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Posterior palatal seal location and preparation on the maxillary-complete denture cast A. A. Calomeni, D.D.S.,

Posterior palatal seal location and preparation on the maxillary-complete denture cast

A. A. Calomeni, D.D.S., M.S.,* E. E. Feldmann, D.D.S.,** and W. A. Kuebker, D.D.S., M.S.*+*

University

of Texas, Dental

School, San Antonio,

Tex.

The location and preparation of the posterior palatal seal is a frequently neglected procedure. This seal contributes significantly to the retention of a maxillary complete denture. Its location and preparation on the master cast are often done by the dentist or dental laboratory technician without reference to the anatomic landmarks of the mouth. The purpose of the posterior palatal seal on a maxillary complete denture is to (1) create a seal along the posterior border of the denture at the junction of the hard and soft palates (immovable and movable tissues) to enhance retention of the maxillary denture; (2) provide the dentist or laboratory technician a distinct landmark for finishing the posterior border of the denture; and (3) compensate for the volumetric shrink- age of the acrylic resin in this area during pro- cessing. Preparation of the master cast to provide for a posterior palatal seal on the maxillary complete den- ture is the responsibility of the dentist, not the dental laboratory technician. In this article the posterior palatal seal is located precisely in the mouth by the dentist. Regions of displaceable and nondisplaceable tissue are determined by palpation with a blunt instru- ment, and the location of the posterior palatal seal is accurately transferred to the cast and prepared to the depth determined by the displaceability of the tissues.

PROCEDURE

1. Complete the final maxillary impression.

2. Rinse the mouth with a zinc chloride-type

mouthwash.

lar notches with

Dry the posterior palatal area and hamu-

a 2 inch

X 2 inch gauze sponge.

3. Palpate the area distal to the tuberosity on one

the hamular notch is located by means of a

side until

*Professorand Head, Division of Complete Dentures, Department of Prosthodontics. **Professor and Chairman, Department of Prosthodontics. ***Associate Professor,Department of Prosthodontics.

628

***Associate Professor,Department of Prosthodontics. 628 Fig. 1. Ladmore plugger in hamular notch. Arrow points to

Fig. 1. Ladmore plugger in hamular notch. Arrow points to hamular notch.

plugger in hamular notch. Arrow points to hamular notch. Fig. 2. Ink is applied to Ladmore

Fig. 2. Ink is applied to Ladmore pencil.

plugger with an ink

Ladmore plugger

No.

3

or

similar

instrument

(Fig. 1).

4. Mark

the Ladmore plugger

with

an ink pencil

(Stabilo Ink Pencil, Texas Art Co., Houston, Tex.) or

color

applicator

stick

(“Dr.

Thompson’s” Sanitary

MAY

1983

VOLUME

49

NUMBER

5

POSTERIOR PAL.ATAL SEA1 Fig. nating in hamular 3. Ink line indicating notches. vibrating line and
POSTERIOR PAL.ATAL SEA1 Fig. nating in hamular 3. Ink line indicating notches. vibrating line and
POSTERIOR PAL.ATAL SEA1 Fig. nating in hamular 3. Ink line indicating notches. vibrating line and
POSTERIOR PAL.ATAL SEA1 Fig. nating in hamular 3. Ink line indicating notches. vibrating line and

POSTERIOR

PAL.ATAL

SEA1

Fig.

nating in hamular

3. Ink

line

indicating

notches.

vibrating

line and termi-

Fig.

pression.

5. Ink

lines

transferred

from

palate

to

im-

Fig. pression. 5. Ink lines transferred from palate to im- Fig. 4. Anterior placeable tissue to

Fig. 4. Anterior

placeable tissue to be covered by posterior

seal.

line

(arrows)

indicates

area of dis-

palatal

posterior seal. line (arrows) indicates area of dis- palatal Fig. 6. Ink lines accentuated with an

Fig. 6. Ink lines accentuated with

an ink pencil.

Color Transfer Applicators, Great Plains Dental Products, Cunningham, Kan.) (Fig. 2).

5. Place the Ladmore plugger in the hamular notch,

leaving an ink mark on the tissues.

6. Mark the location of the other hamular notch in

the same manner.

