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Post-production Process


 Washing Machine
 Hydro Extractor
 Dryer
 Tumbler

Finishing Set-up :
 Needle Detector
 Steam Pressing Table

 Electric Boiler
 Baby Boiler
 Spotting Machine
 Strapping Machine
 Thread Sucking Machine
 Metal Detector Machine
Dry-Cleaning :
 Perce Machine

Packaging Tape

Carton Sealing Tapes for packing:

Packaging tape will stick to most surfaces merely by applying pressure.

The tape is made of a coated adhesive, which is backed by a non-sticky
materials like paper, foil, fabric, or movie. There are several different
grades & types of packaging tape products to suit varying packing
demands. Polyethylene plastic tapes or poly tapes, most commonly used
for packaging and for sealing light weight carton boxes subject to normal
shipping and transport hazards.
General Packaging or Carton Sealing Tapes
Polyethylene plastic tapes or poly tapes, most commonly used for
packaging and for sealing lightweight carton boxes subject normal
shipping and transport hazards.

A good packaging standard 0.04mm thickness tape must perform well in

a wide temperature range. It must have excellent quick stick ability with
clarity, UV stability to color change (yellowish) with chemical and
moisture resistance.

Adhesive used in packaging tape in generally synthetic rubber. Commonly

used packaging tapes are available in Clear Transparent or Opaque Tan
color. Packaging Tapes are available basically in 2 types.

Types of Carton Sealing Tapes

Polypropylene (PP): packaging tapes are basically 2 grades:

 Hot-Mel Acrylic Adhesive Tape: the aggressive hot-melt adhesive

instantly sticks to corrugated cartons giving a burst-proof seal so
packages stay protected. The hot-melt tape has an easy release
and dispenses quickly so that more cartons can be sealed in less
time. It has synthetic rubber adhesive system.
 Low noise Acrylic Adhesive Tape (quiet release from the roll): A
good substitute for vinyl tape offering quiet release from the roll.
Low noise tape resists UV rays without yellowing and instantly
sticks to corrugated cartons.
Polyvinyl Packaging Tapes (PVC)
Carton closure tape with storing PVC film backing gives less stretch,
resists splitting with maximum tear and puncture resistance has long-
term durability and sealed tight security. Ideal for sealing heavier cartons.
Unwinds quietly from the roll.

Natural rubber-based adhesive grips instantly even in cold or humid

conditions (0-150 degrees). Thickness is generally 40 microns.

Masking Packaging Tape

This all-purpose tape is made from tear resistant Kraft paper backing and
is used in various applications like Packaging, Splicing, Sealing, Tabbing,
Writing, and labeling applications. This tape has good adhesion for a
secure hold and performs incredibly in temperatures up to 200oF. Easy to
apply and can be removed without leaving a residue.

A good quality Masking Tape must resist curling and should not leave
residue when removed from the surface of packages etc. Generally
available widths are between ¾” to 3″.

Adhesive Tape for Polybag Closing

Most of garment poly bags are closed using transparent adhesive tapes
½” wide. Sometimes usage of cheap and poor quality adhesive tapes for
sealing poly bags can risk white or light colored garment to become
yellowish due to staining.

This staining is caused due to the presence of Butyl Hydroxyl Toluene

(BHT). This phenolic yellowing of garment is a permanent change and
cannot be removed on white or light colored garments. The factory
should always select good quality adhesive tapes which use synthetic
adhesive rather than cheap rubber based adhesives.

Security Seal Packaging Tape

Some buyers specify to use security seal tapes for additional security for
any pilferage of goods or contents of cartons. These are generally used
for sealing cartons of merchandise containing designer, high-end
boutiques or high priced studio garments.
These tapes are generally water activated tape and are made from heavy-
duty Kraft paper tape reinforced with glass fibers lends additional
structural strength and stability. Available 1-3″ wide rolls or as ordered.
But nowadays with advanced technology now polypropylene or polyvinyl
tapes are also being made into security seal tapes.



