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Medieval Latin I

Grammar Worksheet: Adjectives

Adjectival Endings (simplified)


Singular Group 1 Group 2 m. Group 2 n. Group 3 m&f Group 3 n.
Nominative -a -us -um - - /-e
Accusative -am -um -um -em - / -e
Genitive -ae -i -i -is -is
Dative -ae -o -o -i -i
Ablative -a -o -o -e / -i -e / -i

Plural
Nominative -ae -i -a -es -(i)a
Accusative -as -os -a -es -(i)a
Genitive -arum -orum -orum -(i)um -(i)um
Dative -is -is -is -ibus -ibus
Ablative -is -is -is -ibus -ibus

1) Revision of Latin Nouns


Please identify the case and no. (sing. / pl.) of the following nouns.

a) amoribus (amor amoris 3m – love)

b) stagna (stagnum -i 2n – pond)

c) agricolas (agricola -ae 1m – farmer)

d) magistro (magister magistri 2m – teacher)

2) a) Identify the gender, case and no. (sing. / pl.) of each noun.
b) Provide the correct adjectival form to agree with each noun:
NB Adjectives must agree in case, gender and number with the noun they modify!

a) feminae _______________ castus -a -um – pure, chaste (femina ae 1f – woman)

b) viro _______________ sanctus -a -um – holy (vir viri 2m – man)

c) habitatio _______________dulcis -e – sweet, delightful (habitatio onis 3f – dwelling)

d) mulieribus _____________ laetus -a -um – joyful (mulier eris 3f – woman)

e) ___________________ ripis florens -entis – flowering (ripa ae 1f – river-bank)


f) equorum ____________ magnus -a -um – great (equus i 2m – horse)

g) ex urbe _____________ clarus -a -um – illustrious (urbs urbis 3f – city)

3) Translation Practice: Land Grants


Grant of land by Michael Capra, of the church of St Giles in Mountnessing (near Brentwood in Essex)
to the Priory of Thorby (here named as the church of St Mary and St Leonard) in Mountnessing. NB
This is not the actual land grant, but a notification to the Dean of St Paul’s of the terms of the grant.
Latin text taken from: J. Thorley, Documents in Medieval Latin (London: Duckworth, 1998)

(1) Domino Radulpho Dei gratia decano ecclesie Sancti Pauli Lundon’ et Ricardo eiusdem
ecclesie archdiacono, et totius ecclesie capitulo, et omnibus Sancte Matris ecclesie fidelibus
Michael Capra in Christo salutem. Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse et carta mea
confirmasse in perpetuam elemosinam pro anima patris mei et matris mee et omnium
(5) antecessorum meorum Deo et ecclesie Sancte Marie et Sancti Leonardi de nemore meo
in Ging’ et fratribus ibidem Deo servientibus tam futuris quam presentibus ecclesiam Sancti
Egidij de Ging’ et omnia eidem ecclesie pertinencia sicut unquam melius pertinuerunt.
Scilicet in terris et decimis nemoris et prati et pomarii, cum omnibus liberalibus
consuetudinibus prefate ecclesie pertinentibus. His testibus: Willemo eiusdem ecclesie
(10) persona qui hoc concessit, Gileberto ipsius vicario etc.
Notes:
NB 1) There are a number of medieval spelling here! In particular, the ending ‘ae’ has
been reduced to ‘e’, e.g. ecclesie in line one would normally read ecclesiae.

2)Michael Capra is the gentleman who has sent the letter (so his name is in the
nominative here. Everyone else is in the dative, as the letter has been sent to them.

3) The opening of this text is actually the greeting of a letter (Domino…salutem).


Salutem is a common way of just saying ‘greetings’

Grant Terminology
Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse et carta mea confirmasse – ‘let it be known that I have
given, granted and confirmed mea carta.’
tam futuris quam presentibus – ‘both present and future’
His testibus – ‘with these witnesses’

A few brief grammar questions:

a) Please identify an adjective and noun phrase in the accusative singular.


b) Please identify an adjective and noun phrase in the dative plural.

c) Please identify an adjective and noun phrase in the genitive singular.

Vocabulary:
anima -ae 1f – soul
antecessor -oris 3m - ancestor
archdiaconus -i 2m - archdeacon
capitulum -i 2n – cathedral chapter
carta -ae 1f - charter
concedo -ere concessi concessum – to agree (to something)
consuetudo -inis 3f – traditional dues
de (prep. + abl.) – in line 5 ‘in’ (a rather unusual translation of this preposition)
decanus -i 2m - dean
decima -ae 1f - tithe
Deus -i 2m – God
ecclesia -ae 1f – church
Edigius -i 2m – Giles (personal name)
eidem - to the same (dative singular pronoun)
eiusdem – of the same (genitive singular pronoun)
elemosina -ae 1f - alms
fidelis -e (3 adj.) - faithful
frater fratris 3m – brother
Gilbertus -i 2m – Gilbert
Ging’ – place name (Ginges)
gratia -ae 1f – grace
hoc – this
ibidem (adv.) – in that very place
ipsius (genitive singular pronoun) – of this very (place)
liberalis -e (3 adj.) – liberal, free, generous
Lundon – London (city name)
mater matris 3f – mother
melius – (here) rightly
meus -a -um (possessive adj.) –my, mine
nemus nemoris 3n – wood, forest
omnis -e (3 adj.) – all
pater patris 3m – father
Paulus -i 2m – Paul (personal name)
perpetuus -a -um (adj.) – perpetual
persona -ae 1f – official
pertinencium -i 2n – appurtenances
pertineo -ere 2 – to pertain (pertinentibus – ‘pertaining’ (present participle))
pomerium -i 2n – orchard
pratum -i 2n – meadow
prefatus -a -um – aforementioned (normally praefatus)
qui – who
Radulphus -i 2m – Radulphus
Richardus -i 2m – Richard
scilicet (adv.) – namely
serviens -entis (present participle) – ‘serving’ (servientibus is dative plural here in agreement
with fratribus)
sicut – just as, as
terra -ae 1f – land
totius (genitive singular) – whole
unquam > read umquam (again, a very common Medieval spelling variant)
vicarius -i 2m – vicar
Willelmus -i 2m – William