7. Locate the vibrating line by having the patient

say “ah” in short bursts while the patient’s mouth is open. Draw a line on the soft palate corresponding to the vibrating line (junction of immovable and movable

palates) with the ink pencil or color applicator stick. Extend this line to connect with the ink marks in the hamular notches. The vibrating line is usually located at or near the fovea palatinae (Fig. 3).

8. Palpate the extent of the soft displaceable tissue

anterior to the vibrating line with a Ladmore plugger. Indicate the area of displaceable tissue by drawing an

Indicate the area of displaceable tissue by drawing an Fig. master cast. 7. Ink lines transferred

Fig.

master cast.

7. Ink

lines

transferred

from

impression

to

THE

JOURNAL

OF PROSTH~IC

DENTISTRY

629

Fig. 8. Posterior cast. palatal seal prepared on master an ink pencil or color applicator
Fig. 8. Posterior cast. palatal seal prepared on master an ink pencil or color applicator

Fig. 8. Posterior cast.

palatal

seal

prepared

on

master

an ink pencil or color

applicator stick (Fig. 4). The anterior line should not

be placed more than 5 or 6 mm anterior to the posterior line even though the tissues are displaceable farther

anteriorly. In the midline, where displaceable tissue is seldom encountered, the distance between the anterior and posterior lines should usually be about 2 to 3 mm. The posterior palatal seal area must not cover hard or nondisplaceable soft tissue. 9. Dry the impression and carefully insert it into the mouth. The ink marks should transfer to the impres- sion (Fig. 5).

anterior line on the palate with

10. Freshen the ink marks on the impression with

the ink pencil or color applicator stick so that they will

readily transfer to the stone cast that is made from the impression (Fig. 6). Do not rinse the impression.

11. Box the impression to preserve its borders. Pour

the cast using an improved artificial stone. Separate the

cast from the impression after the cast has set. The ink marks drawn on the impression will be transferred to the stone cast (Fig. 7).

Fig. 9. A, Extent of posterior palatal seal. Note decreasing depth anteriorly. B, Posterior bead line prepared to depth of 1.5 mm. C, Zero depth at anterior extent of seal.

12. Prepare a posterior bead line on the cast to a

depth of 1 to 1% mm. The bead line should extend

bilaterally through the hamular notches (Fig. 8).

13. Relieve the area between the anterior and poste-

rior lines with a scraper (Kingsley Scraper No. 1, Buffalo Dental Mfg. Co., Inc., Brooklyn, N.Y.). The depth the cast is scraped should vary from zero at the

anterior line to the depth of the bead line, 1 to 1% mm,

border (Fig. 9). The cast should not

be scraped where the soft tissues are hard and nondis-

placeable.

along the posterior

SUMMARY

A technique for the precise location and preparation of the posterior palatal seal on the master cast has been described. The technique provides a distinct landmark, which aids in finishing the posterior border of the denture and creates a posterior palatal seal that is physiologically acceptable to the patient because its depth and extent are determined by the displaceability of the tissues.

Reprint

requests to:

DR. ALEXANDER

UNIVERSITY

DENTAL

A.

CALOMENI

OF TEXAS

SCHOLL

TX

78284

UNIVERSITY DENTAL A. CALOMENI OF TEXAS SCHOLL TX 78284 SAN ANTONIO, CALOMENI, FELDMANN, AND KUEBKER 6

SAN ANTONIO,

DENTAL A. CALOMENI OF TEXAS SCHOLL TX 78284 SAN ANTONIO, CALOMENI, FELDMANN, AND KUEBKER 6 3

CALOMENI,

FELDMANN,

AND

KUEBKER

OF TEXAS SCHOLL TX 78284 SAN ANTONIO, CALOMENI, FELDMANN, AND KUEBKER 6 3 0 MAY 1983
OF TEXAS SCHOLL TX 78284 SAN ANTONIO, CALOMENI, FELDMANN, AND KUEBKER 6 3 0 MAY 1983
OF TEXAS SCHOLL TX 78284 SAN ANTONIO, CALOMENI, FELDMANN, AND KUEBKER 6 3 0 MAY 1983

630

MAY

1983

VOLUME

49

NUMBER

5