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PROBLEM

Steam with an enthalpy of 800 kcal/kg enters a nozzle at a velocity of 80 m/s. Find the velocity
of the steam at the exit of the nozzle if its enthalpy is reduced to 750 kcal/kg, assuming the
nozzle is horizontal and disregarding heat losses. Take g = 9.81 m/s2 and J constant = 427 kg
m/kcal.
A. 452.37 m/s C. 651.92 m/s
B. 245.45 m/s D. 427.54 m/s

Solution:
Energy Entering = Energy Leaving
h1 + KE 1 = h2 + KE 2
KE 2 - KE 1 = h1 - h2

2 2
V 2 −V 1 kcal 4187 J
= ( 800 - 750) x
2 kg 1 kcal

V 22−(80)2
=¿ 418600
2
Answer: (C) V 2 = 651.92 m/s

PROBLEM
Steam is expanded through a nozzle and the enthalpy drop per kg of steam from the initial
pressure to the final pressure is 60 kJ. Neglecting friction, find the velocity of discharge and the
exit area of the nozzle to pass 0.20 kg/s if the specific volume of the steam at exit is 1.5 m3 /kg.
A. 346.4 m/s , 879 m2 C. 765.6 m/s , 467 m2
2
B. 356.7 m/s , 278 m D. 346.4 m/s , 866 m2

Solution:
The velocity of discharge, V d :
V d = √ 2(specific enthalpy drop)
V d =√ 2(60,000)
thus;
V d =346.4 m/s
The exit area of the nozzle:
Area x Velocity = mass flow x specific volume
A x (346.4) = 0.20 (1.5)
A = 866 m2

Answer: (D) 346.4 m/s , 866 m2

PROBLEM
A 6 MW steam turbine generator power plant has a full-load steam rate of 8 kg/kW-hr. Assuming
that no-load steam consumption as 15% of full-load steam consumption, compute for the hourly
steam consumption at 75% load, in kg/hr.
A. 37,800 kg/hr C. 30,780 kg/hr
B. 38,700 kg/hr D. 30,870 kg/hr

Solution:
kg
m 2 = (6000kW) 8 ( )
kW −hr
= 48,000 kg/hr
Steam consumption at no-load ( m1 ) :
m2=( 0.15 ) ( 48,000)
= 7200 kg/hr
Using two point form:
y − y 1 y 2− y 1
=
x−x 1 x 2−x 1
where:
P1 (x 2 y 2) = P1 (0,7200)
P2 ( x 2 y 2 )=P2 (6000, 48,000)

P ( x,y ) = P (L, ms )
then;
ms−7200 48,000−7200
=
L−0 6000−0
ms−7200 = 6.8 L
ms=¿ 6.8 L +¿ 7200
L = 0.75 (6000)
= 4500 kW
then
Answer: (A) m s=¿ 37,800 kg/hr

PROBLEM
A 4 kg of air enters a turbine with enthalpy of 600 kJ and velocity of 250 m/s. The enthalpy at
exit is 486 kJ and velocity of 170 m/s. What is the work developed if there is a heat loss of 10
kJ?
A.128.83 kJ C. 80.2 kJ
B.171.2 kJ D. 28.3 kJ

Solution:

H1 + KE 1 = H 2+ Q+ W t

250 170
¿ ¿ kJ
¿ Jx ¿ Jx + 10 + W t
1 kJ 1 1000 J
(4 )¿ =486+ (4) ¿
2 1000 J 2
Answer: (B) W t = 171.2 kJ

PROBLEM
Calculate drive horsepower for pumping 1703 L/min cold water to a tank suction at 127 mm Hg
vacuum, delivery at 5.3 kg/cm2 ga., both measured close to pump, ep = 0.65.
A. 31.42 HP C. 35.42 HP
B. 20.42 HP D. 23.02 HP

Solution:
Let; hd = total head at discharge
hg = total head at suction
By Bernoulli’s Equation:
h = h d - hs 0 0
2 2
P d−P s V d −V s
or ; h= + +( zd - zs )
γ 2g
where:
Pd = 5.3 kg/cm2 ga.
Ps = -127 mm Hg = -0.1727 kg/cm2
2 2
(5.3+0.1727) kg /cm (100 cm/m)
h= = 54.72 m
1000 kg/m3
where:

[
Pbrake = γ Q h = 1703 (L
)] (
1 m3
min 1000 L )kg
1000 3 (54.72) = 93,188.16
m
kg−m 1 kW
min
( 6116.3 )
kg−m =15.24 kW
min
Pbrake = 20.42 Hp
Drive HP for pump:
20.42
HP =
0.65
Answer: (A) HP = 31.42 HP

PROBLEM
Find the length of a suspension bunker to contain 181 tons of coal without surcharge; width 4.6
m; depth 4.3 m. The level capacity of a suspension bunker is 5/8 wdl where : w = width, d =
depth, l = length. Density of coal, 800 kg/m3.
A.18.30 m C. 17.61 m
B. 13.80 m D. 12.61 m
Solution:
5
V= Wdl
8
Solving for the total volume:
181(1000)kg
V= 3
=226.25m3
800 kg / m
then;
5
226.25 = (4.6)(4.3) l
8
Answer: (A) L = 18.30 m

PROBLEM
A 305 mm x 457 mm four stroke single acting diesel engine is rated at 150 kW at 260 rpm. Fuel
consumption at rated load is 0.26 kg/kW-hr with a heating value of 43,912 kJ/kg. Calculate the
brake thermal efficiency.
A. 31.63 % C. 21.63 %
B. 41.63 % D. 35.63 %

Solution:
Pb
etb =
mf Qh
Solving for mf :
kg
mf =0.26 ( 150 kW ) = 39 kg/hr = 0.0108 kg/s
kW−hr
then;
150
etb =
0.0108(43,912)
Answer: (A) etb = 0.3163 or 31.63 %

PROBLEM
The brake thermal efficiency of a 1 MW diesel electric plant is 36 %. Find the heat generated by
fuel in kW if the generator efficiency is 89 %.
A. 3,121.10 kW C. 4,121.10 kW
B. 3,528.64 kW D. 4,528.64 kW

Solution:
Pb
etb =
Qs
Solving for brake power, Pb :
1000
egen =
Pb
1000
P b=
0.89

Pb=1,123.60 kW
then;
1,123.60
etb =
Qs
Answer: (A) Qs = 3,121.10 kW

PROBLEM
In an air–standard Brayton cycle, compressor receives air at 101.325 kPa, 21 ˚ C and leaves at
600 kPa at the rate of 4 kg/s. Determine the turbine work if the temperature of the air entering the
tubine is 1000 ˚ C.
A. 3000 kW C. 2028 kW
B. 2701 kW D. 3500 kW

Solution:
Wt = m Cp (T3 – T4)
Solving for T4:
T4 P 4 k−1
T3
= ( )
P3
k

1.4−1
T4 101.325
1000+ 273
= ( 600 ) 1.4

T4 = 765.83 K
t4 = 492.83 ˚ C
thus;
Wt = 4(1)(1000-492.83)
Answer: (C) Wt = 2028 kW

PROBLEM
Kerosene is the fuel of a gas turbine plant: fuel – air ratio, mf = 0.012, T3 = 942 K, pressure ratio,
rp = 4.5, exhaust to atmosphere. Find the available energy in kJ per kg air flow. Assume k = 1.34
and Cp = 1.13.
A. 352.64 kJ/kg C. 252.64 kJ/kg
B. 452.64 kJ/kg D. 552.64 kJ/kg

Solution:
The available Energy, Q:
Q = (1+ mf) Cp (T3 – T4)
Solving for T4:
T3 P3 k−1
T4
= ( )
P4
k
972 1.34 −1
= ( 4.5 ) 1.34
T4
T4 = 663.63 K
then;
Q = (1 + 0.012)(1.13)(972 – 663.63)
Answer: (A) Q = 352.64 kJ/kg

PROBLEM:
An ideal gas turbine operates with a pressure ratio of 10 and the energy input in the high
temperature heat exchanger is 300 kW. Calculate the air flow rate for a temperature limits of 30
˚ C and 1200 ˚ C.
A. 0.25 kg/s ` C. 0.41 kg/s
B. 0.34 kg/s D. 0.51 kg/s

Solution:
Qa = mCp (T3 – T2)
Solving for T2:
T2 P 2 k−1
T1
= ( )
P1
k

T2 1.4−1
= ( 10 ) 1.4
30+ 273
T2 = 585 K
then;
300 = m(1)(1473 – 585)
Answer: (B) m = 0.34 kg/s

PROBLEM:
In an air-standard Brayton cycle the inlet temperature and pressure are 20 ˚ C and 101.325
kPa. The turbine inlet conditions are 1200 kPa and 900 ˚ C. Determine the air flow rate if the
turbine produces 12 MW.
A. 21.41 kg/s C. 19.25 kg/s
B. 20.20 kg/s D. 18.10 kg/s

Solution:
Solving for T4:
k−1
T3 P3 k
T4
= ( )
P4
1.4−1
900+273 1200
T4
= (101.325 )
1.4

T4 = 578.89 K
then ;
12,000 = m (1)(1173 – 578.89 )
Answer: (B) m = 20.20 kg/s

PROBLEM:
A gas turbine power plant operating on the Brayton cycle delivers 15 MW to a standby electric
generator. What is the mass flow rate and the volume flow rate of air if the minimum and
maximum pressures are 100 kPa and 500 kPa respectively and temperature of 20 ˚ C and 1000
˚ C.
A. 31.97 kg/s, 26.88 m3/s C. 41.97 kg/s, 26.88 m3/s
3
B. 36.98 kg/s, 28.99 m /s D. 46.98 kg/s, 28.99 m3/s

Solution:
PV = mRT
Solving for m:
T3 P3 k−1
T4
= ( )
P4
k

1.4−1
1000+ 273 500 1.4
T4
= ( )
100
T4 = 803.75 K
Wt = mCp (T3 – T4)
15,000 = m(1)(1273 – 803.75)
m = 31.97 kg/s
then;
100V = 31.97(0.287)(20+273)
Answer: (A) V = 26.88 m3/s

PROBLEM:

In a hydraulic plant the difference in elevation between the surface of the water at intake and the
tailrace is 650 ft when the flow is 90 cfs, the friction loss in the penstock is 65 ft and the head
utilized by the turbine is 500 ft. The mechanical friction in the turbine is 110 Hp and the leakage
loss is 4 cfs. Find the hydraulic efficiency.
A. 87.45 % C. 85.47 %
B. 84.57 % D. 78.54 %

Solution:
Hydraulic Efficiency, eh :
500
eh =
650−65
Answer: (C) eh = 0.8547 or 85.47 %

PROBLEM:
A hydro-electric power plant consumes 60,000,000 kW-hr per year. What is the net head if the
expected flow is 1500 m3/min and over-all efficiency is 63%.
A. 34.34 m C. 44.33 m
B. 43.43 m D. 33.44 m

Solution:
Pw = γ Q h
Solving for water power, Pw:
Generator Output
enet =
Water Power

60,000,000 /8760
0.63 =
Pw
Pw = 10,871.93 kW
then; substituting:
1500
10,871.93 = 9.81
60 ( ) h
Answer: (C) h = 44.33 m

PROBLEM:
A pelton type turbine has a gross head of 40 m and a friction head loss of 6 m. What is the penstock
diameter if the penstock length is 90 m and the coefficient of friction head loss is 0.001 (Morse).

A. 2040 mm C. 2440 mm

B. 3120 mm D. 2320 mm

Solution:
2
2 f LV
hL =
gD

Solving for V :

V= √ 2 gh = √ 2 ( 9.81 )( 40−6) = 25.83 m/s

then; substituting:
2 f LV2
hL =
gD
25.83
¿
¿
6= ¿2
2(0.001)(90)¿
¿
Answer: (A) D = 2.04 = 2,040 mm

PROBLEM:
The water velocity of a 5 m x 1 m channel is 6 m/s. What is the annual energy produced if the net head is
120 m and the over-all efficiency is 80 %.

Solution:

Solving for water power (Pw):

Q = AV = (5x1)(6) = 30 m3/s

Pw = 9.81(30)(120) = 35,316 kW

then; substituting:

Answer: (C) Annual Energy Produced = 247, 494, 528 kW-hrs

PROBLEM:

A hydro-electric impulse turbine is directly coupled to a 24 pole, 60 Hz alternator. It has a specific speed
of 60 rpm and develops 3000 Hp. What is the required diameter assuming a peripheral speed ratio of 0.45.

A. 0.661 m C. 0.443 m

B. 0.552 m D. 0.775 m

Solution:

лDN
Φ=
√2 g h
Solving for h:
120 f 120 (60)
N= = = 300 rpm
P 24

N √ HP
Ns = 5
4
h

300 √ 3000
60 = 5
4
h

h = 89.13 ft = 27.17 m

then substituting:

л D(300/60)
0.45 =
√2(9.81)(27.17)
Answer: (A) D = 0.661 m

PROBLEM:

In a hydroelectric power plant the tail water elevation is at 500 m. What is the head water elevation if the

A. 785.25 m C. 528.57 m

B. 582.57 m D. 758.25 m

Solution:

hg = hhw – htw

Solving for hg :

h = hg + hL = hg + 0.05 hg = 1.05 hg

30 = 1.05 hg

hg = 28.57 m

then substituting:
28.57 = hhw – 500

Answer: (C) hhw = 528.57 m

PROBLEM:

The tailwater and the headwater of a hydro-electric power plant are 150 m and 200 m respectively. What
is the water power if the flow is 15 m3/s and a head loss of 10% of the gross head?

