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Ocean Engineering 141 (2017) 125–142

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Ocean Engineering
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/oceaneng

Bulk cargo liquefaction incidents during marine transportation and possible MARK
causes
⁎ ⁎
Michael C. Munro , Abbas Mohajerani
School of Engineering, Civil Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia

A R T I C L E I N F O A BS T RAC T

Keywords: During marine transportation, a combination of cyclic loading, fine particles and moisture within a bulk cargo
Marine transportation can result in liquefaction causing the bulk carrier to list or capsize. The objective of this study is to investigate
Bulk carrier incidents incidents where bulk cargoes liquefied during transportation and what resulted from these incidents, including
Iron ore fines the loss of human life and industry assets. In addition, the effectiveness of determining the Transportable
Shear strength failure
Moisture Limit (TML) using the Modified Proctor/Fagerberg Test (MPFT) for Iron Ore Fines (IOF) is
Cyclic loading
Liquefaction
questioned by developing an apparatus used to observe the apparent shear strength of a sample of IOF.
Between 1988 and 2016, 23 incidents were reported where liquefaction of a bulk cargo was suspected. These
incidents resulted in 138 casualties and the loss of 17 vessels. It was found that incidents are continuing to occur
even after the implementation of mandatory testing. Using an apparatus developed for this study, samples of
IOF showed a sudden loss of shear strength at moisture contents lower than the TML with indications
liquefaction had occurred. Although further testing is required to confirm some assumptions made, the study
concluded that the IOF tested was assumed to be liquefiable at the TML determined using the MPFT.

1. Introduction list and may possibly capsize if measures are not taken to right the
vessel, which is commonly achieved using water as ballast.
Liquefaction of solid bulk cargoes on board bulk carriers is a There are two occurrences resulting from the liquefaction of cargo
frequent problem whereby a combination of fine particles, moisture that can cause a bulk carrier to list. As being examined herein, if the
and changing pore pressures within a cargo result in the mass acting cargo mass as whole begins to behave as a liquid the resulting free
like a liquid. Liquefaction of a solid bulk cargo on board a bulk carrier surface effect will reduce the metacentric height, distance from G to M.
can cause the vessel to list and possibly capsize resulting in the loss of The other occurrence is if partial liquefaction takes place at a point
human life and industry assets. Sladen et al., and the National Research within the cargo mass resulting in the cargo shifting to one side. In that
Council Committee (1985) provide a more definite description of case the centre of gravity will move and the vessel will have a
liquefaction: “Liquefaction is a phenomenon wherein a mass of soil permanent heel angle.
loses a large percentage of its shear resistance, when subjected to To minimise the risk of liquefaction, the International Maritime
transient or periodic loading, and flows in a manner resembling a Organization (IMO) outlines test methods that are used to determine
liquid” (National Research Council Committee (NCR), 1985; Sladen the Transportable Moisture Limit (TML) of liquefiable cargoes. The
et al. (1985)). TML is the maximum Gross Water Content (GWC) that a liquefiable
For a bulk carrier to list, the vessels overturning moment, MO, must cargo may contain without being at risk of liquefying (International
exceed the vessels restoring moment, MR. This unstable condition is Maritime Organization, 2016). Currently, four methods are used to
depicted in Fig. 1 (right) where it is shown that the centre of buoyancy determine the TML of ‘Group A’ or liquefiable solid bulk cargoes: i.
of the hull, B, stays inwards of the centre of gravity of the vessel, G. The Flow Table Test, ii. Penetration Test, iii. Proctor/Fagerberg Test, and
resulting metacentre, M, under these conditions is below the centre of iv. Modified Proctor/Fagerberg Test for Iron Ore Fines.
gravity, and causes the overturning moment, MO, which exceeds the The International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes Code (IMSBC
restoring moment, MR. This causes the vessel to develop a permanent Code), which came into force on a mandatory basis on 1 January

Abbreviations: CFC, Critical Failure Curve; DWT, Dead Weight Tonnage; FT, Failure Threshold; GWC, Gross Water Content; IMO, International Maritime Organization; IMSBC
Code, International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes Code; IOF, Iron Ore Fines; IOFP, Iron Ore Fines Plunger; MDD, Maximum Dry Density; MPFT, Modified Proctor/Fagerberg Test for
IOF; NWC, Net Water Content; OMC, Optimum Moisture Content; TML, Transportable Moisture Limit

Corresponding authors.
E-mail addresses: s3165374@student.rmit.edu.au (M.C. Munro), dr.abbas@rmit.edu.au (A. Mohajerani).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2017.06.010
Received 5 October 2016; Received in revised form 30 May 2017; Accepted 5 June 2017
0029-8018/ © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
M.C. Munro, A. Mohajerani Ocean Engineering 141 (2017) 125–142

Fig. 1. Illustrations depicting stable vessels (left and middle) and an unstable vessel (right). Where: B = Centre of buoyancy of hull; Fb = Buoyancy force; G = Centre of gravity of vessel;
M = Metacentre; MO = Overturning moment; MR = Restoring moment; W = Vessel weight; α = Angle of heel.

Fig. 2. Three strainer plates blocked by the crew of the Canadian Leader ex Feux Follets
using cardboard, plastic sheeting, and duct tape to prevent entry of the cargo of iron ore
pellets into the bilge pipes and pumps (Transportation Safety Board of Canada, 2005).

Fig. 3. Bulk Carrier ‘Chang Le Men’ after suspected liquefaction incident off Mangalore
India (2007) (Mangalorean, 2007) – see Appendix A.

