Significant of this research mostly benefit in electrical hazardous
environment, moveable application, consumer electronics and Medical implants.

1102. Haven-Garden System: An Alternative Garden for Temperate-Plants with Microcontroller


Application

Maryam Saadah Aris Fadzallah (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Maizura Mohd Sani (Universiti
Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Murizah Kassim (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Mashitah Mohd
Hussein (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia)

Based on the concept of current commercialized greenhouse, a simple system is created to control the
modified greenhouse into a “sheltered-garden”. This modified greenhouse is made to be different from
the conventional ones in terms of its size and control system. The size is designed to fit a normal garden
instead of a crop, and the system conceived to be low-cost thus much simpler. Named as Haven-Garden,
the system is composed of a PIC16F877A microcontroller via programming language written using PIC
Simulator IDE which controls curtain, light sensors, exhaust fan, LCD, LEDs and temperature sensor. All
these components are integrated to create a controlled environment in ensuring the necessities of
temperature, lighting, humidity, and carbon dioxide (CO2) are delivered adequately to the plants. In this
study, the system has the ability to make decisions in providing necessary light intensity needed by
controlling the openness of the curtain in the Haven-Garden according to the light radiates by the sun. On
the other hand, the conventional light controller does not have the ability to solve this kind of issues, and
can only be seen as in big greenhouse project and higher scope of crops to be covered. Therefore, this
study identifies a design of a simple and low-cost system integrated with hardware circuit of automated
controller using PIC16F877A microcontroller, controlling various parameters inside the “alternative
garden”. A system was successfully been created as an alternative to a contemporary garden but with far
more beneficial as it helps in managing all the plants’ necessities thus organizing the owner’s time better.
In this study, tests cases have illustrated that dynamic control method could be a suitable alternative

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method compared to conventional control methods that could save electricity consumption and offers
ease of use to human being. The input variables were indoor lighting, inference from outdoor lighting,
and temperature while the output variables were the required illumination to achieve the standard;
presented in LED lighting, an exhaust fan to control the temperature and humidity, curtain to eliminate
excessive light from direct sunlight and an LCD to monitor the temperature inside the Haven-Garden for
more effectiveness.

IRCES_04: IRCES - SESSION 04 (14:00 ‐ 15:00 @ Mutiara Room, Level 2)

1114. Effect of Polysulfone Content on Forward Osmosis Membrane Performance

Haikal Mustafa (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Munirah Onn(Universiti Teknologi MARA,
Malaysia), Aznilinda Zainuddin (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Siti Mariam bt Mohammad Iliyas
(Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Goh Pei Sean(Universtiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia) and Ahmad
Fauzi Ismail (Universtiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia)

Desalination is the process to separate salt content from saline water. This study observes the effect of
different polysulfone (psf) content on forward osmosis (FO) membrane towards its water flux and salt
rejection performance. The loading percentages of psf used in the membrane are 15%, 15.5% and 16%.
Theoretically, the higher the psf content, the lower the water flux passes through membrane. The
membranes were prepared using interfacial polymerization technique and tested through reverse
osmosis (RO) process and FO setup. From the reverse osmosis (RO) experiment, the results showed that
the salt rejection of 15% psf, 15.5% psf, 16% psf, are 92.94%, 93.71%, 95.98% respectively. In the FO
experiment, the water flux results recorded for 15% psf, 15.5% psf, 16% psf, content are 1.21 L/m2h, 0.43
L/m2h, 0.21 L/m2h, respectively. Based on these two parameters, it would seem that by increasing the
psf content the salt rejection value had increased but the water flux had decreased accordingly. These
trends may due to when the psf content was increased; the support layer became denser and less porous
which would lead to a higher solute rejection and lower water flux through the membrane. In conclusion,
increasing of psf content will give forward osmosis membrane with higher salt rejection but lower water
flux.

1069. Titania-Coated Magnetite Particles for As(V) Removal from Water

N.K. Devaraj (Multimedia University, Malaysia), L.S. Ganapathe (Multimedia University, Malaysia), S.R.
Elghazali (Multimedia University, Malaysia), A.S.M. Mukter-Uz-Zaman (Multimedia University,Malaysia),
H.Y. Wong(Multimedia University, Malaysia)

Surface-modified magnetite (Fe3O4) particles are being proposed as adsorbent materials for water
contaminated with arsenic (As) ions due to its exploitable magnetic properties. In this study, magnetite
particles were synthesised through the co-precipitation method at various stirring times in order to obtain
particles of different sizes. The particles were subsequently coated with titanium dioxide. Particle size
analyser measurements indicated increase in the size of the particles with the increase in stirring time
from 30 to 60 mins. Based on the X-ray diffractometer characterisation results, the obtained peaks were
ascribed to that of magnetite. Titanium dioxide peaks were clearly evident for the titania-coated

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magnetite particles. The As(V) removal performance of the particles was tested using the low-cost
molybdenum blue-based colorimeter method assisted by a UV-Vis spectroscopy. Prior to the testing, a
calibration curve was obtained using As(V) sample solutions with different concentrations which depicted
a linear relationship between the peak absorbance values and the concentration. Results indicated that
all the titania-coated magnetite particles were able to remove 100% of As(V) in the tested solution for a
contact time of 4 hours. The high affinity of the outer-titania shell towards As (V) ions may be beneficial
to obtain an efficient adsorbent material for the removal of toxic As ions from water.