A. 6,621.75 kW C. 5,621.76 kW

B. 7,621.65 kW D. 4,621.56 kW

Solution:

Pw = γ Q h

Solving for h:

hg = hhw – htw = 200 – 150 = 50 m

h = hg + hL = 50 – 0.10(50) = 45

then substituting:

Pw = 9.81 (15)(45)

Answer: (A) Pw = 6,621.75 kW

PROBLEM:

In a hydroelectric power plant, water flows at 10 m/s in a penstock of 1 m 2 cross-sectional area. If the net
head of the plant is 30 m and the turbine efficiency is 85%, what is the turbine output?

A. 2,501.55 kW C. 3,626.34 kW

B. 2,100.21 kW D. 3,124.65 kW

Solution:
Turbine Output = 0.85 Pw

Solving for Pw:

Q = AV = 1(10) = 10 m3/s

Pw = γ Q h = 9.81 (10)(30) = 2,943 kW

then substituting:

Answer: (A) Turbine Output = 2,501.55 kW

PROBLEM:

A 75 MW power plant has an average load of 35,000 kW and a load factor of 65%. Find the reserve over
peak.

A.21.15 MW C. 25.38 MW

B. 23.41 MW D. 18.75 MW

Solution:

35,000
0.65 =

then;

Answer: (A) Reserve over peak = 21.15 MW

PROBLEM:
A power plant is said to have/had a use factor of 48.5% and a capacity factor of 42.4%. How many hours
did it operate during the year?

B. 7,658.23 hrs D. 5,658.23 hrs

Solution:

Annual kW −hrs
Plant Use Factor =
kW Plant Capacity x No . of hrs Operation

Annual Energy Produced

Plant Capacity Factor =
kW Plant Capacity x 8760 hrs

Derived Formula :

(Capacity Factor ) (0.424)

No. of hrs. Operation = 8760 x = 8760 x
( Use Factor ) (0.485)

Answer: (B) No. of hrs. Operation = 7,658.23 hour per day

PROBLEM:

A 50,000 kW steam plant delivers an annual output of 238,000,000 kW-hr with a peak load of 42,860 kW.
What is the annual load factor and capacity factor?

Solution:

kW −hrs Energy 238,000,000 kW −hrs / yr

Ave. Load = = = 27,168.94 kW
No . of hrs∈one year 8760 hr / yr

42,860

Annual Energy Produced 238,000,000 kW −hr / yrs
Annual Capacity Factor = =
kW Plant Capacity x 8760 hrs 50,000 kW x 8760 hrs

Annual Capacity Factor = 0.543

PROBLEM:

Calculate the use factor of a power plant if the capacity factor is 35 % and it operates 8000 hrs during the
year?

A. 38.325 % C. 35.823 %

B. 33.825 % D. 32.538 %

Solution:

Use factor )

Use factor )

Answer: (A) Use Factor = 38.325 %

PROBLEM:

If the air required for combustion is 20 kg per kg of coal and the boiler uses 3000 kg of coal per hr,
determine the mass of gas entering the chimney. Assume an ash loss of 15 %.

B. 70,200 kg/hr D. 50,000 kg/hr

Solution:

mg + mash = ma + mf

where:

mair
= 20
mf
ma = 20 mf

mg + 0.15 mf = 20 mf + mf

Answer: (C) mg = 62,550 kg/hr

PROBLEM:

A 15 kg gas enters a chimney at 10 m/s. If the temperature and pressure of a gas are 26°C and 100 kPa
respectively, what is the diameter of the chimney? Use R=0.287 kJ/kg-K.

A. 1.57 m C. 2.22 m

B. 2.65 m D. 1.28 m

Solution:

Q = AVactual

Solving for Q:

mg R g T g 15 (0.287)(26+273)
Q = Vg = = = 12.87 m3/s
Pg 100

then; substituting:

л D2
12.87 = (10)
4

PROBLEM:

A two-stage air compressor at 90 kPa and 20°C discharge at 700 kPa. Find the polytropic exponent if the
intercooler intake temperature is 100°C.

A. 1.29 C. 1.4

B. 1.33 D. 1.25

Solution:
n−1
Tx Px
Ty
= ( )
Py
n

Px = √ P 1 P2 = √ 90(700) = 250.40 kPa

then,
n−1
(100+273) 250.40
(20+273)
= ( 90 ) n

PROBLEM:

A two stage compressor receives 0.35 kg/s of air at 100 kPa and 269 K and delivers it at 5000 kPa. Find
the heat transferred in the intercooler.

A. 70.49 kW C. 90.49 kW

B. 80.49 kW D. 100.49 kW

Solution:

Q = mCp(Tx – T1)

Px = √ 100(5000) = 707.11 kPa

Tx P x k−1
T1
=
P1 ( )
k

1.4 −1
Tx 707.11
269
= (
100 ) 1.4

Tx = 470.40 K

thus,

Q = 0.35(1)(470.40 - 269)

Answer: (A) Q = 70.49 kW

PROBLEM:

A centrifugal pump discharged 20 L/s against a head of 17 m when the speed is 1500 rpm. The diameter
of the impeller was 30 cm and the brake horsepower was 6.0Hp geometrically similar pump 40 cm in
diameter is to run at 1750 rpm. Assuming equal efficiencies, what brake horsepower is required?

A. 51.55 Hp C. 40.14 Hp

B. 50.15 Hp D. 45.15 Hp

Solution:

P1 P2
5 3 = 5 3
D1 N 1 D2 N 2

6 P2
=
(0.30) (1500)3
5
(0.40)5 (1750)3

Answer: (A) P2 = 40.14 Hp

PROBLEM:

A pump delivers 20 cfm of water having a density of 62 lb/ft 3. The suction and discharge gage reads 5 in
Hg vacuum and 30 psi respectively. The discharge gage is 5 ft above the suction gage. If pump efficiency
is 70%, what is the motor power?

A. 5.31 Hp C. 4.31 Hp

B. 3.31 Hp D. 6.31 Hp

Solution:

Solving for Pwater:

P d−P s V d2−V s2
H = + + (Zd – Zs)
γ 2g
[30−(−5)(14.7 /29.92)](144)
= + 0 + 5 = 80.38 ft
62

Pwater = 62 lb/ft3 (20ft3/min)(80.38 ft)

1 Hp
= 99674.87 ft-lb/min ( )
33,000 ft−lb /min

Pwater = 3.02 Hp

Answer: (C) Pmotor = 3.02 / 0.70 = 4.31 Hp

PROBLEM:

Calculate the air power of a fan that delivers 1200 m 3/min of air through a 1 m by 1.5 m outlet. Static
pressure is 120 mm WG and density of air is 1.18.

A. 20.45 kW C. 30.45 kW

B. 25.64 kW D. 35.64 kW

Solution:

Pair = γ Q h

Solving for h:
Problem:
Determine the temperature for which a thermometer with degrees Fahrenheit is numerically
twice the reading of the temperature in degrees Celsius.
A. -24.6 B. 320 C. 160 D. -12.3
Solution:
˚C = ˚F/2 equation-1
˚C = 5/9 (˚F/2) equation-2
Substitute eq. 1 to eq. 2
˚F/2 = 5/9 (˚F-32)
[˚F/2 = 5/9 (˚F-32)] x 18
9˚F = 10˚F - 320
320 = 10˚F - 9˚F

Problem:
During takeoff in a spaceship, an astronaut is subjected to acceleration equal to 5 times the pull
of the earth's standard gravity. If the astronaut is 180 lb m and the takeoff is vertical, what force
does he exert on the seat?
A. 4810.9 N B. 4414.5 N C. 8829 N D. 9620 N
Solution:
ΣFvertical = 0
F = m(5)(g) + m(g)
g = 9.8 m/s2 ; k= 9.8 m/s2
F = (180 lbm/2.2)kg (5)(9.8 m/s2) + (180 lbm/2.2)kg (9.8m/s2)
Problem:
A pressure cooker operates by cooking food at higher pressure and temperature than is possible
at atmospheric conditions. Steam is contained in the seal pot, with vent hole in the middle of the
cover, allowing steam to escape. The pressure is regulated by covering the vent hole with a small
weight, which is displaced slightly by escaping steam. Atmospheric pressure is 100 kPa, the vent
hole area is 7 mm2, and the pressure inside should be 200 kPa. What is the mass of the weight?
A. 0.107 kg B. 1.05 kg C. 1.75 kg D. 0.1783 kg
Solution:
ΔP = Ppressure cooker - Patm = 250 kPa - 100 kPa = 150 kPa
ΔP = F/A
[150 kPa = F/7] [1m/1000mm]2
F = 1.05 x 10-3 kN (1000 N/ 1kN) = 1.05 N (1kg / 9.81N )

Problem:
A barometer can be used to measure an airplane's altitude by comparing the barometric pressure
at a given flying altitude to that on the ground. Determine an airplane's altitude if the pilot
measures the barometric pressure at 700 mmHg, the ground is at 758 mmHg and the average air
density is 1.19 kg/m3. g = 9.8 m/s2
A. 987m B. 633m C. 788m D. 663m
Solution:
ΔP = PGROUND - PABOVE GROUND
ΔP = (758 - 700) mmHg (101.325 kPa / 760 mmhg) = 7.732 kPa
ΔP = ƴ(h)
ƴ = Gamma (specific weight, kN/m3) = ρ(g)
7.732 kN/m2 = 1.19 kg/m3 (9.8 N / 1 kg)(1 kN / 1000 N) x h
Problem:
A mixture of 0.4 lbm of helium and 0.2 lbm of oxygen is compressed polytropically from 14.7
psia and 60˚F to 60 psia according to n = 1.4. Determine the final temperature, T2

A. 727.7˚R B. 777.2˚R C. 722.7˚R D. 277.7˚R

Solution:
T2 = (T1)(P2 / P1)(n-1)/n = (520˚R)(60/14.7)(0.4/1.4) = 777.2˚R

Problem:
A mixture of 0.4 lbm of helium and 0.2 lbm of oxygen iscompressed polytropically from 14.7 psia
and 60˚F to 60 psia according to n = 1.4. Determine the polytropic work.
A. 139 Btu B. 239 Btu C. 339 Btu D. 539 Btu
Solution:
R = Gas constant, ft-lbf / lbm-R
Solving for the gas constant of mixture, Rm
Rm = Σx1R1
xHe = 0.4/0.6 = 0.667
xO = 0.2/0.6 = 0.333
Rm = (0.667lbmHe / lbmmix)(386.04ft-lbf / lbm-R) = (0.333lbmHe / lbmmix )(48.29ft-lbf / lbm-R)
Rm = 273.6 ft-lbf / lbm-R / (1 Btu / 778 ft-lbf) = 0.3516 Btu / lbm-R
Solving for the polytropic work,
W = mRm (T2 - T1) / 1-n = (0.61lbm)(0.3516 Btu / lbm-R)(777.2 - 520˚R) / 0.4
Problem:
A pump in a municipality's water-supply system recieves water from the filtration beds and
pumps it up to the top of a water tower. The tower's height is 3 5m and the inlet piping to the
pump is 12 m below the pump's intake. The water mass flow rate through the pump is 100 kg/s,
the diameter of the inlet piping is 25 cm and the diameter of the discharge piping is 15 cm.
Determine the power required by the pump.
A. 77.3 kW B. 33.77 kW C. 34.42 kW D. 42.34 kW
Solution:
Wp = pump work, kW
Wp = Q(γ)TDH
TDH = [(v12 - v22) / 2g] + (z1 -z2) + Δh, m
ρ = mflow rate / vflow rate
1000 kg/m3 = 100 kg/s / vflow rate
Q = 0.1 m3/s
0.1 m3/s = π/4 (0.25 m2) v1
v1 = 2.037 m/s
0.1 m3/s = π/4 (0.15 m2) v2
v2 = 5.658 m/s
TDH = [(2.0372 - 5.6582) / 2*9.81] + [(2-35 m)] = 34.42
Wp = 0.1 m3/s (9.82 kN/m3)(34.42m)
Problem:
An adiabatic tank containg air is used to power an air turbine during times of peak power
demand. The tank has a volume of 500 m 3 and contains air at 1000 kPa and 500˚K. Determine
the mass remaining the pressure reaches 100 kPa.
A. 276.37 kg B. 672.73 kg C. 772.73 kg D. 227.73 kg
Solution:
[T2 / T1] = [P2 / P1] k-1/ k
[T2 / 500˚K] = [100 kPa / 1000 kPa] 1.4-1 / 1.4
T2 = 258.97˚K
pV2 = mRT2
100 kPa (500m3) = m2 (0.287 kJ/kg-K) (258.97˚K)

Problem:
Determine the air-fuel ratio on a molar basis for the complete combustion of octane with
theoretical amount of air.
A. 59.5 kgair / kgfuel
Solution:
Molar basis means that the a/f ratio will be for 1 mol of fuel
C2H12 + a (O2 + 3.76 N2) bCO2 + cH2O + aN2
a = x + 0.25y
a = 8 + 0.25 (18) = 12.5
a/fmolar = 12.5 + 12.5 (3.76) / 1 mol fuel
Answer: a/fmolar = 59.5 kgair / kgfuel