The basic process includes the following stages:

1. Receive the order.
2. Plan to check if there is available capacity in sewing to achieve
the delivery date required.
3. Plan to check the available capacity in non-sewing areas (cut,
embroidery; print, wash and pack).
4. Plan to check sufficient lead time to order and receive fabric, trims,
approve sample, carry out lab tests.
5. Confirm delivery date to customer and reserve capacity6.
Communicate plan to all departments.
7. Monitor progress against plan8. Re-plan as required and return to
Point 5.
1. Calculation of factory capacity (in hours):
The factory has 150 machines and it runs for 8 hours a day. Total number
of machines = 150Shift hours per day = 8 hours So total factory capacity
(in hours) = 150*8 hours = 1200 hours
2. Calculation of Product SAM (SAM):
Supposing our product to be a shirt whose SAM is33.53. The SAM value
has been taken from the IE department of Orient Craft3. Factory Average
Efficiency: This data is collected from industrial engineer. Or calculate it
with historical data. Suppose average line efficiency is 50%.
3. Calculation of production capacity (in pieces):
Once we have above the above information, we can use the following
formula to calculate production capacity.
Production capacity (in pieces) = (Capacity in hours*60/product SAM)*line
Suppose the factory has 5 sewing lines and each line has 30 machines.
Total 150 machines and working shift is 8 hours per day. Total factory
capacity per day is 1200 hours(150machines * 8 hours). If factory is
producing only one style (Shirt) of SAM 33.53minutes and used all 150
machines daily production capacity at 80%= (1200*60/33.53)*80%
Pieces= (1200*60*80) / (33.53*100) Pieces= 1717.86 Pieces= 1718
The term Capacity refers to the production capacity available or the
potential daily output of the company. Production capacity can be
expressed in number of units per day.
So time taken to complete 80,000 pieces assuming 6 days working in a
week, No. of days taken to stitch 80,000 pieces = 80,000/1718 = 46.56
days If there are 6 days working in a week, the no. of weeks required =
46.56*7/6= 54.32 days= 7.76 weeks= 8 weeks
[Note: Production will vary according to the line efficiency and during
learning curve or in the initial days when style is loaded to the line]
Production (capacity) planning is normally done based on sewing
capacity. Having knowledge of the capacity in other processes (internal
or external) is also very important. Otherwise planner may fail and will
not be able to meet the dead line. Other departments such as Cutting
room capacity, Finishing room capacity, Washing Capacity and capacity
of the value added jobs. The production planning department (PPC)
computes the available capacity annually and advises the marketing and
merchandising department to fill the same. Apart from efficiency of the
work force, planning also takes into consideration, the changes in
products. For example a shirt may be of different styles such as long
sleeved, short sleeved, two pockets, single pockets, without pockets,
formal collar, casual collar, collar with or without fusing, with or without
front placket, with or without back yoke or with saddle stitch or
decorative stitch on the shoulder. There may be many more variations.
other garments such as women’s shirts, skirts,
pants, jeans, dresses also have tremendous variation. Based on the
design, its construction and complexity and finally the fabric, the daily
productivity and thereby the capacity is estimated for a month but
changes are incorporated the very next day! Such are the exigencies of
the industry

Resource Planning
A planner has to consider the resources available to accomplish the
planned production. These may be in the form of raw materials,
manpower and finances. Based on the available capacity and orders
booked by the marketing and merchandising department, the raw
material schedule is prepared by the planner. Each confirmed order
received has to be planned and produced for it to be delivered on time.
Based on the capacity allocated to a product, resources required are
communicated to the product management team, which works closely
with different agencies such as raw material suppliers, finance and
commercial department to make these available to the production
department. The production plan is based on customer demand and
market conditions. While the capacity may be insufficient sometimes, it
is also possible that capacity will be underutilized on some occasions.
Gaps in the plan due to underutilization increase production costs.
Hence, it is the responsibility of a planner to alert whenever such breaks
or gaps occur in the plan. He or she can only plan the extent of the
visible horizon, which, is a season in the garment industry and starts to
implement the initial decisions. Often due to uncertainties in either
demand or raw materials, revision in the plan becomes necessary.


