Sunteți pe pagina 1din 226

See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.

net/publication/272509380

A Dictionary of Malaysian Timbers

Book · January 2002

CITATIONS READS

8 1,859

2 authors:

Seng Choon Lim R C K Chung


Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM) Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
29 PUBLICATIONS   102 CITATIONS    79 PUBLICATIONS   106 CITATIONS   

SEE PROFILE SEE PROFILE

Some of the authors of this publication are also working on these related projects:

MyWood-ID View project

4. Wild montane flora: Explorative studies on essential oils from Cameron Highlands View project

All content following this page was uploaded by R C K Chung on 21 February 2015.

The user has requested enhancement of the downloaded file.


A Dictionary of
Malaysian Timbers
Malayan Forest Records No. 30

A Dictionary of
Malaysian Timbers

by
T.M.Wong

Revised by
S. C. Lim & R. C. K. Chung

Forest Research Institute Malaysia


Kepong, 52109 Kuala Lumpur
© Forest Research Institute Malaysia 2002

All enquiries should be forwarded to:

Director General
Forest Research Institute Malaysia
Kepong, 52109 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Tel: +60 (0) 3-6279 7000
Fax: +60 (0) 3-6279 7878
Homepage: http://www.frim.gov.my

First published 1982


Second edition 2002

Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia Cataloguing-in-Publication Data

Wong, T.M.
A dictionary of Malaysian timbers I by T. M. Wong; revised by S. C. Lim & R. C. K. Chung.
(Malayan Forest Records; No. 30)
Bibliography: p. xxi
ISBN 983-2181-29-1
1. Timbers-Malaysia-Dictionary. I. Lim, S. C. II. Chung, R. C. K. III. Title. IV. Series.
634.9803

Series Editor: H. T. Chan


Typesetter: A. Zuriati

Set in 10/12 Times New Roman


Printed in Malaysia by Percetakan Haji Jantan, Kuala Lumpur
CONTENTS

Foreword to the Second Edition vii


Foreword to the First Edition viii
Preface to the Second Edition IX

Preface to the First Edition X

Timber Nomenclature in Malaysia Xl

Notes on the Text X111

Bibliography XXI

The Dictionary

Appendix 195
FOREWORD TO THE SECOND EDITION

"A Dictionary of Malaysian Timbers" was firs~ published in 1982 under the "Malayan Forest
Records No. 30". As the book contains comprehensive information on most of the timbers and
their uses in Malaysia, it has been immensely popular among timber traders, timber consumers,
students, wood scientists, etc. As a result, the book went out of stock and in the early 1990s, a
reprint of the book became necessary to cater to the continuous demand for the book. However,
since the publication of the book in 1982, a lot of new information on timber trees and utilisation
has been generated. The need for a revision of the book was felt so as to bring the information up
to date.
Mr. S. C. Lim, a wood anatomist with more than 28 years of experience working with timber
in FRIM, and Dr. R. C. K. Chung, a botanist in FRIM, have volunteered to carry out a revision of
the book which took more than a year to complete. Besides the inclusion of an appendix and new
information on many timber species, taxonomical changes during the last two decades are also
incorporated in all the species mentioned in this book. Exotic plantation timbers such as acacia,
teak, yemane, etc. which were excluded in the original book can be found in this new revision.
I am confident that this revised edition ofthe book with its more comprehensive and updated
information will, just like the first edition, prove very useful to readers, especially those from the
timber industry and having a keen interest on Malaysian timbers. Finally, I wish to express my
sincere appreciation to Messrs. S. C. Lim and R. C. K. Chung for carrying out the revision, a
heavy task that they have ably undertaken in addition to their research.

DATO' DR. OJ. ABDUL RAZAK MOHD. ALI


Director General
March 2002 Forest Research Institute Malaysia

vii
FOREWORD TO THE FIRST EDITION

The preparation of this Dictionary of Malaysian Timbers was conceived at a time when the
information on the Malaysian timber species was scattered in various forms of publication and was
not easily and readily retrievable. Besides, a tremendous amount of research effort to characterise
the numerous timber species would become futile if the available data were not assembled together
in a convenient and easily readable form which could be readily accessible. The dictionary is a
handy book and provides an excellent reference source, which hopefully will be readily available
to interested parties.
Covering a large array of timber species, it contains the physical, mechanical and processing
properties of each species and gives the current and potential uses of as many timber species as
possible. Therefore, this book can playa key role in encouraging greater utilisation of the forest
resources where many species hitherto underutilised can be substituted for the more traditional
ones. It also gives the equivalent names of tree species that occur within the country, which hopefully
could help overcome anomalies in nomenclature.
To prepare and publish such a work was a large undertaking; it has taken two years in its
making. The author, Wong Tuck Meng, has a strong background in the field of Malaysian timbers,
having joined the Forest Research Institute as a wood anatomist in early 1970. We are, nevertheless,
fully aware of the many limitations of the book. Criticisms and suggestions for improvement and
modifications are, therefore, very welcome.
It is hoped that this dictionary will not only serve as a guide to wood anatomists and timber
users in particular but also as a general reference book for students of forestry and for people
having an interest in Malaysian timbers. The author is to be congratulated for this tedious undertaking.

DATO' MUHAMMAD JABIL


Director General ofForestry
August 1982 Peninsular Malaysia

viii
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION

The dictionary was first published in 1982 with the aim of providing comprehensive information
on Malaysian timbers. Since the publication of the dictionary, it has been immensely popular among
timber traders, students, scientists and those who are involved in the timber industries in one way
or another and as such, the available stocks were quickly depleted. When a reprint of the book was
suggested, we thought that it might be a good idea to carry out a revision at the same time as a lot
of new information has been generated since the publication of the book in 1982. Among the
additions to the new revision are:

1. A total of 747 new entries.


2. As far as possible, all the taxonomy changes since 1982.
3. Errors found in the first edition, rectified.
4. New information generated since 1982, e.g. dimensional stability of timbers, durability of
timbers, etc.
5. Information on a number of timber species left out in the previous edition such as ipoh, ara
berteh, sungkai, putat paya, etc.
6. Information that has been found useful but not incorporated in the first edition such as the
properties of plantation timbers (e.g. acacia, teak, yemane and oil palm).
7. New information on the timbers of Sabah and Sarawak.
8. An appendix listing the large number of timber species, which have been synonymised since
the publication of the dictionary in 1982.

In addition, new information is added to the original description of many timber species, e.g.
Malaysian oak (rubberwood), dark red meranti, etc. It is hoped that with the new information, the
users of the book will be able to obtain a more up-to-date and comprehensive information on the
timber species concerned. We realise that new information is being generated everyday and it is
impossible to include everything in this edition. Perhaps, this will be included in a future edition.
We wish· to express our gratitude to Mr. K. C. Khoo for his comments and numerous
suggestions to this revision; to Dr. E. Soepadmo and Dr. L. G. Saw for comments and
suggestions; and to Ms. Asnah Hashim for typing the manuscript.

S.C.LIM
R. C. K. CHUNG
March 2002 Forest Research Institute Malaysia

IX
PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION

For a long time, it was felt that a handy reference source on Malaysian timbers was greatly needed.
Although there exists a large number of published works on Malaysian timbers, these publications
are scattered and not consolidated. Furthermore, the Forest Department has very often been deluged
with inquiries from interested parties on vernacular timber names, their identities, properties and
uses. It is hoped that this dictionary will provide the answers to many of these inquiries. People
dealing with timbers invariably have to deal with strange names with which they are not familiar.
The need to have a source to obtain a quick acquaintance with these names is obvious and the
dictionary is designed to fulfil this function.
It is of course desirable to have this dictionary totally comprehensive but several constraints
dictate otherwise. To produce a truly comprehensive work on Malaysian timbers may be a project
ofthe future. Currently, it is felt that not enough is known about Malaysian timbers outside of those
that are commonly traded. For the common commercial Malaysian timbers, the information available
is more than adequate, but not all of the trees producing species of the Malaysian forests have been
tested and therefore, the dictionary at this stage cannot claim to be truly comprehensive. The
demarcation between which represents a timber tree and which does not is vague and is subject to
debate. In preparing this dictionary, no clear delimitation has been used. Those species that are
obviously too small or are too rare in occurrence have been omitted, while the fringe species have
been accorded passing mention. For those who may require greater and more detailed information,
the published works of the Forest Department are available.
The two eastern states of Sabah and Sarawak, by virtue oftheir geographical separation from
the rest of the country, possess a slightly different floristic composition. Due to this difference,
some of their timbers are not readily known in the other parts of the country. The more common
timbers from these two states are included in this volume. While trying to cover as much as possible
the timbers from these two states, the author is hampered by a distinct lack of published information.
Heavy reliance is placed upon a few published works and a few sets of mimeographed notes. It is
hoped that this portion of the dictionary will be strengthened in future editions, as more technical
information becomes available from these two states.
It is perhaps prudent to repeat here that this dictionary is not exhaustive in its coverage. There
are bound to be timbers that are not mentioned in this dictionary and are considered important or
deserving by some quarters. On the other hand, there may be species whose inclusion is arguable.
For the above sins of omission and commission, I apologise. Suggestions in terms of additions and
subtractions in the dictionary are welcome and any criticism will be construed as an attempt to
improve this dictionary.
I am greatly indebted to all those who in one way or another helped in the making of this
dictionary. Special thanks are due to my two diligent typists, Azmi bte. Othman and Ooi Bee Gek,
who together worked through the tedious manuscript in record time. Grateful acknowledgements
are due to the staff of the computer section for their help in the processing ofthe manuscript and in
the correction of the subsequent proofs. The Forest Botanists, Messrs. K. M. Kochummen and
Wong Khoon Meng, provided some of the latest taxonomic revisions for which I am very much
indebted.

T.M.WONG
Forest Research Institute
August 1982 Kepong, Selangor

x
TIMBER NOMENCLATURE IN MALAYSIA

Timber nomenclature in Malaysia can be rather confusing to the neophyte. Even among those who
are involved in the timber trade, timber names can still pose serious problems. Timbers can and
often do bear more than one name, these arising from vernacular names, botanical names and trade
names. This is often compounded by the timber having more than one vernacular name, each
applicable in different parts of the country. On the other hand, common and popular names can be
applied to more than one timber species, very often totally umelated species. The various types of
names that can be encountered in Malaysia are explained in the following paragraphs.

Botanical Names

In Malaysia, there are over 3000 timber-size species, which belong to 90 plus families. Although a
few exceptions remain, most of these plants have been taxonomically named. The internationally
applied botanical names are useful in that they represent the ultimate identities of the species.
Based on the principle of "one plant, one name and one name for one plant", these names are
certain to avoid confusion when used. Therefore, in the timber trade, it is advisable to include these
botanical names in any contractual forms.

Vernacular Names

Vernacular names are names given by natives to the trees. The local natives of Malaysia have
proven to be very astute botanists, for the names given by them have proven to be surprisingly
accurate taxonomically. Names such as kempas, meranti tembaga and tualang have been found to
be accurately applied to distinct taxonomic units.
The main drawback in the usage of vernacular names is that they are often not confined to one
particular species. Confusion can arise when natives from different localities apply the same names
(usually popular names) to their favourite trees. Thus we can have chengal pasir, chengal batu and
chengal kampung, which have nothing to do with the real chengal.
Another source of confusion is that the same species may be given different names in different
places. This is particularly true among places that are somewhat separated geographically. The two
states of Sabah and Sarawak, besides being geographically isolated from the rest of the country,
also have separate development in their forestry and timber industries prior to the formation of
Malaysia. Indeed, even today, forestry is still independent from federal control in these two states.
Such separation has resulted in parallel sets of vernacular names. In this dictionary, all such vernacular
names that are found among the different states are equated.

Timber Trade Names

F or trading purposes, it is simply not practical to treat all the available species as individual entities,
for this will lead to a bewilderingly large number oftimbers traded. Furthermore, timbers coming
from closely related species are often not distinguishable in the sawn form. It is fortunate that
closely related species very often share similar properties and therefore, they can be safely grouped
and marketed together under a single trade name.
However, it must be noted that these trade names need not necessarily be confined to
multi-species groups. Trade names are also available for monospecific timbers like kempas
(Koompassia malaccensis) and chengal (Neobalanocarpus heimii).

Xl
Standard Malaysian Names

These are standardised timber names that are applicable throughout the country. For reasons
mentioned before, the states of Sabah and Sarawak have evolved their own sets of names for their
timbers. In order to streamline the timber industries of the country, it was decided that the timber
names as found within the various parts of the country be equated and standardised. As a result of
this national effort, a large number of timbers now bear Standard Malaysian Names and these
names are to be used whenever possible. This dictionary has incorporated the main descriptions of
the timbers under these standardised names whenever they are available.

ASEAN Standard Names

The names were created when ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations) were only made
up of five member nations, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand.
Each nation has built up its own timber trade based on its own timber resources. However, many of
these timbers are common to all the member nations although they bear different national names.
It was felt that if these common timbers can be equated and their nomenclature standardised,
their marketing within and without the region would be made easier. This is especially true in the
case of the less popular species. A regional exercise was carried out in 1974 and as a result, a list
of ASEAN Standard Names was created. For a start, these ASEAN Standard Names are confined
to the lesser-known and lesser-utilised species, while the already established timbers are merely
equated but not given standardised names.
The use of ASEAN Standard Name may not be valid now as the membership of ASEAN
nations has increased to ten with the inclusion of Brunei, Laos, Myanmar (Burma), Vietnam, and
Cambodia. A new initiative to formulate a fresh set of ASEAN Standard Name is therefore overdue.

Xll
NOTES ON THE TEXT

The brief notes presented here will hopefully help in making the text more explicit as well as
rendering the dictionary more comprehensible. Conventions adopted in the text are explained and
even kiln schedules mentioned are included here so that the need to refer to another source is
greatly reduced.

The Entries

All entries are arranged in alphabetical order in the dictionary. Entries include vernacular names,
botanical names, names of tree-producing families, common timber names, Standard Malaysian
Names for timbers and ASEAN Standard Names for timbers.
The vernacular names are merely equated to their botanical identities that in tum are equated
to their timber groupings. The superior numeral is to distinguish a homograph. The botanical
names are confined to the generic names and very brief accounts of the genera and their timbers are
given. More detailed write-ups are presented under the timber names. Families are accorded very
brief treatments, while ASEAN Standard Names are equated to their Malaysian counterparts.

The Description

In the detailed presentation of the timber, many properties are described on a qualitative basis.
However, several properties are quantifiable and they are so treated in the text. These include
timber classification, density, strength grouping, air drying rates, shrinkage, dimensional movement
of seasoned timbers and durability ratings.

(i) Classification

The classification is in accordance with the Malaysian Grading Rules (Anonymous 1984) as follows:

Type General characteristics

Heavy hardwoods Heavy to very heavy constructional timbers ranging in density from 800 to
1120 kg m-3 air dry (or at 15% moisture content). They are naturally durable and
can therefore be safely used without preservative treatment; the sapwood ofthese
timbers, however, is not durable.

Medium hardwoods Moderately heavy to heavy constructional timbers ranging in density from about
720 to 880 kg m-3 air dry (or at 15% moisture content). Some timbers under this
classification are actually heavy and strong enough to be classified as "heavy
hardwoods". But they lack sufficient natural durability when exposed to the
weather or in contact with the ground and treatment with preservative is necessary
before use. Most of them, however, are naturally durable in temperate countries
where wood destroying agents are less active.

Light hardwoods Include all the relatively light weight and soft timbers with density ranging from
400 to 720 kg m-3 air dry (or at 15% moisture content). Generally not naturally
durable in tropical climates, some are quite durable in temperate regions.

Softwoods Refers to the coniferous timbers, which are lacking in fibres, vessels, etc. There
are very few softwoods of commercial significance in Malaysia.

Xlll
(ii) Density

A range of densities based on the air dry state is normally provided in the description ofthe timbers.
The timbers are also variously described as light, heavy or very heavy and these classes are based
on the following classification:

Classification Density range (kg m-3)

Light less than 500


Moderately heavy 500-800
Heavy 800-1000
Very heavy more than 1000

(iii) Strength grouping

Under the older method of grouping timbers into strength groups, only the compressive strength is
considered. This method according to Burgess (1958) divides timbers into f~ur strength groups,
viz. A, B, C and D.

Group A is considered extremely strong and contains timbers with compressive strength of above
55.2 MPa.
Group B is very strong and contains timbers with compressive strength of 41.4-55.2 MPa.
Group C is strong and the timbers herein are those with compressive strength of 27.6-41.4 MPa.
Group D is the weakest and the timbers classed here are those with compressive strength of less
than 27.6 MPa.

However, this method was found to be inadequate for many purposes and as more
comprehensive strength data were accumulated, it was possible to derive more accurate strength
properties of Malaysian timbers. Engku Abdul Rahman (1988a, b) proposed a more accurate strength
grouping of Malaysian timbers based on their basic and grade stresses. This modem approach of
strength grouping is more indicative of the actual strength properties of the timbers.
In this dictionary, the strength groups mentioned are based on EngkuAbdul Rahman's (1988a,
b) classification wherever possible. For timbers that have not been classified by Engku Abdul
Rahman their strength grouping is based on Burgess (1958), until such time when enough data are
available for their basic and grade stresses to be calculated.

(iv) Air drying rates

The air drying of the timbers is described in the text as rapid (or fast), moderately (or fairly) rapid,
moderately slow, slow or very slow. These ratings are developed based on the time taken to air dry
38 mm thick boards. However, for those timbers with drying rates that fall within the margins of
the classes, their final ratings are influenced by the time taken to dry 13 mm thick boards. The
different air drying rates are as follows:

Rate Drying rate of38 mm thick boards (months)

Rapid or fast less than 3


Moderately or fairly fast 3--4
Moderately or fairly slow 4-6
Slow 6-8
Very slow more than 8

XIV
It must be noted that the above classification is arbitrary and that it is only an attempt to
standardise the description contained in thel text.

(v) Shrinkage

The shrinkage figures quoted herein are those based on dimensional movements of timbers between
the green state and the air-dry state. In Malaysia, the air dry state of timber ranges between 15 and
19% moisture-content, but the figures quoted here have all been adjusted to a standard 15%
moisture-content. Attempts to group timbers according to their shrinkage have been made by various
workers and here in this dictionary, the following classification is used. The rating is based on the
percentage shrinkage of tangential boards from green to the air-dry state.

Rating Percentage shrinkage of tangential boards (%)

Low less than 1.5


Average 1.5-2.5
High 2.5--4
Very high more than 4

(vi) Movement in service

This is the periodic dimensional changes when seasoned timber is subjected to environmental
changes. This movement may be either shrinkage or swelling due to a change in moisture content
below the fibre saturation point. It may be due to general climatic change, a localised room heating
or cooling or periodic wetting and drying. The movement values are particularly important as they
affect the stability of the timber in service. The classification below is based on Choo et al. (1998):

Movement rating Tangential movement (%)

Type I less than 1.5


Type II 1.5-2
Type III 2.1-2.5
Type IV 2.6-3
Type V more than 3.1

(vii) Durability ratings

Durability ratings of Malaysian timbers are based on the performance of test-sticks in graveyard
testing. Test-sticks of 50 X 50 X 600 mm are buried in test grounds and their performance monitored.
The number of years that the timber can last under such conditions is used to classify the durability
of the timber. Under the system, timbers are classified as follows:

Rating Number of years

Very durable more than 10


Durable 5-10
Moderately durable 2-5
Non-durable 0-2

xv
The number of years listed above is only relevant to the test specimens which are only
50 x 50 mm in cross-section and not applicable to full size timber members. This is a very common
misconception of durability ratings, even among experienced timber users. Another point to note is
that the graveyard tests are conducted under very drastic environments and therefore the results
obtained are reflective of this situation. Used under more conducive conditions, the timbers are
expected to give a much better performance. It should be stressed that the above durability rating
are applicable only to the tropical climate as in Malaysia where termites are common and wood
destroying fungi are very active throughout the year. In temperate climate, however, where termites
do not occur or where fungi are only active in warm summer months (if any!), durability will be
greatly extended.

(viii) Kiln-drying schedules

Suitable kiln-drying schedules are mentioned in the text whenever they are available. These schedules
are based on those developed by the British Forest Products Laboratory in Princes Risborough but
have been adapted for use in Malaysia. Work has been done to fit Malaysian timbers into the
various kiln-drying schedules as reported in Timber Leaflet No. 42 (Grewal 1979b). The kiln-
drying schedules are reproduced here for the convenience of those who may find a need for them.
The schedules below are based on test using 25 mm thick timber specimens, but should be
suitable for up to 38 mm thick stock. For thicknesses above 38 mm and up to 75 mm the relative
humidity should be 5% higher, and for timbers greater than 75 mm thick, the relative humidity
should be 10% higher.

Schedule A

Temperature
Moisture content (%) of the Relative
wettest timber on the air inlet side Dry-bulb Wet-bulb humidity (%)
at which changes are to be made (Approx.)
OF °C OF °C
Green 95 35 87 30.5 70
60 95 35 83 28.5 60
40 100 38 84 29 50
30 110 43.5 88 31.5 40
20 120 48.5 92 34 35
15 140 60 105 40.5 30

XVI
Schedule B

Temperature
Moisture content (%) of the Relative
wettest timber on the air inlet side Dry-bulb Wet-bulb humidity (%)
at which changes are to be made (Approx.)
of °C of °C

Green 105 40.5 101 38 85


40 105 40.5 99 37 80
30 110 43.5 102 39 75
25 115 46 105 40.5 70
20 130 54.5 115 46 60
15 140 60 118 47.5 50

Schedule C

Temperature
Moisture content (%) of the Relative
wettest timber on the air inlet side Dry-bulb Wet-bulb humidity (%)
at which changes are to be made (Approx.)
OF °C of °C

Green 105 40.5 101 38 85


60 105 40.5 99 37 80
40 110 43.5 102 39 75
35 110 43.5 100 38 70
30 115 46 103 39.5 65
25 125 51.5 109 43 60
20 140 60 118 47.5 50
15 150 65.5 121 49 40

Schedule D

Temperature
Moisture content (%) of the Relative
wettest timber on the air inlet side Dry-bulb Wet-bulb humidity (%)
at which changes are to be made (Approx.)
of °C of °C

Green 105 40.5 101 38 85


60 105 40.5 99 37 80
40 105 40.5 96 35.5 70
35 110 43.5 97 36 60
30 115 46 97 36 50
25 125 51.5 101 38 40
20 140 60 105 40.5 30
15 150 65.5 112 44.5 30

xvii
Schedule E

Temperature
Moisture content (%) of the Relative
wettest timber on the air inlet side Dry-bulb Wet-bulb humidity (%)
at which changes are to be made (Approx.)
OF °C of °C

Green 120 48.5 115 46 85


60 120 48.5 113 45 80
40 125 51.5 116 46.5 75
30 130 54.5 117 47 65
25 140 60 120 49 55
20 155 68 127 53 45
15 170 76.5 136 58 40

Schedule F

Temperature
Moisture content (%) of the Relative
wettest timber on the air inlet side Dry-bulb Wet-bulb humidity (%)
at which changes are to be made (Approx.)
OF °C OF °C

Green 120 48.5 111 44 75


60 120 48.5 109 43 70
40 125 51.5 109 43 60
30 130 54.5 109 43 50
25 140 60 115 46 45
20 155 68 124 51 40
15 170 76.5 136 58 40

Schedule G

Temperature
Moisture content (%) of the Relative
wettest timber on the air inlet side Dry-bulb Wet-bulb humidity (%)
at which changes are to be made (Approx.)
OF °C OF °C

Green 120 48.5 115 45 85


60 120 48.5 113 45 80
40 130 54.5 123 50.5 80
30 140 60 131 55 75
25 160 . 71 146 63.5 70
20 170 76.5 147 64 55
15 180 82 144 62.5 40

XVlll
ScheduleH

Temperature
Moisture content (%) of the Relative
wettest timber on the air inlet side Dry-bulb Wet-bulb humidity (%)
at which changes are to be made (Approx.)
of °C of °C

Green 135 57 127 53 80


50 135 57 126 52 75
40 140 60 126 52 65
30 150 65.5 129 54 55
20 170 76.5 136 58 40

Schedule J

Temperature
Moisture content (%) of the Relative
wettest timber on the air inlet side Dry-bulb Wet-bulb humidity (%)
at which changes are to be made (Approx.)
of °C of °C

Green 135 57 123 50.5 70


50 135 57 119 48 60
40 140 60 118 47.5 50
30 150 65.5 121 49 40
20 170 76.5 127 53 30

(ix) Uses

As far as possible, the uses quoted here in the text refer to existing uses. However, as the utilisation
of Malaysian timbers has not reach its full potential, many timbers remain unutilised or underutilised.
For such timbers, their potential uses as judged from their properties are presented here.
Patterns of utilisation are forever changing, and the uses mentioned herein may become obsolete
while new uses may be found. Timbers that are not currently utilised may develop into viable
commercial entities in the future due to new technological advances.

(x) Abbreviations used in the dictionary

The abbreviations used in this dictionary contain some commonly used terms as well as some that
are indicative of geographical localities. These are as follows:

Approx. approximate(1y)
ASEAN Association of South-East Asian Nations
e.g. for example (exempli gratia)
f. forma
F.R. Forest Reserve
FRIM Forest Research Institute Malaysia

XIX
ha hectare
i.e. that is (id est)
Jh. Johore (Johor)
Kd. Kedah
kg kilogram(s)
Kl. Kelantan
Lk. Langkawi Island
m metre(s)
Ml. Malacca (Melaka)
mm millimetre(s)
MPa megapascal
Mt. Mount
NS. N egeri Sembilan
Pg. Penang (Pulau Pinang)
Ph. Pahang
Pk. Perak
P.M. Peninsular Malaysia
Ps. Perlis
q.v. which see (quod vide)
s.l. in a wide sense (sensu lata)
s.s. in the narrow sense (sensu stricto)
Sab. Sabah
Sar. Sarawak
Sl. Selangor
sp(P). species
subfam. subfamily
subsp. subspecies
syn. synonym
Tr. Terengganu
var. variety
viz. namely (videlicet)

xx
BIBLIOGRAPHY

Adema, F. 2000. Notes on Malesian Fabaceae (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae). 7. The genus


Millettia. Blumea 45(2): 403-426.
Anderson, 1. A. R. 1980. A Check List of the Trees of Sarawak. Forest Department Sarawak,
Kuching. 364 pp.
Ani Sulaiman & Lim, S. C. 1989. Some timber characteristics of Gmelina arborea grown in a
plantation in Peninsula Malaysia. J. Trop. For. Sci. 2(2):135-14l.
Ani Sulaiman & Lim, S. C. 1990. Malaysian Timbers: Keranji. Timber Trade Leaflet No. 112.
The Malaysian Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur.
7pp.
Ani Sulaiman & Lim, S. C. 1991a. Ara: A Decorative Lesser-known Timber in Malaysia. Timber
Digest No. 123. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 2 pp.
Ani Sulaiman & Lim, S. C. 1991 b. Lesser-known Timbers: XXII Pelawan. Timber Digest No. 122.
Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 2 pp.
Ani Sulaiman & Lim, S. C. 1991c. Malaysian Timbers: Kungkur. Timber Trade Leaflet No. 114.
The Malaysian Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur.
7pp.
Ani Sulaiman & Lim, S. C. 1992. Wood quality study of rubberwood at different ages and clones.
Pp. 39-50 in Anonymous (ed.) Report on Properties and Utilisation of Rubberwood from
Trees ofDifferent Age Groups. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur.
Ani Sulaiman & Lim, S. C. 1993. Variation in specific gravity of five-year-old Acacia mangium
from Batu Arang Plantation, Selangor. J. Trop. For. Sci. 6(2): 203-206.
Anonymous. 1974a. Final Report of the Committee on the Standardization of Malaysian Timber
Names. Unpublished Report. Forest Department, Kuala Lumpur. 52 pp.
Anonymous. 1974b Master List ofASEAN Timbers. Unpublished paper. Forest Research Institute,
Kuala Lumpur. 52 pp.
Anonymous. 1984. The Malaysian Grading Rules for Sawn Hardwood Timbers. The Malaysian
Timber Industry Board, Kuala Lumpur. 109 pp.
Anonymous. 1986. 100 Malaysian Timbers. The Malaysian Timber Industry Board, Kuala Lumpur.
226pp.
Anonymous. 1993. FRIM Research Report 1992. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur.
171 pp.
Anonymous. 1994. FRIM Research Report 1993. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur.
233 pp.
Anonymous. 1996. FRIM Research Report 1995. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur.
208 pp.
Anonymous. (undated). A Brief Description of Additional Timbers from Sarawak. Forest
Department, Kuching. 11 pp.
Arifiani, D. 2001. Taxonomic revision of Endiandra (Lauraceae) in Borneo. Blumea 46(1):
99-124.
Ashton, P. S. 1988. Manual of the Non-Dipterocarps of Sarawak. Forest Department Sarawak,
Kuching. 490 pp.
Azuma, H., Garcia-Franco, 1. G., Rico-Gray, V. & Thien, L. B. 200l. Molecular phylogeny of
Magnoliaceae: The biogeography of tropical and temperate disjunctions. Amer. J. Bot. 88(12):
2275-2285.
Bollendorff, S. M., Van Welzen, P. C. & Slik, 1. W. F. 2000. A taxonomic revision of Mallotus sect.
Polyadenii (Euphorbiaceae). Blumea 45(2): 319-340.
Brummitt, R. K. 1992. Vascular Plant Families and Genera. Royal Botanic Garden, Kew. 804 pp.

XXI
Burgess, H. 1. 1958. Strength Grouping of Malaysian Timbers. Malayan Forest Service Trade
Leaflet No. 25. The Malaysian Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia,
Kuala Lumpur. 15 pp.
Burgess, P. F. 1966. Timbers ofSa bah. Sabah Forest Records No.6. Forest Department, Sandakan.
501 pp.
Choo, K. T., Gan, K. S. & Lim, S. C. 1998. Movement of Seasoned Timber in Service. FRIM
Technical Information Handbook No. 18. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur.
14 pp.
Choo, K. T. & Lim, S. C. 1982. Malaysian Timbers: Dark Red Meranti. Timber Trade Leaflet No.
69. The Malaysian Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala
Lumpur. 14 pp.
Choo, K. T. & Lim, S. C. 1983. Malaysian Timbers: Light Red Meranti. Timber Trade Leaflet No.
75. The Malaysian Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala
Lumpur. 11 pp.
Choo, K. T. & Lim, S. C. 1986a. Malaysian Timbers: Gerutu. Timber Trade Leaflet No.1 0 1. The
Malaysian Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 8
pp.
Choo, K. T. & Lim, S. C. 1986b. Malaysian Timbers: White Meranti. Timber Trade Leaflet No.
102. The Malaysian Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala
Lumpur. 12 pp.
Choo, K. T. & Lim, S. C. 1988. Malaysian Timbers: Yellow Meranti. Timber Trade Leaflet No.
107. The Malaysian Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala
Lumpur. 9 pp.
Choo, K. T. & Sim, H. C. 1981. Malaysian Timbers: Keruing. Timber Trade Leaflet No. 48.
The Malaysian Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur.
18 pp.
Chung, R. C. K. 1996. Taxonomic notes on Erythroxylum (Erythroxylaceae) in Malesia. Sandakania
7: 67-80.
Chung, R. C. K. 1998. New species of Helicia Lour. and Heliciopsis Sleumer (Proteaceae) from
Borneo. Gard. Bull. Sing. 50(2): 151-160.
Chung, R. C. K. 2001. Taxonomic notes on the Bornean Helicia and Heliciopsis (Proteaceae). J.
Trop. For. Sci. 13(3): 534-547.
Chung, R. C. K. & Latiff, A.1996. A new species record of Mastixia (Cornaceae) in Peninsular
Malaysia. J. Trop. For. Sci. 9(2): 271-275.
Conn, B. 1. (ed.). 1995. HandbookS ofthe Flora ofPapua New Guinea. Vol. 3. Melbourne University
Press, Melbourne. 292 pp.
Coode, M. 1. E., Dransfield, 1., Forman, L. L., Kirkup, D. W. & Idris, M. S. (eds.). 1996. A Checklist
of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Brunei Darussalam. Ministry of Industry and
Primary Resources, Bnnei Darussalam. 477 pp.
Daljeet, S., Tam, M. K. & Mohd. Dahlan Jantan. 1989. The durability of creosote-treated Malaysian
timbers. J. Trop. For. Sci. 1(3):193-200.
Desch, H. E. 1941-1954. Manual of Malayan Timbers. Vols. 1 & 2. Malayan Forest Records
No.l5. Malayan Publishing House Ltd., Singapore. 762 pp.
Engku Abdul Rahman Chik. ,1988a. Basic and Grade Stresses for Some Malaysian Timbers.
Malayan Forest Service Trade Leaflet No. 37. The Malaysian Timber Industry Board and
Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 37 pp.
Engku Abdul Rahman Chik. 1988b. Basic and Grade Stresses for Strength Groups ofMalaysian
Timbers. Malayan Forest Service Trade Leaflet No. 38. The Malaysian Timber Industry Board
and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 13 pp.

xxii
Figlar, R. B. 2000. Proleptic branch initiation in Michelia and Magnolia subgenus Yulania provides
basis for combinations in subfamily Magnolioideae. Pp. 14-25 in Liu, Y. Y. et al. (eds.) Proc.
Internat. Symp. Fam. Magnoliaceae. Science Press, Beijing.
Flora Malesiana Editorial COlIlUlittee. 1994. Revision: Sapindaceae. Flora Malesiana, Series I,
Vol. 11, part 3. Flora Malesiana Foundation, Leiden. Pp. 419-768.
Flora Malesiana Editorial Committee. 1995. Revision: Meliaceae. Flora Malesiana, Series I, Vol.
12, part 1. Flora Malesiana Foundation, Leiden. Pp. 1-408.
Flora Malesiana Editorial Committee. 1996. Revisions: Caesalpiniaceae, Geitonoplesiaceae,
Hemandiaceae, and Lowiaceae. Flora Malesiana, Series I, Vol. 12, part 2. Flora Malesiana
Foundation, Leiden. Pp. 409-784.
Flora Malesiana Editorial Committee. 1997. Revisions: Boraginaceae, Daphniphyllaceae,
Illiciaceae, Loranthaceae, Raffiesiaceae, Schisandraceae, and Viscaceae. Flora Malesiana,
Series I, Vol. 13. Flora Malesiana Foundation, Leiden. Pp. 1-454.
Flora Malesiana Editorial Committee. 1999. Revision: Myristicaceae. Flora Malesiana, Series I,
Vol. 14. Flora Malesiana Foundation, Leiden. Pp. 1-634.
Fox, 1. E. D. 1998. Preferred Check-list of Sabah Trees. Second edition. (Revised by Lee, Y. F.).
Sabah Forest Records No.7. Sabah Forest Department, Sandakan. 110 pp.
Grewal, G. S. 1979a. Air Seasoning Properties ofSome Malaysian Timbers. Timber Trade Leaflet
No. 41. The Malaysian Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala
Lumpur. 26 pp.
Grewal, G. S. 1979b. Kiln-drying Characteristics ofSome Malaysian Timbers. Timber Trade Leaflet
No. 42. The Malaysian Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala
Lumpur. 20 pp.
Haegens, R. M. A. P. 2000. Taxonomy, phylogeny, and biogeography of Baccaurea, Distichirhops
and Nothobaccaurea (Euphorbiaceae). Blumea Suppl. 12: 1-218.
Ho, K. S. 1981. Malaysian Timbers: Merawan. Timber Trade Leaflet No. 53. The Malaysian
Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 10 pp.
Hong, L. T. & Lim, S. C. 1985. Rubberwood: Its Properties and Uses. Timber Digest No. 77.
Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 2 pp.
Hong, L. T. & Sim, H. C. (eds.). 1994. Rubberwood: Processing and Utilization. Malayan Forest
Records No. 39. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 248 pp.
Jackson, W. F. 1965. The Durability of Malayan Timbers. Timber Trade Leaflet No. 28. The
Malaysian Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur.
10 pp.
Kim, S., Park, C. w., Kim, Y. D. & Suh, Y. 2001. Phylogenetic relationships in family Magnoliaceae
inferred from ndhF sequences. Amer. J Bot. 88(4): 717-728.
Kostermans, A. J. G. H. & Bompard, 1. M. 1993. The Mangoes: Their Botany, Nomenclature,
Horticulture and Utilization. Academic Press Limited, London. 233 pp.
Lee, Y. H. & Chu, Y. P. 1974. Commercial Timbers ofPeninsular Malaysia. Department of Forestry,
Peninsular Malaysia and The Malaysian Timber Industry Board, Kuala Lumpur. 137 pp.
Lee, Y. H., Engku Abdul Rahman Chik & Chu, Y. P. 1979. The Strength Properties of Some
Malaysian Timbers. Second revision. Timber Trade Leaflet No. 34. The Malaysian Timber
Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 107 pp.
Lee, Y. H. & Lopez, D. T. 1980. The Machining Properties of Some Malaysian Timbers. First
revision (Revised by Lopez, D. T.). Timber Trade Leaflet No. 35. The Malaysian Timber Industry
Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 31 pp.
Lemmens, R. H. M. J., Soerianegara, I. & Wong, W. C. (eds.). 1995. Plant Resources ofSouth East
Asia 5(2) Timber Trees: Minor Commercial Timbers. Buckhuys Publishers, Leiden. 655 pp.
Lim, S. C. 1980. The Structure of Wood and Its Influence in Utilisation: I General. Timber Digest
No. 30. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 2 pp.