Problem:
During a steady state operation, a gearbox recieves 60 kW through the input shaft and delivers
power through the output shaft. For the gearbox as the system, the rate of energy transfer is by
convection. h = 0.171 kW/m2-K is the heat transfer coefficient, A = 1.0 m 2 is the outer surface
area of the gearbox, Th = 300˚K (27˚C) is the temperature is the outer surface, T f = 293˚K (20˚C)
is the temperature of the surroundings away from the immediate vicinity of the gearbox.
Determine the power delivered to the output shaft in kW if the heat transfer rate is -1.2 kW.
A. 98.8 kW B. 78.8 kW C. 68.8 kW D. 58.8 kW
Solution:
dE / dt = Q - W or W = Q
W = W1 + W2
W1 + W2 = Q
W1 = -60 kW
Q = -1.2 kW
W2 = power delivered to the output shaft, kW
W2 = (-1.2 kW) - (-60 kW)

Problem:
A single acting air compressor with a clearance of 6% takes in air at atmospheric pressure and
temperature of 85˚F, and discharges it at a pressure of 85 psia. The air handled is 0.25 ft 3 / cycle
measured at discharge pressure. If the compression is isentropic, find the piston displacement per
cycle, if the compressor is running at 750 rpm.
A. 0.0750 ft3 / cycle B. 0.025 ft3 / cycle C.1.030 ft3 / cycle D. 1.090 ft3 / cycle
Solution:
[T2 / T1] = [P2 / P1] k-1 / k
T2 = T1 (P2 / P1) k-1 / k = (545) (85 / 14.7) 1.4-1 /1.4 = 900˚R
m = P2V2 / RT2 = (85) (144) (0.25) / (53.34) (900) = 0.06374 lb/cycle
V1 = mRT1 / P1 = (0.06374) (53.34) (545) / (14.7) (144) = 0.8754 ft3 / cycle
ɳv = 1 + c - c [P2 / P1] 1/k = 1 + 0.06 -0.06 [85 / 214.7] 1/1.4 = 0.8499
VD = V1 / ɳv = 0.8754 / 0.8499
Answer: VD = 1.030 ft3 / cycle

Problem:
A single acting air compressor with a clearance of 6% takes in air at atmospheric pressure and
temperature of 85˚F and discharges it at a pressure of 85 psia. The air handled is 0.25 ft 3 / cycle
measyred at discharge. If the compression is isentropic, find the air hp of the compressor if rpm
is 750.
A. 16 hp B. 96 hp C. 69 hp D. 61 hp
Solution:
W = VD (N) = (1.030 ft3 / cycle) (750 rpm) = 656 ft3 / min
W = (kP1V1 / 1-k) [(P2 / P1) k-1/k -1] = 1.4*14.7*656/33000*(1 - 1.4)[(85 / 14.7)1.4-1/1.4 -1]
Problem:
A nozzle recieves 0.5 kg /s of air at a pressure 0f 2700 kPa and a velocity 0f 30 m / s and with an
enthalpy of 923 kJ/kg, and the air leaves at a pressure of 700 kPa and with an enthalpy of 660
kJ/kg. Determine the exit velocity from the nozzle.
A. 923 m / s B. 726 m /s C. 700 m / s D. 660 m / s
Solution:
m (h1 + PE1 + KE1) + Q = WMAX + m (h2 + PE2 + KE2)
(h1 + KE1) = (h2 + KE2)
since, KE = V2 / 2000
(h1 + V12 / 2000) = (h2 + V22 / 2000)
[923 kJ/kg + (30 m / s)2 / 2000] = (600 + V22 / 2000)
Answer: V2 = 725.87 m / s

Problem:
A two stage, double actingcompressor is to deliver 90 lb / min of air from 14.3 psia and 90˚F to a
final pressure of 185 psia. The normal barometer is 29.8 inHg and the temperature is 80˚F. The
pressure drop in the intercooler is 3 psia and the speed is 210 rpm and pV 1.34 = C during
compression and expansion. The clearance is 5% for both cylinders. The temperature of the
cooling water increase by 18˚F. find the volume of free air.
A. 1282 CFM B. 1230 CFM C. 1320 CFM D. 1822 CFM
Solution:
V = mRT1 / p1 = (90) (53.34) (550) / (14.3) (144) = 1282 CFM
Solving for the volume of free air, Vo
Vo = (V) (To) (p1) / (T1) (p1) = (1282) (540) (14.3) / (550) (14.63) = 1230 CFM

Problem:
Consider 4800 lb of steam per hour flowing through a pipe at 100 psia pressure. Assume a
velocity of 5280 ft / min. What size of pipe is required? Specific volume of steam at 100 psia v =
4.432 ft3 / lb.
A. 3 in B. 5 in C. 4 in D. 6 in
Solution:
Q = 4.432 (4800 / 60) = 345.56 ft3 / min (steam)
D = √(144) (354.46) / (5280) (0.7854) = 3.509 in
refer to page 575 Chapter 13 ( Auxillary Steam Plant Equipment) Steam Plant Operation by E.
Woodruff, H. Lammers, T. Lammers. Sixth Edition.
Therefore, use a 4" diameter pipe
Answer: D = 4" diameter pipe

Problem:
A boiler plant generates 225,000 lbof steam and burn 13.9 tons of coal per hour. The coal has a
heating value of 11,400 Btu / lb A test of the particulate leaving the boiler shows that 3804 lb of
particulate is being discharged per hour. What is the particulate discharged per million Btu heat
input to the furnace?
A. 12 lb / 106 Btu B. 14 lb / 106 Btu C. 15 lb / 106 Btu D. 16 lb / 106 Btu
Solution:
Furnace heat input = 13.9 x 2000 x 11,400 = 317 x 106 Btu / h
Answer: Particulate released from boiler / Btu = 3804 / 317 x 106 = 12 lb / 106 Btu

Problem:
A turbine recieves 150 lbm / sec of air at 63 psia and 2450˚R and expands it polytropically to
14.7 psia. The exponent n is equal to 1.45 for the process. Determine the power.
A. 52,343.16 Btu / sec B. 53,343.16 kW
C. 53,343.16 hp D. 53,343.16 ft-lb / sec
Solution:
[T2 / T1] = [P2 / P1] n-1 / n
[T2 / 2450˚R] = [14.7 psia / 63 psia] 1.45-1 / 1.45
T2 = 1559.62˚R
for Polytropic Work, WT
WTurbine = mR (T2 - T1) / n-1
WTurbine = 150 lb / s (53.34 ft-lb / lb-˚R) (2450 - 1559.62)˚R / n-1
WTurbine = (40,772,956.40 ft-lb / sec)* (1 Btu / 778 ft-lb)
Answer: WTurbine = 52,343.16 Btu / sec

Problem:
Find the thrust and efficiency of two 2 m diameter propellers through which flows a total of 600
m3 / sec of air 11.3 N / m 3. The propellers are attached to an airplane moving at 250 kph through
still air. Neglect eddy losses.
A. 36,077 N, 73% B. 77,630 N, 37% C. 66,033 N, 33% D. 77,330 N, 77%
Solution:
Velocity of air relative to airplane is
V1 = 250 kW / hr = (250 * 1000) / (60 * 60) = 69.4 m / s
Velocity of air through the actuating disk is
V = V1 + ΔP / 2 = Q / A = (600 / 2) / (л / 4) * (2)2 = 95.5 m / s
ΔV = 2 (95.5 - 69.4) = 52.2 m / s
Thrust of both propellers,
FT = (11.3) (600) (52.2) / 9.8 = 36077 N
Efficiency of propellers,
ɳ = 1 / (1 * ΔV / 2V1) = 1 / (1 + 52.2 / 138.9) = 0.73 (73%)
ɳ = 73%
Answer: FT = 36,077 N, 73%

Problem:
A liquid with a specific gravity of 1.26 is being pumped in a pipeline from A to B. At A, the pipe
diameter is 60 cm and the pressure is 300 kN / m 2. At B, the pipe diameter is 30 cm and the
pressure is 330 kN / m2. Point B is 1.0 m lower than A. Find the flow rate if the pump puts 16
kW into the flow. Neglect head loss.
A. 4.2 m3 / s B. 0.42 m3 / s C. 2.4 m3 / s D. 0.24 m3 / s
Solution:
kW = 16 = (1.26 * 9.810) (Q) (hp) / 1000
hp = 1.29 / Q
60 + (300) / 1.26 (9.81) + [Q / Л (0.3)2]2 / 2 (9.81) + 1.29 / Q = -1.0 + (330) / 1.26 (9.81) + [Q / Л
(0.15)2]2 / 2 (9.81)
Answer: Q = 0.42 m3 / s

Problem:
A reciprocating compressor handles 1,400 cfm of air measured at intake where p 1 = 18 psia and t1
= 90˚F. The discharge pressure is 92 psia. Calculate the work if the process of the compression is
isothermal.
A. -180.5 hp B. -179.5 hp C. -227.6 hp D. -228.6 hp
Solution:
W = p1V1 ln (p2V2)
W = [18 lb / in2 (144 in2 / ft2) (1400 ft3 / min) ln (18 / 92)] / [(778 ft-lb / Btu) (42.4 Btu / min-hp)]

Problem:
The fuel oil has the ff analysis:
C = 89% N2 = 2%H2 = 8% S = 1%
With 3% excess air, what is the actual amount of air needed to burn the fuel oil?
A. 13.17 kgair / kgfuel B. 13.47 kgair / kgfuel
C.14.47 kgair / kgfuel D. 14.17 kgair / kgfuel
Solution:
maa = 11.5 C + 34.5 [H2 - (O2 / 8)] + 4.32 S = 11.5(0.89)+ 34.5 (0.8) + 4.32 (0.01)
maa = 13.1232 kgair / kgfuel = (1 + 0.10) (13.1232) = 14.17 kgair / kgfuel
Problem:
A pump discharges 550 gpm of water to a height of 35 ft. With an efficiency of 80%, what is the
power input?
A. 6.09 hp B. 6.32 hp C. 4.74 hp D. 4.94 hp
Solution:
Poutput = QγH = [(550 gpm) (1 ft3 / 7.48 gal) (62.4 lb / ft3 ) (35 ft)] / [(778 ft-lb / Btu) (42.4 Btu /
min-hp)] = 4.87 hp
Efficiency = Poutput / Pinput
Answer: Pinput = 4.87 / 0.80 = 6.09 hp

Problem:
A room ontains air at 20˚C and 96 kPa at a relative humidity of 75%. Determine the enthalpy of
moist air.
where, (Psat @ 20˚C = 2.339 kPa)
(hg @ 20˚C = 2538.1 kJ/kgda)
A. 45.919 kJ/kgda B. 45.515 kJ/kgda
C. 49.515 kJ/kgda D. 41.815 kJ/kgda
Given: Unsaturated air (0% < Ø < 100%)
td = 20˚C; Pt = 96 kPa; Ø = 75%
Solution:
Pd = Psat @ 20˚C = 2.339 kPa
Ps = ØPd = 0.75 x 2.339 = 1.7543 kPa
Pt = Pa + Ps
Pa = 96 - 1.7543 = 94.2457 kPa
W = 0.622 (Ps / Pa) = 0.622 (1.7543 / 94.2457) = 0.01158 kgwv / kgda
h = 1.0062 td + W (hg @ td) = 1.0062 (20) + 0.01158 (2538) = 49.515 kJ/kgda

Problem:
A piston moves inside the cylinder at a velocity of 6.0 m / s. The 160 mm diameter piston is
centrally located within the 160.2 mm inside diameter cylinder. The film of oil is separating the
piston from the cylinder has an absolute viscosity of 0.4 N-s / m 2. Assuming a linear velocity
profile, find the shear stress in the oil. ( T = μ (v / H) )
A. 50,000 N / m2 B. 40,000 N / m2 C. 24,000 N / m2 D. 34,000 N / m2
Solution:
H = thickness of oil film = 160.2 - 160 / 2 = 0.1 mm
T = 0.40 N-s / m2 [6 m /s / 0.0001 m] = 24,000 N / m2
Answer: T = 24,000 N / m2

Problem:
A centifugal pump with a 3ft impeller diamter operates at 800 rpm. If the speed is to be increased
at 1200 rpm, determine the impeller diameter that should be used so that the sam shaft input
power would be required.
A. 5.32 ft B. 2.35 ft C. 5.23 ft D. 2.93 ft
Solution:
P1 / P2 = (ρ N3 D5)1 / (ρ N3 D5)2 = [N1 / N2]3 [D1 / D2]5
D2 = D1 [N1 / N2]3 /5 = 3 [ 800 / 1200 ]3 / 5 = 2.35 ft

Problem:
Determine the mass of water vapor contained in a 150 m 3 room at 100 kPa, 23˚C and 40%
relative humidity. From Steam Tables: Psat @ 23˚C = 2.810 kPa.
A. 1.6342 kg B. 1.9342 kg C. 1.2342 kg D. 2.2342 kg
Solution:
Ps = ØPd = 0.40 x 2.810 = 1.124 kPa
Ps Vs = Ms Rs Ts
Ms = Ps Vs / Rs Ts = [(1.124) (150)] / [(0.4615) (296)] = 1.2342 kg
Problem:
What is the power of the pump, hp, if it delivers 925 gal / min of water against a head of 15 m?
A. P = 15.38 hp B. P = 16.38 hp C. P = 10.5 hp D. P = 11.5 hp
Solution:
P = QγH = [95 gal / min x (1 ft 3 / 7.48 gal) x (62.4 lb / ft3) (15 m) (100 cm / 1 m) (1 in / 2.54 cm)
(1 ft / 12 in)] / [778 ft-lb / Btu x 42.4 Btu / min-hp]
P = 11.5 hp