1064. Binary Effect of Palm Oil Fuel Ash and Eggshell Waste Powder on Heat of Hydration for Mortar

Zalipah Jamellodin (Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Malaysia), Mohamad Arif Jamaly (Universiti Tun
Hussein Onn Malaysia, Malaysia), Norazreen Nor Azhar (Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Malaysia),
Masni A. Majid (Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Malaysia), Norhafizah Salleh (Universiti Tun Hussein
Onn Malaysia, Malaysia), Noor Azlina Abd Hamid (Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Malaysia), Suraya
Hani Adnan (Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Malaysia)

The effects of mortar containing palm oil fuel ash and eggshell waste powder on heat of hydration was
investigated. This study covers the basic properties like the chemical composition of raw materials and
the hydration temperature for binary mortar. Malaysia is one of the world’s largest palm oil producers.
Palm oil fuel ash (POFA) is a product of the combustion of palm oil waste which is not used and usually
disposed of in landfills. The use of eggs in the food industry also generate waste egg shells that can be
transform into powder namely eggshell waste powder (ESP). The development in construction technology
has contributed to research in producing various methods and materials that provide advantages in the
construction field. One of the technologies is to investigate the effectiveness of OPC replacement with
appropriate waste materials. In this research, POFA and ESP was used as ingredients to replace a
proportion of OPC in the mortar thereby reducing the use of OPC. POFA used in this study were in forms
of ground POFA (GPOFA) and unground POFA (UPOFA). GPOFA and ESP are ground to achieve a similar
size as OPC while UPOFA was used in its original size. The total percentages replacement of POFA and OPC
was 20% by weight with the different level replacements of 4%, 8%, 12%, 16% and 20%. The design of
mortar mix proportion made up of three groups, A, B and C. Group A is the control mortar that is OPC
only. Group B is the mortar that contains OPC, POFA and ESP. Meanwhile, a third group C, consisting of a
mixture of OPC, GPOFA and ESP. The mix proportion used for hydration temperature determination was
chosen from the previous study which identified the strength of mortar compression. The optimum
compressive strength of each group is chosen to obtain the mortar hydration temperature. For
determination of mortar hydration temperature, plywood with size 300 mm x 300 mm x 450 mm cube
was used as the exterior mould. It was packed with 76 mm thick polystyrene acting as the insulator.
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe with diameter of 150 mm and a height of 300 mm is used to fill the mortar
mix. A thermocouple (Type K) was inserted into the centre of each box and was connected to a data logger
system. Temperature rises due to heat of hydration in all mixes were recorded for 5 days. The results
revealed that the replacement of OPC with binary materials is beneficial, particularly for mass mortar
where thermal cracking due to excessive heat rise is of great concern.

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IRCES_05: IRCES - SESSION 05 (15:30 ‐ 17:00 @ Delima Room, Level 2)

1050. A Review of Expert System Applied in Real Estate Valuation

Justine Prita Kusuma Ahmad Borhannuddin (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Abdul Hadi Haji
Nawawi (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Edie Ezwan Mohd Safian (Universiti Tun Hussein Onn
Malaysia, Malaysia)

Expert system applications are found in various industries especially real estate, medical, law, engineering
and social science. However, expert system is not a common valuation approach in Malaysia as compared
to others developed country such as US and UK. The motive of this paper was to review the expert system
and the implementation in real estate valuation. By exploring the fundamental of expert system, the
benefits of expert system to real estate valuation also identified. In the nearest future, the expert system
expands the application and practice by real estate industry in Malaysia. The complexity of real estate
environment will demand for advance technology like expert system to assist in valuation procedure and
work processes in order to deliver quality of valuation to market participants.

1087. An Investigation of the Characteristics and Performance of Hybrid Routing Protocol in (MANET)

Omar Ismael Al-Sanjary (Management & Science University, Malaysia), Ahmed Abdullah Ahmed
(Kurdistan Technical Institute, Iraq), Hewa Majeed Zangana (Computer and Information Technology
Nawroz University, Iraq), Musab A. M Ali (Management & Science University, Malaysia), Mohammed
Hazim Alkawaz (Management & Science University), Saeed Hameed Aldulaimi (Applied Science University,
Bahrain)

Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a set of nodes, which communicates using wireless medium and
forming an arbitrary and dynamic network. Data is transmitted by forwarding the data from one node to
another. To achieve this, each MANET node must act as both a host and a routing node. Routing in MANET
poses a challenge because of the frequent changes in network topology in addition to the limited
resources available for each node. Many different routing protocols have developed for MANET but in
general, they can be categorized into three categories, which are proactive, reactive, and hybrid routing
protocols. Hybrid routing protocols are interesting because they combine the characteristics of both
proactive and reactive routing protocols. In this paper, we study the characteristics of a hybrid routing
protocol (ZRP) and then compare its performance with a proactive (FSRL) and reactive (AODV) routing
protocols.