4) Prose Composition
a) The king held the ancient sceptre in his hand.

b) The knight was riding through the dark forest with his squire.

c) The duke defeated his great enemy.

Vocabulary
eius – ‘his’
in (preposition) + ablative - in
manus us 4f - hand
obtineo ere tinui tentum – to hold
priscus a um - ancient
rex regis 3m – king
sceptrum i 2n – sceptre

armiger armigeri 2m - squire


cum (preposition + ablative) - with
eques equities 3m – knight
equito are avi atum – to rid (on horseback)
obscurus a um - dark
per (preposition + accusative) - through
silva ae 1f - wood
dux ducis 3m – duke
hostis is 3m - enemy
ille illa illud – that > remember that the ablative case expresses time: illo = abl. sg. neut.
magnus a um - great
tempus oris 3n – time
vinco vincere vivi victum – to conquer, defeat

Additional Exercises:
1) Please identify the gender, case and number (singular / plural) of the following nouns and
adjectives. Then translate each short phrase.

a) cum magnis laudationibus


b) in parvam ecclesiam
c) fur severo iudici dixit.

Vocabulary:
ecclesia -ae 1f – church
fur furis 3c – thief
iudex iudicis 3m – judge
laudatio -onis 3f – praise
magnus -a -um – great
parvus -a -um – small
servus -a -um – serious

2)
The Will of Thomas Dutton of York

Testamentum domini Thome Dutton’ militis defuncti

In Dei nomine, Amen. Die Iovis in vigilia Sancti Luce evangeliste in anno Domini millesimo
cccc/mo xv/mo. Ego Thomas Dutton’ sanus et compos mentis sed <a>eger <in> corpore
facio testamentum meum in hoc modo.
In primis lego omnipotenti Deo animam meam et corpus meum sepeliendum in cimeterio
gloriossime Virginis Marie de Norton’. Item lego optimum meum equum pro mortuario
nomine “Principalis”. Item lego matri me<a>e unum brachiale aureum ornatum cum
margaritis et aliis lapidibus pretiosis, quod quidam Killyngmersh’ coferarius domini Regis
habet ex causa vadii pro x li., quod volo resolvi et dari matri me<a>e.
Lego matri me<a>e unum anulum aureum cum lapidi pretioso infixo anglice vocato
diamund, quem quidam Iohannes Mounsile brauderer de London’ habet ex causa vadii x li.,
quem volo resolvi et reddi matri me<a>e.
Notes
(2) Die Iovis - Thursday
(5) sepeliendum – ‘to be buried / for burial’
(6) pro mortuario – ‘as a mortuary fee (i.e. to pay for the funeral)’
(8) quidam – masc. nom. sg. ‘a certain’ and this pronoun modifies coferarius
(9) ex causa vadii – ‘as security / as a pledge’
li = pounds
resolvi et dari (2 passive present infinitives): ‘to be paid back (i.e. the debt) and to be
given (i.e. the bracelet)…’
(12) resolvi et reddi – (again 2 present passive infinitives: ‘to be paid back and to be handed
back…’)

Select Vocabulary
aeger era erum ½ - sick, infirm
anglice - in English, by the English
brachiale brachialis 3n - bracelet
brauderer – a brauderer
coferarius I 2m – basket maker
comitatus us 4m – county
defunctus a um – deceased, discharged
diamond - diamond
exceptus a um ½ - except (or here, ‘apart from’ might work well)
infigo infigere infixi infixum – to fasten, fix
millesimus a um – 1000th (and NB ‘mo’ after the Roman Numerals = …th)
ornatus a um ½ - adorned
resolvo ere – to redeem
tenementum i 2n – tenement, land held by a tenant
vadium i 2n – pledge, security

NB There are also a number of personal names and place names in this passage – when you
translate this will, please leave them in the original form.

3) Additional Prose Composition


a) The pious monk prayed for the king’s health.

b) The bishop built a magnificent church.

c) The terrified soldiers fled from the bloody battle.

Vocabulary:
monachus -I 2m – monk
pius -a -um – pious
rex regis 3m – king
salus salutis 3f – health
supplico -are -avi -atum – to pray
aedifico -are -avi -atum – to build
ecclesia -ae 1f – church
episcopus -i 2m – bishop
splendidus -a -um – magnificent

fugio fugere fugi fugitum – to flee


miles militis 3c – soldier
pavidus -a -um – terrified
proelium -i 2n – battle
sanguineus -a -um – bloody