Problem:
Kerosene is pumped into an aircraft fuel tank through a hose that has an inside diameter of 4 cm.
If the velocity of the kerosene is 8 m / s through the hose, determine the mass flow rate. Assume
that kerosene has a density of 800 kg / m3.
A. 7.06 kg / s B. 7.56 kg / s C. 8.06 kg / s D. 8.56 kg / s
Solution:
A= π r2 = π (2 cm)2 = 12.6 cm2 = 0.00126 m2
m = ρ A V = 800 kg / m3 (0.00126 m2) (8 m / s) = 8.06 kg / s

Answer: m = 8.06 kg / s

Problem:
During the working stroke of an engine, the heat transferred out of the system was 150 kJ/kg of
working substances. The internal energy also decreased by 400 kJ/kg of working substance.
Determine the work done.
A. 250 kJ/kg B. 550 kJ/kg C. 600 kJ/kg D. 350 kJ/kg
Solution:
Q = ∆U + Wn (Nonflow Energy Equation)
Wn = Q - ∆U = -150 - (-400) = -150 + 400 = 250 kJ/kg
Problem:
During an experiment on Charles Law, the volume og gas trapped in the apparatus was
10,000mm3 when the temperature was 18˚C. The temperature of the gas was then raised to 85˚C.
Determine the new volume of the gas trapped in the apparatus if the pressure exerted on the gas
remained constant.
A. 12302.41 mm3 B. 8128.49 mm3 C. 70833.33 mm3 D. 2117.64 mm3
Solution:
Charles Law: P = constant and V / T = constant
V1 / T1 = V2 / T2
T1 = 18 + 273 = 291 K; T2 = 85 + 273 = 358 K
V2 = V1 (T2 / T1) = 10000 (358 / 291) = 12302.41 mm3

Problem:
Find the density of oil with a specific gravity of 1.6 in g / cm3.
A. 15.68 g / cm3 B. 99.84 g / cm3 C. 0.8 g / cm3 D. 1.6 g / cm3
Solution:
S.G. = ρfluid / ρwater
ρfluid = S.G. x ρwater = 1.6 x 1 g /cm3 = 1.6 g /cm3
Answer: ρfluid = 1.6 g / cm3

Problem:
What is the absolute pressure if the gauge pressure is reaading 9 Bar and the atmospheric
pressure is 0.9 Bar?
A. 6.3 Bar B. 7.8 Bar C. 9.9 Bar D. 8.1 Bar
Solution:
Pabs = Pgauge + Patm = 9 Bar + 0.9 Bar = 9.9 Bar
Problem:
The tank of an air compressor has a volume of 3 ft 3 and is filled with air at a temperature of 40˚F.
If a gauge on tha tank reads 150 psig, what is the mass of the air in the tank?
A. 1.78 lbs B. 2.00 lbs C. 2.67 lbs D. 1.98 lbs
Solution:
R = 53.3 ft-lbf / lbm-R; PV = mRT
m = PV / RT = [(150 + 14.7) lbf / in2 (144 in2 / 1 ft2) (3 ft3)] / [(53.3 ft-lbf / lbm-R) (40 + 460) R
m = 2.67 lbs

Problem:
What is the mass of acetylene gas, V = 0.94 cu.ft, R = 59.35 ft-lb / lb˚R, T = 90˚F, P = 200psia.
A. 0.816 lbs B. 0.841 lb C. 0.829 lb D. 0.852 lb
Solution:
m = PV / RT = [(200) (0.94) (144)] / [(59.35) (90 + 460)] = 0.829 lb

Problem:
Specific volume is the number of cubic meters of mixture per kilogram of dry air. If dry air has
these following properties: Ra = 287 J/kg-K, T = 303 K, P a = 99.604 kPa. Solve for specific
volume.
A. 0.873 m3 / kg B. 0.853 m3 / kg C. 0.953 m3 / kg D. 0.783 m3 / kg
Solution:
Specific volume = (Ra x T) / Pa
Specific volume = (0.287) (303) / (99.604) = 0.873 m3 / kg
Answer: Specific Volume = 0.873 m3 / kg
Problem:
A refirigerating system operates on the reversed Carnot Cycle. The higher temperature og the
refrigerant in the system is 120˚F and the lower is 10˚F. The capacity is 20 tons. Neglect losses.
Determine the coefficient of performance.
A. 2.732 B. 5.373 C. 7.372 D. 4.273
Solution:
COP = (Th) / (Th - Tl) = 470 / ( 360 - 470 ) = 4.273

Problem:
At a pressure of 60˚F, a motorbike tire is inflated to 33 psig. As it is driven along the C-5 road,
the temperature rise to 76˚F. Assuming the volume remains constant. Determine the final gauge
pressure.
A. 34.47 psig B. 49.17 psig C. 35.00 psig D. 34.30 psig
Solution:
P1 = 33 psig + 14.7 psig = 47.7 psig
T1 = 60˚F + 460 = 520 R; T2 = 76˚F + 460 = 536 R
At constant volume, V = C:
T2 / T1 = P2 / P1
P2 = P1 (T2 / T1) = 47.7 psig (536 R / 520 R) = 49.17 psia - 14.7 psig = 34.47 psig

Problem:
Steam enters a turbine stage with an enthalpy of 3700 kJ/kg and a velocity of 80 m /s and leaves
with an enthalpy of 2864 kJ/kg with a velocity of 128 m / s. If the rate of steam flow through the
turbine is 0.44 kg / s, what is the work done in kW?
A. 365 kW B. 365.64 kW C. 366.0 kW D. 366.50 kW
Solution:
H1 + KE1 = H2 + KE2 + W
KE1 = v12 / 2K = (80 m /s )2 / (2 x 1000 kg-m / kN-s2) = 3.2 kJ/kg
KE2 = v22 / 2K = (128 m /s )2 / (2 x 1000 kg-m / kN-s2) = 8.192 kJ/kg
3700 kJ/kg + 3.2 kJ/kg = 2864 kJ/kg + 82192 kJ/kg + W
W = 3703.2kJ/kg - 2872.2 kJ/kg = 831 kJ/kg
W = 831 kJ/kg x 0.44 kg /s = 365.64 kW

Problem:
Aluminum has a specific heat of 0.902 J / g-˚C. How much heat is lost when a piece of
aluminum with a mass of 23.984 g cools from a temperature of 415.0 ˚C to a temperature of
22.0˚C?
A. 8500 J B. 6000 J C. 80,000 J D. 7500 J
Solution:
Q = m Cp (t2 - t1) = (23.984) (0.902) (415 - 22) = 8502 J

Problem:
If the temperature of an air parcel is -20.5˚C, and its density is 0.690 kg / m 3, what is the pressure
of the air parcel?
A. 40 kPa B. 50 kPa C. 60 kPa D. 70 kPa
Solution:
P=ρRT
T = -20.5˚C + 273 K = 252.5 K
ρ = 0.69 kg / m3
R = 287 J / kg-K
P = 0.69 kg / m3 x 287 J / kg-K x 252.5 K
P = 50,000 Pa = 50 kPa
Problem:
A car engine with a power output of 65 hp has a thermal efficiency of 24%. Determine the fuel
consumption rate of this car if the fuel has a heating value of 19,000 Btu / lbm.
A. 36.28 lb / hr B. 37.28 lb / hr C. 38.28 lb / hr D.
35.30 lb / hr
Solution:
e = W / Qa
Qa = W / e = (65 hp / 0.24) (2545 Btu / hr / 1 hp) = 689,270.83 Btu / hr
Qa = (mfuel) (Heating value)
mfuel = 689,270.83 Btu /hr / 19,000 Btu / lbm = 36.28 lbm / hr
Answer: mfuel = 36.28 lb / hr

Problem:
The thermal efficiency of a Carnot cycle operating between 170˚c and 620˚C is closest to:
A.44% B. 50% C. 63% D. 73%
Solution:
Thigh = 620˚C + 273 = 893 K
Tlow = 170˚C + 273 = 443 K
eT = (Thigh - Tlow) / Thigh = (893 - 443) / 893 = 0.5039 or 50.39%
Problem:
Compute the humidity ratio of air at 70% relative humidity and 25˚C when the barometric
pressure is 101.325 kPa. From steam table, Psat at 34˚C = 3.169 kPa
A. 0.014 kg water vapor / kg dry air
B. 0.14 kg water vapor / kg dry air
C.1.4 kg water vapor / kg dry air
D. 0.0014 kg water vapor / kg dry air
Answer: Humidity ratio = 0.013922 kg water vapor / kg dry air
Problem:
A 35.0 ml sample of gas is enclosed in a flask at 22 degrees Celsius. If the flask was placed in an
ice bath at 0 degrees Celsius, what would the new gas volume be if the pressure is held constant?
A. 31 ml B. 32.1 ml C. 32.39 ml D. 33.1 ml
Solution:
V1 /T1 = V2 / T2
35.0 ml / 295 K = V2 / 273 K
V2 = 32.39 ml

Problem:
A pressure gauge registers 50 psig in a region where the barometer reads 14.8 psia. Find the
absolute pressure in kPa.
A. 666.66 kPa B. 556.66 kPa C. 446.66 kPa D. 336.66 kPa
Solution:
Pabs = Po + Pg = 14.8 psia + 50 psig = 64.8 psia
Pabs = 64.8 psia (101.325 kPa / 14.70 psi) = 446.66 kPa
Problem:
Consider 1 kg of air at 32˚C that expanded by a reversible polytropic process with n = 1.25 until
the pressure is lived. Determine the heat transfer. Specific heat at constant volume for air is
0.1786 kJ/kg-˚K.
A. 17.02 kJ heat rejected B. 17.02 kJ heat added
C. 7.05 kJ heat rejected s D. 7.05 kJ heat added
Solution:
T1 = 32 + 273 = 305 K
T2 = T1 (P2 / P1)n-1 / n = 305 (1 / 2)1.25 - 1 / 1.25 = 265.52 K
Cp = Cv [(k - n) / (1 - n)] = (0.1786) [(1.4 - 1.25) / (1 - 1.25)] = -0.4312 kJ/kg-K
Q = m Cp (T2 - T1) = 1 (-0.4312) (265.52 - 305) = 17.02 kJ (added)
Problem:
Carnot cycle uses nitrogen (k = 1.399) as the working substance. The heat supplied is 54 kJ and
the adiabatic ratio is 1.0. Determine the heat rejected.
A. 10 kJ B. 32.4 kJ C. 21.6 kJ D. 54 kJ
Solution:
e = 1 - (1 / rkk - 1) = 1 - (1 / 100.399) = 0.60
W = e Qa = 0.60 x 54 = 32.4 kJ
Qr = W - Qa = 32.4 - 54 = -21.6 kJ
Answer: QR = -21.6 kJ or 21.6 kJ (heat rejected)

Problem:
A tank contains 20 kg of air at 200 kPa (gauge) and 20˚C. During heating process, the
temperature of air rises. For safety purposes, a technician installed a relief-type valve so that
pressure of air inside the tank never exceed 260 kPa (gauge). At what air temperature the relief
valve will start releasing air?
A. 112˚C B. 92˚C C. 82˚C D. 102˚C
Solution:
T1 = 23 + 273 = 296 K; P1 = 200 + 101.325 = 301.325 kPa (abs)
P2 = 260 + 101.325 = 361.325 kPa (abs)
T2 = T1 (P2 / P1) = 296 (361.325 / 301.325)
T2 = 354.94 - 273 = 82˚C

Problem:
An air compressor takes in 9 kg / min of air at 98 kPa; v 1 = 0.125 m3 / kg and discharges it at 680
kPa; v2 = 0.03 m3 / kg. The increase of internal energy is 93 kJ/kg and the work done on air is
163 kJ/kg; the change in potential and kinetic energy are neglected. How much heat is
transferred per kg of air?
A. 264.15 kJ/kg B. 61.85 kJ/kg C. 288.65 kJ/kg D. 78.15 kJ/kg
Solution:
W1 = P1 V1 = 98 x 0.125 = 12.25 kJ/kg
W2 = P2 V2 = 680 x 0.03 = 20.4 kJ/kg
Q = ∆u + ∆Wf + W = 93 + (20.4 - 12.25) + (-163) = -61.86 kJ/kg (heat rejected)
Answer: Q = -61.86 kJ/kg (heat rejected)

Problem:
During a reversible process there are abstracted 317 kJ / s from 1.134 kg / s of a certain gas while
the temperature remains constant at 26.7˚C. For this gas, C p = 2.232 kJ/kg-K and Cv = 1.713
kJ/kg-K. The initial pressure is 586 kPa. Determine the final volume flow rate.
A. 0.301 m3 / s B. 0.03 m3 / s C.0.5 m3 / s D. 0.05 m3 / s
Solution:
R = Cp - Cv = 2.232 - 1.713 = 0.519 kJ/kg-K;T1 = 26.7 + 273 = 299.7 K
V1 = m R T1 / P1 = (1.134) (0.519) (299.7) / 586 = 0.301 m3 / s
Q = P1 V1 ln (V2 / V1) = -317 = (586 x 0.301) ln (V2 / 0.301)
V2 = 0.05 m3 / s
Answer: V2 = 0.05 m3 / s