XXlll
Lim, S. C. 1982a. Defects in Wood. Timber Digest No. 43. Forest Research Institute Malaysia,
Kuala Lumpur. 2 pp.
Lim, S. C. 1982b. End-use of Malaysian timbers: II wall panels and partitions. Malay. For. 45(2):
263-268.
Lim, S. C. 1982c. Malaysian Timbers: Resak. Timber Trade Leaflet No. 62. The Malaysian Timber
Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 9 pp.
Lim, S. C. 1982d. Malaysian Timbers: Simpoh. Timber Trade Leaflet No. 67. The Malaysian
Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 9 pp.
Lim, S. C. 1983a. End-uses of Malaysian timbers: IV flooring. Malay. For. 46(2): 278-285.
Lim, S. C. 1983b. Malaysian Timbersfor Wall Panels and Partitions. Timber Trade Leaflet No.
71. The Malaysian Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala
Lumpur. 9 pp.
Lim, S. C. 1983c. The Structure of Wood and Its Influence in Utilisation: II Wood Working and
Machining Properties. Timber Digest No. 51. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur.
4pp.
Lim, S. C. 1984a. Malaysian Timbers for Flooring. Timber Trade Leaflet No. 81. The Malaysian
Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 10 pp.
Lim, S. C. 1984b. Malaysian Timbers: Giam. Timber Trade Leaflet No. 84. The Malaysian Timber
Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 8 pp.
Lim, S. C. 1984c. Malaysian Timbers: Kasai. Timber Trade Leaflet No. 92:The Malaysian Timber
Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 8 pp.
Lim, S. C. 1984d. Malaysian Timbers: Kelat. Timber Trade Leaflet No. 88. The Malaysian Timber
Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 8 pp.
Lim, S. C. 1984e. The Structure of Wood and Its Influence in Utilisation: III Seasoning and
Preservation of Wood. Timber Digest No. 67. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur.
2 pp.
Lim, S. C. 1985a. Lesser-known Timbers: XIII Merbatu. Timber Digest No. 75. Forest Research
Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 2 pp.
Lim, S. C. 1985b. Lesser-known Timbers: XIV Derum. Timber Digest No. 76. Forest Research
Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 2 pp.
Lim, S. C. 1986. Lesser-known Timbers: XV Podo. Timber Digest No. 78. Forest Research Institute
Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 2 pp.
Lim, S. C. 1987a. Lesser-known Timbers: XVII Delek. Timber Digest No. 81, Forest Research
Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 2 pp.
Lim, S. C. 1987b. Malaysian Timbers: Kembang Semangkok. Timber Trade Leaflet No. 105. The
Malaysian Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 7 pp.
Lim, S. C. 1987c. Resak or balau: a confusion that need not be. Timber Trade Rev. 16 (1):18-19.
Lim, S. C. 1988a. Lesser-known Timbers: XVIII Cempaka. Timber Digest No. 89. Forest Research
Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 2 pp.
Lim, S. C. 1988b. Malaysian timbers for wooden tool handles. J. Trop. For. Sci. 1(1): 16-25.
Lim, S. C. 1988c. Malaysian Timbers: Mempisang. Timber Trade Leaflet No. 106. The Malaysian
Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 8 pp.
Lim, S. C. 1988d. The Genuine Chengal. Timber Digest No. 90. Forest Research Institute Malaysia,
Kuala Lumpur. 2 pp.
Lim, S. C. 1988e. The Structure of Wood and Its Influence in Utilisation: IV Strength Properties
and Durability. Timber Digest No. 91. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 2 pp.
Lim, S. C. 1989a. Lesser-known Timbers: XVI Kekabu. Timber Digest No. 100. Forest Research
Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 2 pp.
Lim, S. C. 1989b. Malaysian Timbers: Bitis. Timber Trade Leaflet No. 110. The Malaysian Timber
Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 6 pp.

xxiv
Lim, S. C. 1991. Malaysian TImbers: Bakau. Timber Trade Leaflet No. 115. The Malaysian Timber
Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 5 pp.
Lim, S. C. 1994. The characteristics and properties of rubberwood. Paper presented at the Bengkel
Pemerosesan dan Penggunaan Kayu Getah, 4-6 January 1994, Kuching, Sarawak. 7 pp.
Lim, S. C. 1996. Density and some anatomical features ofthe stem and branch woods of rubber
trees. J. Trap. For. Prod. 2(1): 56-63.
Lim, S. C. & Ani Sulaiman. 1990. Lesser-known TImbers: XX Nyatoh Kuning. Timber Digest No.
120. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 2 pp.
Lim, S. C. & Ani Sulaiman. 1991. Lesser-known TImbers: XXI Surian Batu. Timber Digest No.
121. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 2 pp.
Lim, S. C. & Ani Sulaiman. 1994. Lesser-known TImbers: XXIII Kasah. Timber Digest No. 132.
Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 2 pp.
Lim, S. C. & Fujiwara, T. 1997. Density variation in two clones ofrubberwood planted at three
different spacings. J. Trop. For. Prod. 3(2): 150-156.
Lim, S. C. & Lau, L. C. 1982. Further siliceous woods in Peninsular Malaysia. Malay. For. 45 (1):
263-268.
Lim, S. C. & Mohd. Nadzri Yusoff. 1995. Tension wood in the stems and branches ofrubberwood
(Hevea brasiliensis). J. Trap. For. Prod. 1(2): 222-225.
Lopez, D. T. 1981a. Malaysian TImbers: Red Balau. Timber Trade Leaflet No. 45. The Malaysian
Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 7 pp.
Lopez, D. T. 1981 b. Malaysian TImbers: Mengkulang. Timber Trade Leaflet No. 47. Forest Research
Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 7 pp.
Lopez, D. T. 1981 c. Malaysian TImbers: Mersawa. Timber Trade Leaflet No. 56. The Malaysian
Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 8 pp.
Lopez, D. T. 1992. The Resistance to Splitting in Nailing Some Malaysian TImbers. Timber Trade
Leaflet No. 39. The Malaysian Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia,
Kuala Lumpur. 12 pp.
MabberJey, D. J. 1997. The Plant Book. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 858 pp.
Menon, P. K. B. 1986. Uses of Some Malaysian TImbers. Revised by Lim, S. C. Timber Trade
Leaflet No. 31. The Malaysian Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia,
Kuala Lumpur. 48 pp.
Menon, P. K. B. 1988. Equivalent Woods. Timber Trade Leaflet No. 32. The Malaysian Timber
Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 59 pp.
Menon, P. K. B. 1993. Structure and Identification ofMalayan Woods. Revised by Ani Sulaiman
& Lim, S. C. Malayan Forest Records No. 25. Forest Research Institute Malaysia. 123 pp.
Mohd. Dahlan Jantan & Tam, M. K. 1987. Natural Durability of MalaYSian TImbers. Timber
Trade Leaflet No. 28. Malaysian Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia,
Kuala Lumpur.12 pp.
Ng, F. S. P. (ed.). 1978. Tree Flora ofMalaya. Vol. 3. Malayan Forest Records No. 26. Longman
Malaysia Bhd., Kuala Lumpur. 339 pp.
Ng, F. S. P. (ed.). 1989. Tree Flora ofMalaya. Vol. 4. Malayan Forest Records No. 26. Longman
Malaysia Bhd., Kuala Lumpur. 549 pp.
Nooteboom, H. P. 2000. Different looks at the classification ofMagnoliaceae. Pp. 2~37 in Liu, Y. Y.
et al. (eds.) Proc. Internat. Symp. Fam. Magnoliaceae. Science Press, Beijing.
Selvaraj, P. & Muhammad Abu Bakar. 1980. A Checklist ofPlantation Trials in Peninsular Malaysia.
Research Pamphlet No. 79. Forest Research Institute, Kepong. 100 pp.
Ser, C. S. 1981 a. Malaysian TImbers: Kempas. Timber Trade Leaflet No. 44. The Malaysian Timber
Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 8 pp.
Ser, C. S. 1981 b. Malaysian TImbers: Kapur. Timber Trade Leaflet No. 46. Malaysian Timber
Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 9 pp.

xxv
Ser, C. S. 1981c. Malaysian TImbers: Jelutong. Timber Trade Leaflet No. 55. Malaysian Timber
Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 6 pp.
Ser, C. S. & Lim, S. c. 1980. Steam bending properties ofrubberwood.Malay. For. 43 (4): 506-510.
Sevilla, S. & Van Welzen, P. C. 2001. Revision and phylogeny of Agrastistachys and Chondrostylis
(Euphorbiaceae). Blumea 46(1): 71-98.
Sidiyasa, K. 1998. Taxonomy, phylogeny, and wood anatomy of Alstonia (Apocynaceae). Blumea
Suppl. 11: 1-230.
Slik, J. W. F. & Van Welzen, P. C. 2001. A taxonomic revision of Mallotus sections Hancea and
Stylanthus (Euphorbiaceae). Blumea 46(1): 3-66.
Soepadmo, E. & Saw, L. G. (eds.). 2000. Tree Flora ofSa bah and Sarawak. Vol. 3. Forest Research
Institute Malaysia, Sabah Forestry Department, and Sarawak Forestry Department, Kuala
Lumpur. 511 pp.
Soepadmo, E., Saw, L. G. & Chung, R. C. K. (eds.). 2002. Tree Flora ofSa bah and Sarawak. Vol.
4. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Sabah Forestry Department, and Sarawak Forestry
Department, Kuala Lumpur. 388 pp.
Soepadmo, E. & Wong, K. M. (eds.). 1995. Tree Flora of Sa bah and Sarawak. Vol. 1. Forest
Research Institute Malaysia, Sabah Forestry Department, and Sarawak Forestry Department,
Kuala Lumpur. 513 pp.
Soepadmo, E., Wong, K. M. & Saw, L. G. (eds.). 1996. Tree Flora of Sa bah and Sarawak. Vol. 2.
Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Sabah Forestry Department, and Sarawak Forestry
Department, Kuala Lumpur. 443 pp.
Soerianegara, I. & Lemmens, R. H. M. J. (eds.). 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No.
5(1) Timber Trees: Major Commercial Timbers. Pudoc Scientific Publishers, Wageningen.
610 pp.
Sosef, M. S. M., Hong, L. T. & Prawirohatmodjo, S. (eds.). 1998. Plant Resources of South-East
Asia No. 5(3) Timber Trees: Lesser-Known TImbers. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden. 859 pp.
Stephens, M. 1979. The Timbers of Xanthophyllum verrucosum (Minyak Berak), Melanorrhoea
torquata (Rengas) and Cyathocalyx maingayi (Mempisang). Timber Trade Leaflet No. 22.
Malaysian Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 10 pp.
Symington, C. F. 1974. Foresters' Manual of Dipterocarps. Reprinted. Malayan Forest Records.
No. 16. Penerbit Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur. 244 pp.
Tan, Y. E. & Lim, S. C. 1989. Malaysian TImbers: Terap. Timber Trade Leaflet No. 109. The
Malaysian Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 10 pp.
Thomas, A. V. 1954. Malayan Timbers: Bintangor, Geronggang and Terentang. Timber Trade
Leaflet No. 12. The Malaysian Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia,
Kuala Lumpur. 10 pp.
Thomas, A. V. 1958. Malayan Timbers: Chengal and Balau. Timber Trade Leaflet No. 20. The
Malaysian Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 4 pp.
Thomas, A. V. 1964. Malayan TImbers: Meranti TImber. Timber Trade Leaflet Nos. 8 & 9. The
Malaysian Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 6 pp.
Thomas, A. V. 1965. Malayan TImbers: Penarahan. Timber Trade Leaflet No. 18. The Malaysian
Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 4 pp.
Thomas, A. V. 1979. Malayan TImbers: Durian and Bengang. Timber Trade Leaflet No. 19. Third
reprinting. The Malaysian Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala
Lumpur. 4 pp.
Turner, I. M. 1995. A catalogue of the vascular plants of Malaya. Gard. Bull. Sing. 47(1): 1-757.
Whitmore, T. C. (ed.). 1972. Tree Flora ofMalaya. Vol. 1. Malayan Forest Records No. 26. Longman
Malaysia Sdn. Bhd., Kuala Lumpur. 471 pp.
Whitmore, T. C. (ed.). 1973. Tree Flora ofMalaya. Vol. 2. Malayan Forest Records No. 26. Longman
Malaysia Sdn. Bhd., Kuala Lumpur. 444 pp.

xxvi
Wong, K. M. 1984. The genera of Peninsular Malaysian Rubiaceae formerly confused with Randia.
Malay. Nat. J. 38: 1-57.
Wong, T. M. 1974. A marketing strategy for Malaysian timbers. Malay. For. 37 (4): 244-262.
Wong, T. M. 19-75. Wood Structure ofthe Lesser-known Timbers ofPeninsular Malaysia. Malayan
Forest Records No. 28. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 115 pp.
Wong, T. M. 1981a. Malaysian Timbers: Damar Minyak. Timber Trade Leaflet No. 43. The
Malaysian Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 5 pp.
Wong, T. M. 1981b. Malaysian Timbers: Nyatoh. Timber Trade Leaflet No. 54. The Malaysian
Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 12 pp.
Wong, T. M. & Lim, S. C. 1983. Interxylary phloem in Cynometra. Malay. For. 46(1): 93-97.
Wong, W. C. & Lim, S. C. 1988. The properties and utilisation of durian timber. Paper presented
at the Symposium on Durian, King ofthe Tropical Fruits, 26-27 August 1988, Universiti Sains
Malaysia, Penang. 10 pp.
Wong, W. C. & Lim, S. C. 1990. Malaysian Timbers: Durian. Timber Trade Leaflet No. 113. The
Malaysian Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 12 pp.
Wyatt-Smith, J. 1999. Pocket Check-list ofTimber Trees. Fourth edition. (Revised by Kochummen,
K. M.). Malayan Forest Records No. 17. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur.
367 pp.

XXVll
The Dictionary
A
Abang (Sab.) = Shorea beccariana = DARK RED MERANTI.
Acacia - A genus of shrubs or small to medium-sized trees up to 35(-39) m tall and 100 cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Leguminosae. The genus does not occur naturally in Malaysia.
The species of A. mangium was first introduced into Sabah in 1966 in trial plots and firebreak.
Acacia mangium has been widely planted in Peninsular Malaysia as a source of plantation
timber since the early 1980s. The timber of this species is commonly known as acacia. It is
light to moderately heavy with a density of 290-580 kg m-3 air dry. Density of the timber at
various ages has been reported as shown in the table below:

Age (year) Average/range density (kg m-3) Location

2 421 FRIM
5 290-500 Batu Arang, Selangor
6 340-500 DIu Sedili, lohore
8 350-580 DIu Sedili, lohore
8 530 Indonesia
9 389-535 Sabah
9 420 Sabah
9 483 Sabah
12 570 Sabah

The sapwood is white and clearly demarcated from the heartwood, which is light to dark
brown. Texture is moderately fine and even with straight to shallowly interlocked grain. The
timber is moderately strong (Strength group C). It has been reported to machine and plane well
with smooth finish. The timber can be kiln-dried well and fairly rapidly without serious defects.
Shrinkage is very high, especially in the tangential direction. Radial shrinkage averages 2.7%
and tangential shrinkage averages 6.4%. Movement in service is classified under Type III. The
timber is non-durable in exposed weather conditions.
USES: The timber is suitable for light construction works, agricultural tool handles, veneer and
plywood, furniture and cabinets and other light utility purposes.
Acer -A genus of medium-sized to large trees, up to 21(-50) m tall and 50(-70) cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Aceraceae. Acer laurinum is the only species recorded in Malaysia.
The timber of this species is moderately hard and moderately heavy with a density of
400-720 kg m-3 air dry and an average density of 608 kg m-3 air dry. The heartwood is light
yellow, yellow-red or pale brown with pink or grey tinge and is not clearly differentiated from
the sapwood. Texture is rather fine and even with straight to slightly interlocked grain.
USES: The timber has not been tested in FRIM but basing on the test results on similar genus
elsewhere, the timber may be suitable for use in furniture, veneer and plywood and other general
utility purposes. It may prove useful for small objects like household utensils and picture frames.
Vernacular names applied include perdu (Sar.).

3
Actinodaphne - A genus of shrubs or small to medium-sized trees up to 30(--40) m tall and 80 cm
in diameter, belonging to the family Lauraceae. The timber is grouped together with the other
lightweight members of the family and sold as MEDANG (q. v.). The timber is a light hardwood
with a density of 430-815 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is moderately sharply differentiated
from the heartwood, which is light yellow-green to dark olive-green. Other properties and uses
of the timber are described under MEDANG. Vernacular names applied include medang
(P.M., Sab. and Sar.) with various epithets, especially medang kuning (P.M.) and medang kunyit
(P.M.) are usually applied to the genus. Major species include A. glomerata, A. macrophylia,
A. malaccensis, A. pruinosa, A. sesquipedalis and A. sphaerocarpa.
Adenanthera - A genus of small to medium-sized trees up to 30(--40) m tall and 100(-200) m in
diameter, belonging to the family Leguminosae. The vernacular name for the tree and timber is
SAGA (q. v.), with various epithets. However, the name saga is also applicable to the tree and
timber of Ormosia spp. The timber is very hard and very heavy with a density of 595-11 00 kg m-3
air dry. The sapwood is straw-coloured and is sharply differentiated from the heartwood, which
is bright yellow when fresh, turning to golden brown or dark red-brown on exposure. Other
properties and uses of the timber are described under SAGA. Vernacular names applied include
rawal (Sab.), saga daun tajam (P.M.), saga daun tumpul (P.M.), saga hitam (P.M.), saga paya
(Sar.) and timbarayong (Sab.). Major species include A. kostermansii, A. malayana,
A. microsperma and A. pavon ina.
Adinandra - A genus of shrubs or usually small to medium-sized trees or rarely large trees up to
30(--43) m tall and 80(-100) cm in diameter, belonging to the family Theaceae. The Standard
Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN Standard Name for the timber is SAMAK (q. v.).
However, the name samak is also applicable to the tree and timber of Gordonia spp. and Schima
spp. The timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy with a density of 530-860 kg m-3 air
dry. The sapwood is lighter in colour than but is not clearly differentiated from the heartwood,
which is grey-brown with a purple tinge to dark red-brown. Other properties and uses of the
timber are described under SAMAK. Vernacular names applied include bangkao (Sab.), bangkau
(Sab.), bawing (Sab.), jalong (P.M.), kandis burong (P.M.), legai (Sar.), mengkula (P.M.),
merapoh (P.M.), semapak (SaL), tetiup (P.M.) and tiup-tiup (P.M.). Major species include
A. acuminata,A. caudatifolia,A. ciemensiae,A. collina,A. cordifolia,A. dumosa,A. integerrima,
A. maculosa, A. myrioneura, A. sarosanthera and A. villosa.
A/zelia - A genus of small to medium-sized trees up to 25 m tall and 80 cm in diameter, belonging
to the family Leguminosae. The timber is a heavy hardwood. The Standard Malaysian Name
for the timber is IPIL (q. v.). The timber is heavy and hard with a density of 850--900 kg m-3 air
dry. The heartwood is reddish yellow, red to dirty red-brown, often with some streaks and
distinct from the sapwood, which is grey-white. Other properties and uses of the timber are
described under IPIL. Vernacular names applied include ipil darat (Sab.) and merbau tanduk
(Sab.). Two species occur in the Malesian region and are confined to eastern Sumatra, western
Java, western and northern Borneo and the Philippines. Only one species is recorded for Sabah
and Sarawak, viz. A. rhomboidea.
Agathis - A genus of medium-sized to very large trees up to 60(-65) m tall and 100 cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Araucariaceae. The timber is a softwood. The Standard
Malaysian Name for the timber is DAMAR MINYAK (q. v.). The timber is soft and light with a
density of 360-660 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not distinct from the heartwood, which is
buff or cream, sometimes with a pinkish tinge. Other properties and uses of the timber are
described under DAMAR MINYAK. Vernacular names applied include bindang (Sar.),
bulok (Sar.), bulu (Sar.), kayu jadi (Sar.), Malayan kauri (P.M.), manggilan (Sab.), Sabah
agathis (Sab.), sa lang (Sab.), tangilan (Sab.), tubu (SaL), tumu (SaL),
tumuh (Sar.) and tungilan (Sab.). Eleven (11) species occur in the Malesian region. The major

4
species of the genus in Malaysia includeA. borneensis,A. endertii,A.jlavescens,A. kinabaluensis,
A. lenticula and A. orbicula.
Agar-agar (Sab.) = Neoscortechinia philippinensis.
Aglaia - A genus of small to medium-sized or sometimes large trees up to 40(-50) m tall and
160(-200) cm in diameter, belonging to the family Meliaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name
for the timber is BEKAK (q.v.) or PASAK (q.v.). Aglaia is divided into two sections on the
basis of whether the fruits are dehiscent, viz. sect. Aglaia and sect. Amoora. Section Amoora
with dehiscent fruits was formerly regarded as a separate genus and coincides more or less
with the timber bekak, which is often kept separate from the timber pasak.
Bekaktimber is hard and moderately heavy to heavy with a density of705-1025 kg m-3 air
dry. The sapwood is straw-coloured and is sharply differentiated from the heartwood, which is
brick-red or dark red and becomes dark red-brown or walnut-brown on exposure. Other properties
and uses of the timber are described under BEKAK. Vernacular names applied include
kedondong kijau (P.M.), lantupak paya (Sab.), merelang (P.M.), pasak lingga (P.M.), segera
(Sar.), which includes other members of the family and lantupak (Sab.), which also includes
other members of the family. Major species include A. lawii, A. macrocarpa, A. malaccensis,
A. multinervis, A. rubiginosa and A. spectabilis.
Pasak timber is hard and heavy to very heavy with a density of 770-995 kg m-3 air dry. The
sapwood is pale yellow-brown, light straw-coloured or light pink-brown and is moderately to
sharply differentiated from the heartwood, which is light red, orange-red or red-brown and
becomes dark red-brown or walnut-brown on exposure. Other properties and uses of the
timber are described under PASAK. Vernacular names applied include kalambiao (Sab.),
koping-koping (Sab.), langsat-langsat (Sab.), lantupak (Sab.), lantupak jambu (Sab.),
memberas (P.M.) andsegera (Sar.). Major species includeA. argentea,A. elliptica,A. exstipulata,
A. grandis, A. hiernii, A. odoratissima, A. palembanica and A. tomentosa.
AGOHO - The ASEAN Standard Name, which is of Philippine origin, for the timber of Casuarina
spp. (Casuarinaceae). The common Malaysian name for the timber is RU (q. v.).
Agrostistachys - A genus of small trees up to 15 m tall and 25 cm in diameter, belonging to the
family Euphorbiaceae. The common Malaysian name for the tree and timber is JENJULONG
(q.v.). The timber is medium to heavy with a density of685-940 kg m-3 air dry. The heartwood
is brown with a rose-pink tinge or light yellow and not clearly differentiated from the sapwood.
Other properties and uses of the timber are described under JENJULONG. Vernacular names
applied include beko-beko (P.M.), julong-julong (P.M.), julong-julong jan tan (P.M.), kayu
garang (Sab.), lidah kerbau (P.M.), nulong (P.M.) and nyonyolong (P.M.). Major species include
A. borneensis and A. gaudichaudii.
Ailanthus - A genus oflarge trees up to 60 m tall and 85(-175) cm in diameter, belonging to the
family of Simaroubaceae. The trees are rare and the timber is seldom used commercially. The
timber is a light hardwood and comparatively soft with a density of 330-435 kg m-3 air dry.
The heartwood is yellowish white to pale brown and not distinct from the sapwood. Texture is
moderately coarse and even, with straight to interlocked grain. The timber is easy to air- and
kiln-dry, although sometimes liable to develop fine long surface checks. The shrinkage is rather
low: radial shrinkage of 1-1.5% and tangential shrinkage of 2.3-4.0%. The timber is easy to
saw, work and polish. The timber is non-durable but easy to treat with preservatives.
USES: It has been reported that the resin, obtained by making incision in the bark, is used as
incense and medicinally in India. In Indo-China, the bark is burned as incense. The timber is
reported to be used for wooden shoes in the Philippines; fishing boat, sword handles and
spear-sheaths in India; and tea boxes in Sri Lanka. Other uses include furniture parts, laminated
wood, drawers, ceiling, core of plywood, interior trim, pattern making, fuel and charcoal.
There are two species of Ailanthus in Malaysia, viz. A. integrifolia and A. triphysa.

5
Akau (Sar.) = Species of Annonaceae = MEMPISANG.
Ako (Sar.) =Xylopia spp. = MEMPISANG.
Alai (P.M.) = Intsia palembanica = MERBAU.
ALAN - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Shorea albida of Sarawak
(Dipterocarpaceae). The species produces two distinct groups of timber, viz. ALAN BATU
(q.v.), which is the heavier and over-matured material and ALAN BUNGA (q. v.), which is the
normal and lighter material. This species is widely distributed in the peat swamp forests of
Sarawak.
ALAN BATU - The common trade name applied to the heavier forms of Shorea albida
(Dipterocarpaceae). The timber resembles the red balau of Peninsular Malaysia, but is
classified as a medium hardwood in Sarawak. The timber is hard and heavy with a density of
800-925 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is light greyish brown and merges gradually into the
heartwood, which is deep reddish brown. Texture is coarse and even, with straight to interlocked
grain. The timber is strong (Strength group B). It is easy to work and the planed surface is
smooth. The timber seasons well without any serious defects. Shrinkage is very high, especially
in the tangential direction. Radial shrinkage averages 2.2% while tangential shrinkage averages
6%. The timber is only moderately durable.
USES: The timber is suitable for medium to heavy construction under cover. It is also used in
Sarawak for boat building, flooring, interior finishing, panelling and moulding, furniture
manufacture and other types of joinery.
Vernacular names applied include empenit (Sar.), meraka (Sar.), meraka alan (Sar.),
sengawan (Sar.), seringawan (Sar.) and singawan batu (Sar.).
ALAN BUNGA - The common trade name applied to the lighter forms of Shorea albida
(Dipterocarpaceae). The timber resembles the light red meranti of Peninsular Malaysia and is
classified as a light hardwood in Sarawak. The timber is light to moderately heavy with a
density of575-640 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is light yellowish pink and not clearly defined
from the heartwood, which is pink or pinkish red. Texture is rather coarse but even, with usually
straight to interlocked grain. The timber is moderately strong (Strength group C). It works well
and the planed surface is smooth. The timber seasons well without any serious defects. Shrinkage
is very high, especially in the tangential direction. Radial shrinkage averages 1.2% and tangential
shrinkage averages 4.5%. The timber is non-durable.
USES: The timber is suitable for furniture manufacture, plywood, interior finishing, panelling,
mouldings,joinery and other general utility purposes.
Vernacular names applied include meranti bunga (Sar.) and singawan bunga (Sar.).
Alanagni (Sab.) = Myristica guatteriifolia = PENARAHAN.
Alangiaceae - A mono generic family of scattered occurrence and limited importance. The timber
produced is MENTULANG (Alangium spp.).
Alangium - A genus of shrubs or small to fairly large trees up to 40 m tall and 90 cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Alangiaceae. The common Malaysian name for the tree and
timber is MENTULANG (q.v.). The timber is moderately hard and heavy with a density of
440-1100 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is moderately differentiated from the heartwood, which
is chocolate to cinnamon-brown. Other properties and uses of the timber are described
under MENTULANG. Vernacular names applied include mentulang (P.M.) with various
epithets, dadam (Sar.), gadong hutan (Sab.),jadam (Sar.),jadam paya (Sar.),jenangan (Sar.),
kalong (P.M.), kondolon (Sab.), lidah kerbau (P.M.), lidah kerbau putih (P.M.), marapangi
(Sab.), midong (Sar.), salang rusa (P.M.), satu inchi (Sab.), sisit (Sar.), telor buaya (P.M) and
tinjau laut (P.M.). Major species include A. grifjithii, A. havilandii, A.javanicum var. ebenaceum,
A. kurzii, A. longiflorum, A. nobile, A. ridleyi and A. rotundifolium.

6
Albizia -A genus of shrubs or small to fairly large trees up to 35(-50) m tall and 100(-150) cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Leguminosae. The Standard Malaysian Names for the timber
are BATAI (q.v.) and KUNGKUR (q.v.).
Batai is the -Standard Malaysian Name for Albizia spp. and Paraserianthes falcataria (syn.:
Albizia falcataria). The timber is soft to hard and light to very heavy with a density of
270-880 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not always defined from the heartwood, which is
white to light brown with a pink tinge. Other properties and uses of the timber are described
under BATAI. Vernacular names applied appear to be very unifonn in that only batai with
various epithets is used throughout the country, e.g. batai batu (P.M., Sab. and Sar.)
and batai hutan (P.M.). Major species include Albizia chinensis, A. dolichandena, A. lebbeck,
A. pedicellata; and Paraserianthes falcataria.
Kungkur is the Standard Malaysian Name for Albizia splendens (syn.: Pithecellobium
splendens). The timber is a light hardwood with a density of 465-850 kg m-3 air dry.
The sapwood is white or light brown and is sharply defined from the heartwood, which is light
red-brown and darkens on exposure to a deep shade of brown. Other properties and uses of the
timber are described under KUNGKUR. Vernacular name for the timber is kungkur throughout
the country.
Alim (Sar.) = Mangifera pajang = MACHANG.
Aliput (Sar.) = Artocarpus lanceifolius = KELEDANG.
Allantospermum - A genus of medium-sized to fairly large trees up to 39(-90) m tall and 60 cm
in diameter, belonging to the family Simaroubaceae (some authors include the genus under the
family Ixonanthaceae). Only one species is found in Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo. In
Peninsular Malaysia, the tree is quite common in Bukit Bauk F.R. in Terengganu and also
apparently in parts of Bubu F.R. in Perak. The only species recorded is A. borneense and the
timber is known as nyalin in Sarawak.
Aloes wood (P.M.) = Aquilaria malaccensis = GARARU.
Alphonsea - A genus of shrubs or small to medium-sized trees up to 30 m tall and 65 cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Annonaceae. The timber is grouped together with other
members of the family and sold as MEMPISANG (q.v). The timber is classified as a light
hardwood with a density of 610-975 kg m-3 air dry. The heartwood is pale yellow-brown
with a green tinge and not well differentiated from the sapwood. Other properties and
uses ofthe timber are described under MEMPISANG. Vernacular names applied include
karai (Sab. and Sar.), pisang-pisang (P.M. and Sab.) and terbak (P.M.). Major species
include A. curtisii, A. elliptica, A. johorensis and A. maingayi.
Alseodaphne - A genus of small to medium-sized trees up to 30(-40) m tall and 60(-100) cm in
diameter, belonging to family Lauraceae. The timber is grouped together with the other
lightweight members of the family and sold as MEDANG (q. v.). The timber is classified as a
light hardwood with a density of 520-855 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is moderately sharply
differentiated from the heartwood that is olive-yellow to dark olive-green. Other properties and
uses of the timber are described under MEDANG. Medang (P.M., Sab. and Sar.), with various
epithets, are usually applied as the vernacular names to the species of the genus. Major species
includeA. albifrons,A. bancana,A. dura,A. insignis,A. intermedia,A. macrantha,A. montana,
A. nigrescens, A. oblanceolata, A. obovata, A. peduncularis, A. pendulifolia, A. perakensis
and A. ridleyi.
Alstonia - A genus of shrubs or small to large trees up to 50 m tall and 125 cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Apocynaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is PULAI
(q.v.). The timber is a light hardwood with a density of210-500 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is
not differentiated from the heartwood which is cream to light yellow in colour. The root wood
of A. pneumatophora and A. spatulata, known as basong, is among the lightest wood

7
in the world (50-80 kg m-3). Other properties and uses of the timber are described under
PULAI. Vernacular names applied include mergalang (Sar.), pelai (Sar.), pulai (P.M.,
Sab. and Sar.) with various epithets and sayongan (Sab.). Twelve (12) species occur in the
Malesian region. The major species of the genus in Malaysia include A. angustifolia,
A. angustiloba, A. macrophylla, A. pneumatophora, A. scholaris and A. spatulata.
Altingia - A genus of large trees up to 45 m tall and 100 cm in diameter, belonging to the family
Hamamelidaceae. The common Malaysian name for the timber is RASAMALA (q.v.). The
timber is medium to heavy in weight with a density of 61 0-900 kg m-3 air dry. The heartwood
is dark pinkish, red or reddish brown, gradually merging into the yellowish or reddish brown
sapwood. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under RASAMALA. No other
vernacular names have been recorded. Only a single species, A. excelsa, is represented in the
Malesian region (i.e. Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and West Java).
Amat (Sab.) = Tetramerista glabra = PUNAH.
Ambun-ambun (Sar.) = Anisophyllea disticha = DELEK.
Amoora - The genus has been reduced to Aglaia (sect. Amoora). See Aglaia.
Ampas tebu (Sab.) = Gironniera nervosa and G. parvifolia = KASAP.
Ampelam (P.M.) = Mangifera indica = MACHANG.
ANABIONG - The ASEAN Standard Name, which is of Philippine origin, for the timber of
Trema spp. (Ulmaceae). The common Malaysian name for the timber is MENARONG (q.v.).
Anacardiaceae - A very large family, producing many economically important timbers. Some
species of this family contain an irritant sap, which hampers the exploitation ofthe timbers; the
most notorious of these are Gluta and Melanochyla (RENGAS). Some species of this family
produce highly decorative timbers such as RENGAS, the corewood of MACHANG (Mangifera
spp.) and SENGKUANG (Dracontomelon dao) while other species such as KUNDANG (Bouea
spp.), LELAYANG (Parishia spp.), MERPAUH (Swintonia spp.), MUGIS (Koordersiodendron
pinnatum), PELAJAU (Pentaspadon spp.) and OTAK UDANG (Buchanania spp.) are good
general utility timbers.
Angar-angar (Sab.) = Crudia reticulata = MERBAU KERA.
Angilan hutan (Sab.) = Polyalthia xanthopetala = MEMPISANG.
Anglai (P.M.) = Intsia palembanica = MERBAU.
Angsana (P.M. and Sab.) = Pterocarpus indicus = SENA.
Anisophyllea - A genus of shrubs or small to occasionally fairly large trees up to 36 m
tall and 80 cm in diameter, belonging to the family Anisophylleaceae. The Standard Malaysian
Name for the timber is DELEK (q. v.). The timber is hard and very heavy with a density
of 800-980 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not clearly defined from the heartwood, which is
pink-brown to orange-brown. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under
DELEK. Vernacular names applied include delek (P.M.) with various epithets, hampas dadah
(P.M.), menengang (Sar.), mertama (Sar.), mopu (Sar.), sial menahun (Sar.), sireh-sireh (Sar.),
tengoda (Sar.) and other localised names too numerous to list here. Major species include
A. apetala, A. beccariana, A. corneri, A. disticha, A. jerruginea, A. grandis and A. grifjithii.
Anisoptera - A genus of medium-sized to very large trees up to 65 m tall and 150(-200) cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Dipterocarpaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name for
the timber is MERSAWA (q.v.). The timber is a light hardwood with a density
of 515-735 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not clearly defined from the heartwood, which is
light to dark yellow and darkens on exposure. Other properties and uses of the timber are
described under MERSAWA. Vernacular names applied include mersawa (P.M.) with various
epithets, pengiran (Sab.) with various epithets, terbak (Kd., Ps. and Kl.) and other localised
names, which are too numerous to be listed here. This genus consists of 11 species and is
distributed from Bangladesh eastwards towards Thailand and Vietnam and throughout Malesia

8
to New Guinea. Major species of the genus in Malaysia include A. costata, A. curtisii,
A. grossivenia, A. laevis, A. marginata, A. megistocarpa and A. scaphula.
Anjing ayer (P.M.) = Homalium caryophyllaceum = TELOR BUAYA.
Annonaceae - A large family producing a rather uniform timber which is collectively known as
MEMPISANG. A total of 26 genera have been recorded in Peninsular Malaysia. However,
only some genera (Alphonsea, Cyathocalyx, Kingstonia, Mezzettia, Mitrephora, Monocarpia,
Oncodostigma, Platymitra, Polyalthia andXylopia) can grow to timber size whereas others are
either shrubs or small trees.
Anthocephalus - There is controversy about the correct name of Anthocephalus chinensis and
even about the legitimacy of the generic name Anthocephalus. Here, the solution offering
nomenclatorial stability and which has recently gained more support is adopted. See
Neolamarckia.
Antiaris - A genus of small to large trees up to 45(-60) m tall and 180 cm in diameter, belonging
to the family Moraceae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is IPOH (q. v.). The tree
is more famous for the poisonous latex than for the wood. The timber is a light hardwood with
a density of 255-545 kg m-3 air dry The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood,
which is white to yellow in colour. Properties and uses of the timber are described under
IPOH. Vernacular names applied include ipoh (P.M.),paliu (Sab.) and tasem (Sar.). Antiaris is
a monotypic genus. Its only species, A. toxicaria, is found throughout the Old World tropics,
from West Africa to Madagascar, Sri Lanka, Indo-China, southern China, Thailand, throughout
the Malesian region, the Pacific (east to Fiji and Tonga) and northern Australia.
Antoi (P.M.) = Cyathocalyx spp. = MEMPISANG.
Antoi beludu (P.M.) = Cyathocalyx pruniferus = MEMPISANG.
Antoi itam (P.M.) = Cyathocalyx ramuliflorus = MEMPISANG.
Antoi j angkang (P.M.) = Xylopia ferruginea = MEMPISANG.
Antoi puteh 1 (P.M.) = Cyathocalyx pruniferus = MEMPISANG.
Antoi puteh 2 (P.M.) = Terminalia citrin a = KETAPANG.
Antuyut (Sar.) = Tetramerista glabra = PUNAH.
Apa-apa (P.M.) = Neesia spp. = DURIAN.
Apas (Sar.) = Koompassia malaccensis = KEMPAS.
API-API - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Avicennia spp. (Avicenniaceae). The
timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy to heavy with a density of 560-785 kg m-3 air
dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is grey-white with purple
tinge. Texture is coarse and uneven due to the presence of islands of included phloem. Grain is
straight to interlocked. The timber has not been tested in the FRIM, Kepong, but is reported to
be strong (Strength group B). It is reputed to be difficult to work, but seasons well. The timber
is non-durable.
USES: The timber is suitable for furniture manufacture because of the unique figure produced
by the layers of included phloem. Other uses include panelling, rice-pounders and as a special
firewood for smoking rubber and fish.
Vernacular names include api-api with various epithets. Major species include A. alba,
A. marina, A. officinalis and A. rumphiana.
Api-api bulu (P.M.) = Avicennia rumphiana = API-API.
Api-api hitam (Sar.) = Avicennia alba = API-API.
Api-api jambu (P.M.) = Avicennia marina = API-API.
Api-api ludat (P.M.) = Avicennia officinalis = API-API.
Api-api merah (Sar.) = Avicennia marina =; API-API.
Api-api puteh (P.M.) = Avicennia alba = API-API.
Api-api sudu (Sar.) = Avicennia officinalis = API-API.

9
Apid-apid (Sab.) = Excoecaria indica = BEBUTA.
Apocynaceae - A family consisting mainly of climbers, shrubs and a few large trees. Only two
timbers are of commercial importance, viz. JELUTONG (Dyera spp.) and PULAI (Alstonia spp.).
Other genera that attain tree size are Hunteria (GADING) and Kibatalia (JELUTONG PIPIT).
Aporosa - A genus of small to medium-sized trees up to 30(-50) m tall and 60 cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae. The common Malaysian name, which is of
Sarawakian origin, is KAYU MASAM (q. v.). The timber is medium weight with a density
of 570-890 kg m-3 air dry. The heartwood is pale yellow-brown to brown with orange
or purple-red tinges, not sharply differentiated from the sapwood. Other properties and uses of
the timber are described under KAYU MASAM. Vernacular names applied include bagil (Sab.),
galang-galang (Sab.), penatan (Sab.) and sebasah (P.M.). Major species include A. arborea,
A. aurea, A. benthamiana, A. bracteosa, A. dioica, A. elmeri, A. frutescens, A. grandistipulata,
A. nervosa, A. nigricans, A. nitida, A. prainiana and A. steWfera.
Aquifoliaceae - A very small family, represented in Malaysia by only one genus, viz. !lex. Only
a few species are of tree size. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is MENSIRAH.
Aquilaria - A genus of small to fairly large trees up to 20(-40) m tall and 60 cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Thyrnelaeaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is KARAS
(q. v.). The timber is soft and light with a density of335-400 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not
differentiated from the heartwood, which is creamy white in colour. The species occasionally
produces a fragrant resin-impregnated wood, which is highly prized as incense. This wood is
known as GAHARU (q. v.). Other properties and uses ofthe timber are described under KARAS
and GAHARU. Vernacular names applied include kekaras (P.M.), tengkaras (P.M.) for the
normal wood and aloes wood (P.M.) and eagle wood (P.M.) for the diseased wood. Only one
species is of importance, viz. A. malaccensis.
ARA - The common Malaysian name for the timber of Ficus spp. (Moraceae). The timber is soft
and light and it is classified as a light hardwood with a density of 350-640 kg m-3 air dry. The
sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is light yellow-brown or in various
shades of yellow to pink-grey. Texture is slightly coarse and uneven due to the presence of
abundant parenchyma. Grain is interlocked. The timber is weak (Strength group D). It is easy
to moderately easy to resaw and easy to cross-cut. Planing is easy and the surface produced is
smooth to moderately smooth. The timber seasons fairly rapidly, with a moderate amount of
twisting and a slight amount of cupping and bowing as the main sources of degrade. The timber
is also very prone to sapstain fungal attack. 13 mm boards take approximately 2.5 months to air
dry, while 38 mm boards take 3 months. Shrinkage is rather low, with radial shrinkage averaging
1% and tangential shrinkage averaging 2.2%. Movement in service is classified under Type II.
The timber is non-durable but is extremely easy to treat.
USES: The timber is suitable for low-grade plywood, disposable chopsticks, packing cases,
wooden sandals, panelling and turnery.
Vernacular names applied include arah (Sab.) and kayu ara (Sab.). Major species include
F callosa, Ffistulosa, F lamponga, F magnoliifolia, F microcarpa, F racemosa, F sundaica,
F superba, F tinctoria, F variegata, F vasculosa, F virens and F viridicarpa.
Ara berteh (P.M.) = Artocarpus spp. and Parartocarpus spp. = TERAP.
Ara berteh bukit (P.M.) = Parartocarpus bracteatus = TERAP.
Ara berteh paya (P.M.) = Parartocarpus venenosus = TERAP.
Ara bungkus (P.M.) = Ficus annulata = ARA.
Ara daun lebar (P.M.) = Ficus xylophylla = ARA.
Ara kebangan (P.M.) = Ficus annulata = ARA.
Ara kelepong (P.M.) = Ficus variegata = ARA.
Ara kelumpong (P.M.) = Ficus variegata = ARA.