2011 (International Maritime Organization, 2008) and is published by


the IMO, is an internationally recognized code of safe practice to be
followed when transporting hazardous solid bulk cargoes. Appendix 2 IOF (MPFT) was first introduced in November 2013 in the circular
of the 2013 IMSBC Code outlines three of the four test methods: Flow DSC.1-Circ.71 for implementation on a voluntary basis (International
Table, Penetration and Proctor/Fagerberg. These three test methods Maritime Organization, 2013a). The use of this test became mandatory
are currently used to determine the TML of solid bulk cargoes listed as on 1 January 2017 (International Maritime Organization, 2013a,
‘Group A’ or liquefiable in Appendix 4 of the IMSBC Code 2015a) and is now included in Appendix 2 of the 2016 IMSBC Code
(International Maritime Organization, 2013b). These tests are de- (International Maritime Organization, 2016).
scribed in detail in a related publication (Munro and Mohajerani, The MPFT procedure involves compaction of the material into a
2015). standard litre compaction mould at varying moisture contents, to
Industry and research associations have recently introduced the produce a compaction curve with a minimum of five data points. The
fourth test method specifically designed for determining the TML of compaction is executed in five layers by dropping a 150 g hammer 25
Iron Ore Fines (IOF) (Iron Ore Technical Working Group, 2013a, times through a guided pipe from a height of 150 mm. For each point
2013b, 2013c, 2013d, 2013e). The Modified Proctor/Fagerberg Test for the GWC and void ratio is calculated and plotted on a graph along with

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M.C. Munro, A. Mohajerani Ocean Engineering 141 (2017) 125–142

the corresponding degree of saturation (S). The resulting GWC is then


interpreted from the graph where the degree of saturation equals 80%,
which is considered to produce the TML (International Maritime
Organization, 2016). A typical compaction curve for the IOF produced
during this study can be seen in Section 3.1.1 (Fig. 10).
There are questions regarding the validity of using the MPFT to
determine the TML of IOF. A similar method, the Proctor compaction
method, is used extensively in soil mechanics to determine the
compaction characteristics of soils at varying moisture contents
(American Society for Testing and Materials, 2012; Standards
Australia, 2003a, 2003b). However, in soil mechanics, the Proctor
compaction method is not used to determine the liquefaction potential
of soils, which is what is inferred in the IMSBC Code as the TML. It is
therefore to be noted that this study questions the MPFT method
described in the 2016 IMSBC Code (International Maritime
Organization, 2016). Further information about the MPFT can be seen
in two related publications (Munro and Mohajerani, 2014, 2016b).
The objective of this study is to investigate recent incidents during
the transportation on bulk carriers where liquefaction of the solid bulk
Fig. 4. Bulk Carrier ‘Anna Bo’ after suspected liquefaction incident off Ningde China cargo was suspected, and the impact these incidents had on the loss of
(2013) (Asian Marine, 2009) – see Appendix A. human life and industry assets. In addition, the effectiveness of
determining the TML using the MPFT for IOF is questioned and tested
Table 1 by developing an apparatus that will be used to determine the shear
Incidents and resulting casualties for individual solid bulk cargo, 1988–2016, including strength boundaries of a sample of IOF. The apparatus developed
group classification as of 2016 (see Appendix A). during this study is to be developed further in the future to include
additional sensors to further confirm the liquefaction potential of IOF.
Solid Bulk Cargo Classification as of Incidents Casualties
2016a
# % # % 1.1. Theory

Bauxite Group C 1 4 18 13
Fluorspar Group A and B 1 4 0 0
In order to understand the observations made using the new
Iron Ore (Fines) Group C & Group A 7 30 7 5 apparatus developed during this study, the basic theory relating to
(Fines) the shear strength of unsaturated soils and the relationship this theory
Nickel Ore Group A 13 57 113 82 has to solid bulk cargoes being transported on bulk carriers needs to be
Undetermined Ore N/A 1 4 0 0
reviewed. Eq. (1) shows the widely accepted equation used to deter-
mine the shear strength of a soil. This equation was derived by Karl
Terzaghi, and is commonly referred to as the Mohr-Coulomb failure
Table 2 criterion (Terzaghi, 1942). It expresses that the shear strength, τ , of a
Incidents and resulting casualties for bulk carrier subclasses, 1988–2016 (see Appendix A). granular material is a function of its friction angle, φ′, and cohesion, c′,
along with the applied effective stress, σ′:
Bulk Carrier Subclass DWTa,b (tonnes) Incidents Casualties
τ = c′+σ ′tanφ′ (1)
# % # %
Eq. (2) shows Bishop's equation for effective stress of an unsatu-
General Bulker < 9999 2 9 0 0 rated soil, which is used as a variable in Eq. (1) (Bishop, 1959). Eq. (2)
Handysize 10,000–39,999 11 48 37 27
introduces the variables pore air pressure, ua , pore water pressure, uw ,
Handymax 40,000–59,999 10 43 101 73
Panamax 60,000–99,999 0 0 0 0
and the normal stress, σ, along with parameter, χ , which is a value
Capesize > 100,000 0 0 0 0 between 0 and 1 relating to the degree of saturation, where 1 is fully-
saturated:
a
DWT, Dead Weight Tonnage is a measure of how much mass a vessel can safely
carry. It does not include the weight of the vessel and includes things such as the cargo, σ ′ = (σ −ua )+χ (ua −u w ) (2)
crew, passengers, ballast and fuel.
b
The DWT for each subclass is based on UNCTAD's Review of Maritime Transport
According to Eq. (2), in fully saturated soils (when χ = 1), the
(2014) (UNCTAD Secretariat, 2014) reduction in effective stress is directly related to the pore water
pressure (i.e. σ′ = σ − uw ). In unsaturated soils, when the degree of
saturation is low, soil suction or negative pore water pressure occurs
within the pores. As the saturation is increased, suction is reduced and
Table 3 allows moisture migration to occur. Significant moisture migration may
Incidents and resulting casualties for export countries, 1988–2016 (see Appendix A).
result in densification and a reduction in the void ratio of the soil. By
Export Country Incidents Casualties considering the theory of effective stress it can be shown that the shear
strength of a soil is directly related to the ability the material has to
# % # % dissipate changes in the pore air and water pressure. If the effective
Brazil 1 4 26 16
stress is reduced to near zero by changing pore pressures, the shear
Hong Kong 1 4 0 0 strength will also reduce and the soil may liquefy. Pore pressures
India 5 21 1 1 within a cargo being transported in a bulk carrier can be increased or
Indonesia 10 42 92 56 decreased based on the applied dynamic loading, which can be
Malaysia 2 8 24 15
influenced by the surrounding sea state or harmonic vibrations caused
New Caledonia 2 8 0 0
Philippines 3 13 21 13 by the vessel's engines (Iron Ore Technical Working Group, 2013b).
The cargo holds of bulk carriers have the facility to allow drainage

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M.C. Munro, A. Mohajerani Ocean Engineering 141 (2017) 125–142

Fig. 5. Incidents (left) and resulting casualties (right) for individual solid bulk cargoes, 1988–2016 (see Appendix A).

Fig. 6. Incidents (left) and resulting casualties (right) for bulk carrier subclasses, 1988–2016 (see Appendix A).