Problem:
Flow of water in a pipe has a velocity of 10 meters per second. determine the velocity head of the
water.
A. 50.1 meters B. 5.10 meters C. 8.20 meters D. 100 meters
Solution:
Velocity head = V2 / 2g = 102 / (2 x 9.8066) = 5.099 m
Problem:
A Diesel cycle has a cut-off ratio of 2.20 and a compression ratio of 10. Find the cycle efficiency.
A. 55.10% B. 59.735% C. 52.23% D. 62.37%
Solution:
e = 1 - (1 / rkk - 1) [(rck - 1) / (k) (rc - 1)]
e = 1- (1 / 101.40 - 1) / [1.40 (2.20 - 1)] = 52.23%

Problem:
A Diesel cycle has an initial temperature of 27˚C. If the cut-off ratio is 2.50 and compression
ratio is 12, find the maximum cycle temperature.
A. 1634.4˚C B. 1753.44˚C C. 2010.3˚C D. 1983.4˚C
Solution:
T2 = T1 rkk - 1 = 300 (12)1.4 - 1 = 810.58 K
V2 / T2 = V3 / T3; T3 / T2 = V3 / V2 = rc
T3 = T2 rc = 810.58 x 2.50 = 2026.44 K or 1753.44˚C

Problem:
A diesel engine which takes in air at 1 Bar, 26˚C has a compression ratio of 19. Calculate the
operating clearance in percent.
A. 8.08% B. 8.56% C. 7.52% D. 5.55%
Solution:
rk = (1 + c) / c
19 = (1 + c) / c
c = 5.55%
Problem:
An Otto cycle has an initial pressure of 100 kPa and has a pressure of 400 kPa after adiabatic
compression. Find its cycle efficiency.
A. 32.70% B. 34.70% C. 36.70% D. 38.70%
Solution:
P1 V 1 k = P2 V 2 k
rk = (V1 / V2) = (P2 / P1) 1 / k
rk = (400 / 100) 1 / 1.40 = 2.692
e = 1 - (1 / rk k - 1) = 1 - (1 / 2.692 1.40 - 1) = 0.3270 = 32.70%

Problem:
An Otto cycle has a clearance of 8% and heat added of 1000 kJ. Find the heat rejected.
A.546 kJ B. 353 kJ C. 709 kJ D. 867 kJ
Solution:
rk = (1 + c) / c = (1 + 0.8) / 0.8 = 13.50
e = 1 - (1 / rk k -1) = 1 - (1 / 13.50 1.4 -1) = 0.6469 or 64.69%
e = W / Qa; W = e Qa = 0.6469 x 1000 = 646.90
Qr = Qa - W = 1000 - 626.90 = 353.1 kJ

Problem:
An Otto cycle has a heat rejected of 300 kJ and work of 700 kJ. Find the cycle efficiency.
A. 56% B. 60% C. 70% D. 50%
Solution:
Qa = Wnet + Qr = 700 + 300 = 1000 kJ
e = Wnet / Qa = 700 / 1000 = 0.70 or 70%
Problem:
An Otto cycle has a pressure ratio of 7. What is the cycle compression ratio?
A. 5.18 B. 6.34 C. 7.34 D. 4.01
Solution:
P1 V1 k = P2 V2 k
rk = (V1 / V2) = (P2 / P1) 1 / k = 7 1 / 1.40 = 4.01

Problem:
Find the power of the rotating shaft which develops a torque of 188 N-m at 1350 rpm.
A. 101.54 hp B. 53.63 hp C. 63.35 hp D. 35.63 hp
Solution:
P = 2 Л Tn = 2 x 3.1416 x 0.188 (1350 / 60) = 26.58 kW (1 hp / 0.746 kW)
P = 35.63 hp

Problem:
Determine the pressure exerted on a diver at 30 m below the free surface of the sea. Assume the
barometric pressure of 101 kPa and the specific gravity of sea water is 1.03.
A. 404 kPa B. 410 kPa C. 420 kPa D. 430 kPa
Solution:
P = 101 + (9.8066) (1.03) (30) = 404.02 kPa
Problem:
An air compressor has an inlet enthalpy of 35 Btu / lb and an exit enthalpy of 70 Btu / lb. The
mass flow rate is 3 lb / s. If the heat loss is 466.62 Btu / min, find the work input to the
compressor.
A. 139.59 hp B. 149.59 hp C. 159.59 hp D. 169.59 hp
Solution:
Q = ∆H + W = 466.62 = 3 (60) (70 - 35) + W
W = -6766.62 Btu / min (1 hp / 42.4 Btu / min) = -159.59 hp

Problem:
An automobile tire is inflated to 35 psig at 54˚F. After being driven, the temperature rises to 80˚F.
Determine the final gage pressure assuming that the tire is inflexible.
A. 36.51 psig B. 37.51 psig C. 38.51 psig D. 39.51 psig
Solution:
P2 = (T2 / T1) (P1) = (540 / 514) (35 + 14.7)
P2 = 52.21 psia - 14.7 psia = 37.51 psia

Problem:
A condenser vacuum gauge reads 100 mmHg when the barometer reads 760 mmHg. what is the
absolute condenser pressure in Bar?
A. 0.0213 B. 0.061 C. 0.213 D. 0.610

Problem:
Water flows in a pipe at the rate of 10 kg / s. If the velocity of flow is 10 m / s, find the pipe
diameter.
A. 30.23 mm B. 35.68 mm C. 38.39 mm D. 42.39 mm
Solution:
10 = (Л / 4) D2 (10) (1000)
D = 0.03568 m or 35.68 mm

Problem:
What is the resulting pressure when one kilogram of air at 104 kPa and 98˚C is heated at constant
volume to 450˚C?
A. 202.67 kPa B. 194.67 kPa C. 186.53 kPa D. 198.65 kPa
Solution:
P2 / T 2 = P1 / T 1
P2 = [(450 + 273) / (98 + 273)] (104) = 202.67 kPa

Problem:
Determine the degrees of superheat of steam at 101.325 kPa and 170˚C.
A. 50˚C B. 70˚C C. 60˚C D. 80˚C
Solution:
˚SH = 170 - tsat @ 101.325 kPa = 170 - 100 = 70˚C

Problem:
Calculate the approximate enthalpy of water at 90˚C.
A. 366.83 kJ/kg B. 376.83 kJ/kg C. 386.83 kJ/kg D. 396.83 kJ/kg
Solution:
h = Cp (T - Tref) = 4.187 (90 - 0) = 376.83 kJ/kg
Problem:
A carnot cycle operates between 30˚C and 350˚C. Find the cycle efficiency.
A. 51.36% B. 63.45% C. 45.37% D. 76.45%
Solution:
e = (Tmax / Tmin) / Tmax = (350 - 30) / (350 + 273) = 0.5136 or 51.36%

Problem:
A Carnot cycle has a maximum temperature of 550˚F and minimum temperature of 100˚F. If the
heat added is 4200 Btu / min, find the horsepower input of the engine.
A. 34.53 hp B. 40.56 hp C.44.13 hp D. 65.40 hp
Solution:
e = (550 - 100) / (550 + 460) = 0.4455 or 44.55%
W = e Qa = 0.4455 x 4200 = 1871.1 Btu / min (1 hp / 42.4 Btu / min)
W = 44.13 hp

Problem:
A Carnot cycle has a sink temperature of 100˚F and a cycle efficiency of 70%. Find the
temperature of the heat source.
A. 1306.70˚F B. 1406.70˚F C. 1506.70˚F D. 1606.70˚F
Solution:
e = (Tmax - Tmin) / Tmax = 0.70 = (Tmax - 560) / Tmaz
Tmax = 1866.67˚R - 460 = 1406.67˚F
Problem:
Fifty kilograms of cooling water per second enter the condenser at 20˚C and leaves at 50˚C. Find
the heat carried away by water.
A. 1234.45 kW B. 5233.75 kW C. 2340.53 kW D. 3140.25 kW
Solution:
Q = m Cp ∆T = 50 (4.0187) (50 - 25) = 5233.75 kW

Problem:
Ten kilograms per second of steam enter the turbine with an enthalpy of 3200 kJ/kg and enter a
condenser with an enthalpy of 2500 kJ/kg in a Rankine cycle. If the turbine efficiency is 80%
and the generator efficiency is 90%, determine the power plant output.
A. 4320 kW B. 3213 kW C. 4056 kW D. 5040 kW
Solution:
W = 10 (3200 - 2500) (0.80) (0.90) = 5040 kW

Problem:
Determine the quality os team in a vessel containing 2 kg of saturated vapor and 8 kg of
saturated liquid.
A. 100% B. 20% C. 80% D. 60%
Solution:
Quality, x = 2 / (2 + 8) = 0.20 or 20%

Problem:
the condenser of a reheat power plant rejects heat at the rate of 600 kW. The mass flow rate of
cooling water is 5 kg / s and the inlet cooling water temperature is 35˚C. Calculate the condenser
cooling water exit.
A. 43.45˚C B. 53.45˚C C. 63.66˚C D. 74.34˚C
Solution:
600 = (5) (4.187) (Tfinal - 308)
Tfinal = 336.66 K - 273 = 63.66˚C

Prooblem:
A heat engine has a thermal efficiency of 50%. How power does the engine produce when heat is
transferred at a rate of 109 kJ / hr?
A. 50 MW B. 75 MW C. 139 MW D. 147 MW
Solution:
Qa = (1,000,000,000 kJ/hr) (1 / 3600) = 277,777.78 kW or 277.78 MW
Wnet = e Qa = 0.50 x 277.78 = 138.89 MW

Problem:
One kilogram of air is compressed adiabatically and in a steady-flow manner. The compression
efficiency is 80% and the work done on the air is 265 kJ/kg. Compute the heat.
A. 212 kJ/kg B. 100 kJ/kg C. 0 kJ/kg D. 331.25 kJ/kg

Problem:
Three hundred kilojoules of heat flow by conduction from the outside to the inside of a cold
storage in one hour. If the temperature and all other conditions are the same, what is the heat
flowing through the cold storage room in two hours?
A. 600 kJ B. 900 kJ C. 300 kJ D. 1,200 kJ
Problem:
Determine the specific weight of air at 760 mmHg absolute and 22˚C?
A. 1.014 kg / m3 B. 1.316 kg / m3 C. 1.197 kg / m3 D. 1.266 kg / m3
Answer: Specific weight = 1.197 kg / m3

Problem:
A refrigerating machine that is classified as a one-ton machine has the capacity to produce a
cooling effect.
A. 3.517 kW B. 12,000 Btu / hr C. 211 kJ / min D. all of the above
Answer: D. all of the above

Problem:
One kilogram of air 1.2 kg / cm 2 at 30˚C is compressed according to the law of PV where C =
1.36 until its volume 0.5 m3. If it is compressed isothermally, what will be the percent saving
work?
A. 5.6% B. 8.7% C. 6.6% D. 8.2%\

Problem:
An electron strikes the screen of the cathode ray tube with a velocity of 10 to the 9 th power cm /s.
Compute its kinetic energy in ERGS. The mass of an electron is 9 x 10-31 kg?
A. 1.5 x 10-10 ERG B. 9.5 x 10-10 ERG C. 3.5 x 10-10 ERG D. 4.5 x 10-10 ERG
Answer: KE = 4.5 x 10-10 ERG

Problem:
0.064 kg of octane vapor (MW = 114) is mixed with 0.91 kg of air (MW = 29.0) in the manifold
is 86.1 kPa, and the temperature is 290 K. Assume octane behaves ideally, what is the total
volume of this mixture?
A. 0.895 cu.m B. 0.987 cu.m C. 0.565 cu.m D. 0.654 cu.m
Problem:
Find the amount of electrical energy expanded raising the temperature of 45 liters of water by
75˚C. Assume the efficiency heating equipment to be 90%
A. 5.35 kW-hr B. 4.36 kW-hr C. 0.565 kW-hr D. 0.54 kW-hr

Problem:
Water is discharged through a 1-inch diamter orifice under constant head of 2.1 ft the total
discharge is 228 lbm. The jet is observed to pass through a point 2 ft downward and 4 ft away
from vena contracta. Find the CV.
A. 0.976 B. 0.758 C. 0.567 D. 0.845

Problem:
The density of Helium is 0.178 kg /m3 at STP. What is the density at 25˚C and 96 kPa?
A. 0.159 B. 0.358 C. 0.267 D. 0.545
Answer: A. 0.15 g / liter

Problem:
A substance has a density of 0.094 lb / ft3 at 100˚F and 2 atm. What pressure is needed to change
the density to 0.270 lb /ft3 at 250˚F?
A. 7.28 atm B. 8.32 atm C. 3.45 atm D. 5.25 atm
Problem:
If atmospheric air is 14.7 psia and 60˚F at sea level, what is the pressure at 12,000 ft altitude if
air is incompressible.
At 60˚F; the density of air is 0.0763 lbm / ft3; P1 = 14.7 psia
A. 5.42 psia B. 5.34 psia C. 6.72 psia D. 9.32 psia
Problem:
At what height will 68˚F ethyl alcohol rise in 0.005 inch internal diameter glass capillary tube?
The density of alcohol is 49 lb / ft3.
A. 0.3056 ft B. 0.453 ft C. 0.5434 ft D. 0.2435 ft

Problem:
What is the velocity of sound in 150˚F (66˚C) air at a standard pressure?
Density of air at 150˚F is 0.064 lbm / ft3
A. 1215 ft /s B. 3245 ft / s C. 2345 ft /s D. 4321 ft / s
Answer: V = 1214.9 ft /s

