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Journal of Rana, J Electr Electron Syst 2014, 3:3

on

urna l of E l

ic Systems

DOI: 10.4172/2332-0796.1000132

Electrical & Electronic Systems

Jo

ISSN: 2332-0796

Research Article

Research Article OpenAccess

Open Access

Ankit Rana*

B. Tech. (ECE), Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, A-4, Paschim Vihar, New Delhi, India

Abstract

From the very fundamental oscillator, a simple pendulum wherein there is a constant energy switch between

potential and kinetic energy, oscillators have seen groundbreaking changes in setup, operation and their applicability.

There are harmonic oscillators which produce a continuous sine wave output of certain frequencies as per the passive

components involved. Additionally, are known Relaxation oscillator which yield triangular, square and sawtooth waves

as output to name a few. The present paper deals with the details of how a fundamental Colpitts oscillatory circuit

can be designed. Furthermore, we would take a look at optimizing its performance with change in several dependent

characteristics in oscillation. We would conclude with an inference pertaining to the best customization with could be

put to practical usage.

Keywords: Feedback; LC combination; Multisim; Tank circuit; VFO; combination) and works on feedback of energy, the mathematical

Resonance; Magnetic energy leakage; Microfarad(uF); Oscillators; expression underlying its operation is the same as that of first-order

Sinusoidal LC circuit i.e.

Introduction f = (1 / 2π L * C ) (1)

Back in mid-1912, Edwin Armstrong while carrying out And since, the Colpitts must have two capacitors for compensating

experiments with triodes wasn’t aware of a spectacular phenomena purposes, the mathematical expression to obtain the frequency of

due to a component which was going to serve as the basis of coupling operation is depicted as [4,5]:

and amplification amongst many other applications. Until then, the L(C1 * C 2)

experiments had incorporated these devices as a detector for amplitude f = 1 / 2π (2)

(C1 + C 2)

modulated waves. Having utilized them for this functionality, nobody

was aware of the reasons as to why that was happening. By means of It can be noted that the two capacitors in series with each other

coupling one terminal of the device to another, it was observed that result in the expression in the denominator.

he could achieve large signal gain. We today term the phenomenon as

From the study of its parasitic elements and the transconductance

positive feedback in circuits. He, with his invention of the radio had

(gm) concept, it is known that a negative value of input resistance only

produced a unique oscillator. The uniqueness was justified since the

would be able to sustain oscillations at the output [6,7].

limitation of other oscillators producing output in the kHz domain had

now been extended to the MHz domain [1]. Oscillations are obtained only for a large value of transconductance

Ever since then, there has been a plethora of oscillator circuits that (gm) and for smaller values of capacitor elements used.

have been invented and employed industrially worldwide. Continuous Experimental Approach to Colpitts Oscillator Design

Sine Wave oscillators or Square wave oscillators find their application

in a myriad of fields in converting DC input to a variant A.C. output, in A industrially acclaimed simulator, namely Multisim was used to

amplification of signals, synchronization purposes to name a few. One observe the influence of several parameters on a Colpitts oscillator

such circuit which utilizes storage and dissipation of magnetic energy, design with multiple modifications and optimization aims in mind

namely the Colpitts Oscillator has formed the basis of this study. A few [5,7].

of modifications in the conventional circuit have hereby been inferred.

A first order Colpitts Oscillator has been drawn as a schematic

The Colpitts Oscillator over the simulator. This schematic circuit was introduced with several

modifications viz. change in input resistance, changes in capacitors and

Classification the inductor coil’s inductance. The parameters mentioned herewith

The Colpitts Oscillator is known to work on feedback from the are the fundamental governing dependencies in the performance of a

divider setup that is used in the circuit. The voltage divider is either Colpitts Oscillator. Increase in the value of any of these would leave

made by 2 inductors or by using tapping on the single inductor. In

either of the cases, if the desired application is that of a VFO, the usage

is not as much preferred as with the case of Clapp Oscillator. In the *Corresponding author: Ankit Rana, B. Tech. (ECE), Bharati Vidyapeeth’s

latter, an extra capacitor is used for tuning to the optimum frequency College of Engineering, A-4, Paschim Vihar, New Delhi-110063, India, E-mail:

and hence a better sustained waveform is achievable readily [2,3]. ankitrana1709@gmail.com

However, Colpitts form the basis of either of these circuitries,

October 01, 2014

capacitor-tuned Clapp or the conventional circuit. And consequently, is

believed in this experimental study to be encompassing the behavioral Citation: Rana A (2014) Colpitts Oscillator: Design and Performance Optimization.

J Electr Electron Syst 3: 132. doi:10.4172/2332-0796.1000132

results for the counterpart circuits as well [2].

Copyright: © 2014 Rana A. This is an open-access article distributed under the

Frequency tuning and parameters that effect it terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted

use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and

Since the Colpitts oscillator is a type of tank circuit (LC source are credited.