1104. FKEPG-LIMS: Fakulti Kejuruteraan Elektrik Kampus Pasir Gudang Lab Inventory Management
System

Farah Yasmin Abdul Rahman (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Nurhani Kasuan(Universiti Teknologi
MARA, Malaysia), Ezril Hisham Mat Saat (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Noor Hasliza Abdul
Rahman (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Nur Iqtiyani Ilham (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia),
Siti Noor Suhana Jamil (Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia)

Information are the most valuable commodity in the modern era. In today’s lifestyle, society are virtually
swarmed with a lot of information that cannot the misplaced or lost. This study presents a development

IRCES2018 | 30
of web based lab inventory management system that is used to record, manage and retrieve the lab
equipment and components in Fakulti Kejuruteraan Elektrik Kampus Pasir Gudang namely FKEPG-LIMS.
The main purpose of this study is to help the faculty members that consist of the Faculty Head, lab
technicians, lecturers, students and other susers to view and keep track all the valuable lab equipment.
The database is developed using MySQL and the HTML script written in PHP and Adobe Dreamweaver
used design the web interface. Based from this study shows that FKEPG-LIMS able to store all the
information which can be retrieve, edited and edited. All the faculty members get benefit from this lab
inventory management system development.

1076. Determination of CCT Due to Interconnected Link Tripping using the OMIB and EAC

Nur Ashida Salim (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Jasronita Jasni (Universiti Putra Malaysia,
Malaysia), Norfishah Ab Wahab (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia), Nur Fadilah Ab Aziz (Universiti
Tenaga Nasional, Malaysia), Nur Azzammudin Rahmat (Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Malaysia)

This paper presents an algorithm to determine the critical clearing time (CCT) due to the effect of
interconnected link tripping by applying the one machine infinite bus (OMIB) equivalent system method
and equal area criterion (EAC). This paper also proposes the implementation of graphical user interface
(GUI) to monitor and predict the CCT from time to time. The CCT is defined as the highest time interval by
which the fault is expected to be cleared with the aim of maintaining the electricity supply stability. The
computation of important numerical development of CCT is deduced from the entails three fault
situations, which are; pre-fault, during fault and post-fault situations, with the main focus on pre-fault
situation. The CCT becomes significantly shorter whilst transient instability is induced by a three-phase
fault occurred at the bus bar next to the substation connected with a sensitive generator. It is sufficient
to maintain the transient stability albeit fault occurred at other locations by setting the protection relay
with the computed value of CCT. A circuit breaker which is installed and operated before the smallest CCT
will not affect the transient instability throughout the occasion of fault. The IEEE Reliability Test System
1979 (IEEE RTS-79) is used to verify the accuracy of the proposed methodology in determining the CCT.

1092. A Review on Indoor Air Quality Monitoring using IoT at Campus Environment

Anindya Ananda Hapsari (Management & Science University, Malaysia), Asif Iqbal Hajamydeen
(Management & Science University, Malaysia), Muhammad Irsyad Abdullah (Management & Science
University, Malaysia)

Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) systems provide a feasible way to maintain a healthy environment. The purpose
of this study is to investigate IAQ monitoring systems, summarize existing studies, and to recommend
research on IAQ using the Internet of Things (IoT). On this systematic review the author analyzes and
summarizes IAQ using IoT articles obtained from three databases. Based on the criteria, there were 36
studies selected that discusses IAQ, 24 are system development, six are evaluation and comparative
articles, three studies proposes methods, and the other three are review articles. From the articles, there
are only six researchers have conducted research on campus environment. The relevant past research
was reviewed and provided discussion material on monitoring systems, sensors, devices used, and
Internet of Things for Indoor Air Quality.

IRCES2018 | 31
1099. Gamification of educational technology: a narrative review

Muhamad Aldiansyah (Management & Science University, Malaysia), Adam Jaharadak (Management &
Science University, Malaysia)

Student motivation and engagement are major problems in education. Gamification is one way to increase
student motivation and engagement by combining game element in the educational environment. There
are some empirical researches and review paper that has been con-ducted to give an evidence of
gamification positive effect for educational technology but review papers that discuss practical suggestion
have rarely been studied. This review is focused on papers that give an empirical evidence for gamification
on learning in the context of narrative analysis to proposed best practices to do this research field. The
study of gamification in educational technology is the basis this narrative literature review was made.
Terms of search used is gamification, learning, student, engagement, motivation, and education.
Gamification on e-learning that has no purpose on student motivation and engagement were excluded
from the search terms. Fifteen papers were selected for review as they are relevant to the criteria. This
review indicates that the use of game element has a positive influence on educational technology for the
student, even there are various combinations for the chosen of learning activity, subject, game elements,
method, sample size, and duration.

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