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Name: Jomar DC.

Terbio Date: April 12, 2019

Course and Section: ENG10 G1 Professor: H. P. Hernandez


1.1 Background of the Study

As it is, concrete plays a major role in construction industry. The development of this

material has been the focus of many studies in materials engineering. Despite of having standard

procedure in producing concrete, studies involving replacement of its natural materials were being

pursued. The relationship between the effects of the replacement of each of its components to the

mechanical properties as well as other characteristics such as durability of the concrete has been

studied by many authors.

Compressive strength is one of the mechanical properties of concrete that determines the

effectiveness of the concrete. The studies of Kumar et al. (2018) and Ikponmwosa et al. (2017)

which involves replacement of fine aggregates with other materials such as recycled concrete fine

aggregates and ceramic fine aggregates respectively, showed an improvement in the compressive

strength of the concrete. In the study of Awoyera et al. (2016) the replacement of fine aggregates

with ceramic fine aggregates were also tested. The strength development of the concrete was lower

in the early period of curing but achieved a greater strength at the end of the curing period. These

evidences support the improvement of compressive strength with partial replacement of ceramic

fine aggregates. However, these studies did not consider the effect of the replacement of the partial

replacement of the concrete’s component its durability.

There are also studies regarding the effects on the durability of partial replacement of

concrete components or addition of recycled material such as marble waste. In 2015, Saloma et al.

showed that partial replacement of nanosilica to cement helps improve the durability of the

concrete as well as the compressive strength. The study of Ulubeyli et al. (2016) showed an

improvement in the durability after the addition of marble waste in the concrete mixture. But it

was reported that there was a lower strength to durability ratio of the concrete. These studies have

shown the assessment of the durability of the concrete in different conditions. However, the

previously mentioned studies failed to assess the effect of partial replacement of aggregates with

respect to both compressive strength and durability of the concrete.

On the other hand, lot of structures like bridges, port structures, coastal structures, and

other under-water structures requires maintenance, rehabilitation or replacement due to its

exposure to loads and the environment itself. Thus, the exposure of the concrete in a marine

environment is an essential factor that can also be considered for it affects the deterioration of the

concrete due to the physical and chemical processes (Suprenant, 2015).

This study focuses on measuring and analyzing the effect of replacing the natural fine

aggregates with recycled ceramic tiles to the durability of a concrete after exposure to sea water.

1.2 Significance of the Study

The study is about the determination of the durability of a concrete with recycled ceramic

tiles as partial fine aggregates after exposure to sea water. Concrete exposed to an aggressive

environment tends to show degradation faster thus leading it to have a shorter lifespan and lower

serviceability through time. The durability of the concrete is also an important factor to consider
in structures when it comes to rehabilitation and maintenance. The use of recycled ceramic tiles as

partial fine aggregates may also lead to more ways of disposing used ceramic tiles. This may also

lead to more studies that can provide an alternative type of mixture of concrete in structures

exposed to seawater or marine environment.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

This study aims to determine if the partial substitution of recycled ceramic tiles as fine

aggregate will have an effect to the durability of a concrete. The determination of the durability

will be based on the electrical resistivity of the concrete using DC electrical resistivity test.

It also aims to know if the amount of the partial fine aggregates will affect its effect on

thedurability of the concrete.

1.4 Scope and Limitation

There will be three samples for three varying amounts of recycled ceramic tiles as partial

fine aggregates and another three samples without the replacement of fine aggregates. The results

will be based on the average reading for each set of samples. The concrete as well as its preparation

will be done by the students with the help of the faculty in charge and the helpers in the Department

of Civil Engineering, UPLB. The samples will be exposed to a seawater from the nearest source

for 30 days after curing.


Kumar, B. M. V., Ananthan, H., & Balaji, K. V. A. (2018). Experimental studies on utilization of
recycled coarse and fine aggregates in high performance concrete mixes. Alexandria
Engineering Journal. 57, 1749-1759. Retrieved from

Ikponmwosa, E., Fapohunda, C., Kolajo, O., Eyo, O. (2017). Structural behaviour of bamboo-
reinforced foamed concrete slab containing polyvinyl wastes (PW) as partial replacement
of fine aggregate. Journal of King Saud University – Engineering Sciences. 29, 348-355.
Retrieved from

Awoyera, P. O. Ndambuki, J. M., Akinmusuru, J. O., & Omole, D. O. (2016). Characterization

of ceramic waste aggregate. Housing and Building National Research Center Journal.
14, 282-287. Retrieved from

Saloma, Nasution, A., Imran, I., Abdullah, M. (2015). Improvement of concrete durability by
nanomaterials. Procedia Engineering. 125, 608-612. doi: 10.1016/j.proeng.2015.11.078

Ulubeyli, G. C., Bilir, T., & Artir, R. (2016). Durability Properties of Concrete Produced by
Marble Waste as Aggregate or Mineral Additives. Procedia Engineering. 161, 543-548.
doi: 10.1016/j.proeng.2016.08.689

Suprenant, B. (1991). Designing Concrete for Exposure to Sea Water. The Aberdeen Group.