ISSN: 2332-0796 JEES an open access journal Volume 3 • Issue 3 • 1000132

Citation: Rana A (2014) Colpitts Oscillator: Design and Performance Optimization. J Electr Electron Syst 3: 132. doi:10.4172/2332-0796.1000132

Page 2 of 8

an impact on the output sinusoid produced. From a perfect sinusoid The effects were simulated over Multisim and analyzed over time.

under optimum conditions (mentioned as conclusion) to a distorted Conclusions from the same were drawn (Figures 1-12).

wave output, the tank circuit’s myriad of oscillatory behaviors have

The behavior as per the results obtained from this comparative study

been incorporated [8,9].

have been incorporated as conclusions to the customization activity.

Figure 2: Output waveform for the circuit in figure with inductor coil of 320uH.

ISSN: 2332-0796 JEES an open access journal Volume 3 • Issue 3 • 1000132

Citation: Rana A (2014) Colpitts Oscillator: Design and Performance Optimization. J Electr Electron Syst 3: 132. doi:10.4172/2332-0796.1000132

Page 3 of 8

Figure 3: Output waveform for the circuit in figure with inductor coil of 640uH.

Figure 4: Output waveform for the circuit in figure with inductor coil of 3200uH.

ISSN: 2332-0796 JEES an open access journal Volume 3 • Issue 3 • 1000132

Citation: Rana A (2014) Colpitts Oscillator: Design and Performance Optimization. J Electr Electron Syst 3: 132. doi:10.4172/2332-0796.1000132

Page 4 of 8

Figure 5: Colpitts Oscillator schematic diagram with unequal capacitors and resistances varied in the simulator design window.

ISSN: 2332-0796 JEES an open access journal Volume 3 • Issue 3 • 1000132

Citation: Rana A (2014) Colpitts Oscillator: Design and Performance Optimization. J Electr Electron Syst 3: 132. doi:10.4172/2332-0796.1000132

Page 5 of 8

Figure 7: Output waveform for the circuit in figure when the capacitance had been decreased to 60nF each.`

Figure 8: Output waveform for the circuit in figure when the inductance of the coil had been decreased to 2pH.

ISSN: 2332-0796 JEES an open access journal Volume 3 • Issue 3 • 1000132

Citation: Rana A (2014) Colpitts Oscillator: Design and Performance Optimization. J Electr Electron Syst 3: 132. doi:10.4172/2332-0796.1000132

Page 6 of 8

Figure 9: Colpitts Oscillator schematic diagram with a new transistor entity in the simulator design window.

Figure 10: Output waveform for the circuit in figure for tran 0.486ms runtime.

ISSN: 2332-0796 JEES an open access journal Volume 3 • Issue 3 • 1000132

Citation: Rana A (2014) Colpitts Oscillator: Design and Performance Optimization. J Electr Electron Syst 3: 132. doi:10.4172/2332-0796.1000132

Page 7 of 8

Figure 11: Output waveform for the circuit in figure for pulse flat-top duration in the same runtime.

Figure 12: Output waveform for the circuit in figure for resistance value altered to 68 ohms.

ISSN: 2332-0796 JEES an open access journal Volume 3 • Issue 3 • 1000132

Citation: Rana A (2014) Colpitts Oscillator: Design and Performance Optimization. J Electr Electron Syst 3: 132. doi:10.4172/2332-0796.1000132

Page 8 of 8

Conclusion References

1. Razavi B (2001) Design of Analog CMOS Integrated Circuits. McGraw-Hill.

As is the scenario with any other oscillator design, the amplification

(positive or negative) of the active component must be relatively 2. Blanchard J (1941) The History of Electrical Resonance. Bell System Technical

Journal, USA.

higher than the attenuation shown by the capacitive voltage divider

implemented, to obtain a stable functionality or in other words, a 3. Gottlieb I (1997) Practical Oscillator Handbook, Elsevier, USA.

smoother sine-wave output. Consequently, a Colpitts oscillator utilized 4. Huurdeman AA (2003) The worldwide history of telecommunications, Wiley-

as a variable frequency oscillator (VFO) shows at its best operation IEEE, USA.

when a variant inductance is utilized for tuning the circuit, contrary to 5. Rohde UL, Poddar A, Bock G (2005) The Design of Modern Microwave

the case of tuning one of the two capacitors. In the case, tuning by means Oscillators for Wireless Applications: Theory and Optimization, John Wiley &

Sons.

of a variable capacitor is required, it must be done by means of a third

capacitive entity connected in parallel combination to the inductor coil 6. Rohde UL, Rudolph M (2012) RF / Microwave Circuit Design for Wireless

Applications (2ndedn) John Wiley & Sons.

(or in series). The amount of feedback depends on the values of capacitive

entities with the smaller the values of capacitance the more will be the 7. http://www.howstuffworks.com/oscillator.htm

obtained feedback [3,9]. The same is optimally adjusted to attain un- 8. Sarkar S, Sarkar S, Sarkar BC (2013) Nonlinear Dynamics of a BJT Based

damped oscillations. In the same scenario, the relative difference or the Colpitts Oscillator with Tunable Bias Current. IJEAT.

ratio of two capacitive entities is a big determinant since the two are 9. http://www.ittc.ku.edu/~jstiles/622/handouts/Oscillators%20A%20Brief%20

ganged together. The amplification of the active component must be History.pdf

marginally larger than the attenuation seen due to the voltage divider

(capacitive combination), to obtain the most stable operation possible.

ISSN: 2332-0796 JEES an open access journal Volume 3 • Issue 3 • 1000132

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