10
Ara kubong (P.M.) = Ficus annulata = ARA.
Ara nasi (P.M.) = Ficus vasculosa and F virens = ARA.
Ara perak (P.M.) = Ficus grossularioides = ARA.
Ara serapat-.(P.M.) = Ficus fistulosa = ARA.
Ara tandok (P.M.) = Ficus benghalensis = ARA.
Arah (Sab.) = Ficus spp. = ARA.
Arang (P.M.) = Diospyros spp. = KAYU MALAM.
Arang bayar (Sar.) = Hopea coriacea = GrAM.
ARAU - The common Malaysian name, which is of Sarawakian origin, for the timber of
Austrobuxus, Cephalomappa and Drypetes spp. (Euphorbiaceae). The timber is moderately
hard and moderately heavy to heavy with a density of 705-865 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is
not well defined from the heartwood, which is pale straw-coloured when fresh, darkening on
exposure to a light yellow. Texture is rather fine and even, with straight grain. The timber has
not been tested in the FRIM, Kepong, but is reported to be easy to work and the planed surface
is smooth. The timber is reputed to season without serious defects but is liable to sap staining.
USES: It is suitable as a general utility timber. It has also been used as posts, joists, rafters,
flooring, furniture and household implements.
Vernacular names applied include gelugor salak (P.M.), kayu mapa (Sab.), lidah-lidah
(P.M.), mentulang (Sab.) and odopon puteh (Sab.). Major species include Austrobuxus nitidus;
Cephalomappa malloticarpa, C. penangensis; Drypetes longifolia and D. pendula.
Araucaria - A genus of large and very large trees up to 60(-90) m tall and 200 cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Araucariaceae. The timber is a softwood with a density
of 450-530(-570) kg m-3 air dry. The heartwood is pale yellowish brown, occasionally with a
pinkish tinge and not sharply demarcated from the straw-coloured sapwood. The timber has a
natural sheen and lustre. The grain is typically straight, texture outstandingly fine and even.
The rate of shrinkage is small to moderate, from green to 12% moisture content, 2.2-2.5%
radial and 3.8--4.0% tangential. The timber seasons satisfactorily with little or no degrade,
although precautions must be taken to prevent blue stain. The recommended temperatures for
kiln-drying 25 mm thick boards from green to 15% moisture content are dry bulb 80-90 °C and
wet bulb 55-65°C. The timber is non-durable in contact with the ground and is susceptible to
termite, pinhole borer and marine borer attacks. It is, however, resistant to Lyctus attack.
Araucaria hunsteinii is relatively easy to penetrate with preservatives but A. cunninghamii is
reported to be variable in its resistance to impregnation. The heartwood is often moderately
resistant to impregnation. Araucaria yields an excellent timber, which is used for all kinds of
light construction and interior work including mouldings, linings, panelling, domestic flooring,
shelves, cupboards, furniture and cabinet work. Two species was introduced on an experimental
scale in this country, viz. A. cunninghamii and A. hunsteinii.
Araucariaceae - A small family of conifers of which only one genus occurs naturally in Malaysia,
viz. Agathis. The timber of A. borneensis is known as DAMAR MINYAK (q. v.) and is highly
prized as a decorative timber. Another genus, Araucaria, from New Guinea and Australia is
being experimented upon as a plantation species in this country.
Archidendron - A genus of shrubs or small to medium-sized or rarely fairly large trees up to
30(--42) m tall and 90(-150) cm in diameter, belonging to the family Leguminosae. The timber
is a light hardwood with a density of 350-860 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is white, greyish
white, pale yellow or pale brown and is sharply differentiated from the heartwood, which is
white with a pinkish tinge, yellowish or pale red-brown, darkening to deep brown with age. The
timber is naturally lustrous. Texture is moderately coarse but even, with straight, slightly
interlocked and wavy grain.

11
USES: The timber is use for light construction, interior joinery, furniture and cabinet work,
fencing, household utensils and knife handles.
Vernacular names applied include gardas (P.M. ),jering (P.M.), keredas (P.M.) and kungkur
(P.M., Sab. and Sar.). Major species include A. bubalinum, A. globosum, A. jiringa, A. kunstleri
and A. microcarpum.
Aremajuh (Sar.) = Sarcotheca glauca = PUPOL
Aromadendron - This genus has been united with Magnolia. See Magnolia.
Artocarpus- A genus of small to fairly large trees up to 40(--60) m and 150(-300) cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Moraceae. Many of the species are cultivated for their edible fruits.
This genus produces two distinct groups of timber. The Standard Malaysian Name for the
heavier group is KELEDANG (q. v.), while the Standard Malaysian Name for the lighter group
is TERAP (q.v.).
Keledang is a medium hardwood with a density of 495-945 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is
light yellow to yellow-brown and is sharply defined from the heartwood, which is brown or
orange-brown and turns to dark brown on exposure. Other properties and uses of the timber are
described under KELEDANG. Vernacular names ~pplied include keledang (P.M.) with various
epithets, sukun (P.M.), terap hutan (Sab.) and various other localised names too numerous to
be listed here. Major species of the timber are A. anisophyllus, A. dadah, A. heterophyllus,
A. kemando, A. lanceifolius and A. rigidus.
Terap is a light hardwood with a density of 400-560 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is generally
not differentiated from the heartwood, which is yellow to light yellow-brown. Occasionally, a
dark brown heartwood with an orange tinge is developed, in which case, the sapwood is distinct.
Other properties and uses of the timber are described under TERAP. Vernacular names applied
include terap (P.M.) with various epithets, terap hutan (Sab.), chempedak ayer (Sar.) and other
localised names too numerous to list here. Major species include A. altilis, A. elasticus,
A. scortechinii, A. tamaran and A. teysmannii.
Aru (Sab.) = Casuarina spp. and Gymnostoma spp. = RU.
Asam (Sab.) = Mangifera spp. = MACHANG.
Asam-asam (Sab.) = Dacryodes macrocarpa var. patentinervia = KEDONDONG.
Asam daham (Sar.) = Sarcotheca glauca = PUPOL
Asam damat (P.M.) = Microcos jibrocarpa = CHENDERAI.
Asam garam (P.M.) = Garcinia nervosa = KANDIS.
Asam gelugor (P.M.) = Garcinia atroviridis = KANDIS.
Asam kumbang (P.M. and Sar.) = Mangifera spp. (P.M.) and Mangifera quadsifida (Sar.) =
MACHANG.
Asam kumbang sepang (P.M.) = Mangifera quadrifida = MACHANG.
Asam piai (Sab.) = Sarcotheca glauca = PUPOL
Asam pohong (P.M.) = Baccaurea lanceolata = TAMPOL
Asam raba (Sar.) = Mangifera grifjithii = MACHANG.
Asam tambun (P.M.) = Baccaurea spp. = TAMPOI.
Asem ka'aper (Sar.) = Mangifera applanata = MACHANG.
Asem lepeh (Sar.) = Mangifera applanata = MACHANG.
Asem-asem (Sab.) = Sarcotheca rubrinervis = PUPOL
Atap (Sar.) = Trigoniastrum hypoleucum = MARAJALI.
Atoi (Kd. and Ps.) = Dipterocarpus baudii and D. obtusifolius = KERUING.
Atuna - A genus of small to large trees up to 45 m tall and 100 cm in diameter, belonging to the
family Chrysobalanaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is MERBATU (q. v.).
The timber is hard and heavy with a density of 685-1 000 kg m-3 air dry. The heartwood is pale
brown to red-brown and not distinct from the sapwood which is paler in colour. Texture is

12
coarse but even, with straight but occasionally interlocked grain. Other properties and uses of
the timber are described under MERBATU. Vernacular names applied include kukut (Sar.) and
merbatu (P.M., Sab. and Sar.). Major species includeA. cordata, A. nannodes andA. racemosa.
Austrobuxus - A genus of small to medium-sized trees up to 27 m tall and 50(-90) cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae. In Sarawak, this timber is grouped together with those
of Cephalomappa and Drypetes and sold as ARAU (q. v.). Properties and uses of the timber are
described under ARAU. No other vernacular names are recorded. Only one species attains
commercial size, viz. A. nitidus.
Avicennia - A genus of shrubs or small to medium-sized trees up to 5(-10) m tall and 60(-160)
cm in diameter, occurring in the mangroves and belonging to the family Avicenniaceae. The
Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is API-API (q. v.). The timber is moderately hard and
moderately heavy to heavy with a density of 560-785 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not
differentiated from the heartwood, which is grey-white with purple tinge. Other properties and
uses of the timber are described under API-API. Vernacular names applied include api-api
with various epithets. Major species include A. alba, A. marina, A. officinalis and A. rumphiana.
Azadirachta - A genus of small to medium-sized or fairly large trees up to 40(-50) m tall and
125(-150) cm in diameter, belonging to the family Meliaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name
for the timber is SENTANG (q. v.). The timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy with a
density of 560-770 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is straw-coloured to pale red and is moderately
sharply differentiated from the heartwood, which is reddish brown. The tree is now being
promoted as a source of plantation for timber. Other properties and uses of the timber are
described under SENTANG. Vernacularnames applied are limpaga (Sab.), which include other
members of the family and ranggu (Sar.), which is also applicable to Koordersiodendron
pinnatum (Anacardiaceae). Only one species is recorded for this country, viz. A. excelsa.

13
B
Babai (Sar.) = Saraca spp. and S. declinata = GAPIS.
Babayi (Sab.) = Castanopsis motleyana = BERANGAN.
Babi kurus (P.M.) = Crudia curtisii and C. scortechinii = MERBAU KERA.
Baccaurea - A genus of small to medium-sized trees up to 30(-40) m tall and 70 cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae. The common Malaysian name for the timber is TAMPOI
(q. v.). The timber is moderately hard and heavy with a density of 630-950 kg m-3 air dry. The
sapwood is not differentiated by colour from the heartwood, which is light yellow-brown and
darkens to brown with a purple-red or orange-yellow tinge. Other properties and uses of the
timber are described under TAMPOI. Vernacular names applied include tampoi (P.M. and
Sab.) with various epithets, asam po hong (P.M.), asam tambun (P.M.), belimbing hutan (Sab.),
jintek bukit (P.M. ),jintek-jintek (P.M.), kanau-kanau (Sab.), limpaung (Sab.), mesekam (P.M.),
rambai hutan (P.M. and Sab.) and tampoi kera (P.M.). Major species include B. angulata,
B. kunst/eri, B. lanceolata, B. parviflora and B. sumatrana.
Bachang (P.M. and Sar.) = Mangifera spp. (P.M.) and Mangiferafoetida (Sar.) = MACHANG.
Bachang api (P.M.) = Mangifera laurina = MACHANG.
Badut (Sar.) = Mangiferafoetida = MACHANG.
Bagil (Sab.) = Aporosa nitida = KAYU MASAM.
Bajan (Sar.) = Kokoona spp. = MATA ULAT.
Bajan paya (Sar.) = Kokoona ovatolanceolata = MATA ULAT.
BAKAU - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timbers of Bruguiera spp., Ceriops spp. and
Rhizophora spp. (Rhizophoraceae). The timber is very hard and very heavy with a density of
630-1170 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is in various shades oflight yellow-brown, light brown,
light red-brown or light pink-brown and is difficult to distinguish to moderately distinct from
the heartwood, which is grey-brown, yellow-brown, red-brown or purple-brown and usually
darkens on exposure and becomes more red. Texture is fine and even, with fairly straight and
usually interlocked grain. The timber is very strong (Strength group A). It is easy to slightly
difficult to resaw and cross-cut. Planing is easy to slightly difficult and the planed surface is
smooth. The timber is reported to be difficult to season, being liable to check and end-split.
Shrinkage is very high especially in the tangential direction, with radial shrinkage averaging
1.4% and tangential shrinkage averaging 5.1 %. The durability of the timber varies with species,
e.g. Rhizophora apiculata (bakau minyak), Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (tumu merah) and
B. sexangula (tumu puteh) are classified as moderately durable whereas Bruguiera parviflora
(lenggadai) is classified as non-durable.
USES: This timber is usually available only in pole sizes and hence its utilisation is somewhat
restricted. However, the timber is suitable for handles of striking tools, temporary structures,
scaffolding, piling, firewood, charcoal, pulp and paper, and rayon. The timber is attractive
enough for parquet flooring.
Vernacularnames applied include bakau (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) with various epithets, bangkita
(Sab.), berus (P.M.), berus mata buaya (P.M.), beus (Sab.), langgadai (Sab.), lenggadai (P.M.
and Sab.), mata buaya (P.M. and Sab.),putut (Sab.), tengar (P.M.), tumu (P.M.) with various
epithets and berus (P.M. and Sar.) with various epithets. Major species include Bruguiera

14
cylindrica, B. gymnorrhiza, B. hainesii, B. parviflora; Ceriops tagal; Rhizophora apiculata
and R. mucronata.
Bakau aleh-aleh (Sar.) = Kandelia candel = BAKAU.
Bakau kurap (P.M., Sub. and Sar.) = Rhizophora mucronata = BAKAU.
Bakau lali (Sar.) = Ceriops decandra = BAKAU.
Bakau minyak (P.M. and Sar.) = Rhizophora apiculata = BAKAU.
Bakokol (Sar.) = Calophyllum spp. = BINTANGOR.
Balanocarpus - The genus has been reduced to Neobalanocarpus. It is believed to be closely
related to Hopea section and subsection Hopea. See Neobalanocarpus.
Balanut (Sab.) = Saraca declinata = GAPIS.
Balatotan (Sab.) = Bridelia stipularis = KENIDAI.
BALAU - The Standard Malaysian Name for the heavy, yellow to brown timbers of the genus
Shorea (Dipterocarpaceae). The timber is a heavy hardwood with a density of 850-1155 kg m-3
air dry. The sapwood is lighter in colour than and is sharply defined from the heartwood, which
is yellow or grey-brown and darkens to deep brown on exposure. Texture is fine and even, with
deeply interlocked grain. The timber is very strong (Strength group A). It is moderately easy to
difficult to resaw and easy to difficult to cross-cut. Planing is easy to difficult and the planed
surface is smooth to moderately smooth. Nailing property is rated very poor. The timber seasons
very slowly, with severe end-checking and splitting, moderate surface-checking and staining as
the main sources of defects. 13 mm boards take 4 months to air dry, while 38 mm boards take
8-10 months. Shrinkage is high, with radial shrinkage averaging 1.8% and tangential shrinkage
averaging 3.7%. The durability of the timber varies from durable (S glauca and S laevis) to
very durable (S maxwelliana) and is extremely resistant to treatment with preservatives.
USES: The timber is suitable for all forms of heavy construction, bridges, wharves, railway
sleepers, power-line poles, boat building, door and window frames,joists, beams, rafters, heavy
duty flooring, parquet flooring and heavy duty furniture.
Vernacular names applied include balau (P.M.) with various epithets, selangan batu No.1
(Sab.), selangan batu (Sab. and Sar.) and other localised names too numerous to be listed here.
Major species include S. atrinervosa, S. foxworthyi, S. glauca, S. laevis, S. materialis,
S. maxwelliana, S submontana and S. sumatrana.
Balau betul (P.M.) = Shorea materialis = BALAU.
Balau bukit' (P.M.) = Shoreafoxworthyi and S lumutensis = BALAU.
Balau bukif (Ph.) = Shorea collina = RED BALAU.
Balau gajah (P.M.) = Shorea submontana = BALAU.
Balau gunong (P.M.) = Shorea astylosa = BALAU.
Balau hitam (P.M.) = Shorea atrinervosa = BALAU.
Balau kumus (P.M.) = Shorea laevis = BALAU.
Balau kumus hitam (P.M.) = Shorea maxwelliana = BALAU.
Balau kuning (P.M.) = Shoreafalcifera = BALAU.
Balau laut (P.M.) = Shorea glauca and S materia lis = BAL<\'U.
Balau laut merah (P.M.) = Shorea kunstleri = RED BALAU.
Balau membatu (P.M.) = Shorea guiso = RED BALAU.
Balau membatu jantan (P.M.) = Shorea ochrophloia = RED BALAU.
Balau merah' (P.M.) = Shorea collina = RED BALAU.
Balau merah 2 (Ph.) = Shoreafoxworthyi = BALAU.
Balau pasir (P.M.) = Shorea materialis and S glauca = BALAU.
Balau puteh (P.M.) = Shorea lumutensis and Sfoxworthyi = BALAU.
BALAU, RED - See RED BALAU.
Balau sengkawang (P.M.) = Shorea scrobiculata = BALAU.

15
Balau sengkawang ayer (P.M.) = Shorea sumatrana = BALAU.
Balau sengkawang darat (P.M.) = Shorea scrobiculata = BALAU.
Balau tembaga (P.M.) = Shorea exelliptica = BALAU.
Balau tiong (Ph.) = Shorea collina = RED BALAU.
BALEK ANGIN - The common Malaysian name for the timber of Mallotus spp. (Euphorbiaceae).
The timber is soft to moderately hard and light to heavy with a density of 365-815 kg m-3 air
dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is straw-coloured. Texture is
slightly coarse and even, with straight grain. The timber is only moderately strong (Strength
group C). It is slightly difficult to difficult to resaw and difficult to cross-cut. Planing is easy to
moderately easy and the planed surface is moderately smooth. The timber seasons fairly rapidly,
with moderate splitting, insect and fungal attacks and slight cupping, bowing, end-checking as
the main defects. 13 mm and 38 mm boards take 2 and 3 months to air dry respectively. Shrinkage
is high to very high, with radial shrinkage averaging 3.2% and tangential shrinkage averaging
6.7%. The timber is non-durable but is extremely easy to treat.
USES: The timber is suitable for wall panelling, solid door, domestic flooring, furniture and
fittings, non-impact tool handles, wooden sandals and packing cases. The timber is also suitable
for the manufacture of veneer and plywood.
Vernacular names applied include balek angin bopeng (P.M.), enserai (Sar.), mallotus (Sab.)
with various epithets, perupok (P.M.), selung apid (Sab.), serapoh (P.M.), singin (Sar.) and
ulas (Sab.). Major species include M.leucodermis, M. miquelianus, M muticus andM. wrayi.
Balek angin bopeng (P.M.) = Mallotus leucodermis = BALEKANGIN.
Balek-balek angin (Sab.) = Trema tomentosa = MENARONG.
Balong ayam 1 (P.M.) = Pentace spp. = MELUNAK.
Balong ayam 2 (P.M.) = Heritiera spp. = MENGKULANG.
Bam (Ph.) = Shoreafaguetiana = YELLOW MERANTI.
Bambangan (Sab.) = Mangifera pajang = MACHANG.
Banati (Sab.) = Fagraeafragrans = TEMBUSU.
Bangas (Sar.) = Lithocarpus dasystachyus = MEMPENING.
BANGKAL - The Standard Malaysian Name, which is of Sabah origin, for the timber of Nauclea
spp., Neonauclea spp. and Ochreinauclea spp. (Rubiaceae). The timber is soft to moderately
hard with a density of 335-980 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is lighter in colour and merges
gradually into the heartwood, which is characterised by a bright yellow or orange hue. Texture
is moderately fine to slightly coarse, with interlocked grain. The timber is moderately strong
(Strength group C). It has not been tested in the FRlM, Kepong, but is reported to work easily
and finishes well. The timber is reputed to dry well with slight checking and warping. Shrinkage
is rather high, radial shrinkage averages 1.3% while tangential shrinkage averages 3.2%. The
timber is reputed to be moderately durable.
USES: The rather rare occurrence of the trees precludes any extensive exploitation of the timber.
The timber is suitable for veneer and plywood manufacture, flooring, furniture, fancy articles
and pallets.
Vernacular names applied to this timber include bangkal (Sab.) with various epithets,jengkai
(Sar.), lenggaung (Sar.), mangkal (P.M.) and mengkal (P.M.). Major species include Nauclea
ofjicinalis; Neonauclea pallida; and Ochreinauclea maingayi.
Bangkal kuning (Sab.) = Nauclea subdita = BANGKAL.
Bangkal merah (Sab.) = Ludekia bernardoi = BANGKAL.
Bangkao (Sab.) = Adinandra collina = SAMAK.
Bangkau (Sab.) = Adinandra myrioneura = SAMAK.
Bangkawang (Sab.) = Parinari spp. and Maranthes corymbosa = MERBATU.
Bangkil (Sab.and Sar.) = Parartocarpus venenosus = TERAP.

16
Bangkita (Sab.) = Rhizophora apiculata = BAKAU.
Bangkong (P.M.) = Artocarpus integer = KELEDANG.
Bangkulatan (Sab.) = flex cymosa = MENSIRAH.
Banjutan (Sab.) = Sliorea multiflora = YELLOW MERANTI.
Bansisian (Sab.) = Homalium spp. = TELOR BUAYA.
Bantas (Sar.) = Neoscortechinia kingii.
Bantis (Sab.) = Mastixia spp. and M. trichotoma var. clarkeana = TETEBU.
Barringtonia - A genus of shrubs, small to medium-sized or occasionally large trees up to
30(--47) m tall and 60(-100) cm in diameter, belonging to the family Lecythidaceae. The Standard
Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN Standard Name for the timber is PUTAT (q. v.). The
timber is soft to moderately hard with a density of 480-815 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not
differentiated from the heartwood which is light yellow-brown. Other properties and uses of
the timber are described under PUTAT. Other vernacular names applied include tampalang
(Sab.). Major species include B. asiatica, B. macrostachya, B. pendula, B. sarcostachys
and B. scortechinii.
BARDl - The common Malaysian name for the timber of Hibiscus spp. and Thespesia populnea
(Malvaceae). The timber is soft to moderately hard and light to moderately heavy with a density
of 450-625 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood ranges from white to light yellow and is not defined to
sharply differentiated from the heartwood which varies from light yellow, light grey-brown,
grey-black, purple-black to red-brown. Texture is fine to slightly coarse and even, with straight,
interlocked or twisted grain. Shrinkage of timber during seasoning is low in H. tiliaceus, moderate
to high in H. campylosiphon. The timber seasons well but is highly susceptible to blue stain. It
is soft to moderately hard, weak, but tough and elastic. It is easy to work and generally produces
a smooth finish.
USES: The timber is used for local house building, interior trim, moulding, wag-on frame,
vehicle shafts, household implements, tool handles, picture frames, carving, toothpicks, matches
and matchboxes and fencing. Paper manufactured from H. tiliaceus pulp is of low quality as
the fibres are short (0.7-1.3 mm) and is only suitable for wrapping paper. The timber has not
been tested in the FRIM, Kepong.
Vernacular names applied include barn-barn (P.M.), barn laut (Sab.), bebarn (P.M.),
bebaru bulu (P.M.), kali bang-bang (Sab.), kangsar (P.M.), langkubing (Sar.), randog (Sab.)
and tutor (P.M.). Major species include Hibiscus borneensis, H. campylosiphon, H.floccosus,
H. macrophyl/us, H. tiliaceus; and Thespesia populnea.
Baru2 (Sar.) = Pentace spp. = MELUNAK.
Baru-barn (P.M.) = Hibiscus floccosus = BARU.
Baru laut l (P.M.) = Hernandia nymphaeifolia = BUAH KERAS LAUT.
Barn laut2 (Sab.) = Hibiscus tiliaceus and Thespesia populnea = BARU.
Barung-barung (Sab.) = Cassiajavanica ssp. nodosa = BEBUSOK.
Rasong - The trade name for the root wood of Alstonia pneumatophora and A. spatulata. The
Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is PULAI.
BATAI - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Albizia spp. (excluding A. splendens)
and Paraserianthes falcataria (Leguminosae). The timber is soft to hard and light to very
heavy with a density of 270-880 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not always defined from the
heartwood, which is white to light brown with a pink tinge. Texture is coarse and even with
deeply interlocked and spiral grain. Only P. falcataria, representing the lighter species has
been tested in the FRIM, Kepong. The timber is weak (Strength group D). It is easy to resaw
and cross-cut. Planing is easy and the surface produced is smooth. Nailing property is rated
good, although it has been reported that this timber does not hold nails satisfactorily. The
timber seasons fairly rapidly with slight end-checking, splitting and insect attack as the main

17
sources of degrade. The timber is also very prone to sapstain fungal attack. 13 mm boards take
approximately 1.5 months to air dry, while 38 mm boards take 3 months. Shrinkage is high,
with radial shrinkage averaging 2% and tangential shrinkage averaging 3.7%. Movement in
service is classified under Type II. The timber is non-durable and is not easily treated, especially
the heartwood.
USES: The timber is suitable for general utility purposes, picture frames, artificial limbs and
veneers for plywood. Paraserianthes falcataria is widely planted as a source of fast growing
industrial timber.
Vernacular names applied appear to be very uniform in that only batai with various epithets
is used throughout the country. Major species include Albizia chinensis, A. dolichandena,
A. lebbeck, A. pedicellata; and Paraserianthes falcataria
Batai batu (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) = Albizia spp. and Paraserianthesfalcataria = BATAI.
Batai hutan (P.M.) = Albizia pedicellata = BATAI.
Bawang (Sar.) = Mangifera pajang = MACHANG.
Bawang hutan (Sab. and Sar.) = Scorodocarpus borneensis = KULIM.
Bawing (Sab.) = Adinandra caudatifolia andA. dumosa = SAMAK.
Bayam badak (Kd., Pk. and Ph.) = Strombosiajavanica = DEDALI.
Bayan (P.M.) = Hopea pachycarpa = GIAM.
BAYUR - The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN Standard Name for the timber
of Pterospermum spp. (Sterculiaceae). The timber is soft to moderately hard and has been
classified under light hardwood with a density of 385-705 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is
creamy white to light yellow-brown and merges gradually into the heartwood, which is light
red-brown and darkens to brown on exposure. Texture is moderately fine to slightly coarse and
even with straight or shallowly interlocked grain. The timber is moderately strong (Strength
group C). It is easy to work and produces a smooth finish. The timber seasons fairly fast with
little degrade except for sapstaining. 13 mm boards take 1.5 months to air dry, while 38 mm
boards take 3 months. Shrinkage is high, radial shrinkage averages 2% while tangential shrinkage
averages 3.7%. The timber is non-durable under exposed conditions but would be moderately
durable under cover. The timber can be easily treated with preservatives.
USES: The timber is suitable for temporary light construction, interior finishing, flooring,
cladding, planking, tool handles and furniture manufacture.
Vernacular names applied include litak (Sab.). Major species include P. diversifolium,
P jackianum, P javanicum and P. subpeltatum.
BAYUR BUKIT - The common Malaysian name for the trees and timber of Schoutenia spp.
(Tiliaceae). The timber is very hard and very heavy with a density of 945-995 kg m-3 air dry.
The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is purple-grey-brown. Texture is
moderately fine and even, with interlocked grain. Even though the timber is hard, it has been
reported to be easy to work. It is moderately durable when exposed to the weather.
USES: Uses of the timber include house building, tool handles, agriculture implements, sporting
goods and charcoal.
No other vernacular names have been recorded and only one species attains commercial
size, viz. S. accrescens.
Bebaru (P.M.) = Thespesia populnea = BARU.
Bebaru bulu (P.M.) = Hibiscus tiliaceus = BARU.
Bebata (Sab.) = Garcinia beccarri = KANDIS.
BEBATU - The common Malaysian name for the timber of Chaetocarpus castanocarpus
(Euphorbiaceae). The ASEAN Standard Name for the timber, which is ofIndonesia origin, is
KAYU BESI. The timber is hard and heavy with a density of 610-1040 kg m-3 air dry. The
sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is rose-brown. Texture is moderately

18
fine and even, with straight or interlocked grain. Since the timber is non-siliceous, it is probably
easy to work despite its hardness. The timber is reported to be non-durable.
USES: The timber has been reported to be used for tool handles and temporary construction.
Vernacular names applied include bedik (P.M.), dusun-dusun (Sab.) and kayu dusun (Sab.).
Only one species is recorded for this region.
BEBUSOK - The common Malaysian name for the timber of Cassia spp. and Senna siamea
(Leguminosae). The timber is hard and heavy with a density of 600-1 0 10 kg m-3 air dry. The
sapwood is white or yellow and is sharply differentiated from the heartwood, which is light
orange-brown in C. javanica ssp. nodosa and dark brown to almost black with lighter streaks
of wood parenchyma in Senna siamea. Texture is slightly coarse and even, with interlocked
grain. The timber is reported to be difficult to work but finishes well. It is reputed to season
well with little degrade. The timber is expected to be moderately durable when exposed to the
weather or in contact with the ground.
USES: The timber is suitable for posts, furniture manufacture, tool handles, mallets and wooden
pallets.
Vernacular names applied include barung-barung (Sab.), bereksa (P.M.), busok-busok (P.M
and Sab.) and langgong (Sab.). Major species include Cassia javanica ssp. nodosa and Senna
siamea.
BEBUTA - The common Malaysian name for the timber of Excoecaria spp. (Euphorbiaceae).
The timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy with a density of 340-780 kg m-3 air dry
and an average density of 560 kg m-3 air dry. The straw-coloured sapwood is normally not
differentiated from the heartwood, which is pink-white to pale brown in colour. Texture is
moderately fine and even, with straight or interlocked grain. Shrinkage upon seasoning is
moderate. The timber is reputed to be non-durable.
USES: The timber has been used for the manufacture of toys, furniture, packing cases, wooden
sandals and also as fuelwood and charcoal.
Vernacular names applied include buta-buta (P.M. and Sab.). Only one species attains timber
size, viz. E. agallocha.
Bedaru (Sar.) = Cantleya corniculata = DEDARU.
Bedik (P.M.) = Chaetocarpus castanocarpus = BEBATU.
Bedulang semut (Sar.) = Crypteronia macrophylla = BEKOI.
Beilschmiedia-A genus of shrubs, small to fairly large trees up to 35(-40) m tall and 80(-110) cm
in diameter, belonging to the family Lauraceae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is
MEDANG (q. v.). The timber is a light hardwood with a density of 480-690 kg m-3 air dry. The
sapwood is lighter in colour than and not sharply defined from the heartwood, which is
yellow-white. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under MEDANG. Vernacular
names applied include medang (P.M. and Sar.) with various epithets. Major species include
B. insignis, B. micrantha and B. lucidula.
BEKA - The common Malaysian name for the timber of Pajanelia longifolia (Bignoniaceae).
The timber is soft and light with a density of 350-370 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not
differentiated from the heartwood, which is light grey-brown. Texture is rather coarse but
even, with shallowly interlocked grain. The timber has not been tested in the FRIM, Kepong.
Vernacular names applied include bonglai (P.M.), which is also applicable to Oroxylum spp.
Only one species has been recorded in this country, viz. P longifolia.
BEKAK - The Standard Malaysian Name for some species ofthe timber of Aglaia sect. Amoora
(Meliaceae). The timber is hard and moderately heavy to heavy and has been classified under
medium hardwood with a density of 705-1 025 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is straw-coloured
and is sharply differentiated from the heartwood, which is brick-red or dark red and becomes
dark red-brown or walnut-brown on exposure. Texture is slightly coarse and even, with

19
interlocked and irregular grain. The timber is strong (Strength group B). It is fairly easy to
slightly difficult to resaw and is difficult to cross-cut. Planing is easy to slightly difficult and the
planed surface is smooth. Nailing property is rated as excellent. The timber seasons fairly
rapidly, with only slight cupping, bowing, end-checking and insect attacks as the main sources
of degrade. l3 mm boards take 1.5 month to air dry, while 38 mm boards take 3.5 months.
Shrinkage is rather high, especially in the radial direction, which averages 2.4% while the
tangential shrinkage also averages 2.4%. The timber is moderately durable.
USES: The timber is suitable for light to medium construction, boat decking and planking,
heavy duty flooring, parquet flooring and power-line posts when treated.
Vernacular names applied include kedondong kijau (P.M.), lantupak paya (Sab.), merelang
(P.M.), pasak lingga (P.M.), segera (Sar.), which include other members of the family and
lantupak (Sab.), which also includes other members of the family. Major species include
A. lawii, A. macrocarpa, A. malaccensis, A. multinervis, A. rubiginosa and A. spectabilis.
Beki (P.M.) = Neoscortechinia kingii.
Beko-beko (P.M.) = Agrostistachys gaudichaudii = JENJULONG.
BEKOI - The common Malaysian Name for the trees and timber of Crypteronia spp.
(Crypteroniaceae). The timber is soft to moderately hard and light to moderately heavy with a
density of 545-800 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood,
which is white or light brown with a pink or purple-pink tinge. Texture is rather fine and even,
with straight or slightly wavy grain. The timber seasons well. It is easy to work and moderately
durable under cover.
USES: The timber is suitable as a general utility timber, furniture, flooring and interior finish.
Vernacular names applied include bekoi daun nipis (P.M.)" bekoi daun tebal (P.M.),
kinkidon mantok (Sab.), rambai-rambai (Sab.), tampasu (Sab.), teletang (Sar.), telinga badak
(P.M.), ubah samak (Sar.) and ubah semut (Sar.). Major species include C. borneensis,
C. griffith ii, C. macrophylla and C. paniculata (var. ajJinis and var. paniculata).
Bekoi daun bulu (P.M.) = Crypteronia paniculata var. ajJinis = BEKOI.
Bekoi daun nip is (P.M.) = Crypteronia paniculata var. paniculata = BEKOI.
Bekoi daun tebal (P.M.) = Crypteronia griffithii = BEKOI.
Belangan (P.M.) = Cynometra malaccensis = KEKATONG.
Belangkan (P.M.) = Cynometra spp. = KEKATONG.
Belang rimau (P.M.) = Terminalia citrina = KETAPANG.
Belantai (Kd.) = Shorea macroptera = MELANTAI.
Belawan (P.M.) = Terminalia citrin a = KETAPANG.
BELIAN 1 - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Eusideroxylon zwageri (Lauraceae).
The timber is exceptionally hard and heavy and it has been classified under heavy hardwood
with a density of835-1185 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is bright yellow when fresh, darkens
on exposure and is sharply defined from the heartwood which is light brown to almost bright
yellow when fresh and darkens on exposure to deep reddish brown, becoming very dark brown
or almost black with age. Texture is moderately fine to fine and even with grain fairly straight
or shallowly interlocked. The timber is very strong (Strength group A). It is easy to work
despite its high density and produces a smooth and often lustrous surface. The timber seasons
slowly with a tendency for checking and splitting. Shrinkage averages 4.5%. The timber is one
of the most durable in the world and the heartwood is extremely resistant to preservative
treatment.
USES: The timber is highly prized for all heavy constructional works, marine piling, boat
construction, wharf construction, fence posts, heavy duty industrial flooring and shingles.
Occasionally the tree is known as tambulian in Sabah, while the European trade name for
this timber is Borneo ironwood. The timber is monotypic.

20
Belian 2 (P.M.) = Madhuca utilis = BITIS.
Belian kapok (Sar.) = Potoxylon melagangai = MELAGANGAI.
Belian kebuau (Sar.) = Potoxylon melagangai = MELAGANGAI.
Belian landak 1 (Sar.) = Anisophyllea ferruginea = DELEK.
Belian landak2 (Sar.) = Gironniera parvifolia = KASAP.
Belian landak3 (Sar.) = Strombosiajavanica = DEDALI.
Belian landak4 (Sar.) = Strombosia ceylanica = KAMAP
Belian malagangai (Sar.) = Potoxylon melagangai = MELAGANGAI.
Belimbing bulat (Sar.) = Sarcotheca diversifolia = PUPOL
Belimbing hutan (Sab.) = Baccaurea angulata = TAMPOL
Belimbing manik (Sar.) = Sarcotheca macrophylla = PUPOL
Bellotan (Sab.) = Sympetalandra unijuga = MERBAU LALAT.
Beluchus (P.M.) = Cratoxylum cochinchinense = DERUM.
Beluing (Sar.) = Castanopsisfoxworthyi = BERANGAN.
Beluno (Sab.) = Mangifera caesia = MACHANG.
Bembalor (Sab.) = Porterandia anisophyllea = TINJAU BELUKAR.
Benak (P.M.) = Bhesa spp. = BIKU-BIKU.
Bengang (P.M. and Sar.) = Neesia spp. = DURlAN.
Benggang (P.M. and Sar.) = Neesia spp. = DURIAN.
Bengku (P.M.) = Madhuca motleyana = NYATOH.
Bengkudu (Sab.) = Morinda citrifolia = MENGKUDU.
Benuah (Sar.) = Macaranga spp. = MAHANG.
Benuang (Sar.) = Octomeles sumatrana = BINUANG.
Benung kasung (Sar.) = Duabanga moluccana = MAGASAWIH.
BERANGAN - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Castanopsis spp. (Fagaceae).
The timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy to heavy and it has been classified under
light hardwood with a density of 610-980 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is light brown, often
with a greenish tinge and sharply defined from the heartwood, which is dark brown or
dark red-brown. Texture is coarse and uneven due to the irregular distribution of the vessels.
Grain is fairly straight but sometimes interlocked. The timber is strong (Strength group B). It is
moderately easy to resaw and easy to cross-cut. Planing is easy and the planed surface is smooth.
The timber seasons fairly slowly without any defects, except for some staining. 25 mm boards
take 5 months to air dry. Shrinkage is very high, with radial shrinkage averaging 2.3% and
tangential shrinkage averaging 4.5%. The timber is moderately durable and is very difficult to
treat.
USES: The timber is suitable for medium to heavy construction under cover, furniture
manufacture, packing cases and pallets.
Vernacular names applied include berangan (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) with various epithets,
kogopon (Sab.), maruwit (Sar.) and various other localised names too numerous to be listed
here. Major species include C. borneensis, C. buruana, C. clemensii, C. curtisii, C. endertii,
C. evansii, c.foxworthyi, C.fulva, C. hypophoenicea, C. inermis, C.javanica, C. malaccensis,
C. micropyhlla, C. motleyana, C. oviformis, c. paucispina, C. psilophylla, C. rhamnifolia and
C. schefferiana.
Berangan babi (P.M.) = Castanopsis curtisii = BERANGAN.
Berangan bo (Sar.) = Castanopsis hypophoenicea = BERANGAN.
Berangan bris (Sar.) = Lithocarpus pusillus = MEMPENING.
Berangan bu (Sar.) = Quercus percoriacea = MEMPENING.
Berangan bukit (P.M.) = Castanopsis costata = BERANGAN.
Berangan daun besar (Sar.) = Castanopsis motleyana = BERANGAN.