Fig. 7. Incidents (left) and resulting casualties (right) for export countries, 1988–2016 (see Appendix A).

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M.C. Munro, A. Mohajerani Ocean Engineering 141 (2017) 125–142

Fig. 8. Percentage of tonnage transported and voyages for specific subclasses of bulk carrier, 2012 (Iron Ore Technical Working Group, 2013b).

is assumed to have two-way drainage – from the base and to the


Table 4 surface. These conditions allow for pore pressures within the material
Percentage of iron ore fines (IOF) tonnage transported and voyages for specific to dissipate.
subclasses of bulk carrier, 2012 (Iron Ore Technical Working Group, 2013b). Cargoes that contain significant amounts of fine-particles com-
Bulk Carrier DWTa,b
monly block the strainer plates, pipes and pumps on bulk carriers that
Subclass (tonnes) % Tonnage in % Voyages in are not correctly fitted to facilitate drainage, and to prevent entry of the
2012 2012 cargo into the bilge system. To prevent these blockages from occurring
there have been recorded instances of crew members using cardboard,
Handysize 10,000–39,999 0.3 3.1
Handymax 40,000–59,999 1.1 3.1
plastic sheeting, and duct tape to seal the strainer plates, as seen in
Panamax 60,000–99,999 5.7 11.9 Fig. 2 (Transportation Safety Board of Canada, 2005). Whether it is the
Capesize > 100,000 93.0 81.9 crew members or the cargo blocking the strainer plates, the occurrence
would prevent drainage from the base and reduce the ability for the
a
DWT, Dead Weight Tonnage is a measure of how much mass a vessel can safely dissipation of pore pressures within these areas.
carry. It does not include the weight of the vessel and includes things such as the cargo,
crew, passengers, ballast and fuel
Additionally, to further prevent the dissipation of pore pressures,
b
The DWT for each subclass is based on UNCTAD's Review of Maritime Transport densification may occur during loading or transportation, thereby
(2014) (UNCTAD Secretariat, 2014) reducing the hydraulic conductivity (permeability) of the cargo
(Munro and Mohajerani, 2017a). As shown in Eq. (2), if this occurs,
to occur through strainer plates at the base of each hold. The strainers the pore pressure changes within the cargo along with the increased
are used to stop the cargo entering the bilge pipes and pumps degree of saturation due to the densification, which can lead to a
(Transportation Safety Board of Canada, 2005). With the strainer decrease in the effective stress resulting in a reduction in the shear
plates and bilge systems working correctly, a cargo in these conditions strength, and, possibly, liquefaction of the cargo.

Fig. 9. Cumulative liquefaction incidents from 1988 to 2016 and the date, 2011, when the IMSBC Code was adopted on a mandatory basis.

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M.C. Munro, A. Mohajerani Ocean Engineering 141 (2017) 125–142

Table 5
Physical properties of the sample of IOF used during this study.

Property Standard / Apparatus Results

Sample Identification N/A MA003


IMSBC Code Schedule Applied MSC 95/22/Add.2 (International Maritime Iron ore (as cargo contains more than 35% goethited)
Organization, 2015b)

Atterberg Limits
Liquid Limit AS1289.3.1.2 (Standards Australia, 2009a) 18% NWC or 15.3% GWCa
Plastic Limit AS1289.3.2.1 (Standards Australia, 2009b) 17% NWC or 14.5% GWCa
Plasticity Index AS1289.3.3.1 (Standards Australia, 2009c) 1% NWC/GWCa (Non-Plastic)

Particle Size Distributionc


Gravel ( > 2.36 mm) AS1289.3.6.1 (Standards Australia, 2009d) 27%
Sand (75 µm – 2.36 mm) AS1289.3.6.1 (Standards Australia, 2009d) 50%
Silt (2–75 µm) Mastersizer Aero 3000 (International Standards 19%
Organization, 2009)
Clay ( < 2 µm) Mastersizer Aero 3000 (International Standards 3%
Organization, 2009)
Classification AS1726 (Standards Australia, 1993) Silty sand (SM)
Particle Density AS1289.3.5.1 (Standards Australia, 2006) 4.36 t/m3
Standard Proctor Compaction MDD and AS1289.5.1.1 (Standards Australia, 2003a) 2.76 t/m3 at 12.5% NWC or 11.1% GWCa
OMC
Modified Proctor/Fagerberg for IOF (D MSC 95/3/Add.1 (International Maritime 12.8% GWC or 14.7% NWC at 80% Saturation with the maximum
Hammer) TML Organization, 2015a) density occurring at 92% Saturationa,b

Quantitative X-Ray Diffraction


Hematite (Fe2O3) X’Pert Pro PW3040 54% Total Weight
Goethite (FeOOH) X’Pert Pro PW3040 41% Total Weightd

a
Reported moisture content unit, according to the relevant standard, is presented first (i.e. GWC or NWC).
b
The compaction curve produced during the MPFT and resulting TML can be seen in Fig. 10.
c
The particle size distribution curve produced can be seen in Fig. 11.
d
According to MSC 95/22/Add.2, if a cargo of iron ore fines has more than 35% goethite total weight then the schedule for iron ore (not iron ore fines) should be followed and the
cargo does not need to undergo testing using the Modified Proctor/Fagerberg method (MPFT) as it is not considered liquefiable (International Maritime Organization, 2015b). Research
regarding the implementation of this classification of iron ore is shown in reports released relating to the development of the MPFT (Iron Ore Technical Working Group, 2013a, 2013b,
2013c, 2013d, 2013e).

Fig. 11. Particle size distribution of the sample of IOF that was used during this study
determined using AS 1289.3.6.1-2009 and a Mastersizer Aero 3000.