Problem:
Oxygen is throttled at 140˚F from 10 atm to 5 atm. What is the temperature change?
A. 0 B. negative C. infinty D. 1
Answer: For throttled ideal gas, ΔT = 0

Problem:
A tire contains 1000 in3 of air at 24 psia and 32˚F. What pressure in the tire is needed if the
temperature and volume are increased to 35˚F and 1020 in3 respectively?
A. 23.57 psia B. 32.45 psia C. 43.54 psia D. 34.57 psia

Problem:
Determine the specific gravity of the carbon dioxide gas (molecular weight = 44) at 150˚F (66˚C)
and 20 psia (138 kPa).
A. 1.67 B. 1.45 C. 1.87 D. 1.30
Problem:
A pump adds 550 ft of pressure head to 100 lb m / s of water. Compute the hydraulic power in
horsepower.
A. 100 B. 150 C. 200 D. 300

Problem:
A pump driven by an electric motor moves 25 gal / min of water from reservoir A to reservoir B,
lifting a water a total head of 245 ft. The efficiencies of the pump and motor are 84% and 84%
respectively. What is the size of motor required?
A. 2.42 hp B. 1.24 hp D. 2.24 hp D. 2.34 hp
Determine the hydraulic diameter and the hydraulic radius for the open trapezoidal channel
whose above and bottom depths are 7 and 5 units respectively. The depth of the water is 3 units.

a. 13.4 b. 1.59 c. 3.24 d. 5.3

Water is pumped a hillside into a reservoir. The pump discharges water at the rate of 6 ft/s and
pressure of 150 psig. Disregarding friction, what is the maximum elevation (above the centreline
of pump’s discharge) of the reservoir’s water?

a. 346.7 ft b. 546.7 ft c. 246.7 ft d. 146.7 ft

Water at 60 degFhas a specific gravity of 0.999 g/cc and akinematic viscosity of 1.12 centistoke.
What is the absolute viscosity in lbf-s/ft2?

a. 2.34 x 10-5 b. 1.34 x 10-5 c. 3.34 x 10-5 d. 5.34 x 10-5

A steam engine operating between a boiler temperature of 220 deg C and a condenser
temperature of 35 deg C delivers 8Hp. If its efficiency is 30 percent of the for Carnot engine
operating between this temperature limits, how many calories are absorbed each second by the
boiler?

a. 12.7 kCal/s b. 11.43 kCal/s c. 10.56 kCal/s d. 9.57 kCal/s

How many kilograms of water at 0 deg C can a freezer with a coefficient of performance 5 make
into ice cubes at 0 deg C with a work of 3.6 MJ?

a. 24 kg b. 34 kg c. 54 kg d. 15 kg

What is the change in entropy of 2 kg water molecules when transformed at a constant pressure
of 1 atm from water at 100 deg C to steam at the same temperature?

a. 12.12 kJ b. 10.43 kJ c. 9.45 kJ d. 10.45 kJ

A copper of negligible heat capacity contains 1 kg of water just above the freezing point. A
similar can contains 1 kg of water just below the boiling point. Two cans are brought to into
thermal contact. Find the change in entropy of the system.

a. 100 J/K b. 200 J/K c. 300 J/K d. 400J/K

In a gaseous mixture of 20 deg C, the partial pressures of the components are as follows:
Hydrogen, 2000 mmHg; CO2, 150 mm Hg; methane 320 mm Hg; ethylene, 105 mm Hg. What is
the mass fraction of hydrogen?

a. 0.026 b. 0.056 c. 0.076 d. 0.016

Cool water at 9 deg C enters hot-water heater from which warm water at room temperature of 80
deg C is drawn at an average rate of 300 g/min. How much average electric power does the
heater consume in order to provide hot water at this rate?

a. 4.18 kW b. 2.35 kW c. 3.31 kW d. 5.14kW

A hose shoots water straight up a distance of 2.5 m. The end opening on the hose has an area of
0.075 cm2. How much water comes out in 1 min?

a. 34.18 L b. 22.35 L c. 31.5 L d. 5.14 L

The surface of household radiator has an emissivity of 0.55 and an area of 1.5 m2. At which rate
is the radiation absorbed emiited by the radiator when its temperature is 50 deg C?

a. 308 W b. 509 W c. 108 W d. 409 W

It is required to pump water at 100 gpm from a large reservoir to the surface of another reservoir
400 ft higher. What horsepower of the motor to drive the pump if the efficiency of the pump is
70%?

a. 14.44 hp b. 15.55 hp c. 12.54 hp d. 10.54 hp

Compute he percent rating of a water tube boiler if the heating surface area is 500 m2 and
developed boiler horsepower is 750.

a. 136.5% b. 124.5% c. 138.7% d. 154.6%

A waste heat recovery boiler produces 4.8 Mpa (dry saturated) steam from 104 deg C feedwater.
The boiler receives energy from 7 kg/s of 954 º C dry air. After passing through the waste heat
boiler, the temperature of the air has been reduced to 343 ºC. Compute the volume flow rate of
the steam in kg/s. Note: At 4.8 MPa,dry and saturated, h=2796 kJ/kg.

a. 1.81 kg/s b. 1.92 kg/s c. 2.21 kg/s d. 1.46 kg/s

What is the power which a 3.5 MW natural gas engine can developed at an altitude of 1981.2 m
assuming that the presuure changes alone?

a. 2.957 MW b. 3.247 MW c. 2.521 MW d. 4.466 MW

In a gaseous mixture of 20 ºC, the partial pressure of the components are as follows: Hydrogen
=200 mm Hg; Carbon dioxide= 150 mm Hg, Methane=320 mm Hg; Ethylene=105 mm Hg.
What is the pressure of the mixture?

a. 755 mm Hg b. 255 mm Hg c. 345 mm Hg d. 800 mm Hg

A four stroke, direct injection diesel engine of 4” bore x 4.5” stroke develops 45 Hp at full load
and 8 Hp when running at idling load. Engine speed is 2200 rpm. Compute the mechanical
efficiency.

C = 68.5% S = 1.5% Ash = 12%

H = 2.5% O = 3.5%

a. 26280.63 kJ/kg b. 16250.63 kJ/kg c. 41380.53 kJ/kg d. 56398.32 kJ/kg

In a boiler design, it is desirable to have the flue gas exit temperature above the dewpoint. What
is the dewpoint temperature of the flue gas produced by combustion having the gravimetric
analysis of:

Assume the air infiltration and leakage are negligible.

a. 45 º C b. 40 ºC c. 39 ºC d. 24 ºC

Find the effective head of reaction turbine that develops 500BHP where flow through the turbine
is 50 cfs. Water enters at 20 fps with a 100 ft pressure head. The elevation of the turbine above
the tailwater level is 8 ft?

a. 136.52 ft b. 131.71 ft c. 114.2 ft d. 102.4 ft

Water is flowing through a pipe. A pitot-static gage registers 3 in Hg. What is the velocity of the
water in the pipe?

a. 14.24 fps b. 13.42 fps c. 11.42 fps d. 10.24 fps

What is the terminal velocity of a 2” diameter aluminum sphere falling in air? Assume that the
sphere has a coefficient of drag of ___, the density of aluminum is 5.12 slug/ft3, and the density
of air is 0.00234 slug/ft3.

a. 100 fps b. 177 fps c. 350 fps d. 1000 fps

In the real flow of air around a cylinder, the circulation is calculated to be 42.74 fps. If the free
steam velocity is 100 fps, what is the lift generated per foot of the cylinder?

a. 10 lb/ft b. 42.75 lb/ft c. 120 lb/ft d. 322 lb/ft

A 5” diameter cylinder rotates at 3600 rpm. Air is flowing past the cylinder at 100fps. How much
is the lift on the cylinder per unit length?

a. 23.65 lb/ft b. 1.25 lb/ft c. 11.75 lb/ft d. 20.75 lb/ft

A pump produces a head of 30 ft. The volumetric flow rate is 10 gpm. The fluid pumped oil with
SG = 0.83. How much energy does the pump consume in one hour?

a. 8.7 kJ b. 17.2 kJ c. 168.9 kJ d. 203.6 kJ

A pump has an efficiency of 65%. It is driven by a 0.75 hp motor. The pump produces a pressure
rise of 120 Pa in water. What is the required flow rate?

a. 3.03 m3/s b. 4.04 m3/s c. 4.55 m3/s d. 4.66m3/s

The pressure drop across a turbine is 30 psi. The flow rate is 60 gpm. Calculate the power output
of the turbine.

a. 0.41 hp b. 1.05 hp c. 2.54 hp d. 6.30 hp

If air is at pressure of 3200psf and at a temperature of 800 ºR, what is the specific volume?

a. 9.8 ft3/lbm b. 11.2 ft3/lbm c. 13.3ft3/lbm d. 14.2 ft3/lbm

Steam at 1000 psf pressure and 300 ºR has a specific volume of 6.5 ft3/lb and a specific enthalpy
of 9800 lb-ft/lb. Find the internal energy per pound mass of steam.

a. 2500 lb-ft/lb b. 3300 lb-ft/lb c. 5400 lb-ft/lb d. 6900 lb-ft/lb

From steam tables, determine the average cp of steam at 10 kPa and 45.8 ºC.

a. 1.79 kJ/kg-Cº b. 10.28 kJ/kg-Cº c. 30.57 kJ/kg-Cº d. 100.1 kJ/kg-Cº

A 10 m3 vessel initially contains 5m3 of liquid water and 5 m3 of saturated water vapor at 100
kPa. Calculate the internal energy of the system using steam tables.

a. 5 x 105 kJ b. 8 x 105 kJ c. 10 x 105 kJ d. 20 x 105 kJ

A vessel with a volume of 1 m3 contains liquid water and water vapor equilibrium at 600 kPa.
The liquid water has a mass of 1 kg. Using the steam tables, calculate the mass of the water of
vapor.

The first law of thermodynamics is based on which of the following principles?

a. Conservation of mass
b. The enthalpy-entropy relationship
c. Action-reaction
d. Conservation of energy

The general energy equation for an open system involves the following five terms:

I. Accumulation of energy
II. Net energy transfer by work (standard sign convention)
III. Net energy transfer by heat (standard sign convention)
IV. Transfer of energy in by mass flow
V. Transfer of energy out by the mass flow

Using the standard sign conventions, what is the proper arrangement of these terms for the
general energy equation satisfying the first law of thermodynamics?

a. I=-II+III+IV-V b. I=II+III+IV-V c. I=II+III+IV-V d. I=II-III-IV+V

What is the value of the work done for a closed, reversible, isometric system?

a. zero b. positive c. negative d. positive or negative

The expansion of a gas through a plug at a high enough pressure results in a temperature rise,
while at lower pressure, a temperature drop occurs. The Joule-Thompson coefficient is defined as
the ratio of change in temperature to the change in pressure. The temperature at which Joule-
Thompson coefficient changes from positive to negative is called the inversion temperature.
When Joule-Thompson coefficient is negative which of the following statements is true?

a. Gases may be liquified

b. Only trace liquification is possible
c. No liquification is possible
d. Liquification can be obtained only with a catalyst

A 5m3 vessel initially contains 50 kg of water and saturated vapor at total internal energy of
27300 kJ. Calculate the heat requirement to vaporize all of the liquid.

a. 100000 kJ b. 200000 kJ c. 300000 kJ d. 400000 kJ

Find the change in internal energy of 5 lb of oxygen gas when the temperature changes from 100
ºF to 120 ºF. cv = 0.157 BTU/lbm-R

a. 14.7 BTU b. 15.7 BTU c. 16.9 BTU d. 147 BTU

Water is being heated by a 1500W heater. What is the rate of change in temperature of 1 kg of
the water?

a. 0.043 K/s b. 0.179 K/s c. 0.357 K/s d. 1.5 K/s

One kilogram of water is heated by 300 BTU of energy. What is the chabge in temperature, in K?

a. 17.9 K b. 71.4 K c. 73.8 K d. 75.4 K

1. Determine the change in enthalpy per lbm of nitrogen gas as its temperature changes from 500
ºF to 200 ºF, cp= 0.2483 BTU/lbm-ºR.
A. -74.49 BTU/lbm C. -68.47 BTU/lbm

2. calculate the change in enthalpy as 1 kg of nitrogen is heated from 1000 K to

1500 K, assuming the nitrogen is an ideal gas at a constant pressure. The temperature –
dependent specific heat of nitrogen is:

cp = 39.06 - 512.79T -1.5 + 1072.7T -2 – 820.4T -3

cp is in kJ/kmole-K, and T is in K

A. 600 kJ C. 800 kJ

B. 700 kJ D. 900 kJ

3. What is the resulting pressure when one pound of air at 15 psia and 200 ºF is heated at constant
volume to 800 ºF?
A. 15 psia C. 38.4 psia

B. 28.6 psia D. 52.1 psia

4. What horsepower is required to isothermally compress 800 ft 3 of air per minute from 14.7 psia
to 120 psia?
A. 28 Hp C. 256 Hp

B. 108 Hp D. 13900 Hp

5. Calculate the work done by the system in which 1 kg mole of water completely evaporates at
100 ºC and 1 atmosphere pressure.
A. 1000 kJ C. 2490 kJ