21
Berangan entadu (Sar.) = Castanopsis psilophylla = BERANGAN.
Berangan lingkau (Sar.) = Castanopsisfoxworthyi = BERANGAN.
Berangan padi (Sar.) = Castanopsis borneensis and Cfulva = BERANGAN.
Berangan paya (Sar.) = Castanopsisfoxworthyi = BERANGAN.
Berangan pipit (Sar.) = Castanopsis oviformis = BERANGAN.
Bereksa (P.M.) = Cassiajavanica ssp. nodosa = BEBUSOK.
Berembang (P.M.) = Sonneratia caseolaris = PERAPAT.
Berembang bukit (P.M.) = Duabanga grandiflora = MAGASAWIH.
Beringin (P.M. and Sar.) = Ficus benjamina = ARA.
Berombong (P.M.) = Metadina trichotoma and Pertusadina spp. = MERAGA.
Berungulad (Sar.) = Lithocarpus elegans = MEMPENING.
Beruni (Sab.) = Artocarpus dadah = KELEDANG.
Berus (P.M.) = Bruguiera cylindrica and B. hainesii = BAKAU.
Berus-berus (P.M. and Sab.) = Kandelia candel = BAKAU.
Berus kurong (Sar.) = Bruguiera gymnorrhiza = BAKAU.
Berus lenggadai (Sar.) = Bruguiera parvifolia = BAKAU.
Berus mata buaya (P.M.) = Bruguiera hainesii = BAKAU.
Berus merah (Sar.) = Bruguiera gymnorrhiza = BAKAU.
Berus ngayong (Sar.) = Bruguiera cylindrica = BAKAU.
Berus puteh (Sar.) = Bruguiera cylindrica = BAKAU.
Berus putut (Sar.) = Bruguiera sexangula = BAKAU.
Besi-besi (Sab.) = Ctenolophon parvifolius = MERTAS.
Beus (Sab.) = Bruguiera cylindrica, B. parvifolia; and Kandelia candel = BAKAU.
Bhesa - A genus of medium-sized to fairly large trees up to 40 m tall and 90 cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Celastraceae. The common Malaysian name for the tree and timber is
BIKU-BIKU (q.v.). Properties and uses of the timber are described under BIKU-BIKU.
Vernacular names applied include benak (P.M.), medang tandok (P.M.), serunai (Sar.) and
simun (Sar.). Major species include B. paniculata and B. robusta.
Biansu gunong (Sar.) = Mastixia cuspidata = TETEBU.
Bignoniaceae - A family of trees, shrubs or climbers, often introduced into this country for
horticultural interest. The trees are nowhere abundant and are not of commercial importance.
Some genera that attain tree size are Dolichandrone (TUI), Pajanelia (BEKA) and
Stereospermum (CHICHAH).
BIKU-BIKU - The common Malaysian name for the timber of Bhesa spp. (Celastraceae). The
timber is hard and heavy with a density of 725-835 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is lighter in
colour and is sharply defined from the heartwood, which is brown with a purple-red tinge.
Texture is fine and uneven, with interlocked grain.
USES: The timber of biku-biku is used for general construction under cover such as beams and
posts and possibly for cabinet work and panelling where a decorative wood is required.
Vernacular names applied include benak (P.M.), medang tandok (P.M.), serunai (Sar.) and
simun (Sar.). Major species include B. paniculata and B. robusta.
Bi-n (Sar.) = Saraca hullettii = GAPIS.
Binarak (Sar.) = Horsjieldia endertii = PENARAHAN.
Bindang (Sar.) = Agathis borneensis = DAMAR MINYAK.
Binjai (P.M.) = Mangifera caesia = MACHANG.
Binong (Sar.) = Octomeles sumatrana = BINUANG.
BINTANGOR - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Calophyllum spp. (Guttiferae).
The timber is a light hardwood with a density of 465-865 kg m-3 and an average density
of 640 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is yellow-brown with a pink tinge and is well defined from

22
the heartwood, which is deep red, red-brown, pink-brown or orange-brown. Texture is
moderately coarse to coarse and uneven, with interlocked, spiral or wavy grain. The timber is
only moderately strong (Strength group C). It is easy to resaw and cross-cut. Planing is easy
and the planed surface is smooth to moderately smooth. The nailing property is rated poor. The
timber seasons fairly slowly in general and the seasoning characteristics are summarised in the
following table:

Time to air dry Shrinkage (%)


(months) (Green to air dry)
Species Remarks
13mm 38mm Radial Tangential
boards boards

C. calaba 4 5 2.1 3.3 Fairly slow drying; moderate end-checks,


var. bracteatum splitting. Slight cupping and spring; fairly
high shrinkage.
C. ferrugineum 3 4.5 2 3.7 Fairly slow drying; moderate end-checks.
var. ferrugineum Slight cupping, bowing and insect attack;
fairly high shrinkage.
C. inophyllum 3 5 1.4 2.0 Fairly slow drying; slight surface-checking
and insect attack; moderate shrinkage.
C. rigidum 2 1.6 2.9 Fairly rapid drying; moderate spring;
slight bowing, splitting and surface-checking;
fairly high shrinkage.

Movement in service is classified under Type II. For kiln-drying, Schedule A is recommended.
The timber dries moderately fast without much degrades, except for slight warping and end-
checking. The timber kiln-dries from 50 to 10% moisture content in approximately 8 days. The
timber is moderately durable (c. ferrugineum var. ferrugineum) to non-durable. The sapwood
is fairly amenable to treatment with preservatives, while the heartwood is fairly difficult to
treat.
USES: The timber is suitable for light construction, flooring, panelling, joist, furniture
manufacture, decorative solid door, decking, boat construction, diving boards, veneer and
plywood manufacture and wooden pallet. In several regions, the wood is much sought after for
masts, spars, bridge work and scaffolding.
Vernacular names applied include bintangor (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) with various epithets,
bakokol (Sar.), entangor (Sar.) and penaga laut (P.M. and Sab.). Major species include
C. biflorum, C. calaba var. bracteatum, C. canum, C. coriaceum, C. depressinervosum,
C. ferrugineum var. ferrugineum, C. inophyl/um, C. macrocarpum, C. pulcherrimum,
C. sclerophyllum, C. symingtonianum, C. tetrapterum, C. teysmannii var. inophylloide,
and C. wallichianum (var. wallichianum and var. incrassatum).
Bintangor batu (Sab.) = Kayea macrantha = PENAGA TIKUS.
Bintangor bukit (P.M.) = Calophyllum symingtonianum = BINTANGOR.
Bintangor bunga (P.M.) = Calophyllum calaba var. bracteatum = BINTANGOR.
Bintangor bunut (P.M.) = Calophyllum macrocarpum = BINTANGOR.
Bintangor daun karat (P.M.) = Calophyllum rubiginosum = BINTANGOR.
Bintangor daun panjang (P.M.) = Calophyllum wallichianum var. incrassatum = BINTANGOR.
Bintangor gambut (P.M.) = Calophyllumferrugineum var.ferrugineum = BINTANGOR.
Bintangor gasing (P.M.) = Calophyllum pulcherrimum = BINTANGOR.
Bintangor gunong daun besar (P.M.) = Calophyllum coriaceum = BINTANGOR.
Bintangor gunong daun kechil (P.M.) = Calophyllum calaba var. cuneatum = BINTANGOR.
Bintangor jankang (P.M.) = Calophyllum sclerophyllum = BINTANGOR.
Bintangor kelim (P.M.) = Calophyllum scriblitifolium = BINTANGOR.

23
Bintangor kuning (P.M.) = Calophyllum tetrapterum = BINTANGOR.
Bintangor laut (P.M.) = Calophyllum inophyllum = BINTANGOR.
Bintangor lekok (P.M.) = Calophyllum depressinervosum = BINTANGOR.
Bintangor lilin (P.M.) = Calophyllum wallichianum = BINTANGOR.
Bintangor merah (P.M.) = Calophyllum canum = BINTANGOR.
Bintangor puteh (P.M.) = Calophyllum alboramulum = BINTANGOR.
Bintanong (Sab.) = Trema tomentosa = MENARONG.
Bintau (Sar.) = Artocarpus anisophyllus = KELEDANG.
Bintawak (Sar.) = Artocarpus anisophyllus = KELEDANG.
Biyau (Sar.) = Saraca spp. = GAPIS.
BINU ANG - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Octomeles sumatrana (Datiscaceae).
The timber is soft and light and has been classified under light hardwood with a density
of270-465 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is white with a greyish tinge and is moderately sharply
defined from the heartwood which is buff to pale brown or sometimes pinkish brown. Texture
is moderately coarse to coarse, with interlocked grain. The timber is weak (Strength group D).
It is easy to work and produces a smooth finish. Nailing property is fair. The timber seasons
slowly with severe checking, splitting and distortion as the major defects. The timber is also
subject to sapstain fungal attack. Shrinkage is very high, radial shrinkage averages 3% while
tangential shrinkage averages 7%. For kiln-drying, Schedule C is recommended. The timber is
non-durable but easy to treat with preservatives.
USES: The timber is suitable for plywood manufacture, packing cases, concrete shuttering and
match boxes.
Vernacular name applied appears to be rather uniform in that only binuang is used throughout
the country. Only one species has been recorded in the country.
Bira parak (Sar.) = Fagraea montana = TEMBUSU.
Biris (Sar.) = Sterculia spp. = KELUMPANG.
Bischofia - A genus of medium-sized to fairly large trees up to 35(-50) m tall and 80(-170) cm
in diameter, belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae. This genus has been variously placed in
Staphyleaceae and Bischofiaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN Standard
Name for the timber is TUAI (q. v.). The timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy with
a density of 545-880 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is brick-red-brown and is sharply defined
from the heartwood, which is purple-red-brown and darkens on exposure. Properties and uses
of the timber are described under TUAI. Other vernacular names applicable include jitang
(P.M.). Only one species, viz. B. javanica, has been recorded for this region.
BITIS - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timbers of Madhuca utilis, Palaquium
ridleyi and P. stella tum (Sapotaceae). The timber is a heavy hardwood with a density of
820-1200 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is yellow-brown to purple-grey-brown and is sharply
defined from the heartwood, which is red-brown to purple- or chocolate-red-brown. Texture is
moderately fine and even, with straight or shallowly interlocked grain. The timber is strong
(Strength group A). It is slightly difficult to difficult to resaw, easy to slightly difficult to cross-
cut. Planing is slightly difficult but the planed surface is smooth. Nailing property is rated
poor. The timber seasons slowly with moderate end-checking, splitting and surface-checking
as the major sources of defects. 38 mm boards take approximately 6 months to air dry. Shrinkage
is high, radial shrinkage averages 2.8% while tangential shrinkage averages 4%. The kiln-
drying properties of bitis have not been evaluated. However, based on the physical properties
as well as the air drying properties of the timber, it is envisaged that the timber is fairly difficult
to dry. A mild schedule (e.g. schedule B) should therefore be used. The timber is durable and is
very difficult to treat with preservatives.

24
USES: The timber is suitable for all forms of heavy construction, bridges, wharves, piers,
piling, posts, railway sleepers, parquet flooring and heavy flooring.
Bitis is essentially a Peninsular Malaysian name and in Sabah and Sarawak, the timber is
not differentiated from the lighter species and they are sold together as nyatoh. Other vernacular
names recorded include belian (P.M.) and seminai (P.M.).
Bitis buldt (P.M.) = Palaquium stellatum = BITIS.
Bitis paya (P.M.) = Palaquium ridleyi = BITIS.
Blumeodendron - A genus of small to medium-sized or rarely large trees up to 35(-50) m tall and
40(-50) cm in diameter, belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae. The common Malaysian name
for the timber is GAHAM BADAK (q. v.). The ASEAN Standard Name for the timber, which is
ofIndonesian origin, is TENGKURUNG. The timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy
to heavy with a density of 625-895 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is lighter in colour than the
heartwood, which is light brown. Occasionally, a corewood of darker brown with black streaks
is produced. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under GAHAM BADAK.
Vernacular names applied include gangulang (Sab.), gelugor hutan (P.M.), medang lempong
(P.M.) and merbulan (Sar.). Major species include B. kurzii and B. tokbrai.
Bok (Ph.) = Shorea bentongensis = WHITE MERANTI.
Bolds (Sab.) = Saraca declinata = GAPIS.
Bombacaceae - A family of fairly large to very large trees. Many species are cultivated for their
economic products, e.g. DURIAN (Durio spp.) for their edible fruit and KAPOK (Ceiba spp.)
for their silky arils that are used for stuffing cushions, pillows and mattresses. The timbers
produced are generally soft, light and non-durable. The colour varies from pale yellow or light
grey-brown to deep red-brown. Major genera in Malaysia include Bombax (KEKABU),
Coelostegia, Durio (DURIAN), Kostermansia and Neesia.
Bombax - A genus of small to large trees up to 35(--45) m tall and 150(--400)cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Bombacaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN
Standard Name for the timber is KEKABU (q.v.). The timber is soft and light with a density of
420-545 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is white and is sharply defined from the heartwood,
which is pale straw-coloured with a pink tinge. Other properties and uses of the timber are
described under KEKABU. Vernacular names applied include kekabu hutan (P.M.) and
tambaluang (Sab.). Only one species attains tree size in this country, viz. Bombax valetonii.
Bonglai (P.M.) = Pajanelia longifolia = BEKA.
Bongor biru (Sar.) = Lagerstroemia speciosa = BUNGOR.
Borak (Sab. and Sar.) = Sindora spp. = SEPETIR.
Borneo camphor wood (Sab.) = Dryobalanops spp. = KAPUR.
Borneo ironwood (Sab.) = Eusideroxylon zwageri = BELIAN.
Borneo teak l (Sab.) = Intsia spp. = MERBAU.
Borneo teak 2 (Sab.) = Dryobalanops spp. = KAPUR.
Bouea - A genus of medium to fairly large trees with dense crowns, up to 36 m tall and 80 cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Anacardiaceae. The common Malaysian name for the tree
and timber is KUNDANG (q. v.). The timber is moderately hard to hard and moderate heavy to
heavy with a density of 675-895 kg m-3 air dry. A density of 910-1130 kg m-3 air dry was
recorded for two specimens of B. oppositifolia from Indonesia. The sapwood is not differentiated
from the heartwood, which is light brown with a red tinge or grey-brown. Sometimes, a core of
dark coloured wood is formed in some trees. Other properties and uses of the timber are described
under KUNDANG. Vernacular names applied include kundang (P.M. and Sab.) with various
epithets, kundangan (P.M.), merapoh (P.M.), remia (P.M.) and rumenia (P.M.). Only two species
have been recorded for this country, viz. B. macrophylla and B. oppositifolia.

25
Bridelia -A genus of shrubs or small to medium-sized trees up to 20(-30) m tall and 50(-85) cm
in diameter, belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae. The common Malaysian name for the tree
and timber is KENIDAI (q.v.). Properties and uses of the timber are described under KENIDAL
Other vernacular names applied include balatotan (Sab.) and kernam, (P.M.). Major species
include B. stipularis and B. tomentosa.
Bruas (P.M.) = Garcinia hombroniana = KANDIS.
Bruguiera - A genus of small to fairly large mangrove trees up to 40 m tall and 70(-90) cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Rhizophoraceae. Many of the species do not attain tree size
and are available as pole-size timbers only. This genus produces a number of timbers which
bear their own individual vernacular names. However, many of the pole-size timbers are mixed
with the more common and popular Rhizophora spp. and sold as BAKAU (q.v.). Bruguiera
yields a medium to heavy hardwood with a density of 630-1 010 kg m- 3 air dry. The heartwood
is pale pinkish brown to red-brown or dark brown (grey in B. parviflora), not clearly demarcated,
but sometimes distinct from the pale brown sapwood. Other properties and uses of the timber
are described under BAKAU. Vernacular names applied include berus (P.M. and Sar.) with
various epithets, berus mata buaya (P.M.), beus (Sab.), langarai (Sab.), langgadai (Sab.),
lenggadai (P.M. and Sab.), lanjing-lanjing (Sab.), mata buaya (P.M. and Sab.), ngayong (Sar.),
putut (Sab.), tumu merah (P.M.) and tumu puteh (P.M.). Major species include B. cylindrica,
B. gymnorrhiza, B. hainesii, B. parviflora and B. sexangula.
Buah abong (Sar.) = Nephelium lappaceum = RAMBUTAN.
BUAH KERAS LAUT - The common Malaysian name for the tree and timber of
Hernandia nymphaeifolia (Hernandiaceae). The timber is soft and light with a density of
350--435 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is white
or light olive-brown. Texture is moderately coarse but even, with straight grain. The timber
seasons well but is susceptible to blue stain. Shrinkage upon seasoning is moderate. The timber
is very easy to work. It is non-durable but can be easily treated with preservatives.
USES: The timber is suitable for furniture, fish-net floats, wooden sandals and drawing boards.
Vernacular names applied include baru laut (P.M.). Only one species has been recorded for
this country, viz. H. nymphaeifolia.
Buah kebuau (Sar.) = Nephelium cuspidatum = RAMBUTAN.
Buah kIidang (Sar.) = Parartocarpus venenosus = TERAP.
Buah maha (Sar.) = Nephelium lappaceum = RAMBUTAN.
Buah mentega (P.M.) = Diospyros blancoi = KAYU MALAM.
Buah merpak (Ph.) - A vernacular name applicable to the tree of Shorea palembanica. The
timber produced by this species can range from light pink to dark red-brown and therefore, can
be accordingly classified as DARK RED MERANTI or LIGHT RED MERANTL
Buah mersilat (Sar.) = Nephelium cuspidatum = RAMBUTAN.
Buah mua (Sar.) = Nephelium ramboutan-ake = RAMBUTAN.
Buah piang (Sar.) = Sarcotheca diversifolia = PUPOL
Buah pusit (Sar.) = Pentaspadon motleyi = PELAJAU.
Buah sibau (Sar.) = Nephelium cuspidatum = RAMBUTAN.
Buah sungkit (Sab. and Sar.) = Nephelium maingayi = RAMBUTAN.
Buah susu (P.M.) = Chrysophyllum oliviforme = PEPULUT.
Buahan-buahan (Sab.) = Dysoxylum arborescens = JARUM-JARUM.
Buak-buak (Sab.) = Teijsmanniodendron spp. = ENTAPULOH.
Buak-buak batu (Sab.) = Teijsmanniodendron holophyllum = ENTAPULOH.
Buak-buakjari (Sab.) = Teijsmanniodendron bogoriense = ENTAPULOH.
Buak-buak jari itek (Sab.) = Teijsmanniodendron pteropodum = ENTAPULOH.

26
Buchanania - A genus ofsmall to fairly large trees up to 35(-42) m tall and 100 cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Anacardiaceae. The common Malaysian name for the tree and timber
is OTAK UDANG (q.v.). The timber is soft to moderately hard and light to moderately heavy
with a density of 465-690 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is lighter in colour than but is not
clearly defined from the heartwood, which is pinkish brown, often with a grey tinge. Other
properties and uses of the timber are described under OTAK UDANG. Vernacular names applied
include otak udang (P.M.) with various epithets, kepala tundang (Sab.), kepala tundang tungkai
pendek (Sab.), lamak ketam (Kd.) and rengas ayam (P.M.). Major species include B. arborescens
and B. sessifolia.
Buey (P.M.) = Diospyros spp. = KAYU MALAM.
Buling (Sab.) = Castanopsis evansii = BERANGAN.
Buloh-buloh 1 (P.M.) = Gynotroches spp. = MATA KELI.
Buloh-buloh 2 (P.M.) = Pellacalyx spp. = MEMBULOH.
Bulok (Sar.) = Agathis endertii and A. orbicula = DAMAR MINYAK.
Bulu (Sar.) = Agathis borneensis = DAMAR MINYAK.
Bulu-bulu (Sar.) = Gynotroches axil/aris = MATA KELI.
Bumbong (Ph.) = Shorea dealbata = WHITE MERANTI.
Bunga china = Gardenia spp., a genus of garden bush, cultivated for ornamental purpose belonging
to the family Rubiaceae. The timber of the genus has been called chempaka hutan, but chempaka
is used more commonly for Magnolia spp. (Magnoliaceae). To avoid confusion the name
mentiong is preferred.
BUNG OR - The common Malaysian name for the timber of Lagerstroemia spp. (Lythraceae).
The timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy with a density of 515-785 kg m-3 air dry.
The sapwood is light yellow-brown to grey-white, sometimes with a pink tinge, merging gradually
into the heartwood, which is pale red-brown and darkens on exposure. Texture is moderately
fine to rather coarse but uneven due to the ring-porous nature of the wood. Grain is straight or
slightly interlocked, occasionally conspicuously wavy. The timber is reported to be strong
(Strength group B). It is also reported to saw and work well and produces a smooth finish. It is
very difficult to peel even after boiling for 48 hours. The timber is reputed to season well with
very little degrade. Shrinkage is reported to be high, with radial shrinkage averaging 1.9% and
tangential shrinkage averaging 4%. The timber is moderately durable and very difficult to treat
with preservatives.
USES: The timber is one of the rare Malaysian timbers to have a ring-porous arrangement and
thus produces a pleasing growth-ring figure. The timber is suitable for interior finishing,
panelling, furniture manufacture, sliced veneers and boat decking.
Vernacular name applied appears to be rather uniform in that bungor is used throughout the
country. Major species include L. floribunda, L. ovalifolia and L. speciosa.
Buniton (Sab.) = Mangifera torquenda = MACHANG.
Bunsi (Sar.) = Grewia spp. and Microcos spp. = CHENDERAI.
Bunsod (Sab.) = Cinnamomum spp. = MEDANG.
Bunyitan (Sab.) = Mangifera torquenda = MACHANG.
Burseraceae - A family of medium-sized to large trees. The timber produced is rather
homogeneous and the Standard Malaysian Name is KEDONDONG. The timber is a light
hardwood and non-durable. The colour varies from creamy white in Canarium apertum to
deep red-brown in Santiria spp. Major genera in Malaysia include Canarium, Dacroydes,
Santiria, Scutinanthe and Triomma.
Buruni (Sab.) = Artocarpus spp. = KELEDANG.
Busok-busok (P.M. and Sab.) = Cassiajavanica ssp. nodosa = BEBUSOK.
Buta-buta (P.M. and Sab.) = Excoecaria spp. = BEBUTA.
Butoh terampayoh (Sar.) = Castanopsis oviformis = BERANGAN.

27
c
Caesalpinia - A genus of climber, shrubs or small prickly trees up to 10m tall, belonging to the
family Leguminosae. The timber is commonly known as SEPANG (q.v.). The timber is hard
and heavy with a density of 980-1045 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is white with a pinkish
tinge and sharply differentiated from the heartwood, which is orange-red, darkening on
exposure to dark purple-red-brown. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under
SEPANG. No other vernacular names have been recorded and only one species is
of importance, viz. C. sappan.
Callerya - A genus of usually climber and scandent shrubs or occasionally trees up to 35 m tall
and 60 cm in diameter, belonging to the family Leguminosae. The timber is commonly
known as TULANG DAING (q.v.). The timber is a medium hardwood with a density
of 595-815 kg m-3 air dry. The heartwood is pale orange-brown with paler streaks when fresh
and is not clearly differentiated from the sapwood. Other properties and uses of the timber are
described under TULANG DAING. Vernacular names applied include jenerik (P.M.) and kedang
belum (Sar.). Major species include C. atropurpurea and C. vasta.
Calophyllum - A very large genus of small to large trees up to 40(-60) m tall and 100(-240) cm
in diameter, belonging to the family Guttiferae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is
BINTANGOR (q. v.). The timber is a light hardwood with a density of 465-865 kg m-3 and an
average density of 640 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is yellow-brown with a pink tinge and is
well differentiated from the heartwood, which is deep red, red-brown, pink-brown or
orange-brown. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under BINTANGOR.
Vernacular names applied include bintangor (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) with various epithets, bakokol
(Sar.), entangor (Sar.) and penaga laut (P.M. and Sab.). Major species include C. biflorum,
C. calaba var. bracteatum, C. canum, C. coriaceum, C. depressinervosum, C.ferrugineum
var. ferrugineum, c. inophyllum, C. macrocarpum, C. pulcherrimum, C. sclerophyllum,
C. symingtonianum, C. tetrapterum, C. teysmannii var. inophylloide and C. wallichianum
(including var. incrassatum).
Campnosperma - A genus of medium-sized to large trees up to 50 m tall and 120(-220) cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Anacardiaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber
is TERENTANG (q. v.). The timber is a light hardwood with a density of 320-560 kg m-3 air
dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is pink-grey or bright pink
in colour. Other properties and uses ofthe timber are described under TERENTANG. Vernacular
names applied include terentang (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) with various epithets, ketang (Sar.) and
tela tang (Sab.). Major species include C. auriculatum, C. coriaceum and C. squamatum.
Canarium - A genus of medium-sized to large trees up to 35(-60) m tall and 120(-200) cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Burseraceae. The timber is commonly grouped together with
the other members of the family and sold as KEDONDONG (q. v.). The timber is a light hardwood
with a density of 360-815 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is lighter in colour than and not well
defined from the heartwood, which is usually pink or light red-brown except for C. apertum
which is light yellow. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under
KEDONDONG. Vernacular names applied include kedondong (P.M. and Sab.) with various
epithets, kembayu (Sab.), pamatadon (Sab.), seladah (Sar.) and senggeh (P.M.) . Major species

28
include C. apertum, C. decumanum, C. denticulatum, C. grandifolium, C. littorale (f. littorale,
f. purpurascens, f. rufum and f. tomentosum), C. megalanthum, C. odontophyllum and
C. pseudosumatranum.
Cantleya - -A monotypic genus of medium-sized to fairly large trees, up to 40 m tall and
60(-150) cm in diameter, belonging to the family Icacinaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name
as well as the ASEAN Standard Name for the timber is DEDARU (q.v.). The timber is hard
and very heavy with a density of 1105-1140 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is light yellow-brown
and sharply defined from the heartwood, which is yellow-pink-brown. Other properties and
uses ofthe timber are described under DEDARU. Vernacular names applicable include bedaru
(Sar.) and samala (Sab.). The only species, C. corniculata, is found in Peninsular Malaysia
(Johore), the Riau and Lingga Archipelago, Bangka, Sumatra and Borneo.
Carallia - A genus of shrubs or small to fairly large trees up to 36(-50) m tall and 70 cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Rhizophoraceae. The Standard Malaysian Name as well as
the ASEAN Standard Name for the timber is MERANSI (q.v.). The timber is hard and heavy
with a density of 670-930 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is lighter in colour than and moderately
distinct from the heartwood, which is red-brown with an orange hue. Other properties and uses
of the timber are described under MERANSI. Vernacular names used include kemuning hutan
(Sab.), merawai (Sab.), rabong (Sar.), radipah (Sar.), tikolod (Sab.) andyulu tam bang (Sab.).
Major species include C. borneensis, C. brachiata, C. euryoides and Carallia sp. 1.
Cassia - A genus of small to medium-sized sometimes fairly large trees up to 25(-40) m tall and
60 cm in diameter, belonging to the family Leguminosae. The common Malaysian name for the
timber is BEBUSOK (q. v.). The timber is hard and heavy with a density of 690--875 kg m-3 air
dry. The sapwood is white or yellow and is sharply differentiated from the heartwood, which is
light orange-brown. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under BEBUSOK.
Vernacular names applied include barung-barung (Sab.), bereksa (P.M.), busok-busok (P.M
and Sab.) and langgong (Sab.). Until the beginning of the 1980s, Cassia was considered to be
a very large genus of over 500 species, but then the genus was split into three genera, viz.
Cassia s.s., Senna and Chamaecrista. There are three species of Cassia in Malesia but only
one subspecies, viz. C.javanica ssp. nodosa, is recorded in this country with some importance
as a timber tree.
Castanopsis - A genus of medium-sized to fairly large trees up to 45 m tall and 150 cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Fagaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is BERANGAN
(q. v.). The timber is moderately heavy to heavy with a density of 61 0--980 kg m-3 air dry. The
sapwood is light brown, often with greenish tinge and sharply differentiated from the heartwood,
~hich is dark brown or dark red-brown. Other properties and uses of the timber are described
under BERANGAN. Vernacular names applied include berangan (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) with
various epithets, kogopon (Sab.), maruwit (Sar.) and various other localised names too numerous
to be listed here. Major species include C. borneensis, C. buruana, C. clemens ii, C. curtisii,
C. endertii, C. evansii, C. foxworthyi, C. fulva, C. hypophoenicea, C. inermis, C. javanica,
C. malaccensis, C. micropyhlla, C. motleyana, C. oviformis, c. paucispina, C. psilophyUa,
C. rhamnifolia and C. schefJeriana.
Casuarina - A genus o( medium-sized to tall trees up to 35(-60) m tall and 100(-150) cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Casuarinaceae. The common Malaysian name for the timber
is RU (q.v.). The ASEAN Standard Name for the timber, which is of Philippine origin, is
AGOHO. The timber is very hard and very heavy with a density of 850-1120 kg m-3 air dry.
The sapwood is lighter in colour than and distinct from the heartwood, which is pink-brown,
red-brown or dark brown. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under RU.
Vernacular names applied include aru (Sab.), rhu laut (Sab.) and semipilau (Sab.). Only one
species is recorded in Malaysia, viz. C. equisetifolia.

29
Casuarinaceae - A small family of medium-sized to tall trees. The family consists of three
genera, viz. Casuarina, Ceuthostoma and Gymnostoma. The common Malaysian name for the
timber is RU (q.v.) and the ASEAN Standard Name for the timber is AGOHO.
Cedrela - This genus consists of about eight species and is naturally confined to the New World
tropics. All Old World species of Cedrela have been transferred to the genus Toona. A single
species, C. odorata (syn.: C. glaziovii), is found in South-East Asia. See Toona.
Celastraceae - A rather large family of shrubs and trees. This family produces two economically
important timbers and they are the medium density MATA ULAT (Kokoona spp.) and the
lighter PERUPOK (Lophopetalum spp.). Other genera of the family that attain tree size are
Bhesa (BIKU-BIKU) and Siphonodon.
Celtis - A genus of small to large trees up to 40 m tall and 90 cm in diameter, belonging to the
family Ulmaceae. There is no local name for the timber. Celtis is a light to heavy wood with a
density of 400-960 kg m-3 air dry. The heartwood is pale brown to pale yellow-brown,
occasionally with dark streaks and moderately distinct from the white or pale sapwood. Texture
is fine to moderately fine and even. Grain is usually interlocked. The timber seasons well but
the lighter density Celtis may develop twisting and warping, particularly those with tension
wood. Shrinkage is low to moderate. It is moderately easy to work if free of tension wood,
though sometimes difficult due to crytalline deposits which blunt tools readily. Planing is difficult
and usually gives a rough surface due to the interlocked grain. It is non-durable when exposed
to the weather. The timber can be treated with preservatives.
USES: The heavier timber of Celtis is reported to be used for general construction works,
decking, industrial flooring, window sills, staircase components. In Japan, it has been used as a
substitute for ramin. The lighter Celtis wood is used for light and temporary construction,
moulding, interior finish, furniture and cabinet, tool handles, bent-works, sport equipments,
veneer and plywood.
Two species are found in Malaysia, viz. C. philippensis and C. timorensis.
Cephalomappa - A genus of small to medium-sized trees up to 36 m tall and 60 cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae. The timber is commonly grouped with those from
Austrobuxus and Drypetes and sold as ARAU (q.v.). Properties and uses of the timber are
described under ARAU. Other vernacular names applied include kayu mapa (Sab.). Major
species include C. malloticarpa and C. penangensis.
Ceriops - A genus of small to medium-sized mangrove trees up to 25 m tall and 45 cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Rhizophoraceae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is
BAKAU (q.v.). The timber is hard and heavy with an average density of 915 kg m-3 air dry.
The sapwood is not clearly defined from the heartwood, which is orange-red-brown. Other
properties and uses of the timber are described under BAKAU. Vernacular names applied
include bakau tali (Sar.), tengar (P.M. and Sab.), tengar tikus (Sar.), tagal (Sab.), tangal (Sab.),
tanug (Sab.), tengar samak (Sar.) and tenug (Sab.). Major species include C. decandra and C.
tagal.
Ceuthostoma - A genus of small to medium-sized trees, up to 30 m tall and 30 cm diameter,
belonging to the family Casuarinaceae. The common Malaysian name for the timber is RU
(q. v.). The ASEAN Standard Name for the timber, which is of Philippine origin, is AGOHO.
Only one species, C. termina/e, is known from Mt. Kinabalu and Mt. Tawai in Sabah.
Chabang tiga (P.M.) = Melicope lunu-ankenda = PEPAUH.
Chaetocarpus - A genus of small to large trees up to 45 m tall and 60 cm in diameter, belonging
to the family Euphorbiaceae. The common Malaysian name for the timber is BEBATU (q. v.).
The ASEAN Standard Name for the timber, which is of Indonesian origin, is KAYU BESI.
The timber is moderately hard to hard and moderately heavy to heavy with a density
of 610-1040 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is

30
white when freshly cut and darkens to straw-colour on exposure. Other properties and uses of
the timber are described under BEBATU. Other vernacular names applied include bedik (P.M.),
dusun-dusun (Sab.), kayu dusun (Sab.) and membatu (P.M.). Only one species has been recorded
for this country, viz. C. castanocarpus.
Cheilosa - A genus of small to medium trees up to 24 m tall and 50 cm in diameter, belonging to
the family Euphorbiaceae. Only one species is recorded, viz. C. montana.
Chempa hutan (P.M.) = Actinodaphne sphaerocarpa = MEDANG.
CHEMPAKA - The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN Standard Name for the
timber of the family Magnoliaceae. The timber is moderately soft and light to moderately
heavy with a density of 300-705 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is white to light yellow and is
moderately distinct from the heartwood, which is light brown with a green tinge. Texture is
moderately fine and even, with straight grain. The timber is reported to work easily and produces
a smooth finish. It seasons fairly slowly, without any serious defects except for some insect
attacks. 13 mm boards take approximately 2 months to air dry, while 38 mm boards take 4
months. Shrinkage is fairly low, with radial shrinkage averaging 1.2% and tangential shrinkage
averaging 1.4%. The movement of seasoned timber is classified under Type III. The timber is
reputed to be moderately durable.
USES: The timber is suitable for interior finishing, panelling and partitioning, furniture
manufacture, flooring and wooden pallets.
Vernacular names applied include chempaka with various epithets in almost all parts of the
country, e.g. chempaka bulu (Sab.), chempaka hutan (P.M.), kepayangambok(Sab.), ketapang
ambok (Sab.) and very often medang (P.M.) with various epithets in error, e.g. medang limo
(P.M.). Major species include Magnolia bintuluensis, M. candolli var. obovata, M. champaca,
M. elegans, M. montana, M. scortechinii and M. tsiampacca subsp. mollis.
Chempaka bulu (Sab.) = Magnolia tsiampacca subsp. mollis = CHEMPAKA.
Chempaka carson (Sab.) = Magnolia spp. = CHEMPAKA.
Chempaka hutan (P.M. and Sab.) = Magnolia elegans and M. montana = CHEMPAKA.
Chempaka merah (P.M.) = Magnolia champaca = CHEMPAKA.
Chempedak (P.M.) = Artocarpus spp. = KELEDANG.
Chempedak ayer (Sar.) = Artocarpus teysmannii = TERAP.
CHENDERAI - The common Malaysian name for the timber of Grewia spp. and Microcos spp.
(Tiliaceae). The timber is soft to moderately hard and light to moderately heavy with a density
of 415-900 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is in
various shades of brown, pink-brown or light purple-brown, often becoming grey-brown on
exposure. Texture is moderately fine and even, with interlocked and sometimes spiral grain.
The timber has not been tested in the FRIM, Kepong, but is reported to be fairly stony and
tough. The timber is reputed to work well and finish very well. Seasoning properties are reported
to be good although the timber is susceptible to sapstain. The timber is non-durable under
exposed conditions.
USES: The timber of Grewia is generally used for small articles where toughness is required,
like tool handles, spades, shafts of golf sticks, shoulder poles for carrying small loads, pestles,
bows, billiard cues and shingles. On the other hand, the timber of Microcos is used for general
construction under cover (e.g. rafters) and also for small objects where strength and elasticity
are required (e.g. tool handles, agricultural implements, sporting goods and vehicle bodies).
Tests indicated that the timber of this species might be suitable for pulping.
Vernacular names applied include bunsi (Sar.), damak-damak (P.M.) and kerudong (Sab.).
Major species include Grewia polygama; Microcos antidesmifolia, M. cinnamomifolia,
M. jibrocarpa, M. lanceolata, M latifolia, M. laurifolia, M. triflora and M. tomentosa.
Chenderas (Ph.) = Shorea maxwelliana = BALAU.

31
CHENGAV - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Neobalanocarpus heimii
(Dipterocarpaceae). The timber is a heavy hardwood with a density of915-980 kg m-3 air dry.
The sapwood is light yellow and sharply defined from the heartwood, which is light
yellow-brown with a distinct green tinge, darkening on exposure to dark purple-brown or
rust-red. Texture is fine and even, with shallowly to deeply interlocked grain. The timber is
very strong (Strength group A). It is slightly difficult to resaw and is easy to moderately easy to
cross-cut. Planing is easy and the planed surface produced is smooth. The timber seasons slowly
with moderate end-checking and surface-checking as the main sources of degrade. 13 mm
boards take approximately 5 months to air dry, while 38 mm boards take 6 months. Shrinkage
is fairly low, with radial shrinkage averaging 1.1 % and tangential shrinkage averaging 2.6%.
For kiln-drying, Schedule B is recommended. The timber dries very slowly and is extremely
prone to surface-checking. 25 mm boards take approximately 30 days to kiln-dry from 50 to
10% moisture-content. The timber is very durable and no preservation treatment is necessary.
USES: The timber is suitable for all forms of heavy construction, railway sleepers, bridges,
wharves, power-line poles, heavy duty furniture and heavy duty flooring. This timber is also a
favourite for boat building.
Vernacular names applied include penak (P.M.). The name chengal is so popular, that many
other species have been given vernacular names bearing the name chengal. Neobalanocarpus
is a monotypic genus.
ChengaF (Sar.) = Hopea spp. = GIAM.
Chengal batu l (Ps.) = Hopeaferrea = GIAM.
Chengal batu2 (Ph. and Pk.) = Hopea semicuneata = GIAM.
Chengal batu3 (Ph.) = Shorea maxwelliana = BALAU.
Chengal batul (P.M.) = Hopea nutans = GIAM.
Chengal kampung (Tr.) = Hopea odorata = MERAWAN.
Chengal karang (Pk.) = Hopea sublanceolata = MERAWAN.
Chengal keras (P.M.) = Hopea nutans = GIAM.
Chengal mas (P.M.) = Hopea odorata = MERAWAN.
Chengal pasirl (P.M.) = Hopea odorata and H. sangal = MERAWAN.
Chengal pasir2 (Kd. and S1.) = Hopea nervosa = MERAWAN.
Chengal pasir 3 (Pk.) - A vernacular name applicable to the tree of Shorea hemsleyana. The
timber produced by this tree can range from light pink-brown to dark red-brown and therefore,
can be accordingly classified as DARK RED MERANTI or LIGHT RED MERANTI
Chengal pasir4 (K1.) = Shorea guiso = RED BALAU.
Chengal pasir 5 (Pk.) - A vernacular name applicable to the tree of Shorea macrantha. The
timber produced by this tree can range from light pink to dark red-brown and therefore, can be
classified as LIGHT RED MERANTI or DARK RED MERANTI
Chengal pasir daun besar (P.M.) - A vernacular name applicable to the tree Shorea hemsleyana.
The timber produced by this tree can range from light pink-brown to dark red-brown and
therefore, can accordingly be classified as DARK RED MERANTI or LIGHT RED MERANTI.
Chengal pelandak (P.M.) = Hopea nutans = GIAM.
Chengal pulau (Lk.) = Hopea odorata = MERAWAN.
Chengal rawan (Ph.) = Hopea nervosa = MERAWAN.
Chengal tiga benir (Ps.) = Parashorea stellata = GERUTU.
Chenkring (P.M.) = Zanthoxylum spp. = HANTU DURI.
Cherana puteh (P.M.) = Chukrasia tabularis = SURlAN BATU.
CmCHAH - The common Malaysian name for the timber of Stereospermum spp. (Bignoniaceae).
The timber is moderately hard to hard and moderately heavy to heavy with a density of
705-880 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is lighter in colour than but is not well defined from the

32
heartwood, which is light yellow-brown with a grey tinge. Texture is rather coarse and uneven
due to the presence of abundant parenchyma. Grain is interlocked. The timber has not been
tested in the FRIM, Kepong, but tests on related Indian species showed that the timber is fairly
strong (Strength group C). It is reputed to be rather difficult to work and causes rapid blunting
of tools. The timber is reported to season easily with very little degrade.
USES: The timber is suitable for temporary construction, planking, cladding and shuttering.
No other vernacular names have been recorded. Only one species is commonly found, viz.
S. fimbriatum.
China maid (P.M.) = Leptospermumjavanicum = GELAM BUKIT.
CHINTA MULA - The common Malaysian name for the timber of Erythroxylum spp.
(Erythroxylaceae). The ASEAN Standard Name for the timber, which is of Indonesian origin,
is MERPITAS. The timber is hard and moderately heavy to heavy with a density of
720-1010 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is light yellow-brown and is sharply differentiated from
the heartwood, which is rose-brown. Texture is rather fine and even, with straight or shallowly
interlocked grain. The timber is reported to saw and work well although the cutter knives are
blunted rapidly due to the presence of abundant crystals in the timber. The timber is reputed to
be fairly durable.
USES: The small and gnarled stems of this species preclude any extensive utilisation of the
timber. The straighter trees may be suitable for fence posts and poles.
Vernacular names applied include ketai mula (P.M.), perapat burong (Sab.) and seri mula
(P.M.). Major species include E. cuneatum.
Chrysobalanaceae - A family of shrubs and trees. The genera of importance in Malaysia include
Atuna (MERBATU), Kostermanthus (MERBATU), Licania (MERBATU), Maranthes
(MERBATU), Parastemon (NGILAS) and Parinari (MERBATU).
Chrysophyllum - A genus of small to very large trees with short buttresses, up to 55 m tall and
85 cm in diameter, belonging to the family Sapotaceae. The common Malaysian name for the
tree and timber is PEPULUT (q.v.). Properties and uses of the timber are described under
PEPULUT. Vernacular names applied include buah susu (P.M.) and pulut-pulut (P.M.). Major
species include C. cainito, C. lanceolatum and C. oliviforme. Chrysophyllum cain ito and
C. oliviforme have been introduced from the Americas.
Chukrasia - A genus of medium-sized to sometimes fairly large trees up to 30(-40) m tall and
110(-175) cm in diameter, belonging to the family Meliaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name
for the timber is SURIAN BATU (q.v.). The timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy
with a density of 625-880 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is light yellow-brown or pink-brown
and is moderately sharply defined from the heartwood, which is light red-brown or red and
darkens to dark walnut-brown on exposure. Other properties and uses of the timber are described
under SURIAN BATU. Vernacular names applied include cherana puteh (P.M.), repoh (P.M.),
suntang (P.M) and sun tang puteh (P.M.). Only one species, viz. C. tabularis, is recorded for
this region.
Cinnamomum - A genus of shrubs or small to large trees up to 50 m tall and 125 cm in diameter,
belonging to family Lauraceae. The timber is commonly grouped together with the other
lightweight members of the family and sold as MEDANG (q. v.). The timber a light hardwood
with a density of 575-720 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is variable, ranging from straw-coloured
with a pink tinge, light brown with a pink tinge to brown with a grey-pink tinge and merging
gradually into the heartwood, which is yellow-brown to light red-brown. Other properties and
uses of the timber are described under MEDANG. Vernacular names applied to the members
of this genus include medang (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) with various epithets, bunsod (Sab.), keplah
wangi (SaL), kayu manis (P.M. and Sab.) and teja (P.M. and Sar.). Major species include
C. sintoc, C. iners, C.javanicum, C. porrectum and C. scortechinii.