Fig. 10. MPFT compaction curve and resulting TML produced on the sample of IOF
tested during this study. summarized herein were only suspected of being caused by liquefaction
of the solid bulk cargo due to the cargoes being fine-grained and
possibly containing significant amounts of moisture. Some incidents
2. Analysis of recent suspected liquefaction incidents are entirely speculative in regards to liquefaction being the cause, but,
rightly so, due to the similarities between them and certain liquefaction
A summarized list of recent suspected liquefaction incidents was incidents that have been extensively documented (Munro and
established to understand the impact they have on the loss of human Mohajerani, 2016a). The summary provided herein is based upon
life and industry assets. It is noted that some of the incidents reports and articles referenced in Appendix A. The possibility of the

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M.C. Munro, A. Mohajerani Ocean Engineering 141 (2017) 125–142

Fig. 12. Dimensions (left) and image (right) of the IOFP developed and used during this study.

cargo shifting due to slope instability and failure has also been liquefaction incidents on board bulk carriers along with the resulting
analysed, and the results and conclusions are given in a related casualties and the accompanying tabulated data is detailed in Appendix A.
publication (Munro and Mohajerani, 2017b). It can be seen that incidents involving nickel ore and iron ore (including
Appendix A and Appendix B show that 23 incidents were reported iron ore fines) being transported on the Handy subclass of bulk carriers
between 1988 and 2016 where liquefaction was the suspected cause. (Handysize and Handymax) originating from Southeast Asia were
These incidents resulted in the loss of 138 lives and 17 vessels. The list involved in the majority of the recent suspected liquefaction incidents.
and summaries provided do not include incidents where liquefaction of This was assumed to be attributed to the increasing demand for minerals
a cargo might have been caused by the ingress of water due to originating from Southeast Asia from China and South Korea where the
structural failure of a bulk carrier. Two of these incidents are shown smaller Handy subclass bulk carrier are frequently used (Glencore, 2013).
in Fig. 3 and Fig. 4. Additional factors that may contribute to the high number of
Tables 1–3 and Figs. 5–7 show a summary of the suspected incidents include the political status and tropical climate of the regions

Fig. 13. Images of the initial vibration performed for 3600 s (1 h) before the application of the IOFP (Point E).

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M.C. Munro, A. Mohajerani Ocean Engineering 141 (2017) 125–142

Fig. 14. IOFP penetrating sample during vibration after the initial 3600 s (1 h) of vibration (Point E).

where the respective bulk carriers disembarked. An inability to comply procedures are not implemented to protect the cargo.
with the most recent IMSBC Code requirements can result in an For perspective we have included data showing the percentage that
increase in the possibility for liquefaction to occur. The locations of the specific subclasses of bulk carrier were used to transport iron ore fines
ports where cargoes were loaded are often remote and ill-equipped to (IOF) in 2012 (Iron Ore Technical Working Group, 2013b). Fig. 8 and
perform the necessary tests required to prevent cargo liquefaction. Table 4 shows that although the most common subclass of bulk carrier
Additionally, incidents occurred in regions where the weather can is the Capesize bulk carrier, all incidents where IOF was suspected of
introduce additional moisture to the cargo (Munro and Mohajerani, undergoing liquefaction involved a Handy subclass of bulk carrier or
2016a). Moisture in the environment can be absorbed by the stockpiles smaller.
of fine-grained minerals prior to and during loading if the proper Fig. 9 shows the cumulative liquefaction incidents over time and the
date, 2011, when the IMSBC Code was adopted on a mandatory basis
Table 6 (International Maritime Organization, 2008). It can be seen that the
Identification and moisture contents of the samples of IOF tested during this study. suspected liquefaction incidents on board bulk carriers are continuing
to occur at a rate of nearly two per year even after the mandatory
Sample Gross Water Content Net Water Content by
Identification by Weight, GWC (%) Weight, NWC (%) implementation of the IMSBC Code.
Due to the continuing incidents where liquefaction is suspected, the
Point A 10.88 12.20 effectiveness of the test methods used to determine the TML of solid bulk
Point B 11.25 12.68
cargoes have come under question, and, ultimately, led to the development of
Point C (MPFT TML) 12.82 14.71
Point D 13.37 15.44 the Iron Ore Fines Plunger (IOFP) used during this study. The IOFP was
Point E 14.09 16.40 developed in order to observe the apparent shear strength of iron ore fines to
the TML determined using the Modified Proctor/Fagerberg Test (MPFT).

Fig. 15. MPFT compaction curve (including TML) and the sample densities produced by the initial 3600 s (1 h) of vibration prior to the application of the IOFP.

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M.C. Munro, A. Mohajerani Ocean Engineering 141 (2017) 125–142

Fig. 16. The particle size distribution boundaries of most liquefiable soils (Ishihara, 1985) and the particle size distribution of the sample used during this study.

Table 7 Table 9
The variation in penetration by the IOFP for Point A after the initial 3600 s (1 h) of The variation in penetration by the IOFP for Point C (MPFT TML) after the initial 3600 s
vibration. (1 h) of vibration.

Point A (10.88% GWC or 12.20% NWC) Point C (12.82% GWC or 14.71% NWC) MPFT TML

Time IOFP Total IOFP IOFP Penetration Time IOFP Total IOFP IOFP Penetration
Applied Vibration Penetration of Sample Height Applied Vibration Penetration of Sample Height
(Seconds) Time Depth (mm) (172 mm) (%) (Seconds) Time Depth (mm) (138 mm) (%)
(Seconds) (Seconds)

0 (Initial) 3600 (Initial) 0.0 0.0 0 (Initial) 3600 (Initial) 0.0 0.0
1 3601 4.3 2.5 1 3601 2.5 1.8
5 3605 7.5 4.4 5 3605 6.5 4.7
10 3610 9.5 5.5 10 3610 8.0 5.8
20 3620 12.0 7.0 20 3620 10.5 7.6
40 3640 14.5 8.4 40 3640 14.0 10.1
60 3660 16.0 9.3 60 3660 17.0 12.3
120 3720 18.5 10.8 120 3720 24.0 17.4
240 3840 21.0 12.2 240 3840 34.0 24.6
480 4080 25.0 14.5 480 4080 62.0 44.9
900 (Final) 4500 (Final) 29.5 17.2 900 (Final) 4500 (Final) 117.0 84.8

Table 8 Table 10
The variation in penetration by the IOFP for Point B after the initial 3600 s (1 h) of The variation in penetration by the IOFP for Point D after the initial 3600 s (1 h) of
vibration. vibration.