B. 2130 kJ D. 3050 kJ

6. What is the equation for a work done by a constant temperature system?

A. W = mRT ln (V2-V1) C. W = mRT ln V2 / V1

B. W = mR (T2-T1) ln V2 / V1 D. W = RT ln V2 / V1

7. Twenty grams of oxygen (O2) are compressed at a constant temperature of 30 ºC to 5 % of their

original volume. What work is done on the system?
A. 824 cal C. 944 cal

B. 924 cal D. 1124 cal

8. Helium (R =0.4968 BTU/lbm-ºR) is compressed isothermally from 14.7 psia and 68 ºF. The
compression ratio is 4. Calculate the work done by the gas.
A. -1454 BTU/lbm C. -187 BTU/lbm

B. -364 BTU/lbm D. 46.7 BTU/lbm

9. Gas is enclosed in a cylinder with a weighted piston as the top boundary. The gas is heated and
expands from a volume of 0.04 m 3 to 0.10 m 3 at a constant pressure of 200 kPa. Calculate the
work done by the system.
A. 8 kJ C. 12 kJ

B. 10 kJ D. 14 kJ

10. A piston-cylinder system contains a gas which expands under a constant pressure of 1200 lbf/ft 2.
If the piston is displaced 12 during the process, and the piston diameter is 24”, what is the work
done by the gas on the piston?
A.1768 ft-lbf C. 2387 ft-lbf

B.1890 ft-lbf D. 3768 ft-lbf

11. Gas is enclosed in a cylinder with a weighted piston as the top boundary. The gas is heated and
expands from a volume of 0.04 m 3 to 0.10 m 3. The pressure varies such that PV = constant, and
the initial pressure is 200 kPa. Calculate the work done by the system.
A.6.80 kJ C. 9.59 kJ

B.7.33 kJ D. 12.0 kJ

12. How does an adiabatic process compare to an isentropic process?

A. adiabatic: heat transfer = 0; isentropic: heat transfer ≠ 0.

D. both: heat transfer = 0; isentropic: reversible.

13. What is true about the polytropic exponent n, for a perfect gas undergoing an isobaric process?
A. n > 0 C. n → ∞

B. n < 0 D. n = 0

14. In an isentropic compression, P1 = 200 psia, P2 = 300 psia, V1 = 10 in3, and 1.4 = ‫ﻻ‬, find V2.
A. 3.509 in3 C. 5.000 in3

B. 4.500 in3 D. 6.095 in3

15. In an adiabatic, isentropic process, P1 = 200 psi, P2 = 300 psi, and T1 = 700 ºF. Find T2 using = ‫ﻻ‬
1.4.
A. 576 ºR C. 680 ºR

B. 590 ºR D. 786 ºR

16. Air undergoes an isentropic compression from 14.7 psia to 180.6 psia. If the initial temperature
is 68 ºF and the final temperature is 621.5 ºF, calculate the work done by the gas.
A. -138.2 BTU/lbm C. 0 BTU/lbm

B. -94.8 BTU/lbm D. 94.8 BTU/lbm

17. Nitrogen is expanded isentropically, its temperature changes from 620 ºF to 60 ºF. Find the
pressure ratio (P1/P2).
A. 0.08 C. 26.2

B. 12.9 D. 3547

18. Nitrogen is expanded isentropically, its temperature changes from 620 ºF to 60 ºF. The
volumetric ratio is V1/V2 = 6022, and the value of R for nitrogen is 0.0787 BTU/lbm-ºR. What is
the work done by the gas?
A. -1112.7 BTU/lbm C. 1112.7 BTU/lbm

B. -99.22 BTU/lbm D. 99.22 BTU/lbm

19. An isobaric steam generating engine process starts with saturated liquid at 20 psia. The change
in entropy is equal to the initial entropy. What is the change in enthalpy during the process?
( Hint: Not all of the liquid is vaporized)
A. -230.4 BTU/lbm C. 0 BTU/lbm

B. 230.4 BTU/lbm D. 196.2 BTU/lbm

20. A cylinder and piston arrangement contains saturated water vapor at 110 ºC. The vapor is
compressed in a reversible adiabatic process until the pressure is 1.6 MPa. Determine the work
done by the system per kilogram of water.
A. -637 kJ/kg C. 432 kJ/kg

B. -509 kJ/kg D. 330 kJ/kg

21. Helium is compressed isothermally from 14.7 psia and 68 ºF. The compression ratio is 4.
Calculate the change in entropy of the gas given that RHe = -0.4961 BTU/lbm-ºR.
A. -2.76 BTU/lbm-ºR C. 0 BTU/lbm- ºR

B. –0.689 BTU/lbm-ºR D. 0.689 BTU/lbm-ºR

22. For an ideal gas, what is the specific molar entropy change during an isothermal process in which
the pressure changes from 200 kPa to 150 kPa?
A. 2.00 J/mole.K C. 2.79 J/mole.K

B. 2.39 J/mole.K D. 3.12 J/mole.K

23. 200 g of water are heated from 5 ºC to 100 ºC and vaporized at a constant pressure. The heat of
vaporization of water at 100 ºC is 539.2 cal/g. the heat capacity at constant pressure, c p is
1.0cal/g.K. determine the total change in entropy.
A. 248.2 cal/K C. 348.0 cal/K

B. 298.2 cal/K D. 398.2 cal/K

24. A Carnot engine operates between 800 ºR and 1000 ºR. What is the thermal efficiency?
A. 20 % C. 40 %

B. 30 % D. 50 %

25. A device produces 37.5 Joules per cycle; there is one power stroke per cycle. Calculate the power
output if the device is run at 45 rpm.
A. 4.69 W C. 28.125 W

B. 14.063 W D. 275.625 W

26. A steam generator produces saturated steam at 100 psia from saturated liquid at 14.7 psia. If the
heat source is bath at 340 ºF that provides 800 BTU/lbm, which of the following is true?
A. The device cannot work because the pressure gradient is greater than zero.

D. The device violates the second law of thermodynamics.

27. An engine burns a liter of fuel each 12 minutes. The fuel has a specific gravity of 0.8, and heating
value of 45 MJ/kg. The engine has an efficiency of 25 %. What is the brake horsepower of the
engine?
A. 12.5 hp C. 16.76 hp

B. 15.63 hp D. 20.95 hp

28. A device that is meant to extract power from waste process steam starts with a steam of 75 %
quality at 100 psia. The exit conditions of the steam are 70 %quality at 14.7 psia. Which of the
following statement is true?

II. This device violates the second law of thermodynamics.

III. This device generates positive net power.

IV. This device generates no net power.

A. I C. III

B. II D. IV

29. An engineer device a scheme for extracting some power from waste process steam. The steam
enters the device at 100 psia and quality 75 % and exits at 14.7 psia and 65 % quality. Which of
the following statements are true?

III. This device violates the first law of thermodynamics

A. I C. III

B. II D. I and II

30. A refrigeration system produces 150 BTU/lbm of cooling. In order to have a rating of 1 ton of
refrigeration, what must be the mass flow rate of the vapor? (1 ton of refrigeration = 12000
BTU/hr, approximately the rate required to freeze 1 ton of ice in a day.)
A. 2.2 lbm/hr C. 80 lbm/hr

B. 15 lbm/hr D. 360 lbm/hr

31. The mole is the basic unit of measurement in chemistry. Which of the following is not equal to or
the same as one mole of the substance indicated?
A. 6.02 x 1023 of oxygen (O2) molecules C. 16 g of oxygen (O2) molecules

B. 12 g of carbon atoms D. 1 g of hydrogen (H) atoms

32. The valve between a 9 liter tank containing gas at 5 atmospheres and a 6 liter tank containing
gas at 10 atmospheres is opened. What is the equilibrium pressure obtained in the two tanks at
constant temperature? Assume ideal gas behavior.
A. 5 atm C. 7 atm

B. 6 atm D. 8 atm

33. A bicycle that has a volume of 600 cm 3. It is inflated with CO2 to a pressure of 80 psi at 20 ºC.
How many grams of CO2 are obtained in the tire?
A. 3.83 g C. 5.98 g

B. 4.83 g D. 6.43 g

34. On a hot day, the temperature rises from 50 ºF early in the morning to 99 ºF in the afternoon.
What is the ratio of the concentration in moles/ft 3 of helium in a spherical balloon in the
afternoon to the concentration of helium in the balloon in the morning?
A.0.51 C. 0.91

B.0.69 D. 1.10

35. When 0.5 g of a liquid is completely evaporated and collected in a 1 liter manometer, the
pressure is 0.25 atmospheres and the temperature is 27 ºC. Assuming ideal gas behavior,
determine the molecular weight. The gas constant is R = 0.0821 atm/mole.K.
A. 2 g C. 12.3 g

B. 2.2 g D. 49.2 g

36. Two hundred milliliters of oxygen gas (O2) are collected over water at 23 ºC and a pressure of 1
atmosphere. What volume would the oxygen occupy dry at 273 K and 1 atmosphere?
A.179.3 mL C.190.9 mL

B.184.4 mL D. 194.5 mL

37. The atomic weight of hydrogen is 1 gram per gram-atom. What is the mass of a hydrogen atom?
A.1.66 x 10 -24 g/atom C. 1.0 x 10 -23 g/atom

B. 6.02 x 10 -10 g/atom D. 1 g/atom

38. Calculate the theoretical density of copper given that the unit cell is face-centered cubic and the
lattice parameter is 361 Å. The atomic weight of copper is 63.5 g/mole.
A.4.49 g/cm C. 8.87 g/cm

B. 7.86 g/cm D.8.97 g/cm

39. Determine the planar density of copper atoms in the (100) plane given that the unit cell is face-
centered cubic and the lattice parameter is 3.61 Å.
A.7.68 x 10 18 atoms/m2 C. 2.30 x 10 19 atoms/m2

B. 1.53 x 10 19 atoms/m2 D. 3.84 x 10 19 atoms/m2

40. A sample of face-centered cubic nickel (Ni) was placed in an X-ray beam of wavelength λ = 0.154
nm. If the lattice parameter for Ni is 0.325 nm, what is the first order angle of diffraction?
A. 5.68 º C. 12.6 º

B. 6.97 º D. 19.0 º

41. An open chamber rests on the ocean floor in 160 feat of sea water (sp.gr = 1.03). What air
pressure in psig must be maintained inside to exclude water?
A. 45.2 C. 71.4

B. 60.9 D. 93.2

42. Pressure in lbf/ft2 at a depth of 300 feet in fresh water is nearest to:
A. 5360 psf C. 18700 psf

B. 12900 psf D. 32400 psf

43. What head in feet of air, at ambient condition of 14.7 psia and 68 ºF, is equivalent to 2 psia?
A. 146 C. 3840

B. 395 D. 1560

44. With a normal barometric pressure at a sea level, atmospheric pressure at an elevation of 4000
feet is nearest to
A. 26” Hg C. 27” Hg

B. 28” Hg D. 29” Hg

45. An open topped cylindrical water tank has horizontal circular base 10 feet in diameter. When
filled to a height of 8 feet, the force in lbs exerted on its base is nearest to:
A. 3900 C. 26000

B. 7800 D. 39000

46. Each connection between a 90 degree elbow and the 6” diameter pipeline to which is connected
must resist what net tensile force in lbs under static, non-flow conditions if the line is pressurized
to 100 psig?
A. 710 C. 2000

B. 830 D. 2800

47. A circular access port 2 feet in diameter seals an environmental test chamber that is pressurized
to 15 psi above external pressure. What force in lbs does the port exert upon its retaining
structure?
A. 1700 C. 2300

B. 3700 D. 6800

48. Ice in an iceberg has a sp.gr of 0.922. When floating in sea water (sp.gr = 1.03), its exposed
volume % is nearest to
A. 5.6 C. 8.9

B. 7.4 D. 10.5

49. A floating cylinder 8cm diameter and weight 950 grams is placed in a cylindrical container 20 cm
in diameter partially full of water. The increase in the depth of water in the container is due to
placing the float in it is:
A. 10 cm C. 3 cm

B. 5 cm D. 2 cm

50. The theoretical velocity generated by a 10 foot hydraulic head is:
A. 12.2 ft/sec C. 25.4 ft/sec

51. What is the static head corresponding to a flow velocity of 10 ft/sec?

A. 1.55 ft C. 2.05 ft

B. 1.75 ft D. 2.25 ft

52. Normal boiling point of liquid oxygen is 90 ºK. What is this temperature in R?
A. -330 ºR C. 162 ºR

B. -183 ºR D. 168 ºR

53. An airtight closed box of weight P is suspended from a spring balance. A bird of weight W is
placed on the floor of the box and balance reads W + P. If the bird flies around the box at a
constant elevation without accelerating, what is the balance reading
A. P C. P + W2

B. P - W D. P + W

54. A machine with a 100 horsepower engine is capable of lifting a 10000lb load a height of 20 feet
in 10 seconds. What is the efficiency of this machine?

55. Two barges, one weighing 10 tons, the other weighing 20 tons are connected by a cable in quiet
water. Initially the barges are at 100 feet apart. The cable is reeled in until the barges are 50 feet
apart. If the friction is negligible, calculate the distance covered by the 10 ton barge.

56. A 60 ton car is to travel around a curve of radius 3000 ft at a speed of 60 mph. By how much
must the outer rail be elevated in order that the reaction against the track may be perpendicular
to the plane of the rails? The track is standard gage of 4’ - 8½”

57. A projectile weighing 100 pounds strikes the concrete wall of a fort with an impact velocity of
1200 feet per second. The projectile comes to rest in 0.01 second, having penetrated the 8 foot -
thick wall to a distance of 6 feet. What is the average force exerted to the wall by the projectile?