33
Coelostegia - A genus of very large trees up to 50 m tall and 110 cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Bombacaceae. The timber is grouped together with those from Durio,
Kostermansia and Neesia and sold as DURIAN (q. v.). The timber is a light hardwood with a
density of 610-800 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is lighter in colour than and not well
differentiated from the heartwood, which is light orange-yellow darkening to deep
orange-yellow and red-brown on exposure. Other properties and uses of the timber are described
under DURIAN. Vernacular names applied to the species include punggai (P.M.) with various
epithets and durian isa (Sar.). Major species include C. borneensis, C. chartacea and C. griffithii.
Combretaceae - A family of climbers, shrubs and trees. Only two genera attain tree size in
Malaysia and they are Lumnitzera (TERUNTUM) and Terminalia (KETAPANG).
Combretocarpus - A monotypic genus of medium-sized to fairly large trees up to 40 m tall and
100 cm in diameter, belonging to the family Anisophylleaceae. The Standard Malaysia Name
for the timber is KERUNTUM (q.v.). The timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy
with a density of 640-800 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is chalky white and is sharply
differentiated from the heartwood, which is red or red-brown. Other properties and uses of the
timber are described under KERUNTUM. Vernacular names applied include kayu tom (Sar.),
mutun (Sar.), perapat paya (Sab. and Sar.), perapat-perapat (Sab.), perepat-perepat (Sab.)
and sabutun (Sar.). The only species, C. rotundatus, is distributed in Sumatra, Borneo, Riau
Archipelago, Bangka and Belitung. It is most abundant in Sarawak and Brunei and has only
once been collected in Peninsular Malaysia.
Compositae - A very large family of herbs or very rarely, straggling shrubs to medium-sized
trees. Only one genus is found in this country that has a clear bole and branches, viz. Vernonia
(MENGGAMBONG).
Copaijera -A genus of medium-sized to sometimes very large trees up to 30(-39) m tall and
60(-180) cm in diameter, belonging to the family Leguminosae. The timber is commonly grouped
together with those of Sindora spp. and sold as SEPETIR (q.v.). The timber is a light hardwood
with a density of 530-865 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is lighter in colour than and well
defined from the heartwood, which is red-brown. Other properties and uses of the timber are
described under SEPETIR. Vernacular names applied include sepetir paya (Sab. and Sar.),
tampar hantu (Sar.) and tepih (Sar.). Only one species is found in Malaysia, viz. C. palustris.
Cornaceae - A small family which is represented in Malaysia by only one genus, viz. Mastixia
(TETEBU).
Cotylelobium - A genus of small to large trees up to 50 m tall and 160(-200) cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Dipterocarpaceae. The timber is grouped together with those of
Vatica spp. and sold as RESAK (q.v.). The timber is a heavy hardwood with a density of
865-1155 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is lighter in colour than and fairly sharply differentiated
from the heartwood, which is pale yellow when fresh, turning to deep red-brown on exposure.
Other properties and uses of the timber are described under RESAK. Vernacular names applied
include resak (P.M. and Sab.) with various epithets. Major species include C. burckii,
C. lanceolatum and C. melanoxylon.
Cratoxylum - A genus of medium-sized to fairly large trees up to 35(-50) m tall and 60(-100)cm
in diameter, belonging to the family Guttiferae. This genus produces two distinct groups of
timber. The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN Standard Name for the heavier
group is DERUM (q.v.), while the Standard Malaysian Name for the lighter group is
GERONGGANG (q. v.).
Derum is moderately hard and moderately heavy to heavy with a density of 705-945 kg m-3
air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is brown or red-brown
with a purple tinge. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under DERUM.
Vernacular names applied include derum (P.M.) with various epithets, beluchus (P.M.), dat

34
tetong (Sar.), entemu (Sar.), geronggang (P.M. and Sab.) with various epithets, kajo jelan (Sar.),
melan (Sar.), mirinos (Sar.), nyalin bahe (Sar.),patok ti/an (Sar.), raja tugag (Sar.), selangan
biabas (Sab.), serungan (Sab.), serungan batu (Sab.) and sidodot (Sar.). Major species include
C. cochinchinense, C. formosum and C. maingayi.
Geronggang is a light hardwood with a density of 350-61 0 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is
yellow with a pink tinge and is moderately sharply differentiated from the heartwood, which is
dark pink or light brick-red. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under
GERONGGANG. Vernacular names applied include geronggang with various epithets, dat
(Sar.), di'it (Sar.), kirap (Sar.), labakan (Sar.), man at (Sar.), merti/an (Sar.), pidang (Sar.),
serungan (Sab.), serungan labakan (Sar.), tat (Sar.) and timau (Sar.). Major species include
C. arborescens and C. glaucum.
Crudia-A genus ofsmall to medium-sized trees up to 25(-35) m tall and 60(-80) cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Leguminosae. There is no common Malaysian name for the timber but
MERBAU KERA (g. v.), which is applied to C. curtisii, is adopted here for the whole genus.
Properties and uses of the timber are described under MERBAU KERA. Vernacular names
applied include angar-angar (Sab.), babi kurus (P.M.) andjering tupai (P.M.). Major species
include C. curtis ii, C. reticulata and C. scortechinii.
Crypteronia - A genus of medium-sized to large trees up to 45 m tall and 100 cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Crypteroniaceae. The common Malaysian name for the tree and timber
is BEKOI (g. v.). The timber is soft to moderately hard and light to moderately heavy with a
density of 545-800 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood,
which is white or light brown with a pink or purple-pink tinge. Other properies and uses of the
timber are described under BEKOI. Vernacular names applied include bedulang semut (Sar.),
bekoi daun bulu (P.M.), bekoi daun nipis (P.M.), bekoi daun tebal (P.M.), kinkidon mantok
(Sab.), rambai-rambai (Sab.), tampasu (Sab.), teletang (Sar.), telinga badak (P.M.), ubah samak
(Sar.) and ubah semut (Sar.). Major species include C. borneensis, C. griffithii, C. macrophylla
and C. paniculata (var. afjinis and var. paniculata).
Crypteroniaceae - A family of trees which are nowhere abundant. The timber produced is
JONGKONG (Dactylocladus stenostachys) and BEKOI (Axinandra and Crypteronia) which
is of no commercial importance.
Cryptocarya - A genus of shrubs or small to fairly large trees up to 40(--47) m tall and 60(-90) cm
in diameter, belonging to the family Lauraceae. The timber is commonly grouped together with
the other lightweight members ofthe family and sold as MEDANG (g. v.). The timber is a light
hardwood with a density of 575-770 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not distinct from the
heartwood, which is yellow-brown with a green tinge or red-brown. Other properties and uses
of the timber are described under MEDANG. Medang (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) with various
epithets is the vernacular name applied to the timbers of this genus. Major species
include C. bracteolata, C. griffithiana and C. kurzii.
Ctenolophon - A genus of medium-sized to fairly tall trees up to 40 m tall and 120 cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Ctenolophonaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN
Standard Name for the timber is MERTAS (g. v.). The timber is hard and heavy with a density
of 800-930 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is
brown to purple-red-brown. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under
MERTAS. Vernacular names applied include besi-besi (Sab.), litoh (Sar.) and sometimes kelat
(P.M.) by mistake due to the close resemblance of the leaves to Syzygium spp. Only one species
is found in Malaysia, viz. C. parvifolius.
Ctenolophonaceae - A monogeneric family closely allied to the Ixonanthaceae and Linaceae.
The timber produced is MERTAS (Ctenolophon parvifolius) which is hard and moderately
durable and good for house construction as well as general purpose timber.

35
Cyathocalyx - A genus of small to medium-sized trees up to 30(-35 m) tall and 60(-90) cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Annonaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber
is MEMPISANG (q. v.). The timber is a light hardwood with a density of 525-625 kg m-3 air
dry for C. sumatranus and about 450 kg m-3 air dry for the species C. pruniferus. The sapwood
is lighter in colour than and moderately sharply defined from the heartwood, which is
yellow to light yellow-brown. Other properties and uses of this timber are described under
MEMPISANG. Vernacular names applied to the genus include akau (Sar.), ako (Sar.),
antoi (P.M.), antoi beludu (P.M.), antoi itam (P.M.), antoiputeh (P.M.), karai (Sab. and Sar.),
manitan (P.M.) and pisang-pisang (P.M.). Major species include C. pruniferus, C. ramuliflorus
and C. sumatranus.
Cynometra - A genus of shrub or small to large trees up to 40 m tall and 80 cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Leguminosae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is
KEKATONG (q.v.). The timber is a heavy hardwood with a density of 880-1155 kg m-3 air
dry. The sapwood is lighter in colour than and not well defined from the heartwood,
which is red-brown or claret-red with streaks oflighter colour. Other properties and uses of the
timber are described under KEKATONG. Vernacular names applied include belangan (P.M.),
belangkan (P.M.), katong-katong (P.M. and Sab.) and kekatong laut (P.M.). Major species
include C. elmeri, C. iripa, C. malaccensis, C. mirabilis and C. ramiflora.

36
D
Dacrycarpus - A genus of shrubs or small to large trees up to 50 m tall, belonging to the family
Podocarpaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is PODO (q.v.). The timber is
commonly grouped together with the other members of the family (Nageia spp. and Podocarpus
spp.) and sold as PODO. The timber is a softwood with a density of 380--770 kg m-3 air dry.
The heartwood is pale yellow with a greenish tinge or pale golden brown and not clearly
demarcated from the sapwood. Other properties arid uses of the timber are described under
PODO. Vernacular names applied include landin (Sar.), podo cucor atap (P.M.), rempayan
(Sab.) and ru bukit (P.M.). This genus consists of seven species in South-East Asia, but
only a single species, D. imbricatus, is found in Malaysia. This species is divided into four
varieties: var. imbricatus, var. patulus, var. robustus and var curvulus. Only one variety is
found in Malaysia, viz. var. imbricatus.
Dacrydium - A genus of small to fairly large trees up to 40 m tall and 70(-100) cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Podocarpaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is
SEMPILOR (q. v.). The ASEAN Standard Name for the timber, which is ofIndonesian origin,
is MELUR. The timber is a softwood and is moderately hard and moderately heavy with a
density of 435-705 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood,
which is buff, sometimes with a pink tinge or golden brown. Other properies and uses of the
timber are described under SEMPILOR. Vernacular names applied include ekor (P.M.) with
various epithets, ru bukit (P.M.) and ru gunong (P.M.). Major species includeD. beccarii,
D. comosum, D. elatum and D. gibbsiae.
Dacryodes - A genus of small to fairly large trees up to 30(-45) m tall and 100(-120) cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Burseraceae. The timber is commonly grouped together with
the other members of the family and sold as KEDONDONG (q. v.). The timber is a light hardwood
with a density of 625-980 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is lighter in colour than and not well
defined from the heartwood, which is usually pink or light red-brown. Other properties and
uses of the timber are described under KEDONDONG. Vernacular names applied include
asam-asam (Sab.), kimayau (Sar.), seladah (Sar.). Major species include D. costata, D. incurvata,
D. laxa, D. longifolia, D. macrocarpa var. patentinervia, D. puberula, D. rostrata, D. rubiginosa
and D. rugosa.
Dactylocladus - A monotypic genus of small to large trees up to 40 m tall and 120(-150) cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Crypteroniaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber
is JONGKONG (q.v.). Properties and uses of the timber are described under JONGKONG.
Vernacular names applied include gatal (Sar.), medangjongkong (Sar.), medang tabak (Sab.),
merebong (Sar.) and tanjiong awam (Sab.). The only species, D. stenostachys, is endemic to
Borneo.
Dadah (Sar.) = Artocarpus dadah = KELEDANG.
Dadak (Sar.) = Artocarpus dadah = KELEDANG.
Dadam (Sar.) = Alangium havilandii = MENTULANG.
Dadap (Sab.) = Erythrina variegata = DEDAP.
Dajak (Sar.) = Anisophylleaferruginea = DELEK.
Damak-damak (P.M.) = Grewia spp. and Microcos spp. = CHENDERAI.

37
Damar (Kd.) = Dipterocarpus spp. = KERUING.
Damar etoi (Kd.) = Dipterocarpus baudii and D. dyeri = KERUING.
Damar hitam (P.M.) = Shorea spp. = YELLOW MERANT1.
Damar hitam bulu (P.M.) = Shorea longisperma = YELLOW MERANT1.
Damar hit am gajah (P.M.) = Shorea gibbosa = YELLOW MERANT1.
Damar hitam katup (P.M.) = Shorea balanocarpoides = YELLOW MERANT1.
Damar hitam kelim (P.M.) = Shorea blumutensis = YELLOW MERANT1.
Damar hitam sengkawang puteh (P.M.) = Shorea maxima = YELLOW MERANTI.
Damar hitam siput 1 (P.M.) = Shoreafaguetiana = YELLOW MERANT1.
Damar hitam siput2 (P.M.) = Hopea sangal = MERAWAN.
Damar hit am siput3 (Ph.) = Shorea lepidota = LIGHT RED MERANT1.
Damar hitam sipuf' (Pk.) = Hopea helferi = GIAM.
Damar hitam siput besar (P.M.) = Shorea kuantanensis = YELLOW MERANT1.
Damar hitam siput jantan (P.M.) = Shorea hopeifolia = YELLOW MERANT1.
Damar hitam telepok (P.M.) = Shorea peltata = YELLOW MERANT1.
Damar katup (P.M.) = Shorea balanocarpoides = YELLOW MERANT1.
Damar keluang (Ph.) = Vatica bella = RESAK.
Damar kelim (P.M.) = Shorea blumutensis = YELLOW MERANT1.
Damar laut (Pk.) = Shorea lumutensis = BALAU.
Damar laut daun besar (P.M.) = Shorea glauca = BALAU.
Damar laut daun kechil (P.M.) = Shorea maxwelliana = BALAU.
Damar laut kuning (P.M.) = Shorea spp. = BALAU.
Damar laut merah (P.M.) = Shorea kunstleri = RED BALAU.
Damar liat (P.M.) = Dipterocarpus concavus = KERUING.
Damar mata kuchingl (Pk.) = Hopea helferi = GIAM.
Damar mata kuching2 (Ph.) = Hopea bracteata = MERAWAN.
DAMAR MINYAK 1 - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Agathis spp.
(Araucariaceae). It is a softwood timber with a density of36()""{)60 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood
is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is buff or cream, sometimes with a pink tinge
and darkens into a light golden brown. Texture is very fine and even, with straight grain. The
timber is weak (Strength group D). It is easy to resaw and cross-cut. Planing is easy and the
planed surface is smooth and lustrous. Nailing property is rated as excellent. The timber seasons
fairly slowly with slight cupping, bowing, end-checking, splitting, insect and fungal attacks as
the main sources of degrade. 13 mm boards take approximately 2 months to air dry,
while 38 mm boards take 5 months. Shrinkage is moderate, with radial shrinkage averaging
1.2% and tangential shrinkage averaging 2.5%. The movement of seasoned timber is classified
under Type 1. The timber is non-durable but is easy to treat with preservatives.
USES: The timber is highly prized as an interior finishing timber and is suitable for panelling,
high-class joinery, fancy veneers and plywood, furniture, drawing boards and pattern making.
Vernacular names applied include bindang (Sar.), bulok (Sar.), bulu (Sar.), kayu jadi (Sar.),
Malayan kauri (P.M.), manggilan (Sab.), Sabah agathis (Sab.), salang (Sab.), tumu (Sar.),
tangi/an (Sab.), tungi/an (Sab.), tubu (Sar.) and tumuh (Sar.). Major species include
A. borneensis, A. endertii, A. flavescens, A. kinabaluensis, A. lenticula and A. orbicula.
Damar minyak2 (Kd.) = Dipterocarpus kerrii = KERUING.
Damar sengkawang puteh (P.M.) = Shorea maxima = YELLOW MERANT1.
Damar sip utI (P.M.) = Shoreafaguetiana = YELLOW MERANT1.
Damar siput2 (P.M.) = Hopea sangal = MERAWAN.
Damar siput 3 (Ph.) = Shorea lepidota = LIGHT RED MERANT1.
Damar telepok (P M.) = Shorea peltata = YELLOW MERANT1.

38
Damaran (Sab.) = Mangifera spp. = MACHANG.
Danguh (Sar.) = Pellacalyx axillaris = MEMBULOH.
Dara elok (P.M.) = Gonystylus ajjinis = RAMlN.
Dara kerb au (Kl.) = Species of Myristicaceae = PENARAHAN.
Darah-darah (Sab. and Sar.) = Species of Myristicaceae = PENARAHAN.
Darah-darah kerantu (Sab.) = Knema laurina = PENARAHAN.
DARK RED MERANTI - The Standard Malaysian Name for the dark red and lightweight
timber of the genus Shorea (Dipterocarpaceae). The timber is a light hardwood with a density
of 415-885 kg m-3 air dry. The density of some of the species is listed in the table below:

Species Density (kg m-3) air dry

Shorea acuminata (meranti rambai daun) 485-690 (average = 575)


Shorea curtisii (meranti seraya) 560--825 (average = 657)
Shorea hemsleyana (meranti daun besar)* 685-835 (average = 789)
Shorea leprosula (meranti tembaga)* 415-685 (average = 575)
Shorea macrantha (meranti kepong hantu)* 665-885 (average = 772)
Shorea ovata (meranti sarang punai bukit) 605-870 (average = 789)
Shorea palembanica (meranti tengkawang ayer)* 445-685 (average = 559)
Shorea pauciflora (meranti nemesu) 570--800 (average = 706)
Shorea platycarpa (meranti paya)* 525-790 (average = 690)
Shorea platyclados (meranti bukit) 505-870 (average = 739)
Shorea singkawang (meranti sengkawang merah) 575-810 (average = 690)

* the lighter coloured varieties of these timbers are classified as light red meranti

The sapwood is pink with a grey tinge and is not clearly defined from the heartwood, which
is medium red to deep red to deep red-brown. Texture is moderately coarse and even, with
interlocked grain. The timber is only fairly strong (Strength group C). It is easy to saw and
work and produces a smooth planed surface. The nailing property is rated as good. The seasoning
properties of some species tested are summarised in the following table:

Time to air dry Shrinkage (%)


(months) (Green to air dry)
Species Remarks
13mm 38mm Radial Tangential
boards boards

S. curtisii 2 3 2 4.1 Fairly fast drying; free from seasoning defects;


high shrinkage.
S. pauciflora 2.5 4 1.7 2.9 Fairly fast drying; free from seasoning
defects; high shrinkage.
S. platyclados 2 4 2.1 4.4 Fairly fast drying; free from seasoning
defects; high shrinkage.
S. singkawang 3 5 1.1 3.4 Fairly slow drying rate; free from seasoning
defects; fairly high shrinkage,
especially in the tangential direction.

The movement of seasoned timber is classified under Type I and Type II (meranti nemesu).
F or kiln-drying, Schedule F is recommended. The timber dries rapidly without any degrade.
The timber is generally moderately durable under exposed conditions.
USES: The timber is extremely popular as a general utility timber, being suitable for furniture
manufacture, high class interior finishing, flooring, panelling and partitioning, mouldings and
skirtings, fancy doors, sliced and rotary cut veneers.

39
Vernacular names used include meranti (P.M. and Sar.) with various epithets, seraya (Sab.)
with various epithets, nemesu (P.M.), nemusu (P.M.), seraya (P.M. and Sab.), obar suluk(Sab.)
and also various local names too numerous to list here. Major species producing this timber
include S. acuminata (partly), S. argentifolia, S. curtisii, S. ovata, S. monticola, S. paucijlora,
S. platyclados and S. slootenii.
Dat (Sar.) = Cratoxylum arborescens = GERONGGANG.
Dat tetong (Sar.) = Cratoxylumformosum = DERUM.
Datanut (Sab.) = Pometia pinnata = KASAL
Datiscaceae - A small family of which two genera produce trees, viz. Octomeles (BINUANG)
(absent in Peninsular Malaysia) and Tetrameles (MENGKUNDOR) (absent in Sabah and
Sarawak).
DEDALI - The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN Standard Name for the timber
of Strombosia javanica (Olacaceae). The timber is soft to moderately hard and moderately
heavy and has been classified under light hardwood with a density of 580-720 kg m-3 air dry.
The sapwood is lighter in colour than and is moderately, sharply defined from the heartwood,
which is pale yellow with an olive-brown tinge, darkening to light orange-brown. Texture is
fine and even with straight or interlocked grain. The timber is strong (Strength group B). It is
easy to resaw and cross-cut. Planing is easy and the planed surface produced is smooth on the
tangential side and slightly rough due to grain pick-up on the radial ~ide. Nailing property is
rated as good. The timber seasons very slowly with moderate amount of cupping, twi&ting, end-
checking and surface-checking as the main sources of degrade. The timber is very prone to
insect attack during drying. 13 mm boards take 7 months to air dry, while 38 mm boards take 12
months. Shrinkage is high, with radial shrinkage averaging 1.4% and tangential shrinkage
averaging 3.5%. The timber is moderately durable.
USES: The timber is suitable for general utility purposes, medium construction under cover,
interior finishing, packing cases, veneers and plywood. In Indonesia, it has been successfully
used in the manufacture of bent-works like badminton rackets.
Vernacularnames applied include bayam badak (Kd., Pk. and Ph.) and belian landak (Sar.).
This is a monotypic timber.
DEDAP - The common Malaysian name for the trees and timber of Erythrina spp. (Leguminosae).
The timber is soft and light with a density of 240-380 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not
differentiated from the heartwood, which is pale straw- or buff-coloured. Texture is coarse and
uneven due to the presence of broad rays and the abundant parenchyma. Grain is straight,
shallowly interlocked or wavy. Shrinkage upon seasoning is moderate to high. It is easy to work
but difficult to finish because of the coarse texture. The timber is non-durable and susceptible
to sap-stain fungi and dry-wood termites.
USES: The lightweight wood of dedap is suitable for use as floats for outrigger canoes and
fishing-nets, surfboards, dugout canoes, shields, spears, helmet, insulator boards, wooden shoes,
carving, kitchen utensils and match splints.
Vernacular names applied include dadap (Sab.). Major species include E. fusca and
E. variegata.
DEDARU - The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN Standard Name for the timber
of Cantleya corniculata (Icacinaceae). The timber is hard and very heavy with a density of
1105-1140 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is light yellow-brown and is sharply defined from the
heartwood, which is yellow-pink-brown. Texture is fine and even, with interlocked grain. The
timber is very strong (Strength group A). It is moderately easy to slightly difficult to resaw and
moderately easy to cross-cut. Planing is easy and the planed surface is smooth. Nailing property
is rated as poor. The timber seasons moderately slowly, with only slight surface-checking,
insect and fungal attacks as the main sources of degrade. 13 mm boards take 2.5 months to air

40
dry, while 38 mm boards take 6 months. Shrinkage is average, with radial shrinkage averaging
1.3% and tangential shrinkage averaging 1.9%. The timber is moderately durable.
USES: The timber is suitable for heavy-duty furniture, laboratory benches, heavy-duty flooring,
medium to heavy construction under cover and fancy turnings.
Vernacular names applied include bedaru (P.M.) and samala (Sab.). This is a monotypic
timber.
Degong (Kl.) = Ochanostachys amentacea = PETALING.
Dehaasia - A genus of small to medium-sized trees up to 35(-40) m tall and 70(-100) cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Lauraceae. The timber is commonly grouped together with
the other lightweight members of the family and sold as MEDANG (q.v.). The timber is a light
hardwood with a density of 465-880 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is lighter in colour than and
sharply defined from the heartwood, which is dark olive-green-brown. Other properties and
uses of the timber are described under MEDANG. Vernacular names that include medang
(P.M., Sab. and Sar.) with various epithets are usually applied to the species of this genus.
Major species include D. cuneata, D. pauciflora and D. polyneura.
DELEK - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber ofAnisophyIlea spp. (Anisophylleaceae).
The timber is hard and very heavy with a density of 800--980 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is
not differentiated from the heartwood, which is pink-brown to orange-brown. Texture is medium
to coarse and uneven due to the presence of the extremely large rays. Grain is fairly straight.
The timber is very strong (Strength group A). It is easy to resaw and cross-cut. Planing is easy
and the surface produced is smooth. The timber seasons fairly rapidly without serious defects
except for some slight end-checking. Boards of 25 mm thick take about 4 months to air dry.
Shrinkage is very high, especially in the tangential direction. Radial shrinkage averages 2.8%,
while tangential shrinkage averages 7.1 %. The timber is moderately durable and is very difficult
to treat with preservatives.
USES: The timber with its broad rays and oak-like figure is suitable for interior finishing,
panelling, fancy furniture, sliced veneers and possibly for parquet flooring. The timber is also
suitable for heavy and medium construction under cover, fence posts, walking sticks and tool
handles.
Vernacular names applied include delek (P.M.) with various epithets, hampas dadah (P.M.),
menengang (Sar.), mertama (Sar.), mopu (Sar.), sial menahun (Sar.), sireh-sireh (Sar.), tengoda
(Sar.) and also various local names too numerous to list here. Major species include A. apetala,
A. beccariana, A. corneri, A. disticha, A. jerruginea, A. grandis, A. griffithii and A. nitida.
Delek bukit (P.M.) = Anisophy/lea apetala = DELEK.
Delek limau manis (P.M.) = Anisophy/lea apetala andA. grandis = DELEK.
Delek tembaga 1 (P.M.) = Anisophy/lea griffithii = DELEK.
Delek tembaga2 (P.M.) = Memecylon spp. = NIPIS KULIT.
DELINSEM - The ASEAN Standard Name, which is of Indonesian origin, for the timber of
Homalium spp. (Flacourtiaceae). The common Malaysian name for the timber is TELOR
BUAYA (q.v.).
Denging (Sar.) = Artocarpus anisophyllus = KELEDANG.
DERUM - The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN Standard Name for the heavy
timbers of Cratoxylum spp. (Guttiferae). The timber is moderately hard to hard and
moderately heavy to heavy and has been classified under medium hardwood with a density
of 705-945 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is
brown to red-brown with a purple tinge. Texture is fine and even, with straight or interlocked
grain. The timber is strong (Strength group B). It is slightly difficult to difficult to resaw and
easy to difficult to cross-cut. Planing is easy to fairly easy and the planed surface is smooth.
Logs of C. jormosum were peeled successfully into 1.6 mm thick veneer in Malaysia but with

41
slight difficulty with 3.2 mm thick veneer. The veneer dries at a moderate rate with only slight
defects. The timber seasons fairly slowly without any defects at all. 13 mm boards take
approximately 3 months to air dry, while 38 mm boards take 6 months. Shrinkage is very high,
with radial shrinkage averaging 2.3% and tangential shrinkage averaging 4.6%. The timber is
moderately durable.
USES: The timber is suitable for heavy and medium construction under cover, posts, tool handles,
turnery, furniture, carving, general house construction and wooden pallets.
Vernacular names applied include derum (P.M.) with various epithets, belunchus (P.M.),
dat tetong (Sar.), entemu (Sar.), geronggang (P.M. and Sab.) with various epithets, melan (Sar.),
mirinos (Sar.), nyalin bahe (Sar.),patok tilan (Sar.), raja tugag (Sar.), selangan biabas (Sab.),
serungan (Sab.), serungan batu (Sab.) andsidodot (Sar.). Major species include C. cochinchinense,
C. formosum and C. maingayi.
Derum bukit (P.M.) = Cratoxylum maingayi = DERUM.
Derum selunchor (P.M.) = Cratoxylum cochinchinense = DERUM.
Dialium - A genus of small to large trees up to 45 m tall and 120 cm in diameter, belonging to the
family Leguminosae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is KERANn (q. v.). The
timber is a heavy hardwood with a density of755-1250 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is white
to yellowish white, becomes light brown on exposure and is distinct from the heartwood,
which is golden brown or red-brown and darkens on exposure. Other properties and uses
of the timber are described under KERANJI. Vernacular names applied include keranji
(P.M., Sab. and Sar.) with various epithets. Major species include D. indum, D. platysepalum,
D. procerum and D. kunstleri.
Di'it (Sar.) = Cratoxylum arborescens = GERONGGANG.
Dillenia - A genus of shrubs or small to large trees up to 40(-50) m tall and 125(-200) cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Dilleniaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is
SIMPOH (q.v.). The timber is a medium hardwood with a density of 675-820 kg m-3 air dry.
The sapwood is lighter in colour than and merges gradually into the heartwood, which is red-
brown, sometimes with a purplish tinge and darkens on exposure. Other properties and uses of
the timber are described under SIMPOH. Vernacular names applied include simpoh (P.M.,
Sab. and Sar.) with various epithets. The major species of the genus include D. borneensis,
D. excelsa, D. grandifolia, D. obovata, D. pulchella and D. reticulata.
Dilleniaceae - A small family of climbers, shrubs and trees of which only one genus is of
importance, viz. Dillenia, which produces the timber SIMPOH (q. v.).
Diospyros - A very large genus of approximately 70 species of small to large trees up to 40(-50)
m tall and 70(-85) cm in diameter, belonging to the family Ebenaceae. The Standard Malaysian
Name for the timber is KAYU MALAM (q.v.). The timber is generally hard to very hard and
moderately heavy to heavy with a density of 595-1055 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not
distinct from the heartwood, which is generally yellowish white to buff. Other properties and
uses of the timber are described under KAYU MALAM. Vernacular names include buey (P.M.)
referring to the streaky timber, kayu arang (P.M.), kumoi (P.M.), kumoi bukit (P.M.), meribut
(P.M.) and Sabah ebony (Sab.) referring to the dark coloured corewood, sianggus (P.M.) applied
to the swamp species, and tuba buah (P.M.) applied to some species which produce poisonous
fruits, used by the aborigines for fishing. Major species include D. blancoi, D. buxifolia,
D. ciavigera, D. foxworthyi, D. maingayi, D. pendula, D. pillosanthera and D. rigida.
Dipangah (Sab.) = Pometia pinnata = KASAL
Diparak (Sab.) = Lithocarpus gracilis = MEMPENING.
Dipterocarpaceae - The most important family of timber producing trees in the country. This
family is the dominant family in the forests in terms of volume. Almost all the species of this
family are of commercial importance. The timbers produced by this family range from light to

42
very heavy and are characterised by the presence of intercellular resin canals. The more common
timbers of this family and their botanical identity are as follows:

Light HardwQods Medium Hardwoods Heavy Hardwoods

ALAN BUNGA (Shorea alblda) ALAN BATU (Shorea albida) BALAU (Shorea spp.)
GERUTU· (Parashorea spp.) KAPUR (Dryobalanops spp.) RED BALAU (Shorea spp.)
MELANTAI (Shorea spp.) KERUING (Dipterocarpus spp.) CHENGAL (Neobalanocarpus heimii)
MERANTI BAKAU (Shorea spp.) MERAWAN (Hopea spp.) GIAM (Hopea spp.)
DARK RED MERANTI (Shorea spp.) PENYAU (Upuna borneensis)
LIGHT RED MERANTI (Shorea spp.) RESAK (Cotylelobium spp. and Vatica spp.)
WHITE MERANTI (Shorea spp.)
YELLOW MERANTI (Shorea spp.)
MERSAWA (Anisoptera spp.)
WHITE SERAYA·· (Parashorea spp.)

• species from Peninsular Malaysia •• species from Sabah and Sarawak

Dipterocarpus - A genus of medium-sized to very large trees up to 65 m tall and 150(-260) cm


in diameter, belonging to the family Dipterocarpaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name
for the timber is KERUING (q.v.). The timber is a medium hardwood with a density of
690-945 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is lighter in colour than and is invariably with a tinge of
grey and is clearly defined from the heartwood, which is red-brown to purple-red and darkens
on exposure. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under KERUING.
Vernacular names applied include keruing (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) with various epithets as
well as other localised names which are too numerous to list here. Major species include
D. apterus, D. baudii, D. chartaceus, D. concavus, D. confertus, D. cornutus, D. costatus,
D. costulatus, D. crinitus, D. dyeri, D. gracilis, D. grandiflorus, D. kerrii, D. kunst/eri,
D. lowii, D. obtusifolius, D. rotundifolius, D. sublamellatus and D. verrucosus.
Dolichandrone - A genus of small to medium-sized trees up to 25 m tall and 45 cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Bignoniaceae. The common Malaysian name for the tree and timber is
TUI (q. v.). Properties and uses ofthe timber are described under TUI. Vernacularnames applied
include taring buaya (P.M.). Only one species occurs in this country, viz. D. spathacea.
Dracontomelon - A genus of medium-sized to large trees up to 45(-55) m tall and 100(-150) cm
in diameter, belonging to the family Anacardiaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the
timber is SENGKUANG (q.v.). The timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy with a
density of 500-690 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not clearly defined from the normal
heartwood, which is pinkish or greyish yellow. However, some trees develop a coloured core
which is walnut-grey-brown or greyish or greenish yellow with irregular concentric dark brown
to nearly black bands. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under
SENGKUANG. Vernacular name applied includes mati anak (P.M.). Only one species is
of importance, viz. D. dao.
Dryobalanops - A genus of medium-sized to large trees up to 60(-75) m tall and 150(-200) cm
in diameter, belonging to the family Dipterocarpaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the
timber is KAPUR (q. v.). The timber is a medium hardwood with a density of 580-820 kg m-3
air dry. The sapwood is yellowish brown and sharply defined from the heartwood, which is
reddish brown. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under KAPUR. Vernacular
names applied include Borneo camphor wood (Sab.), Borneo teak (Sab.), kapur (P.M., Sab.
and Sar.) with various epithets, keladan (P.M.) and kelansau (Sar.). Major species
include D. aromatica, D. beccarii, D. keithii, D. lanceolata, D. oblongifolia and D. rappa.
Drypetes - A genus of small to medium-sized trees up to 30(-40) m tall and 60(-80) cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae. In Sarawak, this timber is grouped together

43
with those of Austrobuxus and Cephalomappa and sold as ARAU (q.v.). Properties and
uses of the timber are described under ARAU. Vernacular names applied include gelugor salak
(P.M.), lidah-lidah (P.M.), mentulang (Sab.) and odopon puteh (Sab.). Major species include
D. longifolia and D. pendula.
Duabanga-Agenus of medium-sized to large trees up to 35(--45) m tall and 100 cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Sonneratiaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is
MAGASAWIH (q.v.). The timber is soft and light with a density of 385--465 kg m-3 air dry.
The sapwood is lighter in colour than and not sharply defined from the heartwood, which is
light red-brown. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under MAGASAWIH.
Vernacular names applied include benung kasung (Sar.), berembang bukit (P.M.), magas (Sab.),
sawih (Sar.) and tagahas (Sab.). There are only two species in Malaysia, viz. D. grandiflora
(occurring only in Peninsular Malaysia) and D. moluccana (occurring only in Sabah and
Sarawak).
Dual (Sab.) = Lophopetalumjavanicum = PERUPOK.
Duku (P.M.) = Lansium domesticum = LANGSAT.
Dulanut (Sab.) = Saraca declinata = GAPIS.
Dungku (Sar.) = Elateriospermum tapos = PERAH.
DUNGUN - The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN Standard Name for the timber
of Heritiera littoralis (Sterculiaceae). The timber is hard and heavy to very heavy with a density
of 785-1170 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is pale brown or pink-brown and merges gradually
into the heartwood, which is red-brown, purplish brown to dark brown. Texture is moderately
fine and even, with interlocked or irregular grain. The timber has not been fully tested in the
FRIM, Kepong, but earlier limited tests showed that this timber is strong (Strength group B). It
is reported to be difficult to saw and work but the finish is smooth. The timber is reputed to be
difficult to season, with end-splitting and surface-checking as the major defects. Shrinkage is
high, especially in the tangential direction. Radial shrinkage averages 2% while tangential
shrinkage averages 4.5%. The timber is only moderately durable.
USES: The timber is suitable for heavy and medium construction under cover, piling, posts,
boat building, tool handles and heavy-duty flooring.
Other vernacular names applied include dungun laut (Sab.).
Dungun laut (Sab.) = Heritiera littoralis = DUNGUN.
DUNGUN PAYA - The common Malaysian name for the timber of Engelhardtia spp.
(Juglandaceae). The ASEAN Standard Name, which is ofIndonesian origin, is KAYU HUJAN.
The timber is soft to moderately hard and light to moderately heavy with a density of
380-715 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is grey with a pink tinge or grey-brown with a purple
tinge and is not sharply defined from the heartwood, which is light pink when fresh and darkens
on exposure to light brown. A core of black or streaky timber is developed in some trees.
Texture is moderately fine to slightly coarse and even, with straight, shallowly interlocked or
slightly wavy grain. The timber is reported to be only moderately strong (Strength group C). It
is reputed to be easy to saw and work but the planed surface is rough. The timber has been
observed to season fairly rapidly with end-splitting and surface-checking as the main defects.
The timber is non-durable.
USES: The timber is suitable for light construction under cover, weather boards, agriculture
implements, moulding, turnery, gunstocks, veneer and plywood. The darker corewood may be
used for furniture.
Vernacular names applied include entalun (Sar.), paar (P.M.) and teraling (P.M.). Major
species include E. apoensis, E. roxburghiana, E. serrata and E. spicata.
Dunuk (Sar.) = Ficus benjamina = ARA.

44
DURIAN - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Coelostegia spp., Durio spp.,
Kosterrnansia sp. and Neesia spp. (Bombacaceae). Durian is a light hardwood with a density of
420-865 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is almost white in Durio, pale yellow in Neesia and light
orange-yellow in Coelostegia and is sharply defined in Durio and Neesia but only moderately
sharply defined in Coelostegia, from the heartwood, which is pink-brown, grey-brown, brown
with a red tinge or light orange-brown. Texture is moderately coarse to coarse and even in
Neesia but uneven in Durio and Coelostegia, with straight to slightly interlocked grain. The
timber is moderately strong to strong (Strength groups B and C). It is easy to slightly difficult to
resaw and easy to difficult to cross-cut. Planing is easy to moderately easy and the planed
surface is smooth to moderately smooth and sometimes even rough, especially in the radial
boards. Nailing property ranges from good to excellent. Seasoning properties vary according
to species and the results of tests conducted by the FRIM, Kepong, are summarised in the
following table:

Time to air dry Shrinkage (%)


(months) (Green to air dry)
Species Remarks
13mm 38mm Radial Tangential
boards boards

Coelostegia griffithii 2.5 3.5 1.3 1.6 Moderately fast drying; moderate staining;
slight dimensional movement and splits;
shrinkage low.
Durio oxleyanus 3 4 2.4 4 Fairly slow drying; moderate insect attack;
slight cupping; shrinkage high.
Neesia altissima 1.5-2 3-4 1.3 2.4 Moderately fast drying; slight end-checking
and splitting; average shrinkage.