Point B (11.25% GWC or 12.68% NWC) Point D (13.37% GWC or 15.44% NWC)

Time IOFP Total IOFP IOFP Penetration Time IOFP Total IOFP IOFP Penetration
Applied Vibration Penetration of Sample Height Applied Vibration Penetration of Sample Height
(Seconds) Time Depth (mm) (162 mm) (%) (Seconds) Time Depth (mm) (135 mm) (%)
(Seconds) (Seconds)

0 (Initial) 3600 (Initial) 0.0 0.0 0 (Initial) 3600 (Initial) 0.0 0.0
1 3601 3.5 2.2 1 3601 2.5 1.9
5 3605 8.0 4.9 5 3605 7.0 5.2
10 3610 11.5 7.1 10 3610 10.0 7.4
20 3620 13.5 8.3 20 3620 16.0 11.9
40 3640 16.5 10.2 40 3640 25.5 18.9
60 3660 17.5 10.8 60 3660 33.5 24.8
120 3720 20.5 12.7 120 3720 59.5 44.1
240 3840 23.5 14.5 240 3840 96.5 71.5
480 4080 26.5 16.4 480 4080 122.0 90.4
900 (Final) 4500 (Final) 30.0 18.5 900 (Final) 4500 (Final) 126.0 93.3

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M.C. Munro, A. Mohajerani Ocean Engineering 141 (2017) 125–142

Table 11 both the GWC and NWC are shown for convenience.
The variation in penetration by the IOFP for Point E after the initial 3600 s (1 h) of This sample was chosen for this study because it was considered a
vibration.
typical sample of IOF commonly transported on bulk carriers from
Point E (14.09% GWC or 16.40% NWC) Australia. The physical properties of the sample tested during this
study were within the range of the typical properties of IOF determined
Time IOFP Total IOFP IOFP Penetration in a related publication (Munro and Mohajerani, 2015).
Applied Vibration Penetration of Sample Height
(Seconds) Time Depth (mm) (105 mm) (%)
(Seconds)
3.1.2. Method
0 (Initial) 3600 (Initial) 0.0 0.0
1 3601 5.0 4.8 3.1.2.1. Apparatus. A free-floating IOF Plunger (IOFP) with a contact
5 3605 19.5 18.6
pressure of 16.36 kPa and diameter of 25.4 mm, as seen in Fig. 12, was
10 3610 31.2 29.7
20 3620 47.0 44.8 developed and used to observe the apparent shear strength of the
40 3640 69.5 66.2 sample of IOF under cyclic loading. After testing, the results were
60 3660 85.2 81.1 compared with the TML produced by the MPFT (Fig. 10). Future
120 3720 95.5 91.0 modifications to this apparatus will allow the measurement of pore
240 3840 97.0 92.4
480 4080 97.0 92.4
pressures, within the sample, to objectively determine the liquefaction
900 (Final) 4500 (Final) 98.0 93.3 potential.

The design of the IOFP was based on the penetration bits used
during the Penetration test described in Appendix 2 of the IMSBC
3. Experimental study Code, which was designed to determine the TML of coal and ore
concentrates (International Maritime Organization, 2016). The
3.1. Material and method Penetration test utilizes a penetration bit with a diameter of 15 mm
and a contact pressure of either 5 kPa for coal or 10 kPa for ore
3.1.1. Material concentrates (International Maritime Organization, 2016). Because of
The sample of Iron Ore Fines (IOF) tested in this study, identified the properties of IOF, primarily the particle size, the IOFP was
as MA003, was obtained from Western Australia. The physical proper- designed with a contact pressure and diameter greater than the
ties of the sample and the standards to which these properties were penetration bits used during the Penetration test. This increased the
obtained are seen in Table 5, Fig. 10 and Fig. 11. repeatability of the test by allowing the plunger to penetrate the sample
The moisture contents given in Table 5 are reported according to the without being obstructed or deflected by the larger particles within the
relevant standard. In AS 1289, the moisture content is reported in Net IOF.
Water Content (NWC), which is the percentage of the mass of moisture The procedure that was developed for this study involved placing
to the mass of dry material (Standards Australia, 2000). In the IMSBC samples of IOF, with varying moisture contents, into an acrylic mould
Code, the moisture content (including TML) is reported in Gross Water with dimensions scaled from the hold of a Capesize bulk carrier. The
Content (GWC), which is the percentage of the mass of moisture to the mould was then placed on a vibrating table and vibrated at a frequency
total mass of wet material (International Maritime Organization, of 50−60 Hz with an acceleration of 6 ± 0.3g Root Mean Square
2013b). In geotechnical engineering and soil mechanics, the NWC is (RMS) for 3600 s (1 h). This total test time was used because this was
commonly used whereas in most other cases, including metallurgy and the maximum density produced by the applied frequency and ampli-
transportation of solid bulk cargoes, the GWC is preferred. In Table 5, tude. Additionally, the dry density that was produced was similar to

Fig. 17. The variation in penetration of the IOFP against time for Points A to E.

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M.C. Munro, A. Mohajerani Ocean Engineering 141 (2017) 125–142

Fig. 18. The variation in penetration of the IOFP against moisture content for Points A to E.

Fig. 19. Moisture migration occurring during initial vibration within the mould.

Fig. 20. The behaviour of soil according to Werkmeister's ‘shakedown’ theory (Cerni et al., 2011; Werkmeister et al., 2005).