58. Two 3 – lb weights are connected by a massloss string hanging over a smooth, friction peg. If a
third weight of 3 lbs is added to one of the weights and the system is released; by how much is
the force on the peg increased?

59. A gas bubble rising from the ocean floor is 1 inch in diameter at a depth of 50 feet. Given that
sp.gr of sea water is 1.03, the buoyant force in lbs being exerted on the bubble at this instant is
nearest to:
A.0.014 C. 0.076

B. 0.020 D. 0.14

60. Draft, in inches of water differential pressure is generated at the base of a 100 foot stack filled
with 500 ºF gases (assume same molecular weight as air due to differential specific gravity.)
(Under ambient conditions of 14.7 psia and 68 ºF, air sp.wt. is 0.075 lb f/ft3.) The draft is nearest
to:

B. 0.65” water D. 1.50” water

61. Ice in an iceberg has a sp.gr of 0.922. When floating in sea water (sp.gr = 1.03), its exposed
volume % is nearest to
A. 5.6 C. 8.9

B. 7.4 D. 10.5

62. A cylinder of cork is floating upright in a container partially filled with water. A vacuum is applied
to the container such that the air within the vessel is partially removed. The cork will
A. rise somewhat in the water. C. remain stationary

B. sink somewhat in the water D. turn over on its side

63. A floating cylinder 8cm diameter and weight 950 grams is placed in a cylindrical container 20 cm
in diameter partially full of water. The increase in the depth of water in the container is due to
placing the float in it is:
A. 10 cm C. 3 cm

B. 5 cm D. 2 cm

64. A block of wood floats in water with 6 inches projecting above the water surface. If the same
block were placed in alcohol of specific gravity 0.82, the block would project 4 inches above the
surface of the alcohol. Determine the specific gravity of the wood block.

65. Air flows in a long length of 1” diameter pipe. At one end the pressure is 30 psia, the
temperature is 300 ºF and the velocity is 30 ft/sec. At the other end the pressure has been
reduced by friction and heat loss to 20psia. The mass flow rate in lb/sec at any section along the
pipe is nearest to:
A. 0.02 C. 0.37

B. 0.1 D. 1.5

66. Water flow rate a long ½ in i.d hose at 3 gallons per minute. Water velocity in ft/sec is nearest to:
A. 1 C. 10

B. 5 D. 20

67. Theoretical horsepower required to pump water at 100 gallons per minute from a large reservoir
to the surface to another large reservoir 400 feet higher is nearest to:
A. 6 Hp C. 18 Hp
B. 10 Hp D. 36 Hp

68. Horizontal stream of water with a cross sectional area of 0.1 ft 2 and a velocity of 10 ft/sec has
kinetic energy in ft-lbf/sec nearest to:
A. 2500 C. 11700

B. 8200 D. 56000

69. Water tank consist of a right circular cone that has a central axis vertical and is vertex at the
bottom. The radius at the top is ___ feet, the height is 50 feet, and the water is 15 feet deep.
Determine the work required to pump all the water to the level of the cone.

70. Stream of fluid with a mass flow rate of 2 slugs/sec and a velocity of 20 ft/sec to the right has its
direction reversed 180 º in a U- tube. The dynamic force in lb f exerting by the fluid on the fitting
is nearest to:
A. 40 C. 514

B. 80 D. 1288

71. The thrust in lbf generated by an aircraft jet engine on takeoff per 1 lb m/sec exhaust products,
whose velocity has been increased from essentially 0 to 500 ft/sec, is nearest to which of the
following:
A. 15 C. 360

B.130 D. 710

72. An orifice 2” in diameter discharge fluid from a tank with a head of 15 feet. Discharge rate q
measured at 0.5 cfs. Actual velocity at the vena contracta, v.c is 29.0 ft/sec. The coefficient of
discharged, Cd is nearest to:
A. 0.62 C. 0.79

B.0.74 D. 0.86

73. At normal atmospheric pressure, the maximum height in feet that a non volatile fluid of specific
gravity of 0.80 may be siphoned is nearest to:
A. 12 C. 28

B.20 D. 42

74. Water flow rate in a 6 inches diameter pipe is measured with a differential pressure gage
connected between a static pressure tap in the pipe wall and a pilot tube located at the
centerline. Which volume flow rate q in cfs results in a differential pressure of 1 psi?
A. 0.2 C. 15.6

B.2.4 D. 28.2

75. A cylinder fitted with a weightless, frictionless piston contains m pounds of air at a temperature
T1, volume V1, and ambient pressure Pa. Heat is added until the air in the cylinder has a
temperature T2, a volume V2, and ambient pressure Pa. The specific heat of air in a constant
pressure is cp, and the specific heat of air at constant volume is c v. The heat transferred during
the process is:
A. mcp (T2-T1) C. mcp (T2-T1) + Pa (V2-V1)

B. mcv (T2-T1) - Pa (V2-V1) D. mcv (T2-T1) + Pa (V2-V1)

76. A non flow (closed) closed system contains 1 lb of an ideal gas (c p = 0.24, cv = 0.17). The gas
temperature is increased by 10 ºF while 5 BTU of work done by the gas. What is the heat transfer
in BTU?
A. - 3.3 C. + 6.7

B. - 2.8 D. + 7.4

77. Shaft work of -15 BTU/lb and heat transfer of -10 BTU/lb change enthalpy of a system by
A. -25 BTU/lb C. -10 BTU/lb

B. -15 BTU/lb D. +5 BTU/lb

78. 55000 galloons of water pass through a heat exchanger and absorb 28000000 BTU’s. The exit
temperature is 110 ºF. The entrance water temperature in ºF is nearest to:
A. 49 C. 68

B. 56 D. 73

79. The mass flow rate of Freon 12 through a heat exchanger is 10 pounds per minute, enthalpy of
Freon entry is 102 BTU/lb and Freon exit is 26 BTU/lb. Water coolant is allowed to raise 10 ºF.
The water flow rate in pounds/minute is:
A. C. 83

B. D. 112

80. An 8.8 grams of finely divided aluminum is heated to 98.3 ºC and dropped into 76.2 grams of
water at 18.6 ºC contained in a calorimeter. The final temperature of the mixture is 27.4 ºC. The
mass of the calorimeter is 123 grams, and its specific heat may be taken as 0.092 cal g -1deg -1.
The combined thermal capacity of the thermometer and metal stirrer is 6.5 cal deg -1. Assuming
the heat is lost from the system; calculate the mean specific heat of the aluminum for the above
temperature range.

81. In terms of QH (heat from high temperature source) and Q L (heat to low temperature sink), the
net work of a carnot cycle is:
A. W = QH - QL C. W = QL / (QH - QL)

B. W = (QH - QL) / QL D. W = QL – QH

82. The maximum thermal efficiency that can be obtain in an ideal reversible heat engine operating
between 1540 ºF and 340 ºF is nearest to:
A. 100 % C. 78 %

B. 60 % D. 40 %

83. A 3 HP refrigerator or heat pump operates between 0 ºF to 100 ºF. the maximum theoretical
heat that can be transferred from the reservoir is nearest to:
A. 7600 BTU/hr C. 23000 BTU/hr

B. 13000 BTU/hr D. 35000 BTU/hr

84. A carnot cycle heat engine operating between 1540 ºF to 440 ºF has an efficiency of:
A. 55 % C. 35 %
B. 45 % D. 29 %

85. Second law limitation on the maximum horsepower output from any power unit burning
1000000 BTU/hr of fuel with high and low temperature extremes of 1540 ºF and 40 ºF is:
A. 98 C. 1140

B. 295 D. 3830

86. A heat pump installation is used to warm a steam of circulating air residence to 100 ºF; an
outside ambient of 35 ºF is considered the available heat source. A heating requirement of
90000 BTU/hr is necessary to maintain a comfortable temperature in the living space.
(a) Determine the absolute minimum electrical requirement in HP to operate a heat pump
delivering 90000 BTU/hr under these conditions.

(b) Determine the electrical requirement in kW to accomplish the same heat by resistance
heating.

Answer: 4.65 HP and 3.47 kW

87. A carnot cycle engine operates between 1540 ºF and 40 ºF and rejects 250 BTU/lb to the low
temperature reservoir or heat sink. Maximum entropy changes in BTU/lb. ºR of the working fluid
for any process in the cycle is:
A. 0 C. 0.50

B. 0.25 D. 1.0

88. A high velocity flow of gas at 800 ft/sec possesses kinetic energy nearest to which of the
following?
A. 1.03 BTU/lbm C. 9.95 BTU/lbm

B. 4.10 BTU/lbm D. 12.8 BTU/lbm

89. A carnot engine operating between 70 ºF and 2000 ºF is modified solely by raising the high
temperature 150 ºF and raising low temperature by 100 ºF. Which of the following statements is
false?
A. thermodynamic efficiency is increased.

D. more work is done during the reversible adiabatic expansion.

90. An open or flow process (across a fixed control volume) in the absence of PE and KE changes,
which of the following represents the shaft work done during a polytrophic process?
A.W = (k / 1-k) (P2V2 – P1V1) = (k / 1-k) mR (T2 –T1) = (k / 1-k) mRT1 [(P2/P1) (k / 1-k) - 1]

B.W = P1V1 ln (P1/P2) = P1V1 ln (V2/V1) = mRT ln (V2/V1) = mRT ln (P1/P2)

C.W = (n / 1-n) (P2V2 – P1V1) = (n / 1-n) mR (T2 –T1) = (n / 1-n) mRT1 [(P2/P1) (n / 1-n) - 1]

D.W = 0

91. In a closed system (with a moving boundary) which of the following represents work done during
isothermal process?
A. W = P (V2 - V1)

B. W = 0
C. W = P1V1 ln (P1/P2) = P1V1 ln (V2/V1) = mRT ln (V2/V1) = mRT ln (P1/P2)

D. W = (P2V2 – P1V1) / (1 – k) = mR (T2 –T1) / (1- k)

92. Work of a polytrophic (n = 1.21) compression of air (c p / cv = 1.40) in a system with moving
boundary from P1 = 15 psia, V1 = 1.0 ft3 to P2 = 150 psia, V2 = 0.15 ft3.
A.35.5 ft-lb C. 1080 ft-lb

B. 324 ft-lb D. 5150 ft-lb

93. Isentropic compression of 1 ft3 of air (cp / cv = 1.40), at 20 psia to a pressure of 100 psia gives a
final volume of:
A.0.16 ft3 C. 0.32 ft3

B. 0.20 ft3 D. 0.40 ft3

94. Determine the theoretical horsepower required for the isothermal compression of 800 ft 3/min of
air from 14.7 to 120 psia.

95. A mixture at 14.7 psia and 68 ºF that is 30 % weight CO 2 (m wt. = 44) and 7 % weight N2 (m wt. =
28) has a partial pressure of CO2 in psia that is nearest to:
A. 2.14 C. 6.83
B. 3.15 D. 7.86

96. Given that molar cp of CO2 is 8.92 BTU/ (lb.mole.ºR), and molar cp of N2 is 6.95 BTU/
(lb.mole.ºR),,the calculated cp per pound of mixture containing 25 % vol. CO 2 and 75 % vol. N2 is:
A. 0.23 BTU/lb-ºR C. 5.21 BTU/lb- ºR

B. 2.23 BTU/lb-ºR D. 7.44 BTU/lb-ºR

97. Dry air has an average molecular weight opf 28.9, consisting of 21 moles - % O 2, 73 moles - % N2
and 1 mole - % (argon traces of CO2). Its calculated wt.% O2 is nearest to:
A. 21.0 C. 23.2

B. 22.4 D. 24.6

98. Sonic velocity (mach 1) at 50000 feet altitude in the standard upper atmosphere (- 67.6 ºF and
1.68 psia) is nearest to:
A. 880 ft/sec C. 995 ft/sec

B. 917 ft/sec D. 1064 ft/sec

99. During complete stoichiometric combustion of 1 lb mole methane (Ch 4) with air, the number in
lb moles of nitrogen and other element that pass through the combustion zone is nearest to:
A. 0.79 C. 5.6

B. 3.9 D. 7.5

100. The temperature difference between the two sides of a solid rectangular slab of area A
and thickness L as shown below is ΔT. The heat transferred through the slab by conduction by
time t is proportional to:
A. ALΔTt C. AL (t/ ΔT)

B. AL (ΔT/t) D. (AΔTt) / L

101. The heat loss per hour through 1 sq.ft of furnace wall 18” thick is 520 BTU. The wall
temperature is 1900 ºF, and its average thermal conductivity is 0.61 BTU/hr.ft ºF,
The outside surface temperature of the wall is nearest to:

A. 100 ºF C. 600 ºF

B. 300 ºF D. 1000 ºF

102. A metal object at 120 ºF is set on an insulating pad to cool. The temperature initially falls
from 120 ºF to 100 ºF in 12 minutes. Surroundings are at 65 ºF, find the time required for that
object to continue to cool from 98 ºF to 80 ºF. Assume negligible conduction and radiation losses
in both cases.

103. A shell and tube brine cooler cools 150 gallons of brine per minute from 60 ºF to 12 ºF,
using ammonia at 5 ºF. The effective outside area of the tubes is 310 ft 2. The brine ha specific
gravity of 1.2 and specific heat of 0.70.
(a) Compute the rating of the cooler in tons of refrigeration.