The movement of seasoned timber is classified under Type IV. Kiln-drying schedule D is
tentatively recommended for the drying of durian timbers. The timber of durian can be kiln-
dried at a moderately fast rate with only slight twisting except the timber of D. oxleyanus which
requires up to 1.5 months to dry boards of70 mm by 127 mm with variable lengths. It is also
recommended that sawn timber of durian be air-dried for a minimum period of2 weeks before
being kiln-dried to save on cost. The timber is non-durable but easy to treat with preservatives.
USES: The timber is suitable for light construction indoors, door and window frames, flooring,
planking, veneer and plywood, wooden sandals and low grade coffins.
Vernacular names applied include durian (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) with various epithets as
well as other localised names too numerous to list here. Major species include Coelostegia
borneensis, C. griffithii; Durio carinatus, D. grandiflorus, D. graveolens, D. lowianus,
D. rnalaccensis, D. oxleyanus, D. singaporensis, D. wyatt-srnithii, D. zibethinus; Kosterrnansia
rnalayana; Neesia altissirna, N. kostermansiana, N. rnalayana and N. synandra.
Durian batang (P.M.) = Durio rnalaccensis = DURIAN.
Durian beludu (P.M.) = Durio oxleyanus = DURIAN.
Durian bujor (P.M.) = Durio singaporensis = DURIAN.
Durian daun (P.M.) = Durio lowianus and D. oxleyanus = DURIAN.
Durian daun besar (P.M.) = Durio rnacrophyllus = DURIAN.
Durian daun runching (Sab.) = Durio acutifolius = DURIAN.
Durian daun tajam (P.M.) = Durio pinangianus = DURIAN.
Durian hantu (Sab.) = Durio grandiflorus = DURIAN.
Durian hutan (P.M.) = Durio oxleyanus = DURIAN.
Durian ijau laut (P.M.) = Durio wyatt-srnithii = DURIAN.

45
Durian isa (Sar.) = Coelostegia spp. = DURIAN.
Durian kuning (Sab.) = Durio grifJithii = DURIAN.
Durian kura-kura (Sab.) = Durio macrophyllus = DURIAN.
Durian merah (Sab.) = Durio graveolens and D. kutejensis = DURIAN.
Durian monyit (Sab.) = Neesia spp. = DURIAN.
Durian paya (P.M.) = Durio carinatus = DURIAN.
Durian puteh (Sab.) = Durio zibethinus = DURIAN.
Durian tuang (P.M.) = Kostermansia malayana = DURIAN.
Durian tupai (P.M.) = Durio grifJithii = DURIAN.
Durio-Agenus of medium-sized to large trees up to 50(-60) m tall and 120(-140) cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Bombacaceae. The timber is sold with the timbers of Coelostegia spp.,
Kostermansia sp. and Neesia spp. as DURIAN (q. v.). The timber of Durio is a light hardwood
with a density of 545-800 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is almost white, sometimes with a grey
tinge and is distinct from the heartwood, which is pink-brown, grey-brown or red. Other properties
and uses of the timber are described under DURIAN. Vernacular names applied include durian
(P.M., Sab. and Sar.) with various epithets. Major species include D. carinatus, D. grandiflorus,
D. graveolens, D. lowianus, D. malaccensis, D. oxleyanus, D. singaporensis, D. wyatt-smithii
and D. zibethinus.
Dusun-dusun (Sab.) = Chaetocarpus castanocarpus = BEBATU.
Dyera - A genus of very large trees up to 50(-65) m tall and 250 cm in diameter, belonging to the
family Apocynaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is JELUTONG (q. v.). The
timber is a light hardwood with a density of 420-500 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not
distinguished from the heartwood, which is creamy white to pale straw-coloured. Living
parenchyma cells have been found in the wood, next to the pith and it appears that the tree does
not produce any true heartwood. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under
JELUTONG. Vernacular names applied include jelutong bukit (Sab.) and jelutong paya (Sab.).
There are only two species in this genus, viz. D. costulata and D. polyphylla.
Dysoxylum - A genus of medium-sized to large trees up to 35(---47) m tall and 80(-150) cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Meliaceae. The common Malaysian name for the timber is
JARUM-JARUM (q.v.). The ASEAN Standard Name for the timber, which is oflndonesian
origin, is MEMBALUN. The timber is moderately hard to hard and moderately heavy
to heavy with a density of 590-910 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is light yellow and is
moderately sharply differentiated from the heartwood, which is orange-red or brick-red
and darkens on exposure. Other properties and uses ofthe timber are described under JARUM-
JARUM. Vernacular names applied include buahan-buahan (Sab.). Major species include
D. acutangulum, D. arborescens, D. cauliflorum, D. grande, D. alliaceum andD. cyrtabotryum.

46
E
Eagle wood (P.M.) = Aquilaria malaccensis = GAHARU.
Ebenaceae - A small family of trees, consisting of only two genera in the world of which only
one is found in Malaysia, viz. Diospyros. The genus Diospyros produces the famous Ebony of
the world. In Malaysia, the Standard Malaysia Name for the timber is KAYU MALAM.
Ekor 1 (P.M.) = Dacrydium spp. = SEMPILOR.
Ekor2 (P.M.) = Payena dasyphylla and P. lanceolata = NYATOH.
Ekor belangkas (Sar.) = Endospermum spp. = SESENDOK.
Ekor kuda (P.M.) = Dacrydium elatum and D. beccarii = SEMPILOR.
Ekor sabit (P.M.) = Falcatifoliumfalciforme = SEMPILOR.
Ekor tupai (P.M.) = Dacrydium beccarii = SEMPILOR.
Elaeis - A genus of palm (Palmae) cultivated for the purpose of extracting oil from its fruits. The
main species cultivated in Malaysia is E. guineensis, which is commonly known as OIL PALM
(q. v.). Research is still in progress on the utilisation of oil palm trunk in the FRIM.
Elaeocarpaceae - A small family of small to large trees. The genus Elaeocarpus produces a
timber, which bears the Standard Malaysian Name SENGKURAT. The ASEAN Standard Name
for the timber, which is ofIndonesian origin, is JENITRI.
Elaeocarpus - A genus of small to large trees up to 40(-50) m tall and 80(-160) cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Elaeocarpaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is
SENGKURAT (q. v.). The ASEAN Standard Name for the timber, which is ofIndonesian origin,
is JENITRI. The timber is soft to moderately hard and light to moderately heavy with a density
of 465-785 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is
light yellowish white to pink-brown or mauve as in E. floribundus. Other properties and uses
of the timber are described under SENGKURAT. Vernacular names applied include empedu
(Sar.), kungkurad (Sab.), mendong (P.M.), parius-parius (Sab.), perdoh (Sar.), sanga (Sar.)
and sanga burong (P.M.). Medang with various epithets has also been erroneously applied to
Elaeocarpus in Peninsular Malaysia. Major species include E. angustifolius, E. apiculatus,
E.floribundus, E. grifJithii, E. obtusus, E. palembanicus, E. petiolatus, E. polystachyus,
E. robustus and E. stipularis.
Elateriospermum - A monotypic genus of medium-sized to large trees up to 30(-39) m tall and
60 cm in diameter, belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name for
the timber is PERAH (q. v.). The ASEAN Standard Name for the timber, which is ofIndonesian
origin, is TAPUS. The timber is very hard and very heavy with a density of735-1235 kg m-3
air dry. The sapwood is light yellow-brown and is sharply defined from the heartwood, which
is dark brown with a red tinge and streaked alternately with lighter and darker stripes. A central
core of darker coloured wood may be found in some trees. Other properties and uses of the
timber are described under PERAH. Vernacular names applied include dungku (Sar.), kelampai
(Sar.) and perah ikan (P.M. and Sab.). Only one species has been recorded, viz. E. tapos.
Elmerrillia - The genus has been reduced to Magnolia. See Magnolia.
Embang (Sar.) = Mangiferafoetida and M. pajang = MACHANG.
Embawang (Sab.) = Mangifera pajang = MACHANG.
Empedu (Sar.) = Elaeocarpus spp. = SENGKURAT.

47
Empelam (Sar.) = Mangifera indica = MACHANG.
Empeli (Sar.) = Quercus kinabaluensis = MEMPENING.
Empenifl (Sar.) = Shorea albida = ALAN BATU.
Empenit2 (Sab. and Sar.) = Lithocarpus spp. and Quercus kerangasensis = MEMPENING.
Empenit batu (Sar.) = Lithocarpus andersonii = MEMPENING.
Empenit daun halus (Sar.) = Lithocarpus pusillus = MEMPENING.
Empenit gading (Sar.) = Lithocarpus pusillus = MEMPENING.
Empenit jangkar (Sar.)= Lithocarpus andersonii = MEMPENING.
Empenit johari (Sar.) = Lithocarpus pseudokunstleri = MEMPENING.
Empenit padang (Sar.) = Lithocarpus andersonii and L. dasystachyus = MEMPENING.
Empili (Sab. and Sar.) = Lithocarpus spp.; Quercus argentata, Q. merrillii, Q. percoriacea and
Q. treubiana = MEMPENING.
Empili batu (Sar.) = Lithocarpus nieuwenhuisii = MEMPENING.
Empili pipit (Sar.) = Lithocarpus andersonii and L. bennettii = MEMPENING.
Emplangau (Sar.) = Pentaspadon motleyi = PELAJAU.
Endiandra - A genus of shrubs, small to large trees up to 35(-40) m tall and 70(-100) cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Lauraceae. The timber is known as MEDANG (q.v.) in the
trade. It is a light hardwood with a density of 51 0-870 kg m-3 air dry. The heartwood is brown
or pale red-brown, occasionally orange, with pink streaks and not well defined from the sapwood
which is pale yellow to pale pink. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under
MEDANG. No other vernacular names have been recorded. Major species include E. kingiana,
E. maingayi, E. ochracea, E. rubescens and E. scrobiculata.
Endospermum - A genus of medium-sized to large trees up to 40(-50) m tall 80(-150) m in
diameter, belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber
is SESENDOK (q. v.). The timber is a light hardwood with a density of305-655 kg m-3 air dry.
The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is bright yellow when fresh, often
with a green tinge and darkens to light brown on exposure. Other properties and uses of the
timber are described under SESENDOK. Vernacular names applied include ekor belangkas
(Sar.), inchong pertis (Kd.), marapangi (Sab.), membulan (P.M.), sendok-sendok (P.M., Sab.
and Sar.), sendok-sendok mata (Sab.) and terbulan (Sar.). Major species include E. diadenum
and E. peltatum.
Engelhardtia - A genus of small to medium-sized or occasionally large trees up to 35(-50) m tall
and 90(-280) cm in diameter, belonging to the family Juglandaceae. The common Malaysian
name for the timber is DUNGUN PAYA (q.v.). The ASEAN Standard Name, which is of
Indonesian origin, is KAYU HUJAN. The timber is a light hardwood with a density of
380-715 kg m-3 air dry. The heartwood is pink-brown to greyish brown, not clearly differentiated
from the sapwood which is whitish, pale grey or pale brown. Other properties and uses of the
timber are described under DUNGUN PAYA. Vernacular names applied include entalun
(Sar.), paar (P.M.) and teraling (P.M.). Major species include E. apoensis, E. roxburghiana,
E. serrata and E. spicata.
Engkabang (Sar.) = Shorea macrophylla = MELANTAI.
Engkabuloh (Sar.) = Ficus schwarzii = ARA.
Engkeruroh (Sar.) = Ficus schwarzii = ARA.
Engkop-engkop (Sab.) = Anisophyllea nitida = DELEK.
Engkunoh (Sar.) = Ficus jistulosa and F schwarzii = ARA.
Engkuroh (Sar.) = Ficus jistulosa = ARA.
Enselan (Sar.) = Pometia pinnata = KASAL
Enserai (Sar.) = Mallotus spp. = BALEK ANGIN.
Ensurut (Sar.) = Sindora ieiocarpa = SEPETIR.

48
Entalun (Sar.) = Engelhardtia serrata = DUNGUN PAYA.
Entabuloh (Sar.) = Gironniera spp. = KASAP.
Entangor (Sar.) = Calophylium spp. = BINTANGOR.
ENTAPULOH - The common Malaysian Name for the timber of Teijsmanniodendron spp.
(Verbenaceae). The timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy and it has been classified
under medium hardwood with a density of 432-896 kg m-J air dry. The sapwood is yellow and
is fairly distinct from the heartwood, which is pale yellowish brown. Texture is rather fine and
even, with straight to shallowly interlocked grain. The timber has not been tested in the FRlM,
Kepong. It is reported to be easy to work and the planed surface is smooth but dull. The timber
is reputed to season without serious degrade. It is non-durable to fairly durable.
USES: The timber is suitable as a general utility timber.
Vernacular names applied include buak-buak (Sab.), buak-buak batu (Sab.), buak-buak
jari (Sab.) and buak-buakjari itek (Sab.). Major species include T. bogoriensis, T. coriaceum,
T. holophylium and T. pteropodum.
Entawa (Sar.) = Artocarpus anisophylius = KELEDANG.
Entemu (Sar.) = Cratoxylumformosum = DERUM.
Entimau (Sar.) = Ficus stolonifera = ARA.
Entipong (Sar.) = Neolamarckia spp. = LARAN.
Entuyut (Sar.) = Tetramerista glabra = PUNAH.
Epil (Sab.) = Intsia bijuga = MERBAU.
Erythrina - A genus of small to medium-sized trees up to 27 m tall and 90(-170) cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Leguminosae. The common Malaysian name for the tree and timber is
DEDAP (q. v.). Erythrina yields a lightweight timber with a density ranging 240-380 kg m-J
air dry. The heartwood is pale straw- or buff-coloured, not clearly differentiated from the white
sapwood. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under DEDAP. Vernacular
names applied include dadap (Sab.). Major species include E. fusca and E. variegata.
Erythroxylaceae - A small family of shrubs, small to fairly large trees. In Malaysia, only one
genus, viz. Erythroxylum, is found. The timber is of no economic importance at the present
time. The common Malaysian name for the timber is CHINTA MULA (q.v.). The ASEAN
Standard Name for the timber, which is ofIndonesian origin, is MERPITAS.
Erythroxylum - A genus of shrubs or small to fairly large trees up to 40(-45) m tall and 55(-65) cm
in diameter, belonging to the family Erythroxylaceae. The common Malaysian name for the
timber is CHINTA MULA (q.v.). The ASEAN Standard Name, which is ofIndonesian origin,
is MERPITAS. Erythroxylum yields a medium to heavy hardwood with a density of
720-1010 kg m-J air dry. The heartwood is rose-brown, sharply demarcated from the pale
yellow-brown sapwood, which is 2.5 cm wide. Other properties and uses of the timber are
described under CHINTA MULA. Vernacular names applied include ketai mula (P.M.), perapat
burong (Sab.) and seri mula (P.M.). Only one species, E. cuneatum, is of timber importance in
Malaysia.
Eugenia - In Malaysia, it is still the practice to treat Eugenia in its broadest sense (including
Syzygium). Indeed, there is no single morphological character by which the two genera can be
consistently distinguished. Although Eugenia s.s. and Syzygium differ in many characters, all
these characters show at least some overlap. It is claimed that constant anatomical differences
exist, particularly in floral vasculature. Evidence from wood anatomy, bark anatomy and pollen
morphology also supports the separation of Eugenia and Syzygium. Syzygium is strictly confined
to the Old World, Eugenia s.s. mainly to the New World, but not exclusively. See Syzygium.
Eusideroxylon - A monotypic genus of large trees up to 40(-50) m tall and 150(-220) cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Lauraceae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is
BELIAN (q. v.). Eusideroxylon is a heavy hardwood with a density of(830-)880-1190 kg m-3

49
air dry. This genus produces very heavy and very hard timbers, which are noted for their
strength and durability. The heartwood is yellowish brown to reddish brown when freshly cut,
but it becomes silvery brown, dark brown or almost black on exposure. The sapwood is sharply
differentiated from the heartwood and bright yellow when freshly cut, darkening to yellowish
brown on exposure. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under BELIAN. No
other vernacular names have been recorded. A single species, E. zwageri, is found in Sabah
and Sarawak.
The second species of the genus often mentioned in the literature, E. melagangai, has been
transferred to the monotypic genus Potoxylon melagangai and sold under its own trade name,
MALAGANGAI (q. v.).
Euphorbiaceae ~ A very large family of shrubs, small to fairly large trees, mainly found in
secondary and disturbed forests. Although a very large family, only the timbers of SESENDOK
(Endospermum spp.), TUAI (Bishojiajavanica) and MALAYSIAN OAK orrubberwood (Hevea
brasiliensis) are considered important economic species of the country. Rubberwood in particular
is used for the manufacture of furniture and medium density fibreboard (MDF). Other notable
genera of the family include Agrostistachys, Aporosa, Austrobuxus, Baccaurea, Blumeodendron,
Bridelia, Cephalomappa, Drypetes, Elateriospermum, Excoecaria, Glochidion, Macaranga,
Mallotus, Phyllanthus, Pimelodendron, Ptychopyxis and Sapium.
Euodia ~ Recently, all except about six species of Euodia were transferred to Melicope. Euodia
and Melicope are largely differentiated on the basis of their seeds, floral characteristics and
geographical ranges. As a consequence of this new generic delimitation, there are no
representatives of the genus Euodia in Malaysia. See Melicope.
Exbucklandia - A genus of medium-sized trees up to 36 m taU and 110(-210) cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Hamamelidaceae. The common Malaysian name for the tree and timber
is GEROK (q. v.). The timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy with an average density
of 785 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is lighter in colour than but not sharply differentiated from
the heartwood, which is deep red-brown with a purple tinge. Other properties and uses of the
timber are described under GEROK. There are no other vernacular names recorded and only
one species is found in this country, viz. E. populnea.
Excoecaria ~ A genus of shrubs or small to medium-sized trees up to 25(-40) m tall and
60(-100) cm in diameter, belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae. The common Malaysian
name for the timber is BEBUTA (q. v.). The timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy
with a density of 340-780 kg m-3 air dry and an average density of 560 kg m-3 air dry. The
straw-coloured sapwood is normally not differentiated from the heartwood, which is pink-
white to pale brown in colour. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under
BEBUTA. Vernacular names applied include apid-apid (Sab.), buta-buta (P.M. and Sab.) and
gurah (Sab.). Major species include E. agallocha and E. indica.

50
F
Fagaceae - A family of shrubs to medium-sized or rarely large trees. The timbers produced by
this family are of limited economic importance and are quite similar to their temperate
counterparts, the Oaks and Chestnuts. The timbers produced are MEMPENING (Lithocarpus
spp. and Quercus spp.) and BERANGAN (Castanopsis spp.). The fourth genus of the family is
Trigonobalanus, which is scattered and confined to the hills.
Fagraea - A genus of mainly shrubs and woody climbers and large trees up to 40(-55) m tall and
150(-250) cm in diameter, belonging to the family Loganiaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name
for the heavier group is TEMBUSU (q. v.), while the Standard Malaysian Name for the lighter
timber is MALABERA (q.v.).
Tembusu is a heavy hardwood with a density of 640-1075 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is
not differentiated from the heartwood, which is light yellow-brown and darkens on exposure to
deep golden or orange-brown. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under
TEMBUSU. Vernacular names applied include tembusu (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) with various
epithets, meriang (P.M.), temasuk (Sab.) and various other localised names too numerous to be
listed here. Major species include F belukar, F cuspidata, Ffragrans, F gigantea, F resinosa,
F rugulosa, F spicata, F teysmannii and F volubilis.
Malabera is a moderately soft and moderately light wood with a density of 440-660 kg m-3
air dry and an average density of 545 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the
heartwood, which is light cream in colour. Other properties and uses of the timber are described
under MALABERA. Vernacular names applied include malabira (Sab.). Only one species
contributes to this timber, viz. F crenulata.
Falcatifolium - A genus offairly large trees up to 36 m tall, belonging to the family Podocarpaceae.
The timber is traded together with those of Dacrydium spp. and Phyllocladus spp. under the
Standard Malaysian Name of SEMPILOR (q.v.). Falcatifolium is a softwood timber. The
heartwood is pale yellowish brown to golden brown and not clearly demarcated from the paler
sapwood. Other properties and uses ofthe timber are described under SEMPILOR. Vernacular
names applied include ekor sabit (P.M.), iguh gawah (Sar.) andjati padang (P.M.). Only one
species is recorded for Malaysia, viz. F falciforme.
Ficus - A large genus of climbers, creepers, epiphytes or small to large trees up to 40(-50) m tall
and 100(-190) cm in diameter, belonging to the family Moraceae. The common Malaysian
name for the timber is ARA (q.v.). The timber is rather variable but on the whole is soft and
light with a density of 350-640 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the
heartwood, which is light yellow-brown or in various shades from yellow to pink-grey. Other
properties and uses ofthe timber are described under ARA. Vernacular names applied include
arah (Sab.), beringin (P.M. and Sar.) and kayu ara (Sab.). Major species include F benjamina,
F callosa, Ffistulosa, F lamponga, F magnoliifolia, F microcarpa, F racemosa, F sundaica,
F superba, F tinctoria, F variegata, F vasculosa, F virens and F viridicarpa.
Figured asam (Sab.) = Mangifera spp. = MACHANG.
Flacourtiaceae - A family of small, medium or rarely large trees. Only Homalium (TEL OR
BUAYA) and Hydnocarpus (SENUMPUL) frequently reach tree size. The family is not common
enough to be commercially established. Some genera still do not bear vernacular names. Major
genera include Homalium, Hydnocarpus, Pangium and Ryparosa.

51
Fordia - A genus of shrubs, treelets or trees, up to 30 m tall and 90 cm in diameter, belonging to
the family Leguminosae. There is no standardised name for the trees or the timber produced.
The timber is commonly known as TULANG DAING (q.v.) in Peninsular Malaysia although,
strictly speaking, this name is only applicable to Callerya alropurpurea. Poperties and uses of
the timber are described under TULANG DAING. Vernacular names applied includejenerek
(P.M.), kayu pelawan (P.M.), kayu rindu (P.M.) and ural rusa (P.M.). Major species include
F. albiflora, F. bracleolala and F. lanceolala.

52
G
GADING - The common Malaysian name for the tree and timber of Hunteria zeylanica
(Apocynaceae). The timber is moderately hard to hard and moderately heavy to heavy with a
density of 800-850 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood,
which is brown with an olive-green tinge. Texture is very fine and even, with interlocked
grain. The timber has not been tested in the FRIM, Kepong.
USES: The small size of the trees precludes any extensive usage of this timber. The timber is
suitable for carving, small ornamental articles, handles for tools and walking sticks. This timber
has been used as a substitute for the true kemuning (Murraya spp.).
Vernacular names applied include kemuning (P.M. and Sab.) and kemuning hutan (P.M.).
Only one species is recorded for Malaysia, viz. H. zeylanica.
Gadong hutan (Sab.) = Alangium griffithii and A. havilandii = MENTULANG.
Gagil (Sab.) = Hopea sangal = MERAWAN.
GAHAM BADAK - The common Malaysian name for the timber of Blumeodendron spp.
(Euphorbiaceae). The ASEAN Standard Name for the timber, which is ofIndonesian origin, is
TENGKURUNG. The timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy with a density of
625-895 kg m-3 air dry. The timber is classified under light hardwood in Malaysia. The
heartwood, which is light brown in colour, is not distinct from the lighter coloured sapwood.
Occasionally, a corewood of darker brown with black streaks is produced. Texture is moderately
coarse and even with straight or shallowly interlocked grain. The timber is moderately strong
(Strength group C). It is easy to resaw and cross-cut. Planing is easy and the planed surface
produced is smooth. Nailing property is good. Seasoning is fairly slow, 13 mm boards take
4 months to air dry, while 38 mm boards take 5 months. Seasoning defects include moderate
end-checking, attacks by fungi and insects, slight cupping, bowing and splitting. Shrinkage is
very high, radial shrinkage averages 2.9% while tangential shrinkage averages 5.3%. The timber
is non-durable but easily treated with preservatives.
USES: The timber is suitable for internal use, shuttering and when treated, fencing and light
constructional works.
Vernacular names applied to the timber include gangulang (Sab.), gelugor hutan (P.M.),
medang lempong (P.M.) and merbulan (Sar.). Major species include B. kurzii and B. tokbrai.
GAHARU - The common Malaysian name for the anomalous wood developed in certain trees of
Aquilaria malaccensis (Thymelaeaceae). The normal timber is light, soft, white to light yellow
in colour and is known as KARAS. Gaharu is comparatively heavier, harder and is dark brown
to black, often with darker coloured streaks. The wood is heavily impregnated with resin, which
imparts a distinct fragrance to the wood and is highly prized as an incense as well as ingredient
in many folk medicine. The formation of gaharu is not well understood, but it is speculated that
the development of this coloured resin-impregnated wood is associated with pathogenic attacks,
most likely by fungi. Certain members of the closely related Aetoxylon, and even Gonystylus
(RAMIN), have been recorded as producing a wood similar to gaharu. Other names recorded
for this wood include aloes wood and eagle wood.
Gaiang-gaiang (Sab.) = Aporosa grandistipulata = KAYU MASAM.

53
GAMBIR HUTAN - The common Malaysian name for the timber of Trigonopleura spp.
(Euphorbiaceae). The ASEAN Standard Name for the timber, which is ofIndonesian origin, is
KAYU GAMBIR. The timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy with an average density
of 625 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is light
brown. Texture is moderately coarse but even with shallowly interlocked grain. The timber has
not been tested in the FRIM, Kepong. Only one species has been recorded, viz. T. malayana.
Gangulang (Sab.) = Blumeodendron tokbrai = GAHAM BADAK.
Ganua - The genus has been reduced to Madhuca. See Madhuca.
Gaparang (Sar.) = Saraca spp. = GAPIS.
GAPIS - The common Malaysian name for the trees and timber of Saraca spp. (Leguminosae).
The timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy with a density of 515-640 kg m-3 air dry.
The timber is classified under light hardwood in Malaysia. The sapwood is yellow-white with
a pink tinge and is sharply differentiated from the heartwood, which is dark grey-brown with
darker lines. Texture is rather coarse and uneven due to the presence of moderately large vessels
and the surrounding aliform parenchyma. The timber is weak (Strength group D). It is difficult
to break down, but is easy to resaw. Planing is easy and the planed surface is moderately
smooth on the tangential side but is slightly rough on the radial side due. to some picking-up of
the grain. The timber seasons fairly rapidly, with some insect attacks and slight cupping as the
main sources of degrade. 13 mm boards take approximately 2 months to air dry, while 38 mm
boards take 3-4 months. Shrinkage is high, with radial shrinkage averaging 1.3% and tangential
shrinkage averaging 3.3%. The timber is moderately durable. The timber is very easily treated
with preservative.
USES: The timber is suitable for temporary light construction, packing cases, pallets and small
articles.
Vernacular names that include babai (Sar.-Iban) and golak (P.M.) have been recorded.
Major species include S. declinata, S. indica and S. thaipingensis.
Garcinia - A large genus of small to medium-sized trees up to 25(-33) m tall and 60(-100) cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Guttiferae. The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the
ASEAN Standard Name for the timber is KANDIS (q. v.). The timber varies a great deal in its
properties. The timber ranges from moderately hard to very hard and moderately heavy to very
heavy with a density of 690-1120 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is usually lighter in colour than
and is not sharply differentiated from the heartwood in some species although sharply defined
in some other species. The heartwood is variable in colour, dark red-brown or deep red in some
species and yellow in others. Properties and uses of the timber are described under KANDIS.
Vernacular names applied include asam garam (P.M.), asam gelugor (P.M.), bebata (Sab.),
bruas (P.M.), lulai (P.M.), manggis hutan (P.M.) and sikop (Sar.). There are approximately 49
species of Garcinia in Malaysia and the major species include G. atroviridis, G. bancana,
G. cowa, G. beccarii, G. grifJithii, G. hombroniana, G. malaccensis, G. merguensis, G. nervosa,
G. nigrolineata and G. parvifolia
Gardas (P.M.) = Archidendron bubalinum.
Gatal (Sar.) = Dactylocladus stenostachys = JONGKONG.
Gatal-gatal (P.M. and Sab.) = Schima wallichii = SAMAK.
Gedabu (P.M.) = Sonneratia ovata = PERAPAT.
Gegatal (P.M.) = Schima wallichii = SAMAK.
GELAM - The common Malaysian name for the timber of Melaleuca cajuputi (Myrtaceae). The
timber is moderately hard to hard, moderately heavy to heavy with a density of 720-820 kg m-3
with an average density of 755 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is light pink-brown and is not
sharply differentiated from the heartwood, which is almost similar in colour to the sapwood but
of a slightly darker shade. Texture is rather fine and even with straight or only shallowly

54
interlocked grain. The timber has not been tested in the FRIM, Kepong, but is reported to be
durable in contact with wet ground and sea water.
USES: The timber is a useful source of firewood, poles and fishing stakes. The papery bark is
used for caulking boats.
No other vernacular names are recorded and only one species is recorded in this country.
GELAM BUKIT - The common Malaysian name for the timber of Leptospermum javanicum
(Myrtaceae). The timber is hard and heavy with a density of 945-995 kg m-3 air dry. The
sapwood is light brown and is only moderately sharply differentiated from the heartwood,
which is brown with streaks of darker brown. Texture is rather fine and even, with spiral or
interlocked grain.
USES: The very small and crooked bole prevents any extensive usage of the timber. The timber
is hard enough to be used as handles and other small objects.
Vernacular names applied include china maid (P.M.). Only one species is recorded for this
country, viz. L. javanicum.
Gelugor hutan (P.M.) = Blumeodendron spp. = GAHAM BADAK.
Gelugor salak (P.M.) = Drypetes spp. = ARAU.
Geriting (Sab.) = Lumnitzera spp. = TERUNTUM.
Geriting merah (Sab.) = Lumnitzera littorea = TERUNTUM.
Geriting puteh (Sab.) = Lumnitzera racemosa = TERUNTUM.
GEROK - The common Malaysian name for the tree and timber of Exbucklandia populnea
(Hamamelidaceae). The timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy with an average density
of 785 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is lighter in colour than but not sharply differentiated from
the heartwood, which is deep red-brown with a purple tinge. Texture is fine and even, with
shallowly to broadly interlocked grain. This timber has not been tested in the FRIM, Kepong.
The timber has been reported to saw with some difficulty. The timber has been investigated as
a veneer species and found to peel well and produces good tight veneers. The timber is reputed
to season very slowly, with bad splitting.
USES: The timber, if found in any quantity should be suitable for veneers and plywood, light to
medium construction under cover, interior works, flooring and general carpentry.
No other vernacular name has been recorded and only one species, viz. E. populnea, is
found in this country.
GERONGGANG - The Standard Malaysian Name for the lightweight timbers of Cratoxylum
spp. (Guttiferae). The timber is a light hardwood with a density of 350-61 0 kg m-3 air dry. The
sapwood is yellow with a pink tinge and is moderately sharply defined from the heartwood,
which is dark pink or light brick-red. Texture is moderately coarse but even, with straight or
sometimes shallowly interlocked grain. The timber is weak (Strength group D). It is easy to
resaw and cross-cut. Planing is easy and the planed surface is smooth. Nailing property is rated
as excellent. The timber seasons rapidly without any form of degrade at all. 38 mm boards take
approximate 2 months to air dry. Shrinkage is high, with radial shrinkage averaging 2.2% and
tangential shrinkage averaging 4.2%. For kiln-drying, Schedule E is recommended and the
timber is reported to dry well under this schedule. The timber is non-durable but is easily
treated with preservatives.
USES: The timber is suitable for joinery, furniture manufacture, panelling, mouldings, veneers
for plywood manufacture, particleboard and wood-wool cement-board.
Vernacular names applied include dat (Sar.), di 'it (Sar.), kirap (Sar.), labakan (Sar.), manat
(Sar.), merti/an (Sar.),pidang (Sar.), serungan (Sab.), serungan labakan (Sar.), tat (Sar.) and
timau (Sar.). Major species include C. arborescens and C. glaucum.
Geronggang biabas (Sab.) = Cratoxylumformosum = DERUM.
Geronggang bogoi (Sab.) = Cratoxylum cochinchinense = DERUM.

55
Geronggang iompong (Sar.) = Cratoxylum glaucum = GERONGGANG.
Gerunggang (Sar.) = Cratoxylum maingayi = DERUM.
Gerumong jantan (Sab.) = Glochidion superbum = UBAH.
GERUTU - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of the heavier species of Parashorea.
(Dipterocarpaceae). The trees are usually large, with large buttresses and tall, clear bole to a
good height. Parashorea occurs in the lowland and hill dipterocarp forests. The species
of P. densiflora and P. stellata are found in the southern and northern halves of the Peninsula
respectively, whereas the species of P. globosa is very rare and known to exist only in Perak.
Generally, the trees favour undulating, hilly jungles or valleys up to an altitude of about 600 m.
The timber is a light hardwood with a density of 640-880 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is
whitish yellow and is moderately distinct from the heartwood, which is light golden brown
and darkens to a deep brown on exposure. Texture is moderately coarse and even, with
interlocked grain. The timber is only moderately strong (Strength group C). It is slightly difficult
to saw but is fairly easy to cross-cut. Planing, boring and turning are easy and the planed
surface is smooth. The nailing property is rated as excellent. The timber seasons slowly with
moderate end-checking and surface-checking and staining as the main sources of degrade.
There are also slight splitting and insect attacks during drying. 13 mm boards take 4 months to
air dry, while 38 mm boards take about 6 months. Shrinkage is high, with radial shrinkage
averaging 1.8% and tangential shrinkage averaging 3.5%. The movement in seasoned timber
is classified under Type IV (based on the species Parashorea densiflora). For kiln-drying,
Schedule C is recommended. 25 mm boards take approximately 14 days to kiln-dry from 50 to
10% moisture content. The timber is very prone to surface-checking and also warping, especially
in thick sections and when stacking is poor. It is recommended that this timber be air-dried
under cover to 30% moisture content before kiln-drying to reduce the kilning time. A four
hours high humidity treatment may sometimes be required to reduce case hardening. Schedule
C is applicable to drying materials of up to 40 mm in thickness. However, for drying stocks of
40 mm to 75 mm, the relative humidity should be 5% higher. For timbers thicker than 75 mm,
the relative humidity should be 10% higher. The timber is non-durable and is rather difficult to
treat with preservatives.
USES: The timber is suitable for light to medium construction under cover, panelling and
partitioning, utility furniture manufacture, strip flooring, veneer for plywood manufacture, pallets,
boxes and crates.
Vernacular names applied include gerutu (P.M.) with various epithets, heavy white seraya
(Sab.), meranti gerutu (P.M.) and other localised names which are too numerous to be listed
here. Major species include P. densiflora, P. globosa and P. stellata from Peninsular Malaysia,
and P. parvifolia and P. smythiesii from Sabah and Sarawak.
Gerutu-gerutu (P.M.) = Parashorea stellata = GERUTU.
Gerutu pasir (P.M.) = Parashorea densiflora = GERUTU.
Gerutu pasir daun besar (P.M.) = Parashorea globosa = GERUTU.
Getah 1 (P.M.) = Dipterocarpus chartaceus = KERUING.
Getah 2 (Sab.) = Hevea brasiliensis = MALAYSIAN OAK.
GIAM - The Standard Malaysian Name for the heavy timbers of Hopea spp. (Dipterocarpaceae).
The timber is a heavy hardwood with a density of 865-1220 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is
yellow and is poorly defined from the heartwood, which is yellow with a greenish tinge when
fresh and turns deep red-brown on exposure. Texture is very fine to moderately fine and even,
with deeply interlocked grain. The timber is extremely strong (Strength group A). It is easy to
difficult to resaw and cross-cut. Planing is, however, easy and the planed surface is smooth.
Nailing property is rated as very poor. The timber seasons very slowly, with only slight end-
checking, splitting and surface-checking as the main sources of degrade. 13 mm boards take

56
approximately 6 months to air dry, while 38 mm boards take 8 months. Shrinkage is average to
high, with radial shrinkage ranging 1.4-2% and tangential shrinkage ranging 2.6-4.4%. The
timber is very durable and is highly resistant to preservative treatment.
USES: The timber is suitable for all heavy construction, bridges, wharves, posts, beams, joists,
heavy duty flooring, power-line poles, railway sleepers, lorry and truck bodies, container floor
boards and heavy duty laboratory benches.
Vernacular names applied include giam (P.M.) with various epithets, selangan (Sab. and
Sar.) with various epithets and other localised names too numerous to list here. Major species
include H. ferrea, H. helferi, H. nutans, H. pentanervia and H. semicuneata.
Giam bayan (P.M.) = Hopea pachycarpa = GIAM.
Giam hantu (P.M.) = Hopea coriacea = GIAM.
Giam jantan (P.M.) = Hopea semicuneata = GIAM.
Giam kanching (P.M.) = Hopea subalata = GIAM.
Giam lintah bukit (P.M.) = Hopea helferi = GIAM.
Giam malut (P.M.) = Hopeaferrea = GIAM.
Giam melukut (P.M.) = Hopea apiculata = GIAM.
Giam palong (P.M.) = Hopea pierrei = GIAM.
Giam rambai (P.M.) = Hopea polyalthioides = GIAM.
Gilas (Sar.) = Parastemon urophyllus = NGILAS.
Gili-gili (Sab.) = Streblus spp. = TEMPINIS.
Gironniera - A small genus of small to medium-sized or rarely large trees up to 40 m tall and 60 cm
in diameter, belonging to the family Ulmaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the
ASEAN Standard Name for the timber is KASAP (q.v.). The timber is moderately hard and
moderately heavy with a density of 530-675 kg m- J air dry. The sapwood is not defined from
the heartwood, which is yellow-white in colour. Properties and uses of the timber are described
under KASAP. Vernacular names applied include ampas tebu (Sab.), hampas tebu (P M.),
medang kasap (P.M. and Sar.) and other localised names which are too numerous to be listed
here. Major species include G. nervosa, G. parvifolia and G. subaequalis.
Gitan gizu (Sab.) = Sarcotheca glauca = PUPOL
Glochidion - A genus of small trees to occasionally medium-sized trees up to 30 m tall
and 50(-70) cm in diameter, belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae. Glochidion species are
very common and characteristic elements of secondary forest. The common Malaysian name
for the tree and timber is UBAH (q. v.). The timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy
with a density of 440-890 kg m-J air dry. The pale brown sapwood is not differentiated from
the heartwood, which is light purple-grey-brown or red-brown. Properties and uses of the
timber are described under UBAH. Vernacular names applied include gerumong jantan
(Sab.), obah nasi (Sab.) and saka-saka (Sab.). Major species include G. borneensis,
G. littorale, G. obscurum, G. perakense and G. superbum.
Gluta - A genus of small trees or medium-sized to large trees up to 45(-50) m tall and
90(-125) cm in diameter, belonging to the family Anacardiaceae. The timber is grouped together
with those of Melanochyla spp. and sold as RENGAS (q. v.). The timber is a medium hardwood
with a density of 640-960 kg m-J air dry. The sapwood is light pink-brown almost white and is
sharply differentiated from the heartwood, which is deep blood-red, sometimes with bands of
darker colour. Other properties and uses for the timber are described under RENGAS. The
vernacular name rengas (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) with various epithets is applied to the various
species of the genus. Major species include G. aptera, G. elegans, G. laxiflora, G. malayana,
G. renghas, G. torquata, G. wallichii and G. wrayi.
Gmelina - An exotic plantation timber species first introduced into Peninsular Malaysia in 1920.
At present, the biggest concentration of the species G. arborea, planted in 1954, is located at

57
the Kuala Kangsar District in Perak covering an area of over 202 ha. The species belongs to the
family Verbenaceae and is commonly known as YEMANE (q. v.). In their natural habitat, the
trees can grow up to 30(-40) m and 100(-250) cm in diameter. Properties and uses of the
timber are described under YEMANE.
Golak (P.M.) = Saraca spp. = GAPIS.
Gonystylaceae - A small family which is placed by some botanists in Thymelaeaceae. The only
important genus is Gonystylus, which produces RAMIN. Gonystylus is now classified under
the family Thymelaeaceae.
Gonystylus - A genus of small to medium-sized trees up to 42 m tall and 60(-120) cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Thymelaeaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is RAMIN
(q. v.). The timber is a light hardwood with a density of 530-785 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is
lighter in colour than and is poorly defined from the heartwood, which is white to creamy
yellow. Occasionally, a dark brown core which is streaked with black lines is developed
in some trees. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under RAMIN.
Vernacular names include ramin (P.M. Sab. and Sar.) with various epithets, dara elok (P.M.),
melawis (P.M.) pinang baik (P.M.) and pinang muda (P.M.). Major species include G. ajJinis,
G. bancanus, G. brunnescens, G. confusus, G.forbesii and G. maingayi.
Gordonia - A genus of small to medium-sized or rarely large trees up to 30(-50) m tall
and 70(-130) cm in diameter, belonging to the family Theaceae. The timber is grouped together
with the related genera Adinandra and Schima and sold as SAMAK (q.v.). The timber is
moderately hard and moderately heavy with a density of705-815 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood
is poorly defined from the heartwood, which is brown, red-brown or purple-red-brown. Other
properties and uses of the timber are described under SAMAK. Vernacular names applied
include meluluk (Sab.), samak pulut (P.M.) and tekoyong-kayong (Sar.). Major species include
G. multinervis and G. thaipingensis.
Grewia - A genus of shrubs or small trees and rarely climbers, up to 15 m tall and 20 cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Tiliaceae. The common Malaysian name for the timber is
CHENDERAI (q. v.). Grewia is moderately soft to moderately hard with a density of
730-900 kg m-3 air dry. The heartwood is pale grey to pale brown and not well defined from
the sapwood. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under CHENDERAI.
Vernacular names applied include bunsi (Sar.) and damak-damak (P.M.). Major species include
G. polygama.
Gurah 1 (P.M. and Sar.) = Sapium spp. = LUDAI.
Gurah2 (Sab.) = Excoecaria indica = BEBUTA.
Guttiferae - A family of small to medium-sized or big trees. Calophyllum produces a timber of
commercial importance, viz. BINTANGOR, while Garcinia is more widely known for its edible
fruit, the mangosteen, than the timber which is KANDIS. The timber of Mesua is a heavy
hardwood known as PENAGA, while that ofKayea is a medium hardwood known as PENAGA
TIKUS.
Gymnacranthera - A genus of small to medium-sized trees up to 30(-45) m tall and 50 cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Myristicaceae. The timber is grouped together with the other
members of the family and sold as PENARAHAN (q. v.). The timber is a light hardwood with a
density of 560-720 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is light brown with a pink tinge and is poorly
defined from the heartwood, which is brown with an orange-red tinge. A dark blood-red core
develops in some species. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under
PENARAHAN. Vernacular names applied include darah-darah (Sab.), dara kerbau (Kl.),
kumpang (Sar.), lunau (Sab.), mendarah (P.M.) and pala (Kd.). Major species include
G. bancana, G. contracta, G. farquhariana var. eugeniifolia and G. forbesii.