135
M.C. Munro, A. Mohajerani Ocean Engineering 141 (2017) 125–142

that produced by the compaction during the MPFT, as seen in Fig. 15. reduction in shear strength being observed is not due to volumetric
When densification of the sample was complete, as seen in Fig. 13 compression of the sample around the IOFP. Also, after the initial
(3600 s), the free-floating IOFP was placed on the sample, as seen in 3600 s (1 h) of vibration the samples as a whole were measured and did
Fig. 14, and the vibrating table was operated for an additional 900 s not undergo any further significant volumetric densification.
(15 min). During the application of the IOFP, the depth of penetration The curves produced in Fig. 17 and Fig. 18 indicate that the rate of
was recorded at specific time intervals to obtain a graphical represen- penetration increased as the moisture content increased. The curves
tation of the depth of penetration at varying moisture contents. are not typical of those produced when determining the shear strength
The frequency, amplitude and time of vibration, previously men- of soils using a traditional shear vane (Standards Australia, 2001),
tioned, was used to simulate the ‘worst case scenario’ conditions which typically increase exponentially as the moisture content reduces.
expected during transportation. Recent investigations have shown that This indicates that the shear strength of the sample is not reducing in a
the maximum acceleration expected during a typical voyage of a bulk typical manner and that liquefaction may be occurring.
carrier was 1g at a frequency of 0.1 Hz (Iron Ore Technical Working The initial penetration of the samples tested at Points A and B was
Group, 2013b). attributed to the IOFP only penetrating the surface layer of the sample,
During the application of the plunger, if penetration of the sample which was loosely compacted. At Point C (MPFT TML) the speed of
occurs, it was assumed that the effective stress and therefore shear penetration increased and it was assumed it would reach the maximum
strength surrounding the IOFP was close to zero and therefore penetration possible after an additional 100 s of vibration. As the
liquefaction was said to have occurred. As described in Section 1.1, moisture content further increased to Points D and E, the speed of
this was assumed to be due to the change in pore pressures within the penetration also increased, and, therefore, both reached the maximum
sample. By using this method, both the Failure Threshold (FT) and the penetration possible using the apparatus.
Critical Failure Curve (CFC) could be determined. These were terms Fig. 17 shows that after 900 s (15 min) of vibration, the sample
used in this study to refer to the boundaries at which the sample of IOF tested at Point C could be seen to reach a similar penetration by the
was suspected to be potentially and highly liquefiable under the applied plunger as the sample at Point D after 300 s (5 min) of vibration. As
magnitude and time of cyclic loading. These boundaries are to be expected, this demonstrated that the penetration of the samples could
verified once modifications have been made to the apparatus which will be seen to be a function of both the time of cyclic loading and the initial
include the addition of transducers to measure the pore pressures moisture content. Increasing the moisture content only meant that the
during vibration. observed critical conditions occurred sooner.
Although further validation is required, it was assumed that the
3.2. Experimental results samples at Points A and B were unlikely to reach the critical conditions
to cause liquefaction. It was apparent that the shear strength at points
The moisture contents of the samples of IOF that were used during C, D and E were reduced significantly. Although liquefaction of the
this study and the identification used to describe the samples during sample cannot be proven at this stage with this apparatus is possible
the analysis of the results can be seen in Table 6. The physical that the conditions existed for liquefaction to occur within these
properties of the IOF used is described in Section 3.1.1. samples. Again, this theory will be verified with the addition of
Fig. 15 shows a comparison of two compaction curves. The first pressures transducers to the apparatus in the near future.
compaction curve was produced while performing the MPFT, which is Another indication that liquefaction may have been the cause of the
also seen in Fig. 10. The second compaction curve was produced by the apparent loss of shear strength was that significant moisture migration
initial vibration prior to the application of the IOFP (1 h of vibration at was seen to occur, as seen in Fig. 19. Moisture migration is an
a frequency of 50–60 Hz with an acceleration of 6 ± 0.3g RMS). The indication of significant densification causing changes in pore pres-
different types of energy applied to the samples to produce the curves, sures within the sample.
as seen in Fig. 15, caused a greater difference in the void ratio at the According to Werkmeister et al. (2005), an unbound granular
lower moisture contents and are therefore considered to be conserva- material, such as IOF, can be classified based on the response under
tive. This study mainly focused on the void ratio (density) at which the repeated cyclic loading (Cerni et al., 2011; Werkmeister et al., 2005).
MPFT TML occurred. The difference is assumed to be more or less Werkmeister's ‘shakedown’ theory has three potential categories of
negligible around this area of the curve (near Points C, D and E). response, which can be seen in Fig. 20:
Additionally, the void ratio produced by the MPFT compaction Plastic Shakedown (Fig. 20, Line 1), when the collective permanent
procedure at the lower moisture contents, was lower (increased strain rate decreases rapidly until it reaches a state of equilibrium. The
density). Therefore, at these points, it was safe to assume that less response is resilient and does not produce permanent deformations
penetration by the IOFP would occur, hence the conservative nature of and the material does not reach the failure criteria.
the results. Plastic Creep (Fig. 20, Line 2), when the collective permanent strain
Although partially saturated, the liquefaction of a solid bulk cargo is rate is decreasing or constant. Although the deformation is not all
similar to what occurs in saturated sand during an earthquake. The resilient, the permanent deformation is acceptable. In this case, the
phenomenon, which has been extensively studied, occurs more com- material could reach the failure criteria under a great number of load
monly in materials with specific particle sizes. Shown in Fig. 16 are the cycles.
particle size distribution boundaries of most liquefiable soils (Ishihara, Incremental Collapse (Fig. 20, Line 3), when the collective perma-
1985) and the particle size distribution of the sample used during this nent strain rate increases rapidly and the failure criteria is met after a
study. It can be seen that approximately 75% of the material is low number of load cycles.
considered potentially liquefiable. The Failure Threshold (FT) and the Critical Failure Curve (CFC), as
The results from the data recorded during the application of the seen in Fig. 18, were between the plastic shakedown limit and plastic creep
IOFP can be seen in Tables 7–11 and graphical representations of this limit, respectively. The FT was the moisture content at which apparent
data are seen in Fig. 17 and Fig. 18. It is noted that an average initial shear strength loss commenced (penetration by the plunger began to occur)
bearing capacity of the samples of IOF at the time the IOFP was applied and the CFC was determined by the point of intersection of the tangents of
was calculated to be greater than 20 kPa. This indicated that the the two dominant slopes of each curve and then averaging.

