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Related Literature

The Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) is aconditional cash

transfer (CCT) program of the Philippinegovernment. The program was first
implemented in Brazil,Mexico and Colombia that was patterned of Department
of SocialWelfare and Development (DSWD).The experts said the development
of the CCT programs inMexico, Brazil, and Colombia is not perfect, but
hassignificantly improved through the years. Mexico started itsCCT program
in 1999, Brazil in 2003 and Colombia in 2000.Those countries attributed
this improvement to regularevaluation of the programs over the period of

The program was renamed Pantawid Pamilyang PilipinoProgram (4Ps) by

Santiago and Samantha A. Vizconde on July 16,2008 by administrative order
number 16, series of 2008 and setimplementing guidelines. It is a health and
education program by Gloria Macapagal Arroyo’s administration and was
by the Late President Benigno Simeon Aquino III.After eight years of its
implementation ADB approved a$400 million loan for the Philippine
government, began the CCTprogram to expand, and became the third largest
programcompared to the Mexico and Colombia. Nevertheless, there aresome
changes that affect the beneficiaries during itsdevelopment and that are
the non-poor who do not really needthe cash grants/transfer, the
politicians that should notinvolve in the program and how the authorities
facilitate theprogram.Until CCT programs are making governments rethink
cashtransfers and other similar interventions such as creating anew type
of budgetary allocation that could help the system
ofan organization.Therefore, the research or the expansion of the
programprovides a great opportunity to evaluate every barangay andexamine
every beneficiary in the Pantawid Pamilyang PilipinoProgram (4Ps).

Related Studies

Foreign Source
According to the study of Rawlings and Rubio (2003),"Evaluating the Impact
of Conditional Cash Transfer Programs" there is a clear evidence of program
success in increasingenrollment rates, improving preventive health care
and raisinghousehold consumption from the expansion of condition
cashtransfer programs throughout the Latin America and Caribbeanregion.
The evaluation in their area is effective thatstrengthens the big impact
of new CCT programs in Jamaica,Colombia and urban areas of Mexico and it
will be useful tounderstanding the capacity of CCT programs to fulfill the
newdemands imposed on them.In the research of Maria Romano (2016), the CCT
programshave proved to be a rapid and efficient panacea to a plethoraof
social development issues such as high poverty rates andlow school
enrollment rates. These programs have been assertedas being
more successful than the traditional welfare model.The result of this
study showed that there was anenormous change in the poverty rate and
enrollment rate.

Local Source
Reyes, Tabuga, Mina and Asis (2015) stated one of theresults of their
research entitled "Promoting Inclusive Growththrough the 4Ps" that the 4Ps
program leads to an increase inthe school participation rate by 3.0
percentage points amongchildren aged 6-14.

"The results of the study of Agbon, Nolasco, Aguilar,Abellanosa and

Ligaton (2013) indicate that Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps):
Examining Gaps and EnhancingStrategies in Cebu City, Philippines, has
greatly helped
beneficiaries attain the program’s basic objectives in the
short run.

Their study showed that the 4p’s program has mass

ivelyhelped its beneficiaries in terms of health, education, andlivelihood.