58
Gymnostoma - A genus of medium-sized trees up to 35m tall and 75 cm in diameter belonging
to the family Casuarinaceae. The timber is grouped together with those Casuarina spp. and
sold as RU (q.v.). Gymnostoma yields a denstiy of91O-1220 kg m-3 air dry. The heartwood is
- red to dark red or dark brown, usually not clearly differentiated from the sapwood. Other
properties and uses of the timber are described under RU. Vernacular names applied include
aru (Sab.), rhu bukit (Sar.) and rhu ronang (Sar.). Major species include G. nobile and
G. sumatranum.
Gynotroches - A monotypic genus of small to medium-sized or fairly large trees up to 35(-45) m
tall and 50(-70) cm in diameter, belonging to the family Rhizophoraceae. The common
Malaysian name for the tree and timber is MATA KELI (q.v.). Gynotroches axillaris yields a
density of 540-71 0 kg m-3 air dry. The heartwood is pale brown with a pink or red hue or red-
brown, not clearly demarcated from the sapwood. Other properties and uses of the timber are
described under MATA KELI. Vernacular names applied include buloh-buloh (P.M.), kandis
batu (Sab.) and membuloh (P.M.). Only one species has been recorded, viz. G. axillaris.

59
H
HaIindagong (Sab.) = Trema orientalis = MENARONG.
Hamamelidaceae - A family of shrubs or trees, almost always confined to hills. The timbers
produced are oflittle economic importance. Among the genera that attain tree size are Altingia
(RASAMALA), Exbucklandia (GEROK) and Rhodoleia (KERLIK).
Hampas dadah (P.M.) = Anisophyllea spp. and A. griffithii = DELEK.
Hampas tebu (p.M. and Sab.) = Gironniera spp. (P.M.) and Gironniera parvifolia (Sab.) = KASAP.
HANTU DURI - The common Malaysian name for the tree and timber of Zanthoxylum spp.
(Rutaceae). The timber is soft to moderately hard and light to moderately heavy with a density
of 335-675 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is
yellow to buff-coloured. Texture is moderately fine and even, with straight grain. The timber
has not been tested in the FRIM, Kepong, but is reported to saw and work easily and finishes
to a shiny smooth surface. The timber is reputed to season well without any splitting but
shrinkage is high.
USES: The timber has been used in India for planking, scantlings handles, legs of beds and for
chair making. In the Philippines, it has been used for fine furniture and walking sticks.
Vernacular names applied include chenkring (P.M.). Major species include Z. myriacanthum
and Z. rhetsa.
Harut (Sab.) = Nephelium melanomiscum = RAMBUTAN.
Heavy white seraya (Sab.) = Parashorea spp. = GERUTU.
Helicia - A genus of small to medium-sized trees up to 30 m tall and 60 cm in diameter, belonging
to the family Proteaceae. The common Malaysian name for the tree and timber is SAWA LUKA
(q.v.). Helicia yields a density of 505-790 kg m-3 air dry. The heartwood is brown with a pink
tinge, sharply differentiated from the yellow-pink sapwood. Other properties and uses of the
timber are described under SAWA LUKA. No other vernacular names have been recorded.
Major species include H. attenuata, H. excelsa, H. petiolaris, H. robusta, H. rufescens
and H. serrata.
Heliciopsis - A genus of medium-sized to large trees up to 35 m tall and 90 cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Proteaceae. The common Malaysian name for the tree and timber is
SAWA LUKA (q. v.). Heliciopsis yields a density of 560-630 kg m-3 air dry. The heartwood is
brown with a pink tinge, clearly differentiated from the yellow-pink sapwood. Other properties
and uses of the timber are described under SAWA LUKA. No other vernacular names have
been recorded. Major species include H. artocarpoides, H. cockburnii, H. montana, H. rujidula
and H. velutina.
Heritiera - A genus of medium-sized to large trees up to 50 m tall and 100(-135) cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Sterculiaceae. This genus produces two distinct groups of timber. The
Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN Standard Name for the heavier timber is
DUNGUN (q.v.), while the Standard Malaysian Name for the lighter timber is MENGKULANG
(q.v.).
Dungun is hard and heavy to very heavy with a density of 785-1170 kg m-3 air dry. The
sapwood is pale brown, or pink-brown and merges into the heartwood, which is red-brown,
purplish brown to dark brown. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under

60
DUNGUN. Vernacularnames applied include dungun laut (Sab.). Only one species contributes
to this timber, viz. H. littoralis.
Mengkulang is a medium hardwood with a density of 625-895 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood
is usually lighter in colour than and not always sharply defined from the heartwood, which is
red, red-brown to dark red-brown. Other properties and uses ofthe timber are described under
MENGKULANG. Vernacular names applied include mengkulang (P.M.) with various epithets,
balong ayam (P.M.),jambu keluang (MI.), kembang (Sab.), melabu (Sar.) and melima (P.M.).
Major species include H. albiflora, H. aurea, H. borneensis, H. globosa, H. javanica, H.
simplicifolia and H. sumatrana.
Hernandiaceae - A family of trees, shrubs or woody climbers of limited importance. Only one
genus attains commercial size, viz. Hernandia (BUAH KERAS LAUT).
Hernandia - A genus of small to medium-sized trees up to 30(-40) tall and 100(-200) cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Hernandiaceae. The common Malaysian name for the tree
and timber is BUAH KERAS LAUT (q.v.). Properties and uses of the timber are described
under BUAH KERAS LAUT. Vernacular names applied include baru laut (P.M.). Only one
species is recorded in this country, viz. H. nymphaeifolia.
Hevea - This genus is represented in Malaysia by H. brasiliensis, H. guineensis, H. nitida and
H. pauciflora (Euphorbiaceae). However, only the species H. brasiliensis is widely cultivated
in plantations and smallholdings in the country. Hevea is a native of South America, introduced
to this region and now widely cultivated for the latex. The tree can grow up to 25(-40) m tall
and 50 cm in diameter. At the end of their economic life span, i.e. approximately 25-30 years,
the trees are felled to make way for replanting. During these operations, large volumes of the
timber are made available. The timber is commonly known as rubberwood but is sold in the
market under the trade name MALAYSIAN OAK (q.v.). The timber is a light hardwood with
a density of 560-640 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood that
is pale cream in colour, often with a pink tinge. Other properties and uses of the timber are
described under MALAYSIAN OAK. Vernacular names applied include getah (Sab.), kayu
getah (P.M. and Sab.) and para rubber (P.M., Sab. and Sar.).
Hibiscus - A genus of small to medium-sized trees up to 30 m tall and 80 cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Malvac~ae. The common Malaysian name for the timber is BARU
(q. v.). Hibiscus yields a density of(335-)370-720 kg m-3 air dry. The heartwood is pale to dark
yellow, brown, pale brown-grey or blue-grey with purplish tinge, grey-black, purple-black,
sharply differentiated from the white or pale yellow sapwod. Other properties and uses of the
timber are described under BARU. Vernacular names applied include baru (P.M.), baru laut
(Sab.), bebaru bulu (P.M.), kali bang-bang (Sab.), langkubing (Sar.) and ran dang (Sab.).
Major species include H. borneensis, H. campylosiphon, H. floccosus, H. macrophyllus and
H. tiliaceus.
Homalium - A genus of small to large trees up to 30(-62) m tall and 75(-140) cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Flacourtiaceae. The common Malaysian name for the timber is TELOR
BUAYA (q.v.). The ASEAN Standard Name for the timber, which is ofIndonesian origin, is
DELINSEM. The timber is moderately hard to hard and moderately heavy to heavy with a
density of 720-995 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood,
which is reddish brown. A streaky corewood is produced in some trees. Other properties and
uses of the timber are described under TELOR BUAYA. Vernacular names applied include
anjing ayer (P.M.), bansisian (Sab.), kayu batu (P.M.) and takaliu (Sab.). Major species of the
genus include H. caryophyUaceum, H. dictyoneurum, H. foetidum, H. grandiflorum and
H. longifolium.

61
Hopea - A large genus of small to medium-sized or rarely large trees up to 40(-60) m tall and
100(-180) cm in diameter, belonging to the family Dipterocarpaceae. This genus produces
two distinct groups of timber. The Standard Malaysian Name for the heavier group is GIAM
(q.v.) while the Standard Malaysian Name for the lighter group is MERAWAN (q.v.).
Giam is a heavy hardwood with a density of 865-1220 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is
yellow in colour and is poorly defined from the heartwood, which is yellow with a greenish
tinge when fresh sawn, turning deep red-brown on exposure. Other properties and uses of the
timber are described under GIAM. Vernacular names applied include giam (P.M.) with various
.epithets, selangan (Sab.) with various epithets and other localised names too numerous to be
listed here. Major species include H. jerrea, H. helferi, H. nutans, H. pentanervia and
H. semicuneata.
Merawan is a medium hardwood with a density of 495-980 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is
generally lighter in colour than and is poorly defined from the heartwood, which is yellow
when fresh, but darkens on exposure to light brown or red-brown. Other properties and uses
of the timber are described under MERAWAN. Vernacular names include merawan (P.M)
with various epithets, selangan (Sab. and Sar.) with various epithets, luis (Sar.), mang
(Sar.) and other localised names too numerous to list here. Major species include
H. beccariana, H. dryobalanoides, H. dyeri, H. jerruginea, H. glaucescens, H. griffthii,
H. latifolia, H. mengarawan, H. montana, H. myrtifolia, H. nervosa, H. odorata, H. pierrei,
H. pubescens, H. sangal, H. sublanceolata and H. sulcata.
Horsfieldia - A genus of small to medium-sized or rarely large trees up to 30(-60) m tall and
60(-90) cm in diameter, belonging to the family Myristicaceae. The timber is grouped together
with the other members of the family and sold as PENARAHAN (q.v.). The timber is a light
hardwood with a density of 370-610 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is yellow-brown with a pink
tinge and is poorly defined from the heartwood, which is darker and often with dark red-purple
stripes. Other properties and uses ofthe timber are described under PENARAHAN. Vernacular
names applied include penarahan (P.M.) with various epithets, darah-darah (Sab.), dara kerbau
(Kl.), kumpang (Sar.), lempoyang paya (Sab.), mendarah (P.M.) and pala (Kd.). Major species
of the genus include H. grandis, H. irya, H. polyspherula H. punctatifolia, H. sucosa and
H. superba.
Huani (Sab.) = Mangifera odorata = MACHANG.
Hugot-hugot (Sab.) = Gironniera nervosa = KASAP.
Hunteria - A genus of small trees up to 15 m tall and 30 cm in diameter, belonging to the family
Apocynaceae. The common Malaysian name for the tree and timber is GADlNG (q.v.). Other
vernacular names applied include kemuning (P.M.) and kemuning hutan (P.M.). Only one species
is recorded in this country, viz. H. zeylanica.
Hydnocarpus - A genus of small to large trees up to 25(-50) m tall and 85 cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Flacourtiaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the
ASEAN Standard Name for the timber is SENUMPUL (q. v.). The timber is moderately hard to
hard and moderately heavy with a density of 690-930 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is
not defined from the heartwood, which is pale yellow to yellow-brown. Other properties and
uses of the timber are described under SENUMPUL. Vernacular names applied include karpus
(Sab.), karpus tulangsai (Sab.), karpus wood (Sab.) and setumpul (P.M.). Major species include
H. borneensis, H. castanea, H.jilipes, H. kunstleri and H. woodii.
Hypericaceae - A small family which is placed by some botanists in Guttiferae. The only important
genus is Cratoxyium, which produces timbers of commercial importance via DERUM and
GERONGGANG.

62
I
Iba jantan (Sab.) = Sarcotheca diversifolia = PUPOL
Iba talon (Sab.) = Sarcotheca rubrinervis = PUPOL
Icacinaceae - A small family of trees, shrubs or climbers. Only one genus is some economic
importance, viz. Cantleya (DEDARU).
Icerawas burung (Sar.) = Dacryodes macrocarpa var. macrocarpa = KEDONDONG.
Idat (Sar.) = Cratoxylum arborescens = GERONGGANG.
Iguh gawah (Sar.) = Falcatifoliumfalciforme = SEMPILOR.
Ikor mata (Sar.) = Sarcotheca ochracea = PUPOL
Hat (Sar.) =Xerospermum noronhianum = RAMBUTAN PACHAT.
Ilex - A genus ofsmall trees up to 20(-40) m tall and 70(-120) cm in diameter, belonging to the
family Aquifoliaceae. The common Malaysian name for the timber is MENSIRAH (q. v.). The
ASEAN Standard Name for the timber, which is of Indonesian origin, is MENSIRA. The
timber is of medium density, ranging 560-595 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated
from the heartwood, which is white and darkens on exposure to yellow-brown. Other properties
and uses of the timber are described under MENSIRAH. Vernacular names applied include
bangkulatan (Sab.), morogis (Sab.) and timah-timah (P.M.). Major species include 1. cissoidea
and I. cymosa.
Imah (Sar.) = Ochanostachys amentacea = PETALING.
Impas (Sab. and Sar.) = Koompassia malaccensis = KEMPAS.
Inchong Perlis (Kd.) = Endospermum diadenum = SESENDOK.
Inggir burong (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) = Ixonanthes reticulata = PAGARANAK.
Intsia - A genus of medium-sized to large trees up to 50 m tall and 160(-250) cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Leguminosae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is
MERBAU (q. v.). The timber is a heavy hardwood with a density of 515-1 040 kg m-3 air dry.
The sapwood is pale yellow to light buff and is sharply differentiated from the heartwood,
which is yellowish to orange-brown when fresh, darkening to brown or dark red-brown on
exposure. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under MERBAU. Vernacular
names applied include anglai (P.M.), Borneo teak (Sab.), ipil (p.M.), ipillaut (Sab.) and merbau
ipil (P.M.) for I. bijuga. Major species include 1. bijuga and I. palembanica.
IPIV - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Aftelia rhomboidea (Leguminosae).
This species is found in Sabah and Sarawak only. The timber is moderately hard to hard and is
moderately heavy to heavy with a density of 850-900 kg m-3 air dry The sapwood is grey-
white and sharply differentiated from the heartwood, which is reddish yellow, red to dirty red-
brown, often with some streaks. Texture is moderately coarse to coarse and even. Grain is
interlocked or sometimes straight. The timber has not been tested in the FRIM, Kepong, but is
reported to be strong (Strength group B). It is reputed to be easy to work and takes on a high
finish. The timber seasons well with little shrinkage and warping. It is reputed to be very
durable.
USES: The timber is highly prized as a furniture wood in the Philippines and should be suitable
for interior finishing, panelling, moulding, high grade furniture, door and window frames,
stairs and flooring. It has also been used for veneer and plywood manufacture but the wood is
often regarded as too dense for the purpose. Other general uses are wood handicrafts, musical
instruments, agricultural tools, boats, carts and sleepers.

63
Vernacular names applied include ipi/ (Sab. and Sar.) with various epithets and merbau
tanduk (Sab.). Only one species has been recorded in Malaysia.
IpiP (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) = Intsia bijuga = MERBAU.
IpiP (Sar.) = Intsia palembanica = MERBAU.
IpH darat (Sab.) = Afzelia rhomboidea = IPIL.
IpHlaut (Sab.) = Intsia bijuga = MERBAU.
IPOH 1 - The common Malaysian Name for the timber of Antiaris toxicaria (Moraceae). The
timber can be grouped under light hardwood in Malaysia with a density of255-545 kg m-3 air
dry. The heartwood is white to pale yellow or pale yellow-brown and not well defined from the
sapwood which is white to yellow and up to 8 cm wide. Texture is moderately coarse to coarse
and even with interlocked grain. The timber produces a very lustrous ribbon figure on quarter-
sawn surface. The timber dries rapidly with little degrade and shrinks only moderately. It is
fairly easy to work with hand and machine tools and is easy to saw. As the timber is rather light
and soft, sharp tools are required to prevent the tearing of grain and to produce a clean cut at
end surfaces. The timber can be nailed, glued and polished well. It is non-durable but can be
easily treated with preservatives. The timber is susceptible to sap-stain, pinhole borers, termite
infestation and therefore, rapid conversion and the application of anti-stain and insecticide
chemicals are essential. Sawdust may cause skin irritation and stomach pain. The bark yields a
latex which is one of the principal components of most dart and arrow poisons in South-East
Asia.
USES: The timber is used for light construction, interior finishing, furniture, moulding, panelling,
boxes and crates, veneer and plywood, handles for non-striking tools, flooring for light traffic
purposes and other general utility purposes.
Vernacular names applied include ipoh (P.M.), paliu (Sab.) and tasem (Sar.). Antiaris is a
monotypic genus. Its only species, A. toxicaria, is found throughout the Old World tropics,
from West Africa to Madagascar, Sri Lanka, Indo-China, southern China, Thailand, throughout
the Malesian region, the Pacific (east to Fiji and Tonga) and northern Australia.
Ipoh2 (P.M.) = Artocarpus spp. = TERAP.
Ira prumpuan (Sab.) = Sarcotheca rubrinervis = PUPOL
Irvingia - A genus of large trees up to 60 m tall and 150 cm in diameter, belonging to the family
Simaroubaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is PAUH KlJANG (q.v.). The
ASEAN Standard Name for the timber, which is of Thai origin, is KABOK. The timber is very
hard and very heavy with a density of930-1250 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood, which can be as
wide as 7.5 cm, is lighter in colour than and is only moderately sharply defined from the
heartwood, which is yellow-brown with a slight green tinge. A dark grey-brown striped core
occurs in some trees. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under PAUH
KlJANG. The vernacular name pauh kijang appears to be uniformly applied throughout the
country. Only one species is recorded for this country, viz. 1. malayana.
Han beruang (Sar.) = Mastixia trichotoma var. clarkeana = TETEBU.
Ixonanthaceae - A monogeneric family closely allied to the Ctenolophonaceae and Linaceae.
The timber produced is PAGAR ANAK (Ixonanthes spp.) which is moderately hard to very
hard and slightly durable to non-durable and good for poles, posts, local house building and
handles for tools.
Ixonanthes - A genus of small to medium-sized or rarely large trees up to 30(-45) m tall and
100(-130) cm in diameter, belonging to the family Ixonanthaceae. The common Malaysian
name for the tree and timber is PAGARANAK (q.v.). The timber is moderately hard to very
hard and moderately heavy to heavy with a density of 655-1040 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood
is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is brown with a slight purple-grey tinge
in /. icosandra and light yellow-brown with a slight pink tinge in 1. reticulata. Other properties
and uses of the timber are described under PAGARANAK. Vernacular names applied include
inggir burong (P.M.) and redin (Sar.). Major species include I. icosandra and 1. reticulata.

64
J
Jabing (Sar.) = Mangiferafoetida = MACHANG.
Jackiopsis-Agenus of medium-sized trees up to 20(-35) m tall and 50 cm in diameter, belonging
to the family Rubiaceae. The common Malaysian name as well as ASEAN Standard Name for
the timber is SELUMAR (q.v.). The timber is hard and heavy with a density of785-915 kg m-3
air dry. The sapwood is not clearly differentiated from the heartwood, which is red to
purple-red-brown. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under SELUMAR.
Vernacular name applied includes sentulang (P.M.). Only one species has been recorded,
viz. J. ornata.
J adam (Sar.) = Alangium javanicum var. ebenaceum = MENTULAN G.
Jadam paya (Sar.) = Alangium havilandii = MENTULANG.
Jaha (P.M.) = Terminalia subspathulata = KETAPANG.
JaJong (P.M.) = Adinandra villosa = SAMAK.
Jambakia (Sab.) = Saraca declinata = GAPIS.
Jambu (P.M.) = Syzygium spp. = KELAT. .
Jambu keJuang (Ml.) = Heritiera simplicifolia = MENGKULANG.
Janda baik (P.M.) = Pentace triptera = MELUNAK.
Jangkangl (P.M.) =Xylopia spp. = MEMPISANG.
Jangkang2 (Ph.) = Hopea beccariana = MERAWAN.
Jangkang betina (P.M.) =Xylopiaferruginea = MEMPISANG.
Jangkang bukit (P.M.) = Xylopiaferruginea = MEMPISANG.
Jangkang paya (P.M.) =Xylopiafusca = MEMPISANG.
Jangkar (Sar.) = Palaquium spp. and Payena spp. = NYATOH.
Japing (Sar.) = Pentaspadon motleyi = PELAJAU.
Jaring (Sab.) = Archidendronjiringa.
JARUM-JARUM - The common Malaysian name which is of Sabah origin and adopted here
for the timber of Dysoxylum spp. (Meliaceae). The ASEAN Standard Name for the timber,
which is ofIndonesian origin, is MEMBALUN. The timber is moderately hard to hard and
moderately heavy to heavy with a density of 590-910 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is light
yellow and is moderately sharply differentiated from the heartwood, which is orange-red or
brick-red and darkens on exposure. Texture is moderately fine to slightly coarse and uneven,
due to the presence of abundant wood parenchyma. Grain is interlocked and sometimes irregular.
The timber has not been tested in the FRIM, Kepong, but tests on related species in India
showed that the timber is strong (Strength group B). It seasons well with moderate shrinkage
but may check and twist slightly. Preliminary drying is recommeded for boards over 50 mm
thick. The timber is reputed to be easy to saw and machine and produces a smooth finish. It is
moderately durable to non-durable when exposed to the weather or in contact with the ground.
It is readily treated with preservative. The sawdust of some species may cause irritation to
mucous membrane.
USES: The timber is suitable for medium to heavy construction, planking, solid door, flooring,
decorative wall panelling and partitioning, high grade furniture manufacture, wooden pallets,
veneer and plywood.

65
Vernacular names applied include buahan-buahan (Sab.). Major species include
D. acutangulum,D. arborescens,D. cauliflorum,D. grande,D. alliaceum andD. cyrtobotryum.
Jati (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) = Tectona grandis = TEAK.
Jati bukit (P.M.) = Podocarpus neriifolius = PODO.
Jati laut (P.M.) = Podocarpus polystachyus = PODO.
Jati padang (P.M.) = Falcatifolium falciforme = SEMPILOR.
Jelak (Kinta, Pk.) = Shorea platyclados = DARK RED MERANTI.
Jelawai (P.M.) = Terminalia spp. = KETAPANG.
Jelawai jaha (P.M.) = Terminalia subspathulata = KETAPANG.
Jelawai ketapang (P.M.) = Terminalia catappa = KETAPANG.
Jelawai mempelam babi (P.M.) = Terminaliaphellocarpa = KETAPANG.
Jelawai mentalun (P.M.) = Terminalia calamansanai = KETAPANG.
JELUTONG - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Dyera spp. (Apocynaceae). The
timber is a light hardwood with a density of 420-500 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not
distinguished from the heartwood, which is creamy white to pale straw-coloured. Living
parenchyma cells have been found in the wood next to the pith and it appears that this tree does
not produce any true heartwood. Texture is moderately fine and even, with almost straight
grain. The timber is weak (Strength group D). It is easy to saw and plane and produces a
smooth surface despite its softness. Nailing property is excellent. The timber seasons fairly
rapidly without serious degrade, except for staining and powder-post beetle attacks but the
common practice of dipping the timber in preservatives immediately after sawing has largely
overcome this problem. 13 mm boards take 1.5 months to air dry, while 38 mm boards take 3
months. Shrinkage is fairly low, with radial shrinkage averaging 0.8% and tangential shrinkage
averaging 2%. The movement of seasoned timber is classified under Type II. The timber is
highly perishable, susceptible to fungal attacks as well as lyctus beetle and termite attacks. The
timber is, however, easily treated with preservatives.
USES: The timber is suitable for pattern making, carving, picture frames, drawing boards,
black boards, toys, packing cases, wooden shoe heels. It is also the favourite wood for pencil
manufacture.
Vernacular names applied include jelutong (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) with various epithets.
Major species include D. costulata and D. polyphylla.
Jelutong bukit (Sab.) = Dyera costulata = JELUTONG.
Jelutong paya (Sab.) = Dyera polyphylla = JELUTONG.
JELUTONG PIPIT - The common Malaysian name for the trees and timber of Kibatalia spp.
(Apocynaceae). The timber is soft and light, with an average density of 450 kg m-3 air dry. The
sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is white in colour. Texture is fine and
even, with straight grain. Shrinkage upon seasonng is low, but the timber needs to be dried
rapidly to prevent stain. The timber is soft and very easy to work. It is non-durable and is
readily attacked by sapstain fungi.
USES: The timber is suitable for small objects like musical instruments, picture frames, fixtures,
pencil slats, toothpicks, knife sheaths, spools, polo balls, checker boards and pieces, pattern
making, carving and matches.
No other vernacular names have been recorded. Major species include K. arborea and
K. maingayi.
JEMERLANG - The common Malaysian name for the timber of Peltophorum spp.
(Leguminosae). The timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy with a density of
480-770 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is light brown with a pink tinge, occasionally with
light brown streaks and is moderately sharply defined from the heartwood, which is
orange-red-brown, or purple-red-brown with dark zones, giving the timber a streaked

66
appearance. Texture is moderately coarse but even, with interlocked or slightly wavy grain.
The timber is easy to resaw and cross-cut. Planing is easy and the planed surface is moderately
smooth to smooth. The timber dries slowly with slight cupping, bowing, end-checking, splitting
and insect attacks being the main sources of degrade. 13 mm boards take approximately 5
months to air dry, while 38 mm boards take 6 months. Shrinkage is low, with radial shrinkage
averaging 0.9% and tangential shrinkage averaging 1.1 %.
USES: The timber is attractively streaked and is suitable for furniture manufacture, interior
finishing, panelling, partitioning, parquet flooring, superior joinery and decorative sliced veneers.
Vernacular names applied includejemerlang (P.M.) with various epithets, timbarayong(Sab.)
and yellow flame (P.M., Sab. and Sar.). Major species include P. dasyrachis, P. pterocarpum
and P. racemosum.
Jemerlang laut (P.M.) = Peltophorum pterocarpum = JEMERLANG.
Jenangan (Sar.) = Alangium havilandii = MENTULANG.
Jenerek (P.M.) = Callerya atropurpurea and Fordia albiflora = TULANG DAING.
Jenerik (P.M.) = Callerya atropurpurea = TULANG DAING.
Jengkai (Sar.) = Nauclea spp. = BANGKAL.
JENITRI - The ASEAN Standard Name, which is of Indonesian origin, for the timber of
Elaeocarpus spp. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is SENGKURAT (q. v.).
JENJULONG - The common Malaysian name for the trees and timber of Agrostistachys spp.
(Euphorbiaceae). The timber is moderately hard to hard and moderately heavy to heavy with a
density of 685-940 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood,
which is brown with a rose-pink tinge or pale yellow. Texture is fine and even with straight
grain. The timber has not been tested in the FRIM, Kepong.
USES: The timber is suitable for walking sticks, fence poles, fuel wood, pulp and paper. The
logs have been used for mushroom cultivation.
Vernacular names applied include beko-beko (P.M.), julong-julong (P.M.), julong-julong
jantan (P.M.), kayu garang (Sab.), lidah kerbau (P.M.), nulong (P.M.) and nyonyolong (P.M.).
Major species include A. borneensis and A. gaudichaudii.
Jenuong (Jh.) = Vatica maingayi = RESAK.
Jering (P.M.) = Archidendron jiringa.
Jering tupai (P.M.) = Crudia curtisii = MERBAU KERA.
Jeruai (Pk.) = Hopea sublanceolata = MERAWAN.
Jintek bukit (P.M.) = Baccaurea kunstleri = TAMPOL
Jintek-jintek l (P.M.) = Baccaurea sumatrana = TAMPOL
Jintek-jintek2 (P.M.) = Sarcotheca griffithii = PUPOL
Jintek-jintek3 (P.M.) = Neoscortechinia spp.
Jitang (P.M.) = Bischofiajavanica = TUAL
Jiwang (Sar.) = Sarcotheca diversifolia = PUPOL
Johor (P.M.) = Senna siamea = BEBUSOK.
JONGKONG - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Dactylocladus stenostachys
(Crypteroniaceae). The timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy with a density of
495-610 kg m-3 air dry. It is classified under light hardwood in Malaysia. The sapwood is not
differentiated from the heartwood, which is light brown when fresh and darkens to pink-brown
or red-brown. Texture is fine and even, with straight or slightly interlocked grain. The timber is
reported to be weak (Strength group D). It is reputed to work very well and produces a smooth
and lustrous surface. Nailing property is rated as poor. The timber seasons fairly slowly with
moderate amount of bowing and end-checking and a slight amount of cupping and splitting as
the main sources of degrade. 13 mm boards take 3 months to air dry, while 38 mm boards take
5 months. Shrinkage is variously reported to be fairly high to very high. FRIM, Kepong, data

67
showed that radial shrinkage is 1.1 % while tangential shrinkage is 1.8%. Work done in Sarawak
showed that this timber has a very high shrinkage, radial shrinkage averaging 3.1 % and tangential
shrinkage averaging 5.5%. The timber is found to contain "pin-hole" type of included phloem
on the surface. The timber is reported to be non-durable.
USES: The timber is suitable for flooring, partitioning, utility furniture, concrete shuttering
and possibly for veneers in plywood manufacture.
Vernacular names applied include gatal (Sar.), medang jongkong (Sar.), medang tabak
(Sab.), merebong (Sar.) and tanjiong awam (Sab.). This is a monotypic timber which is absent
in Peninsular Malaysia.
Juah (P.M.) = Senna siamea = BEBUSOK.
Juglandaceae - A small family of medium-sized trees represented in Malaysia by one genus
only, viz. Engelhardtia.
Julong-julong (P.M.) = Agrostistachys spp. = JENJULONG.
Julong-julong jantan (P.M.) = Agrostistachys gaudichaudii = JENJULONG.

68
K
KABOK - The ASEAN Standard Name, which is of Thai origin, for the timber of Irvingia
malayana (Simaroubaceae). The Standard Malaysian Name is PAUH KIJANG (q.v.).
Kachang-kachang (Sab.) = Saraca dec/inata = GAPIS.
Kaher (Sar.) = Parartocarpus bracteatus = TERAP.
Kajo jelan (Sar.) = Cratoxylumformosum = DERUM.
Kaju wulu (Sab. and Sar.) = Mastixia pentandra ssp. scortechinii = TETEBU.
Kakang (Sar.) = Artocarpus tamaran = TERAP.
Kala (Kl.) = Shoreafaguetiana and S. longisperma = YELLOW MERANTI.
Kala daun besar (Tr.) = Shorea balanocarpoides = YELLOW MERANTI.
Kala samak (Kd. and Pk.) = Shorea pauciflora = DARK RED MERANTI.
Kalambiao (Sab.) = Aglaia tomentosa = PASAK.
Kalambuko (Sab.) = Nephelium cuspidatum = RAMBUTAN.
Kalan (Sar.) = Lithocarpus leptogyne = MEMPENING.
Kalantaid (Sab.) = Siphonodon celastrineus.
Kalantas (Sab.) = Toona spp. = LIMPAGA
Kalas' (Sar.) = Nephelium daedaleum = RAMBUTAN.
Kalas 2 (Sar.) =Xerospermum noronhianum = RAMBUTAN PAC HAT.
Kali bang-bang (Sab.) = Hibiscus tiliaceus = BARU.
Kalit (Sar.) = Lithocarpus jacobsii = MEMPENING.
Kalong' (P.M.) = Alangium nobile = MENTULANG.
Kalong 2 (Sar.) = Artocarpus tamaran = TERAP.
KAMAP - The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN Standard Name for the heavy
timber of Strombosia spp. (Olacaceae). The timber is hard and heavy with a density of
815-1055 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is light yellow-brown and moderately sharply defined
from the heartwood, which is purple-brown to dark brown. Texture is fine and even with
interlocked grain. The timber has not been tested in the FRIM, Kepong, but is reported to be
strong and moderately durable.
USES: The timber is suitable for temporary construction, flooring, wooden pallets and posts.
Vernacular names applied include petaling gajah (P.M.) and belian landak (Sar.). Major
species include S. ceylanica. .
Kambayau (Sab.) = Dacryodes rostrata f. rostrata = KEDONDONG.
Kanau-kanau (Sab.) = Baccaurea spp. = TAMPOI.
KANDIS - The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN Standard Name for the timber
of Garcinia spp. (Guttiferae). The timber is variable in its properties. The timber is moderately
hard to very hard and moderately heavy to very heavy with a density of 690-1120 kg m-3 air
dry. It is classified under medium hardwood in Malaysia. The sapwood is usually lighter in
colour than and is not sharply differentiated from the heartwood, except for G. hombroniana
where the red-brown sapwood is distinct from the dark red-brown heartwood. The heartwood
is variable in colour, dark red-brown in some species and yellow in others. Texture is moderately
fine and even with straight grain. The timber has not been tested in the FRIM, Kepong, but is
expected to be strong. It is reported to be difficult to work due to its hardness and the presence

69
of silica in some species. The timber, however, turns well. The timber is expected to be at least
moderately durable if kept away from termites.
USES: The timber is used for poles and fence posts. The heavier species are suitable for semi-
permanent heavy construction like temporary bridges and extraction tramways.
Vernacular names applied include asam gelugor (P.M.), bebata (Sab.), bruas (P.M.),
lulai (P.M.), manggis hutan (P.M.) and sikop (Sar.). Major species include G. atroviridis,
G. bancana, G. cowa, G. beccarii, G.griffthii, G. hombroniana, G. malaccensis, G. merguensis,
G. nigrolineata and G. parvifolia.
Kandis batu (Sab.) = Gynotroches axillaris = MATA KELI.
Kandis burong (P.M.) = Adinandra integerrima = SAMAK.
Kandis daham ( Sab.) = Sarcotheca glauca = PUPOL
Kangsar l (P.M.) = Pterygota alata = KASAH.
Kangsar2 (P.M.) = Hibiscus floccosus and H. tiliaceus = BARU.
Kapan (Sar.) = Fagraea teysmannii = TEMBUSU.
Kapok (Sab.) = Bombax ceiba = KEKABU.
KAPUR - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Dryobalanops spp. (Dipterocarpaceae).
The timber is a medium hardwood with a density of 580-820 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is
yellowish brown and sharply defined from the heartwood, which is reddish brown. Texture is
moderately coarse and even with straight or shallowly interlocked or sometimes deeply
interlocked grain. The timber is strong (Strength group B). The timber of D. rappa is easy to
work while the other species range from moderately easy to slightly difficult. Nailing property
is good in D. rappa and poor in the other species. The timber dries moderately slowly to
slowly with little degrade. Some seasoning properties are summarised in the following table:

Time to air dry Shrinkage (%)


(months) (Green to air dry)
Species Remarks
13 mm 38mm Radial Tangential
boards boards

D. aromatica 2 5 2.1 4.6 Fairly slow drying; moderate end-splitting;


splitting and surface-checking; very high
shrinkage.
D. oblongifolia 1.7 3.8 No drying test done; high shrinkage.
D. rappa 4 6 1.5 5.1 Slow drying; moderate cupping due to very
high differential shrinkage.

For kiln-drying, Schedule E is recommended for kapur. Care must be taken to stack the
timber properly as there is a strong tendency to cup. 25 mm boards are expected to kiln-dry in
14 days. The timber is durable (D. aromatica), moderately durable (D. rappa) and non-durable
(D. oblongifolia) under tropical conditions but in the UK, it has been rated as highly durable
and has been used as railway sleepers untreated. The heartwood is resistant to treatment while
the sapwood is permeable.
USES: The timber is suitable for medium construction, posts, beams, joists, rafters, flooring,
plywood manufacture, laboratory benches and railway sleepers.
Vernacular names applied to this timber include kapur (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) with various
epithets, keladan (P.M.) and kelansau (Sar.). Major species include D. aromatica, D. beccarii,
D. keithii, D. lanceolata, D. oblongifolia and D. rappa.
Kapur barus (Sab.) = Dryobalonops aromatica = KAPUR.
Kapur bukit (Sar.) = Dryobalanops spp. = KAPUR.
Kapur empedu (Sar.) = Dryobalanops fusca = KAPUR.
Kapur gumpait (Sab.) = Dryobalanops keithii = KAPUR.