Time and Action Calendar or TNA, a popular tool used in apparel
manufacturing industry is a technique for tracking and following up of
important milestones in preproduction processes to ensure timely
delivery within stipulated delivery date. Garment pre-production and
merchandising functions are characterized by people in an organization
doing multiple activities. While some of the activities are dependent and
follow each other, a few others are independent. Every garment
company takes enormous care during the planning of an order. Every
little detail is interwoven into the planning system. Making a TNA
Calendar is not just entering activity names and duration in tabular
forms; it is also about scientifically working-out the activity duration,
logically determining the preceding and succeeding activities. Time and
action calendar consist of the short term and long term plans so carefully
laid out.
A time and action calendar is a most effective communication tool that
proves it to be useful to this task. The chart consists of time frames listed
for every action planned (major ones) and these actions need to be
earned out on time. The purpose of TNA is to cross check at frequent
intervals, say, once a week, whether the planning is being executed
satisfactorily. The more frequent the checks, the easier it is to correct
deviations. TNA is especially useful when a buyer wants to know the
status of execution of an order.


The importance of TNA can be summarized.

1. It helps to streamline the pre-production activities.

2. Easy understanding of order processing.
3. Clear understanding of timelines given by buyer.
4. It gives the clear idea about the minor or sub activities that need to
perform during order processing at different level.
5. TNA gives the idea about the status of running order and talks
about delay or deviation, if any.
6. TNA gives the dates at which raw material need to be sourced, in a
way it helps to optimise the inventory.
7. TNA also reduces the risk of delivery delay.

TNA flow chart

Garments Manufacturing Sequence

Garments manufacturing follows a flowchart where in each steps

definite works are completed to carried out a complete garments. Here I
will show you all of the garments manufacturing steps that you must
follow to make a garment.
1. Design/ Sketch:
For the production of knit garments, or woven garments a sketch of a
particular garment including its design features is essential to produce
on paper so that after manufacturing of that garment could be verified
or checked whether could be done manually or with the help of

2. Hard paper copy of each component of the garment of exact

dimension of each component is called pattern. The patterns also
include seam allowance, trimming allowance, dirts, and pleats, ease
allowance, any special design etc affairs. Pattern design could also be
done manually or with the help of computer.
3. Sample Making:
The patterns are used to cut the fabric. Then the garment components
in fabric form are used to sew/assemble the garment. Sample garment
manufacturing is to be done by a very efficient and technically sound

4. Production Pattern:
The patterns of the approved sample garment are used for making
production pattern. During production pattern making, sometimes it
may be necessary to modify patterns design if buyer or appropriate
authority suggests any minor modification.

5. Grading:
Normally for large scale garments production of any style needs
different sizes to produce from a set of particular size of patterns, the
patterns of different sizes are produced by using grade rule which is
called grading.

6. Marker Making:
All the pattern pieces for all the required sizes are arranged n the paper
in such a way so that maximum number of garments could be produced
with minimum fabric wastag4e. Markers are made for 6, 12, 18, 24 etc.
pieces. Marker is also useful to estimate fabric consumption

7. Spreading:
It is the process of arranging fabrics on the spreading table as per length
and width of the marker in stack form. Normally height of the lay/fabric
is limited upto maximum six inches high. But 4 inch to 5 inch height of
the lay is safe.

8. Fabric Cutting:
On the fabric lay/spread the marker paper is placed carefully and
accurately, and pinned with the fabric to avoid unwanted movement or
displacement of the marker paper. Normally straight knife cutting
machine is used to cut out the garment component as per exact
dimension of each patterns in stack form, care must be taken to avoid
cutting defects.