136
M.C. Munro, A. Mohajerani Ocean Engineering 141 (2017) 125–142

Using data from the IOFP, the sample of IOF showed an apparent ‘Group A’ or liquefiable according to the individual schedule for iron
loss of shear strength between Point B (1.5% GWC less than the MPFT ore fines given in the 2016 IMSBC Code. This is due to the amount of
TML) and Point C (MPFT TML). The sample also showed signs of Goethite that it contains, that begin above 35%, and therefore does not
significant changes in pore pressures, around Point C (MPFT TML). need to undergo TML testing using the MPFT. With this said, the initial
cyclic energy applied was considered to produce the equivalent density
4. Conclusion as that produced by the compaction during the MPFT. This density has
been shown by the developers of the test to be equivalent to that on
The objective of this study was to investigate recent incidents board a bulk carrier. This indicated that the sample of IOF tested
during transportation on bulk carriers where liquefaction of the solid during this study had significantly reduced shear strength at the TML
bulk cargo was suspected, and the impact these incidents had on the produced by the MPFT and therefore should be required to undergo
loss of human life and industry assets. In addition, the effectiveness of testing using the MPFT if deemed an appropriate test.
determining the Transportable Moisture Limit (TML) using the It is to be noted that the reference to liquefaction in this study is not
Modified Proctor/Fagerberg Test (MPFT) for Iron Ore Fines (IOF) an indication that it is the definitive mode of failure that results in the
was questioned and tested by developing an apparatus that was used to loss of the vessels listed in this publication. The term liquefaction
determine the shear strength boundaries of a sample of IOF. This seems to be the general term used by industry and research associa-
apparatus is to be modified to confirm the results of this study by tions to refer to the mode of failure that the cargo has experienced. It is
adding transducers to record the pore pressures within the samples questioned if this is the actual mode of failure or if it is another, such
under vibration. as; plastic shakedown, incremental collapse, general slope failure or
The impact of the suspected liquefaction of solid bulk cargoes on even another not currently under investigation.
human life and industry assets has been significant. It was determined Further testing is to be performed to determine the state of the pore
during this study that 23 incidents were reported from 1988 to 2016 pressures within the samples of IOF to confirm the suspected bound-
where liquefaction was the suspected cause, which resulted in 138 aries referred to as the Failure Threshold (FT) and Critical Failure
casualties. Furthermore, incidents continued to occur at nearly two per Curve (CFC) determined during this study. Additionally, further
year even after the mandatory implementation of the International investigation is needed to determine why, after the mandatory im-
Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes Code (IMSBC Code) in 2011. Due to this, plementation of the IMSBC Code, incidents of suspected liquefaction of
it is recommended that the effectiveness of the test methods used to solid bulk cargoes continue to occur.
determine the TML of solid bulk cargoes be examined for specific solid
bulk cargoes. Acknowledgement
Based on the results from the IOF Plunger (IOFP), which was
developed during this study, the sample of IOF tested depicted an The results presented in this publication are from an ongoing
apparent sudden loss of shear strength between Point B (1.5% GWC postgraduate study at RMIT University Melbourne, Australia on the
less than the MPFT TML) and Point C (MPFT TML). The sample also liquefaction potential of mineral cargoes on board bulk carriers.
showed signs of significant changes in pore pressures, around Point C Scholarships were provided for this research through the Australian
(MPFT TML), due to significant moisture migration occurring. The Government Research Training Program and the School of
behaviour of the samples at these moisture contents shown relate to Engineering, Civil Engineering at RMIT University. These scholarships
Werkmeister's ‘shakedown theory’, which was an indication of the are gratefully acknowledged. The researchers would also like to thank
Failure Threshold (FT) and Critical Failure Curve (CFC) of the material. the technical staff at RMIT who have been very helpful throughout each
The sample of iron ore fines tested in this study is not classified as completed stage of this research.

Appendix A

See Table 12.

137
Table 12
Bulk carrier incidents from 1988 to 2016 involving suspected liquefaction of the solid bulk cargo being transported.
Sources: In order of incident; (International Association of Classification Societies (IACS), 2002), (Grant, 2008; International Association of Classification Societies (IACS), 2002; Larsen (2014)), (Cochran (2000); Devanney; International
Association of Classification Societies (IACS), 2002; Roberts, 2012), (Australian Transport Safety Bureau (ATSB), 2000), (The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region - Marine Department - Marine Accident Investigation Section, 2005), (Grant,
2008; Roberts, 2012), (Devanney; O'Cinneide, 2007), (Corbett, 2013; Deccan Herald, 2009; Trade Winds, 2010), (Andrei and Pazara, 2013; Dolphin Maritime and Aviation Services Ltd, 2009; Kev, 2009; Vietnam Seaports Association - News -
News, 2009), (Marine Buzz, 2009), ("ClassNK's Initiatives for the Safe Carriage of Nickel Ore," 2012; Panama Maritime Authority - Maritime Accident Investigation Department, 2011b; SeaNews Turkey, 2010b), (Dolphin Maritime and Aviation
Services Ltd (2010); Intercargo (2010); Lloyd’s List Asia (2010)), (InterManager, 2013; Mareud, 2010; Maritime Accident Casebook, 2011; Panama Maritime Authority - Maritime Accident Investigation Department, 2011c), ("ClassNK's Initiatives
for the Safe Carriage of Nickel Ore," 2012; Intercargo, 2010; Maritime Accident Casebook, 2010; Panama Maritime Authority - Maritime Accident Investigation Department, 2011a; SeaNews Turkey, 2010a), (Andrei and Pazara, 2013; Maritime
Bulletin, 2011), (gCaptain, 2012; Long, 2011), (Corbett, 2012; Dixon, 2012; Maritime Bulletin, 2012), (gCaptain, 2013; Glen, 2013; Maritime Bulletin, 2013b), (The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region – Marine Department – Marine
M.C. Munro, A. Mohajerani

Accident Investigation Section, 2015), (Hancock, 2013; The Times of India, 2013), (Five Oceans Salvage, 2014; Maritime Bulletin, 2013a; Trade Winds News, 2013), (gCaptain, 2015a, 2015b; News, 2015; The Bahamas Maritime Authority, 2015),
(Chan, 2015; Petrov, 2015).

Incident # Vessel Name IMO DWT Subclassd Date of Casualties / Loss of Disembarked Destination Incident Location / Last Cargo Cargo
Numbera,b (tonnes)b,c Incident Total Crew Vessel Location (tonnes)

1 Mega Taurus 7929279 30,413 Handysize 16 Dec 1988 20/20 Yes Hinatuan, Philippines Hachinohe, Japan Lat: 18.55 N, Long: Nickel Ore N/A
130.14E
2 Oriental 8301620 21,373 Handysize 9 June 1990 0/NA No New Caledonia N/A New Caledonia at Nickel Ore N/A
Angel (Listed) anchorage
3 Sea Prospect 9136709 21,297 Handysize 26 Aug 1998 10/21 Yes Grebe Island Mine, Hiroshima, Japan Lat: 24.29 N, Long: Nickel Ore N/A
Indonesia 130.37E
4 Padang Hawk 9109354 46,635 Handymax 26 July 1999 0/20 No Kouaoua, New Townsville, 10 h West travelling at 12.7 Nickel Ore N/A
(Listed) Caledonia Australia knots from Lat: −18.18 N,
Long: 153.93E
5 Hui Long 9037032 16,123 Handysize 20 May 2005 0/23 Yes Hong Kong then Sungei Kandla, India Lat: −5.92 N, Long: 84.33E Fluorspar 5185
Pakning, Indonesia
6 Jag Rahul 8028735 37,609 Handysize 1 Dec 2007 0/NA No Tanjung Buli, Ukraine N/A Ore N/A
(Listed) Indonesia
8 Chang Le 8104656 17,240 Handysize 7 Sept 2007 0/28 No Mangalore, India China via 7 miles off Mangalore, Iron Ore 16,100
Men (Listed) Singapore India Fines

138
9 Asian Forest 9369112 14,434 Handysize 18 July 2009 0/18 Yes Mangalore, India Zhavgjiagang, Shortly after leaving Iron Ore 13,600
China Mangalore, India Fines
10 Hodasco15 8312239 6519 General Bulker 30 Aug 2009 0/18 Yes Kolkata, India China Off Pulau Perak, Malaysia Iron Ore 6000
Fines
11 Black Rose 7602455 37,657 Handysize 9 Sept 2009 1/27 Yes Paradip, India China 3 miles off Paradip, India Iron Ore 23,847
12 Jian Fu Star 8106379 45,108 Handymax 27 Oct 2010 13/25 Yes Obi Island, Indonesia Qingdao, China Off Cape Eluanbi, Taiwan Nickel Ore 43,000
13 Jianmao 9 7518915 34,456 Handysize 10 Nov 2010 0/26 Yes Hong Kong, Hong Singapore Lat: −15.42 N, Long: Nickel Ore N/A
Kong 110.19E
14 Nasco 9467861 56,893 Handymax 09 Nov 2010 22/25 Yes Kolonodale, Indonesia Lianyungang, Lat: −21.05 N, Long: Nickel Ore 55,150
Diamond China 123.50E
15 Hong Wei 9230139 50,149 Handymax 3 Dec 2010 10/24 Yes Kolonodale, Indonesia Dalian, China 100 miles South of Eluanbi Nickel Ore 40,000
Point, Taiwan
16 Bright Ruby 8604474 26,589 Handysize 21 Nov 2011 6/25 Yes Penang, Malaysia Rizhao, China Lat: 16.33 N, Long: Iron Ore 25,000
114.00E
17 Vinalines 9290907 56,040 Handymax 25 Dec 2011 22/23 Yes Morowali, Indonesia Ningde, China North East of Luzon Island, Nickel Ore 54,400
Queen Philippines
18 Sun Spirits 9416953 10,903 Handysize 22 Jan 2012 0/14 Yes Leyte, Philippines China Catanduanes, Philippines Iron Ore 9900
Fines
19 Harita 8103664 48,891 Handymax 17 Feb 2013 15/24 Yes Obi, Indonesia Ningbo, China 12 miles off Cape Bolinao Nickel Ore 47,450
Bauxite
20 Trans 9615468 56,824 Handymax 14 Aug 2013 0/21 Yes Subaim, Indonesia Yangjiang, China Lat: 21.92 N, Long: Nickel Ore 54,067
Summer 113.67E
21 Bingo 9385520 8733 General Bulker 12 Oct 2013 0/18 Yes Haldia, India China 22 miles South of Sagar, Iron Ore 8000
(continued on next page)
Ocean Engineering 141 (2017) 125–142
Table 12 (continued)

Incident # Vessel Name IMO DWT Subclassd Date of Casualties / Loss of Disembarked Destination Incident Location / Last Cargo Cargo
Numbera,b (tonnes)b,c Incident Total Crew Vessel Location (tonnes)

India
22 Anna Bo 9545716 56,720 Handymax 4 Dec 2013 0/NA No Indonesia Ningde, China Near Polilo Island, Nickel Ore 55,000
(Listed) Philippines
23 Bulk Jupiter 9339947 56,009 Handymax 02 Jan 2015 18/19 Yes Kuantan, Malaysia Qingdao, China Lat: 9.02 N, Long: 109.26E Bauxite 46,400
M.C. Munro, A. Mohajerani

24 Alam Manis 9397834 55,652 Handymax 15 July 2015 1/21 No Dinagat, Philippines Lianyungang, 225 miles South East of Nickel Ore 53,795
(Listed) China Taiwan

Note : Incident number 7 was removed due to it being revealed it was not liquefaction. The numbers have remained unchanged due to these being referenced in Fig. 21 to Fig. 23.
a
IMO number is a unique reference number for vessels. The IMO number remains linked to the hull for life of the vessel.
b
Dead weight tonnage and IMO number referenced from Maritime Traffic (Maritime Traffic).
c
DWT, Dead Weight Tonnage is a measure of how much mass a vessel can safely carry. It does not include the weight of the vessel and includes things such as the cargo, crew, passengers, ballast and fuel.
d
The DWT for each subclass is based on UNCTAD's Review of Maritime Transport (2014) (UNCTAD secretariat, 2014).

139
Ocean Engineering 141 (2017) 125–142
M.C. Munro, A. Mohajerani Ocean Engineering 141 (2017) 125–142

Appendix B

See Figs. 21–23.

Fig. 21. Locations of where bulk carriers disembarked that have been suspected of undergoing liquefaction from 1988 to 2016 (Source: Google Maps and Appendix A).
Note: Although countries of origin are correct, some locations within those countries are approximate. Refer to Appendix A for more details.

Fig. 22. Locations of incidents, last location and voyage of bulk carriers that have been suspected of undergoing liquefaction from 1988 to 2016 (Source: Google Maps and Appendix A).
Note 1: Although countries of origin are correct, some locations within those countries are approximate. Refer to Appendix A for more details.
Note 2: Voyages are based of approximate common trade routes taken by bulk carriers transporting solid bulk cargoes and the reported location the vessel was lost.
Note 3: The location of the incident involving the Jag Rahul is unknown. The incident is plotted in the figure half way through a typical voyage the vessel would take.

140
M.C. Munro, A. Mohajerani Ocean Engineering 141 (2017) 125–142

Fig. 23. Locations of loading ports, incidents, last location destination, voyage and intended voyage of bulk carriers that have been suspected of undergoing liquefaction from 1988 to 2016
(Source: Google Maps and Appendix A).
Note 1: Although countries of origin are correct, some locations within those countries are approximate. Refer to Appendix A for more details.
Note 2: Voyages are based of approximate common trade routes taken by bulk carriers transporting solid bulk cargoes and the reported location the vessel was lost.
Note 3: The location of the incident involving the Jag Rahul is unknown. The incident is plotted in the figure half way through a typical voyage the vessel would take.

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