9. Sorting/ Bundling:
After cutting the entire fabric lay, all the garments components in stack
form is shorted out as per size and color. To avoid mistake in sorting, it is
better to use code number on each pattern.

10. Sewing or Assembling:

It is the most important department/ section of a garment
manufacturing industry. Sewing machines of different types are
arranged as a vertical line to assemble the garments. Sequence of types
of sewing machine arrangement depends on sequence of assembling
operations. Number of sewing machine per line varies from 20 nos to 60
nos depending on the style of the ga4rmnet to be produce. Production
pr line pr hour also varies from 100 to 150 pieces depending on specific
circumstances. Number of sewing machine arrangement per line may be
upto 60 depending on design and out put quantity of garment.

11. Inspection:
Each and every garment after sewing passes through the inspection
table/ point, where the garments are thoroughly and carefully checked
to detect/find any defect if present in the garment. The defects may be
for example variation of measurement, sewing defect, fabric defects,
spots etc. if the defect is possible to overcome, then the garment is sent
to the respective person for correction. If the defect is not
correctionable, then the garment is separated as wastage.

12. Pressing/ Finishing:

After passing through the inspection table, each garment is normally
ironed/ pressed to remove unwanted crease and to improve the
smoothness, so that the garments looks nice to the customer. Folding of
the garment is also done here for poly packing of the garments as per
required dimension.

13. Final Inspection:

It is the last stage of inspection f the manufactured garments on behalf
of the garment manufacturing organization, to detect any defective
garments before packing.

14. Packing:
After final inspection, the garments are poly-packed, dozen-wise, color
wise, size ratio wise, bundled and packed in the cartoon. The cartoon is
marked with important information in printed form which is seen from
outside the cartoon easily. 15. Despatch: The cartoons of the
manufactured garments are delivered or placed in the despatch
department or finished product godown, from where the garments lot is
delivered for shipment.

Company name - MLK EXPORTS

Buyer Name – Bioworld Company
Quantity – 24,960

 For 26,480 KURTI = USD $78,748.872

1 .Material
Fabric …………..Rs 6,00,000
Trims ……………..Rs 1,00,000
2. Labour (wages)
Skilled man ……………Rs.1,00,000
Unskilled man…………Rs.50,000
Total prime cost ………Rs8,50,000
3. Equipment………Rs 1,00,000
Total work cost ……….Rs15,00,000

4.Work overhead
Variable ………40% on total cost ……Rs.
Fixed ……….(10% on total
cost …………Rs.1,50,000
5.Rent ……………….Rs 1,50,000
6.Packaging ……………..Rs2,00,000
7. FOB……………………….. Rs15,00,000
8.Insurance---5% on FOB………RS 75,000
9. Loading and shipping ……………Rs 4,00,000
10. Custom and duty ……………… (10% on FOB)-
-- Rs.1,50,000
11. (Foreign warehouse )

Total 47,25,000
12. Mark up …………….( 5% on
13. Margin..............10% on total---Rs.4,72,500
14. Total cost price ……………54,33,750

For 26,480 Kurti = Rs. 54,33,750 / 26,480

= Rs. 205.2020
Rupees 205.20= 2.9739 US dollar
So , one Kurti = USD $2.9739

Pricing Strategies
 Pricing Strategy Followed By The MLK Exports Is
Competitor Based Pricing .
 They Follow Competitor Based Pricing Because In
Apparel Industry , There Is Tough Cut Throat
Competition To Supply The Product To Buyers, If
They Not Follow ThiS buyer ,It Can Be Possible
They Loss Its Buyer .

Documents Required for International Shipping

 Proforma Invoice
 Commercial Invoice
 Packing List
 Certificates of Origin
 Shipper’s Letter of Instruction
 Bills of Lading
 Bank Draft
 Commercial Documents
 Bills of exchange
 Letter of credit
 Marine insurance policy
 Inspection documents
 Certificate of origin of goods
 Regulatory Documents

1. Proforma Invoice
In a typical export exchange, everything starts when you receive an
inquiry about one or more of your products. That inquiry may include a
request for a quotation.

If the inquiry came from a domestic prospect, you probably have a

standard quotation form to use. However, in an international transaction,
your quote would be provided as a proforma invoice. That’s because your
international prospect may need a proforma invoice to arrange for
financing, to open a letter of credit, to apply for the proper import
licenses, and more.

A proforma invoice looks a lot like a commercial invoice, and if you

complete it correctly, they will be very similar indeed. A proforma invoice
specifies the following:

 The buyer and seller in this transaction.

 A detailed description of the goods.
 The Harmonized System classification of those goods.
 The price.
 The payment term of the sale, which would typically be
expressed as one of the 11 current Incoterms.
 The delivery details including how and where the goods will be
delivered and how much that will cost.

 The currency used in the quote, whether it’s U.S. dollars or some
other currency.

Be sure to date your proforma invoice and include an expiration date.

There can be a lot of volatility in the export process, so minimize your risk
by setting a specific time frame for your quote.

2.Commercial Invoice

Once you’ve sent a proforma invoice to your international prospect and

received their order, you need to prepare your goods for shipping,
including the paperwork that must accompany the goods. Of those
documents, the commercial invoice is one of the most important.

The commercial invoice includes most of the details of the entire export
transaction, from start to finish.

I often get questions from people who look at this sample commercial
invoice and wonder why it looks so different from the invoices their
company uses for domestic orders. Keep in mind that the invoices you
create from your company’s accounting or ERP system are accounting
invoices used to get paid, not export invoices.

The commercial invoice may look similar to the proforma invoice you
initially sent your customer to serve as a quote, although it should include
additional details you didn’t know before. For example, once you have
the commercial invoice, you probably have an order number, purchase
order number, or some other customer reference number; you may also
have additional banking and payment information.

Make sure to include any relevant marine insurance information, and any
other details that will ensure prompt delivery of the goods and full
payment from your customer.

3. Packing List

An export packing list may be more detailed than a packing list or packing
slip you provide for your domestic shipments.

 Your freight forwarder may use the information on the packing

list to create the bills of lading for the shipment.
 A bank may require that a detailed packing list be included in the
set of documents you present to get paid under a letter of credit.
 Customs officials in the U.S. and the destination country may use
the packing list to identify the location of certain packed items they
want to examine. It’s much better that they know which box to open
or pallet to unwrap rather than have them search the entire

The packing list identifies items in the shipment and includes the net and
gross weight and dimensions of the packages in both U.S. imperial and
metric measurements. It identifies any markings that appear on the
packages, and any special instructions for ensuring safe delivery of the
goods to their final destination. Watch this four-minute video to learn
how to create a packing list.

4. Certificates of Origin

Some countries require a certificate of origin for your shipments in order

to identify in what country the goods originated. These certificates of
origin usually need to be signed by some semi-official organization, like
a Chamber of Commerce or a country’s consulate office. A certificate of
origin may be required even if you’ve included the country of origin
information on your commercial invoice.

Usually a Chamber of Commerce will charge you a fee to stamp and sign
your certificate or requires you to be a member of the chamber. You’ll
need to deliver a completed form to the chamber office where they will
stamp and sign it for you.

More and more companies are foregoing the time-consuming process of

relying on expensive courier services or taking the time to hand-deliver a
certificate of origin to a chamber of commerce for certification and are
relying on electronic certificate of origin (eCO) for their shipments. An
eCO is often quicker to turn around, allows you the option of delivering
the certificate electronically to the importer, and can be registered with
the International Chamber of Commerce to provide added credibility.

5. Shipper’s Letter of Instruction

One of the most important people you will work with in the export
process is your freight forwarder, who usually arranges the transport of
your goods with a carrier and helps ensure you’ve taken care of all the

Depending on your agreed-upon terms of sale—remember, that’s

typically the Incoterm you choose—either you hire a freight forwarder to
work for you, the exporter, or, in the case of a routed export transaction,
the buyer hires a freight forwarder.

Regardless of who hired the forwarder, it’s important you provide him or
her with a Shipper’s Letter of Instruction (SLI) containing all the
information needed to successfully move your goods. (Here are several
good reasons why a letter of instruction is necessary).
I often describe the SLI as a sort of cover memo for your other export
paperwork. Depending on whether or not the forwarder works for you,
the SLI may include a limited Power of Attorney giving him or her
authority to act on your behalf for this shipment.

6. Bills of Lading

There are three common bill of lading documents: inland, ocean, and air

Inland Bill of Lading

An inland bill of lading is often the first transportation document required

for international shipping created for your export. It can be prepared by
the inland carrier or you can create it yourself. It’s a contract of carriage
between the exporter and the shipper of the goods that states where the
goods are going; it also serves as your receipt that the goods have been
picked up.

In an international shipment, the inland bill of lading is not typically

consigned to the buyer. Instead, it is consigned to the carrier moving the
goods internationally or, if not directly to the carrier, to a forwarder,
warehouse or some other third party who will consign your goods to the
carrier when ready.

8. Bank Draft

A bank draft is an important part of the international sales process for

transferring control of the exported goods from the seller in exchange for
funds from the buyer. It is often called a documentary collection, because
the seller attaches various documents to a bank draft and a cover letter.
Usually the seller’s bank will send the bank draft and related documents
via the freight forwarder to the buyer’s bank or a bank with which it has a
relationship in the buyer’s country. When the buyer authorizes payment
for the goods, the buyer’s bank releases the documents to the buyer and
transfers the funds to the seller’s bank.

The bank draft may or may not include a transmittal letter, which
includes details of the bank draft transaction including the types of
additional documents that are included and payment instructions.

9.Commercial Documents

Refer to those documents that are important for transferring the

ownership from the exporter to the importer. These documents are
necessary to meet the rules of the export trade.

10.Bills of exchange

It is an agreement signed by the buyer of the goods to pay the

seller a certain sum of money on a specified future date. Each
international trade transaction generates its own bill of exchange.
The bill is drawn by the exporter and sent to the importer. Once
the importer accepts the bill and returns it to the exporter, the
importer is legally bound to make payment, and the bill is legal
evidence of a contractual obligation for payment. A bill of
exchange is a negotiable instrument.

11.Letter of credit

An L/C is an undertaking given by the importer’s bank (called

issuing bank) acting upon the request of the importer, that it will
make payment to a beneficiary (the exporter). An L/C involves a
minimum of four parties – the importer, importer’s bank(issuing
bank), exporter and the exporter’s bank (advising bank).

An L/C imposes the superior creditworthiness of the importer’s

bank over that of the importer, and protects the exporter from
credit risk and risk of non-payment.

12.Marine insurance policy

It is the basic instrument in marine insurance. A marine policy is a

contract and a legal document which serves as evidence of the
agreement between the insurer and the assured. The policy must
be produced to press a claim in a court of law. An exporter must
also put up the marine insurance policy as a collateral security
when he gets an advance against his bank Credit.

13.Shipping order

Issued by the Shipping Line which intimates the exporter about the
reservation of space of shipment of cargo through the specific
vessel from a specified port and on a specified date.

14.Inspection documents

It is a type of document describing the condition of goods and

confirming that they have been inspected.

This is issued by an independent third party (such as an

independent inspection agency, or the supplier of the goods)
stating that the goods have been inspected and conform to the
quality/specification/other contractual terms.

15.Certificate of origin of goods

This certificate is issued by the independent bodies like chamber of

commerce or export promotion council in the exporting country. This
is a certification that the goods being exported were actually
produced in that particular country.

16.Regulatory Documents

Refers to the pre-shipment documents prescribed by the exporting

country. The compliance of these documents is mandatory for an
export contract.