70
Kapur keladan (P.M. and Sab.) = Dryobalanops oblongifolia = KAPUR.
Kapur merah (Sab.) = Dryobalanops beccarii = KAPUR.
Kapur paji (Sab. and Sar.) = Dryobalanops lanceolata = KAPUR.
Kapur paya (Sab. and Sar.) = Dryobalanops rappa = KAPUR.
Kapur peringgi (Sar.) = Dryobalanops beccarii = KAPUR.
Kapusong (Sar.) = Nephelium cuspidatum = RAMBUTAN.
Kara (Sar.) = Ficus jistulosa = ARA.
Karai 1 (Ulu Langat, Sl.) = Shorea platyclados = DARK RED MERANTI.
KaraF (Sab. and Sar.) = Species of Annonaceae = MEMPISANG.
Karai hulumdon (Sab.) = Polyalthia microtus = MEMPISANG.
Karai jangkang (Sab.) = Xylopiaferruginea = MEMPISANG.
Karai larak merah (Sab.) = Polyalthia cauliflora = MEMPISANG.
Karai puteh (Sab.) = Polyalthia sumatrana = MEMPISANG.
KARAS - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Aquilaria spp. (Thymelaeaceae). The
timber is soft and light with a density of335-400 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated
from the heartwood, which is creamy white in colour. Texture is fine but uneven due to the
presence of islands of included phloem. Grain is straight. The timber is weak (Strength group
D). It is easy to resaw and cross-cut. Planing is easy and the planed surface is moderately
smooth to rough, especially in the tangential boards. The timber is non-durable and is liable to
stain easily by sapstain fungi. The timber can be easily treated with preservatives. The tree
occasionally produces some diseased wood, which is resin-impregnated and fragrant. This
diseased wood is dark brown to black in colour and is heavy and hard. The commercial name
for this wood is GARARU. It is much sought after as an incense and folk medicine.
USES: The timber is suitable for packing crates, plywood, disposable chopsticks and ladies'
shoe heels. The diseased wood is highly valued as an incense.
Vernacular names applied include kekaras (P.M.) and tengkaras (P.M.) for the normal wood
and aloes wood (P.M.) and eagle wood (P.M.) for the diseased wood. Only one species is of
importance, viz. A. malaccensis.
Karpus (Sab.) = Hydnocarpus spp. = SENUMPUL.
Karpus tulangsai (Sab.) = Hydnocarpus borneensis = SENUMPUL.
Karpus wood (Sab.) = Hydnocarpus woodii = SENUMPUL.
KASAH - The common Malaysian name for the timber of Pterygota spp. (Sterculiaceae). The
timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy with a density of 575-640 kg m-3 air dry. The
sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is straw-coloured to light brown.
Texture is moderately coarse and uneven due to the presence of abundant parenchyma. Grain
is straight to shallowly interlock. The timber is moderately strong (Strength group C). It is easy
to resaw and cross-cut. Planing is easy and the planed surface is smooth. The timber is non-
durable under exposed conditions, being susceptible to both fungal and insect attacks.
USES: The timber is suitable for light and temporary construction, packing crates, wooden
pallets, plywood manufacture, ladies' shoe heels and perhaps as a source of short-fibred pulp.
Vernacular names applied include kangsar (P.M.), melebu (Sar.) and menuang (P.M.) Major
species include P. alata and P. horsjieldii.
KASAl - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Pometia spp. (Sapindaceae). The
timber is a medium hardwood with a density of 73 5-915 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is lighter
in colour than and not sharply defined from the heartwood, which is pink, red or red-brown.
Texture is moderately coarse but even, with straight or shallowly interlocked grain. The timber
is moderately strong (Strength group C). It is easy to work when green but is slightly difficult
to work when dried. Planing is easy in either condition and the finish of green boards is smooth
while the finish in dried boards is rough. Nailing property is rated as good. The timber seasons

71
fairly slowly but with very minor degrade. Slight cupping, bowing and end-checking are the
main sources of degrade. 13 mm boards take approximately 3 months to air dry, while 38 mm
boards take 5 months. Shrinkage is rather high, radial shrinkage averages 2.8% while tangential
shrinkage averages 3.5%. The movement of seasoned timber is classified under Type III. The
timber is moderately durable under exposed conditions and is very difficult to treat with
preservatives.
USES: The timber is suitable for furniture manufacture, tool handles, plywood, heavy duty
flooring and interior finishing like mouldings and skirtings.
Vernacular names applied include kasai (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) with various epithets, datanut
(Sab.), enselan (SaL), rapanah (SaL), sibu (Sar.) and silak (SaL). Major species include
P. pinnata (including f. alnifolia) and P ridleyi.
Kasai daun besar (P.M. and Sar.) = Pometia pinnata = KASAL
Kasai daun kechil (P.M.) = Pometia pinnata f. alnifolia = KASAL
Kasai daun lichin (P.M.) = Pometia ridleyi = KASAL
KASAP - The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN Standard Name for the timber
of Gironniera spp. (Ulmaceae). The timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy with a
density of 530-675 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not defined from the heartwood, which is
yellow-white in colour. Texture is fine and even with straight grain. The timber is reported to
be liable to severe splitting when seasoned. It is non-durable.
USES: The timber is occasionally used for house building under cover like planking, beams,
flooring.
Vernacular names applied include ampas tebu (Sab.), hampas tebu (P.M.), medang kasap
(P.M. and Sar.) and various other localised names too numerous to be listed here. Major species
include G. nervosa, G. parvifolia and G. subaequalis.
Kasat (Sar.) = Buchanania spp. = OTAK UDANG.
Kasui (Sab.) = Planchonia valida = PUTAT PAYA.
Kata mudung (Sab. and Sar.) = Cratoxylum arborescens = GERONGGANG.
Kateh (Sar.) = Parartocarpus bracteatus, P microcarpus and P venenosus = TERAP.
Kati (Sar.) = Parartocarpus microcarpus and P venenosus = TERAP.
Katong-katong (P.M. and Sab.) = Cynometra mirabilis and C. ramiflora = KEKATONG.
Kawang (Sab.) = Shorea spp. = MELANTAL
Kawang bukit (Sab.) = Shorea amplexicaulis = MELANTAL
Kawang bulu (Sab.) = Shorea pi/osa = MELANTAL
Kawang burong (Sab.) = Shorea mecistopteryx = MELANTAL
Kawang daun merah (Sab.) = Shorea parvistipulata ssp. parvistipulata = MELANTAL
Kawang jantong (Sab.) = Shorea macrophylla = MELANTAL
Kawang pinang (Sab.) = Shorea pinanga = MELANTAL
Kayea - A genus of small to medium-sized or fairly large trees up to 36 m tall and 95 cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Guttiferae. The species of this genus produce timber that is
much lighter than Mesua ferrea (PENAGA). The common Malaysian name for the trees and
timber is PENAGA TIKUS (q. v.). The timber is moderately hard to hard and moderately heavy
to heavy with a density of705-880 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the
heartwood, which is red-brown or grey-brown with a red tinge. Other properties and uses of
the timber are described under PENAGA TIKUS. Vernacular names applied include bintangor
batu (Sab.), mergasing (Sar.),penaga bayan (P.M.),penaga lilin (P.M.),penaga sabut (P.M.)
andpenaga tikus (P.M.). Major species include K. grandis, K. kochummeniana, K. lepidota,
K. macrantha and K. nuda.
Kayo bakek (Sar.) = Artocarpus anisophyllus = KELEDANG.
Kayo bibungan (Sar.) = Artocarpus anisophyllus = KELEDANG.

72
Kayo mupa (Sar.) = Ixonanthes spp. = PAGAR ANAK.
Kayu ara (Sab.) = Ficus spp. = ARA.
Kayu ajung (Sab.) = Parastemon grandifructus = NGILAS.
Kayu arang (P.M.) = Diospyros spp. = KAYU MALAM.
Kayu batu (P.M.) = Homalium grandiflorum = TELOR BUAYA.
KAYU BESI - The ASEAN Standard Name, which is of Indonesian origin, for the timber of
Chaetocarpus castanocarpus. The common Malaysian name for the timber is BEBATU (q. v.).
Kayu chelega (Sar.) = Tetramerista glabra = PUNAH.
Kayu china (Sab.) = Podocarpus rumphii = PODO.
Kayu dusun (Sab.) = Chaetocarpus castanocarpus = BEBATU.
KAYU GAMBIR - The ASEAN Standard Name, which is ofIndonesian origin, for the timber
of Trigonopleura malayana. The common Malaysian name for the timber is GAMBIR HUTAN
(q. v.).
Kayu garang (Sab.) = Agrostistachys spp. = JENJULONG.
Kayu getah (P.M. and Sab.) = Hevea brasiliensis = MALAYSIAN OAK.
KAYU HUJAN 1 - The ASEAN Standard Name, which is ofIndonesian origin, for the timber of
Engelhardtia spp. The common Malaysian name for the timber is DUNGUN PAYA (q.v.).
Kayu hujan 2 (Sar.) = Tetramerista glabra = PUNAH.
Kayu jadi (Sar.) = Agathis borneensis = DAMAR MINYAK.
Kayu kikai (Sar.) = Lithocarpus andersonii = MEMPENING.
Kayu kuat (P.M.) = Ploiarium alternifolium = RERIANG.
KAYU KUNDUR - The ASEAN Standard Name, which is of Indonesian origin, for the timber
of Mastixia spp. The common Malaysian name for the timber is TETEBU (q. v.).
KAYU MALAM - The Standard Malaysian Name, which is of Sabah origin, for the timber of
Diospyros spp. (Ebenaceae). The timber is moderately hard to very hard and moderately heavy
to very heavy with a density of 595-1 055 kg m-3 air dry. It is classified under medium hardwood
in Malaysia. The sapwood is not distinct from the heartwood, which is generally yellowish
white to buff. Some species produce a streaky core while some others produce a jet black core,
which is the ebony of commerce. Texture is fine and even with straight to slightly interlocked
grain. The timber has not been tested in the FRIM, Kepong, but is reported to be easy to work
and produces a very smooth and lustrous surface. The heavier material is reputed to season
slowly and is liable to check and warp. Shrinkage is very high, especially in the streaky material.
Radial shrinkage averages 4.7% while tangential shrinkage averages 8.7%. The lighter coloured
material is non-durable, while the darker material is expected to be durable.
USES: The darker streaked corewood is highly prized as a superior cabinet wood, suitable for
high class decorative furniture, sliced veneers, panelling and other interior finishing. The lighter
coloured material is suitable for furniture manufacmre, plywood manufacture, pallets and other
general utility purposes.
Vernacular names applied include buey (P.M.), kayu arang (P.M.), kumoi (P.M.),
kumoi bukit (P.M.), meribut (P.M.), sabah ebony (Sab.), sianggus (P.M.) and tuba buah (P.M.).
Major species include D. blancoi, D. buxifolia, D. clavigera, D. confertiflora, D. discocalyx,
D. foxworthyi, D. maingayi, D. pendula and D. pillosanthera.
Kayu manis (P.M. and Sab.) = Cinnamomum iners = MEDANG.
Kayu mapa (Sab.) = Cephalomappa malloticarpa = ARAU.
KAYU MASAM - The common Malaysian name, which is of Sarawakian origin, for the trees
and timber of Aporosa spp. (Euphorbiaceae). The timber is moderately hard and moderately
heavy with a density of 570-890 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the
heartwood, which is light yellow-brown, yellow-brown or brown with orange or purple-red
tinge. Texture is moderately fine but uneven, due to the presence of broad rays. Grain is straight.

73
The timber has not been tested in the FRIM, Kepong, but is reputed to be fairly easy to work as
it is non-siliceous. It is reported to season without serious defects. The timber is expected to be
moderately durable.
USES: The timber has been used for rafters, household implements, tool handles, flooring and
furniture.
Vernacular names applied include bagil (Sab.), galang-galang (Sab.), penatan (Sab.) and
sebasah (P.M.). Major species include A. arborea, A. aurea, A. benthamiana, A. bracteosa,
A. dioica, A. elmeri, A. !rutescens, A. grandistipulata, A. nervosa, A. nigricans, A. nitida,
A. prainiana and A. stellifera.
Kayu mup (Sar.) = Ixonanthes spp. = PAGAR ANAK.
Kayu pelawan (P.M.) = Fordia albiflora = TULANG DAING.
Kayu raja (Sar.) = Koompassia excelsa = TUALANG.
Kayu rindu (P.M.) = Fordia albiflora and F. bracteolata = TULANG DAING.
Kayu runap (Sar.) = Anisophyllea disticha = DELEK.
Kayu tangiran (Sar.) = Tetramerista glabra = PUNAH.
Kayu tom (Sar.) = Combretocarpus rotundatus = KERUNTUM.
Kayu wulu ( Sab. and Sar.) = Mastixia pentandra ssp. scortechinii = TETEBU.
Kebal ayam (P.M.) = Pentace spp. = MELUNAK.
Kebal musang (P.M.) = Nageia motleyi = PODO.
Kedang belum (Sar.) = Callerya vasta and Millettia spp. = TULANG DAING.
KEDONDONG 1 - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timbers of the family Burseraceae.
The timber is a light hardwood with a density of 495-980 kg m-3 air dry and an average density
of705 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is usually lighter in colour than and not well defined from
the heartwood. However, in Santiria grifJithi and S. rubiginosa, the sapwood is well defined.
The heartwood varies in colour from light yellow in Canarium apertum to yellow-green-brown
in S. grifJithii and S. rubiginosa to the common light red-brown and deep red-brown of the
other species. Texture is fairly fine and even, with shallowly or deeply interlocked grain. The
timber is fairly strong (Strength group C). The working quality of the timber is variable, ranging
from easy to work to very difficult to work, due to the presence of silica and deeply interlocked
grain. Planing is easy to slightly difficult and a smooth surface is often obtained although in
some cases, severe picking-up of the grain has been noted. Nailing property is good. Seasoning
properties have been studied for some species and are summarised below:

Time to air dry Shrinkage (%)


(months) (Green to air dry)
Species Remarks
13mm 38mm Radial Tangential
boards boards

Canarium littorale 3.5 4 2.4 4.1 Fairly slow drying; powder-post beetle attacks;
f. rufum slight cupping, bowing, splitting and staining;
very high shrinkage.
Santiria laevigata 2 6 1.8 3.2 Fairly slow drying; powder-post beetle attacks;
slight cupping, end-checking and surface-
checking; high shrinkage.
S. tomentosa 3 5 2.4 3.5 Fairly slow drying; powder-post beetle and
sapstain fungi attacks; high shrinkage.

The movement of seasoned timber is classified under Type II. For Canarium spp., the
recommended kiln schedule is J and 25 mm material takes 6 days to dry. The timber is non-
durable and the heartwood is very difficult to treat with preservatives. The sapwood is, however,
amenable.

74
USES: The timber is suitable as a general utility timber for planking, cladding, plywood,
particleboard, flooring, furniture, packing cases and pallets.
Vernacular names applied include kedondong (P.M. and Sab.) with various epithets, kembayu
(Sab.), kerantai (P.M. and Sab.),pamatadon (Sab.), seladah (Sar.) and senggeh (P.M.). Major
species of the timber include Canarium apertum, C. littorale, C. pseudosumatranum; Dacroydes
costata, D. incurvata; Santiria apiculata, S. conferta, S. tomentosa; Scutinanthe brunnea; and
Triomma malaccensis.
Kedondong2 - A vernacular name often wrongly applied to the trees of Parishia spp.
(Anacardiaceae). The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN Standard Name for the
timber is LELAYANG.
Kedondong asam (Sab.) = Triomma malaccensis = KEDONDONG.
Kedondong bulan (P.M.) = Canarium littorale = KEDONDONG.
Kedondong bulu laxa (Sab.) = Dacryodes laxa = KEDONDONG.
Kedondong bulu tangkai pendek (Sab.) = Canarium pilosum = KEDONDONG.
Kedondong gergaji (P.M.) = Canarium littorale f. rufum = KEDONDONG.
Kedondong kemasul (P.M.) = Canarium apertum = KEDONDONG.
Kedondong kerantai (P.M.) = Santiria apiculata, S. conferta and S. griffithii = KEDONDONG.
Kedondong kerantai bulu (P.M.) = Santiria tomentosa = KEDONDONG.
Kedondong kerantai lichin (P.M.) = Santiria laevigata = KEDONDONG.
Kedondong keruing (P.M.) = Canarium megalanthum = KEDONDONG.
Kedondong kerut (P.M.) = Dacryodes rostrata = KEDONDONG.
Kedondong kijau 1 (P.M.) = Triomma malaccensis = KEDONDONG.
Kedondong kijau 2 (P.M.) = Species of Aglaia sect. Amoora = BEKAK.
Kedondong kijau 3 (P.M.) = Pentaspadon motleyi = PELAJAU.
Kedondong kijau 4 (P.M.) = Parishia spp. = LELAYANG.
Kedondong matahari (P.M.) = Dacryodes rugosa = KEDONDONG.
Kedondong puteh (P.M.) = Canarium littorale f. purpurascens = KEDONDONG.
Kedondong senggeh (P.M.) = Canarium pseudosumatranum = KEDONDONG.
Kedondong sengkuang (P.M.) = Scutinanthe brunnea = KEDONDONG.
KEKABU - The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN Standard Name for the
timber of Bombax spp. (Bombacaceae). The timber is soft and light with a density
of 415-545 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is white and sharply differentiated from the
heartwood, which is pale straw-coloured. Texture is moderately coarse and even, with straight
or slightly interlocked grain. The timber is weak (Strength group D). It is easy to resaw and
cross-cut. Planing is easy and the planed surface produced is moderately smooth to smooth.
Nailing property is excellent. The timber seasons fairly rapidly with negligible degrade except
for fungal and insect attacks. 13 mm boards take 2.5 months to air dry, while 38 mm boards
take 3.5 months. Shrinkage is average, radial shrinkage averaging 1.7% while tangential
shrinkage averaging 2.4%. The timber is non-durable but extremely easy to treat with
preservatives.
USES: The timber is suitable for use as a low strength utility timber, packing cases, match
boxes and core veneers for plywood. However, the core material of the timber, which is reddish
brown in colour, may be rather attractive and if it is properly processed, can be used for decorative
furniture, panelling, fancy articles, cigar boxes and other ornamental items.
Vernacular names applied include kekabu hutan (P.M.), kapok (Sab.) and tambaluang (Sab.).
Major species include B. ceiba and B. valetonii.
Kekabu hutan (P.M.) = Bombax valetonii = KEKABD.
Kekaras (P.M.) = Aquilaria malaccensis = KARAS.

75
KEKATONG - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Cynometra spp. (Leguminosae).
The timber is a heavy hardwood with a density of 880-1155 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is
lighter in colour than and not well defined from the heartwood, which is red-brown or claret-
red with streaks of lighter colour. Texture is moderately fine and uneven, with straight to
shallowly interlocked grain. The timber is very strong (Strength group A). It is easy to difficult
to resaw and difficult to cross-cut. Planing is easy to slightly difficult and the surface produced
is moderately smooth. Nailing property is rated as poor. The timber seasons moderately slowly
without degrade except for some end-checking. 13 mm boards take 3 months to air dry, while
38 mm boards take 5 months. Shrinkage is 1.6% and 2.7% on the radial and tangential surfaces
respectively. For kiln-drying, Schedule B is recommended and 25 mm boards can be kiln-
dried in 8 days. The timber is moderately durable and fairly difficult to treat with preservatives.
USES: The timber is suitable for heavy construction under cover, beams, posts, joists, door and
window frames, flooring, railway sleepers when treated, heavy duty flooring and laboratory
benches.
Vernacular names applied include belangan (P.M.), belangkan (P.M.), katong-katong (P.M.
and Sab.) and kekatong laut (P.M.). Major species include C. elmeri, C. iripa, C. malaccensis,
C. mirabilis and C. ramiflora.
Kekatong laut (P.M.) = Cynometra iripa and C. ramiflora = KEKATONG.
Keladan (P.M.) = Dryabalanops oblongifolia = KAPUR.
Kelaju (Sab.) = Dolichandrone spathacea = TUI.
Kelalud (Sar.) = Gynotroches axillaris = MATA KELI.
Kelamondoi (Sab.) = Nephelium maingayi = RAMBUTAN.
Kelampai (Sar.) = Elateriospermum tapos = PERAH.
Kelampayan (P.M. and Sar.) = Neolamarckia cadamba = LARAN.
Kelampu (Sar.) = Sandoricum spp. = SENTUL.
Kelangan (Sar.) = Saraca spp. = GAPIS.
Kelansau (Sar.) = Dryobalanops oblongifolia = KAPUR.
Kelanus (Sab.) = Prunus spp. = PEPIJAT.
KELATI - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Syzygium spp. (Myrtaceae). The
timber is a medium hardwood with a density of 495-1 0 10 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not
sharply differentiated from the heartwood, which is light brown, pink-brown, red-brown or
purple-brown with a grey tinge. Texture is moderately fine and even with interlocked, irregular
or wavy grain. The timber is strong (Strength group B). It is easy to resaw and cross-cut.
Planing is easy and the planed surface is smooth. The nailing property is rated as poor. The
timber seasons very slowly with end-checking and insect attacks as the main defects. 13 mm
boards take 5 months to air dry, while 38 mm boards take 10 months. Shrinkage is high, with
radial shrinkage averaging 1.9% and tangential shrinkage averaging 3.3%. For kiln-drying,
Schedule C is recommended. 25 mm boards will take approximately 9 days to dry down to
10% moisture content. Major kiln-drying defects are likely to be cupping and end-splitting.
The timber is moderately durable under exposed conditions and does not absorb preservatives
readily.
USES: The timber is strong enough to be used for structural purposes like posts, beams, joists,
rafters. If properly treated, may be suitable for tramways, railway sleepers for secondary lines,
bridges, wharves and agricultural implements.
Vernacular names applied includejambu (Sar.), kelat (P.M.) with various epithets, keriang
(P.M.), obah (Sab.) with various epithets and ubah (Sar.). The latest taxonomic revision of the
genus has produced 200 species.
Kelat2 (Sab.) = Crudia ornata = MERBAU KERA.
Kelat gelam (P.M.) = Syzygium cerinum = KELAT.

76
Kelat jambu laut (P.M.) = Syzygium grande = KELAT.
Kelat merah (P.M.) = Syzygium chlorantha = KELAT.
Kelat pamah (P.M.) = Adinandra sarosanthera = SAMAK.
Kelat paya (P.M.) = Syzygium papillosum = KELAT.
Kelat samak (P.M.) = Gordonia multinervis = SAMAK.
KELEDANG - The Standard Malaysian Name for the heavy timbers of Artocarpus spp.
(Moraceae). The timber is a medium hardwood with a density of 500-945 kg m-3 air dry. The
sapwood is light yellow to yellow-brown, sharply defined from the heartwood, which is brown
or orange-brown and turns to dark brown on exposure. Texture is moderately coarse to coarse
and even with interlocked to deeply interlocked grain. The timber is strong, e.g. A. lanceifolius
is classified under Strength group A while A. rigidus is classified under Strength group B. It is
difficult to resaw and cross-cut. Planing is easy to moderately easy and the planed surface is
smooth to rough in some tangential boards due to picking-up of grain. Nailing property is
good. The timber dries moderately slowly, 13 mm boards take 3 months to air dry, while 38
mm boards take 4 months. The timber dries with minor defects like slight surface- and end-
checking. Some insect attacks were noted in A. rigidus during drying. Shrinkage is low, the
average radial shrinkage from green to air dry is 0.9% and the tangential shrinkage is 2.2%.
The timber is moderately durable (A. integer andA. lanceifolius) to non-durable (A. dadah,A.
heterophyllus andA. rigidus) and the heartwood is difficult to treat. The sapwood, however, is
readily treated.
USES: The timber is highly prized as a high-class coffin timber and much of the supply is
diverted to this use. The timber is also suitable for flooring, parquet flooring, medium
construction, furniture and panelling.
Vernacular names applied include bangkong (P.M.), keledang (P.M.) with various epithets,
terap hutan (Sab.) and various other localised names too numerous to list here. Major species
include A. anisophyllus, A. dadah, A. heterophyllus, A. integer, A. kemando, A. lanceifolius
and A. rigidus.
Keledang babi (P.M.) = Artocarpus anisophyllus = KELEDANG.
Keledang bangkang (P.M.) = Artocarpus integer = KELEDANG.
Keledang keledang (P.M.) = Artocarpus lanceifolius = KELEDANG.
Keledang tampang (P.M.) = Artocarpus nitidus = KELEDANG.
Keledang tampang bulu (P.M.) = Artocarpus dadah = KELEDANG.
Keledang tampang gajah (P.M.) = Artocarpusfulvicortex = KELEDANG.
Keledang tampang hitam (P.M.) = Artocarpus gomezianus = KELEDANG.
Keledang temponek (P.M.) = Artocarpus rigidus = KELEDANG.
Kelempayan (Sab.) = Neolamarckia cadamba = LARAN.
Kelidang (Sar.) = Artocarpus anisophyllus = KELEDANG.
Kelili jongkong (Sar.) = Xylopia spp. = MEMPISANG.
KELUMPANG- The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN Standard Name for the
timber of Sterculia spp. (Sterculiaceae). The timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy
with a density of 560-640 kg m-3 air dry. It is classified under light hardwood in Malaysia. The
sapwood is lighter in colour than and is not sharply differentiated from the heartwood, which
is straw-coloured to light brown. Texture is rather coarse and uneven due to the presence of
large rays. Grain is straight to shallowly interlocked. The timber has not been tested in the
FRIM, Kepong, but is reported to be weak. The timber is reputed to be easy to saw and work.
It is non-durable, being susceptible to both powder-post beetles and dry wood termites.
USES: The timber is suitable for temporary light construction, packing cases, core veneers for
plywood and shuttering.

77
Vernacular names applied include kelumpang (P.M. and Sab.) with various epithets and
biris (Sar.). Major species of the genus include S. cordata, Sfoetida, S. kunstleri, S macrophylla
and S. parviflora.
Kelumpang jari (P.M.) = Sterculiafoetida and S macrophylla = KELUMPANG.
Kemalau (P.M.) = Parinari oblongifolia = MERBATU.
Kembang (Sab.) = Heritiera simplicifolia = MENGKULANG.
Kemantan (Sar.) = Mangifera foetida and M. torquenda = MACHANG.
KEMBANG SEMANGKOK - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Scaphium spp.
(Sterculiaceae). The ASEAN Standard Name for the timber, which is of Thai origin, is
SAMRONG. The timber is known as KAPAS-KAPASAN in Indonesia. There are four species
of kembang semangkok found in Peninsular Malaysia. The timber is soft to moderately soft
and light to moderately heavy with a density of 515-755 kg m- 3 air dry. It is classified under
light hardwood in Malaysia. The sapwood is lighter in shade than and merges gradually into
the heartwood, which is yellow-brown, light buff or light brown. Texture is slightly coarse and
uneven, due to the broad rays and wide layers of parenchyma. Grain is straight or shallowly
interlocked. The timber is fairly strong (Strength group C). It is easy to resaw and cross-cut
despite its earlier reputation as a difficult timber to process. Planing is easy and the surface
produced is generally smooth, although occasionally some pick-up of grain has been noted in
radially sawn material. Despite its good working properties, the siliceous nature of the timber
may, during sawing, have an abrasive effect on the saw teeth, producing rapid blunting of
cutting edges and heating of the saw. Thus, it is advisable to process the timber of kembang
semangkok, whenever practicable, in the green condition as it is then appreciably easier to
work. The machining properties can also be improved by using saw teeth tipped with
carborundum steel. The log can be easily peeled to various thicknesses of veneers without any
form of pretreatment as the presence of silica deposits in wood is of much less importance in
the rotary peeling with the knife edge tending to push the silica particles to one side thereby
reducing the effect of abrasion. Veneers produced are found to be smooth and tight. Attractive
ornamental figures can be found on veneer surfaces. The veneer can be glued fairly easily. The
nailing property is rated as good. The timber seasons fairly rapidly with only very slight degrade.
The timber is prone to stain and slight end-checking; splitting has also been noted during
drying. 13 mm boards take approximately 2 months to air dry, while 38 mm boards take 3
months. Shrinkage is fairly high, with radial shrinkage averaging 1.2% and tangential shrinkage
averaging 3%. The movement of seasoned timber is classified under Type II. For-kiln drying,
Schedule H is recommended. The timber kiln-dries very well without any seasoning degrade
but is prone to mould and blue-stain attack. 25 mm boards take approximately 5 days to kiln-
dry from 50 to 10% moisture-content. The timber is only moderately durable under exposed
conditions, but is very easily treated with preservatives.
USES: The broad rays and the terminal bands of parenchyma produce a very attractive figure,
making the timber very suitable for interior finishing, panelling, furniture manufacture, fancy
veneer, whether rotary cut or sliced. In Thailand, it has been successfully used in the manufacture
of match splints.
Vernacular names applied include kembang semangkok (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) with various
epithets. Major species include S. linearicarpum, S. longiflorum, S. macropodum and
S. scaphigerum.
Kembang semangkok batu (Sab.) = Scaphium macropodum = KEMBANG SEMANGKOK.
Kembang semangkok bulat (P.M.) = Scaphium linearicarpum = KEMBANG SEMANGKOK.
Kembang semangkokjantong (P.M.) = Scaphium macropodum = KEMBANG SEMANGKOK.
Kembayau (Sab. and Sar.) = Dacryodes rostrata = KEDONDONG.
Kembayu (Sab.) = Canarium odontophyllum = KEDONDONG.

78
KEMENYAN - The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN Standard Name for the
timber of Styrax spp. (Styracaceae). The timber is moderately heavy with a density of
575-640 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is light
brown with a pink tinge. Texture is fine to moderately fine and even, with straight, shallowly
interlocked or twisted grain. This timber has not been tested in the FRIM, Kepong. The trees
are more famous for their resin than their timber. Certain species produce benzoin or Gum
Benjamin that is used as an incense. The vernacular name applied to the trees is rather uniform
throughout the region and is derived from the vernacular name for the resin produced by the
bark, which is used medicinally as well as an incense. Major species include S. benzoin,
S. crotonoides and S. paralleloneurum.
Kempan (Sar.) = Ficus bruneiensis = ARA.
KEMPAS - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Koompassia malaccensis
(Leguminosae). The timber is a medium hardwood with a density of 770-1 120 kg m-3 air dry.
It has been reported that the material from Sabah and Sarawak is much denser than the material
from Peninsular Malaysia. The sapwood is white or pale yellow and is sharply defined from
the heartwood, which is pinkish when fresh and darkens to a bright orange-red or deep brown.
Texture is rather coarse but even except in areas where included phloem occurs. Grain is
interlocked, often very interlocked. The timber is extremely strong (Strength group A). It is
slightly difficult to resaw and easy to cross-cut when green but is difficult to resaw and slightly
difficult to cross-cut when dried. Planing is easy in both conditions and the quality of the
surface ranges from smooth to rough. Nailing property is rated as poor. The timber seasons
fairly slowly with very few defects except for insect attacks in the sapwood. 13 mm boards
take approximately 2 months to air dry, while 38 mm boards take 4 to 6 months. Shrinkage is
on the high side with radial shrinkage averaging 2% and tangential shrinkage averaging 3%.
For kiln-drying, Schedule E is recommended and 25 mm boards take approximately 8 days to
kiln-dry. Degrade is mainly in the form of spring although surface-checking and end-splitting
may occur in thicker specimens. Splitting can be severe in areas where included phloem occurs.
The timber is moderately durable, being subject to termite attacks. The timber is, however,
very easy to treat with preservatives.
USES: The timber when treated with preservatives is suitable for all heavy constructional
works, posts, beams, joists, bridges, wharves, railway sleepers and power transmission poles.
Untreated, the timber is suitable for structures under cover, parquet and strip flooring, panelling,
rotary peeled veneers and charcoal manufacture. It is also a favourite timber for timber pile
manufacture.
Vernacular names applied include impas (Sab.) and menggris (Sar.). This is a monospecific
timber.
Kempayang hantu (P.M.) = Pentace macrophylla = MELUNAK.
Kemuning (P.M. and Sab.) - Trees or shrubs belonging to the family Rutaceae. Three species
have been recorded in Peninsular Malaysia in which only the species Murraya paniculata is
better known. The heavy and yellowish coloured timber is used to make walking sticks, kris
handles and various small ornamental items in Peninsular Malaysia. Only the species of
M. paniculata occurs in Sabah in lowland and hill forests, usually on rocky soils or limestone,
from near sea-level to 600 m.
Kemuning hutan 1 (P.M.) = Hunteria zeylanica = GADING.
Kemuning hutan 2 (Sab.) = Carallia borneensis = MERANSI.
KENIDAI - The common Malaysian name for the trees and timber of Bridelia spp.
(Euphorbiaceae). The timber is hard and moderately heavy to heavy with a density of
450-880 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is yellow-brown and is distinct from the heartwood,
which is olive-grey-brown. Texture is moderately fine and even, with shallowly or deeply

79
interlocked and sometimes wavy grain. The timber is reported to saw and machine well and
works to a nice finish. However, B. tomentosa is reported to be extremely difficult to hand-saw
when green. The timber is reputed to warp badly during drying. The durability varies from
moderately durable to non-durable under exposed conditions.
USES: The small size of the trees precludes any extensive utilization of this timber. The timber
is suitable as a pole timber, agriculture implements, small articles and tool handles. The
attractively mottled silver grain makes the wood suitable for decorative purposes.
Vernacular names applied include balatotan (Sab.) and kernam (P.M.). Major species include
B. stipularis and B. tomentosa.
Kepala tundang (Sab.) = Buchanania arborescens = OTAK UDANG.
Kepala tundang tungkai pendek (Sab.) = Buchanania sessifolia = OTAK UDANG.
Kepajang (Sar.) = Anisophylleaferruginea = DELEK.
Kepajang landak (Sar.) = Anisophylleaferruginea = DELEK.
KEPAYANG - The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN Standard Name for the
timber of Pangium edule (Flacourtiaceae). The timber is soft to moderately hard and is light to
moderately heavy with a density of 415-705 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated
from the heartwood, which is pale yellow or yellow-brown. Texture is fine and even, with
straight or interlocked grain. The timber has not been tested by the FRIM, Kepong. The
vernacular name applied is rather uniform throughout the country in that kepayang is used in
all states. Only one species is recorded for this genus, viz. P. edule.
Kepayang ambok (Sab.) = Magnolia bintuluensis = CHEMPAKA.
Kepayang babi (Sar.) = Mezzettia spp. = MEMPISANG.
Keplah wangi (Sar.) = Cinnamomum spp. = MEDANG.
Kepong (Ph.) - A vernacular name applicable to the tree of Shorea macrantha. The timber
produced by this tree can range from light pink to dark red-brown and therefore, can be classified
as LIGHT RED MERANTI or DARK RED MERANTI.
Kepong hantu (P.M.) - A vernacular name applicable to the tree of Shorea macrantha. The
timber produced by this tree can range from light pink to dark red-brown and therefore, can be
classified as LIGHT RED MERANTI or DARK RED MERANTI.
Kepong seluang (Ph.) = Shorea ovalis = LIGHT RED MERANTI.
Keraki (Sar.) = Lithocarpus cantleyanus, L. hallieri and L. pulcher = MEMPENING.
Keraki boras (Sar.) = Lithocarpus andersonii = MEMPENING.
Keraki padi (Sar.) = Lithocarpus rassa = MEMPENING.
Keramoh (Sab.) = Dacryodes rostrata f. cuspidata = KEDONDONG.
KERANJI - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Dialium spp. (Leguminosae). The
timber is a heavy hardwood with a density of755-1250 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is white
to yellowish white, becomes light brown on exposure and is very distinct from the heartwood,
which is golden brown or red-brown and darkens on exposure. Texture is fine to moderately
coarse and even, with deeply interlocked and sometimes wavy grain. The timber is extremely
strong (Strength group A). It is easy to very difficult to resaw and easy to difficult to cross-cut,
depending on the species. Planing is easy to slightly difficult and the planed surface is smooth,
moderately smooth or rough in some radial boards due to picking-up of the grain. Nailing
property is rated good. The timber seasons fairly slowly with slight degrade, like cupping,
bowing, twisting, splitting, surface-checking and insect and fungal attacks on the sapwood.
The timber is also moderately prone to end-checking. 13 mm boards take approximately 2
months to air dry, while 38 mm boards take 6 months. Shrinkage is variable, depending on
species. Dialium platysepalum shows a high shrinkage in that radial shrinkage averages 2.3%
and tangential shrinkage averages 3.7%. Dialium platysepalum shows rather low shrinkage in
that radial shrinkage averages only 1% and tangential shrinkage averages 1.7%. The movement

80
of seasoned timber is classified under Type II. For kiln-drying, Schedule E is recommended.
The timber is prone to surface-checking and end-splitting. 25 mm boards take approximately
10 days to kiln-dry from 50 to 10% moisture content. The timber is moderately durable and the
heartwood is resistant to preservative treatment.
USES: The timber is suitable for heavy construction, interior finishing, panelling, parquet
flooring, strip flooring, handles for striking tools, police batons, heavy duty flooring and power-
line poles.
Vernacular names applied include keranji (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) with various epithets. Major
species include D. indum, D. platysepalum, D. procerum and D. kunst/eri.
Keranji bulu (P.M.) = Dialium platysepalum = KERANJl.
Keranji kuning besar (P.M.) = Dialium platysepalum = KERANJl.
Keranji kuning kechil (P.M.) = Dialium platysepalum = KERANJl.
Keranji lotong (P.M.) = Ormosia sumatrana = SAGA.
Keranji paya (P.M.) = Dialium indum = KERANJl.
Keranji tebal besar (P.M.) = Dialium indum = KERANJl.
Keranji tebal kechil (P.M.) = Dialium platysepalum = KERANJl.
Keranji tunggal (P.M.) = Dialium procerum = KERANJl.
Kerantai (P.M. and Sab.) = Santiria spp. = KEDONDONG.
Kerayong (P.M.) = Parkia timoriana = PETAL
Kerdam (Sar.) = Anisophyllea beccariana = DELEK.
Keredas (P.M.) = A rchidendron bubalinum.
Kereneong (Sar.) = Trema angustifolia and T tomentosa = MENARONG.
Keriang (P.M.) = Syzygium spp. = KELAT.
KERLIK - The common Malaysian name for the tree and timber of Rhodoleia championi
(Hamamelidaceae). The timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy with a density of
640-800 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is lighter in colour than but not sharply defined from the
heartwood which is red-brown. Texture is fine and even, with shallowly to broadly interlocked
grain. The timber is reported to machine easily and produces a high finish. The timber is
reputed to season moderately fast, with slight end-splitting and some surface-checking as the
only sources of degrade.
USES: The timber has been used for interior finishing.
Vernacular names applied include keruntum (P.M.). Only one species has been recorded in
this country, viz. R. championi. This genus is absent in Sabah and Sarawak.
Kernam (P.M.) = Bridelia spp. = KENIDAL
Keruas (Sar.) = Dacryodes macrocarpa var. macrocarpa = KEDONDONG.
Kerudong (Sab.) = Microcos spp. = CHENDERAL
Kerueh (P.M.) = Lophopetalum pallidum = PERUPOK.
KERUING - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Dipterocarpus spp.
(Dipterocarpaceae). The timber shows considerable variation in its properties. It is a medium
hardwood with a density of 690-945 kg m-3 air dry in Peninsular Malaysia, and with a density
of 595-865 kg m-3 air dry for the species found in Sabah. The sapwood is lighter in colour than
the heartwood and is invariably with a tinge of grey. The heartwood is red-brown to purple-red
and darkens on exposure. Texture is moderately coarse to coarse but even, with straight to
deeply interlocked grain. The timber is generally strong, with some species extremely strong
(Strength groups A and B). The timber of some species is easy to work, while that of others is
moderately easy and some species are classed as slightly difficult. Planing is easy to slightly
difficult and the finish is generally smooth. The timber generally seasons well with some end-
splitting and surface-checking as the main defects. The seasoning properties of some
Dipterocarpus species tested in FRlM, Kepong, are summarised below:

81
Time to air dry Shrinkage (%)
(months) (Green to air dry)
Species Remarks
13mm 38mm Radial Tangential
boards boards

D. baudii 3 5 2.3 5.6 Fairly slow drying; moderate end-checking;


slight cupping, bowing and spring; very
high shrinkage.
D. cornutus 4.5 6.5 3.1 5.1 Slow drying; moderate end-checking; slight
cupping, bowing and spring; very high
shrinkage.
D. costulatus 2 4 2.9 3.3 Fairly fast drying; slight surface-checking;
slight insect attack; high shrinkage.
D. crinitus 2 4 2.1 3.5 Fairly fast drying; slight cupping, bowing;
high shrinkage.
D. grandiflorus 3.5 5.5 1.6 4 Fairly slow drying; moderate end-checking
and cupping; slight bowing, spring and
insect attack; high shrinkage.
D. kerrii 3 4 2.6 6.6 Fairly slow drying; severe cupping, slight
bowing, spring and checks; very high
shrinkage. "
D. kunstleri 4 5.5 2.6 5.4 Fairly slow drying; moderate end-checking;
slight cupping, bowing and spring; very
high shrinkage.
D.lowii 3 5 2.7 4.5 Fairly slow drying; slight cupping, bowing
and spring; very high shrinkage.
D. sublamellatus 3 5 2 5.5 Fairly slow drying; moderate cupping,
bowing; slight spring; very high shrinkage.
D. verrucosus 3 5 3.1 7.4 Fairly slow drying; moderate cupping,
bowing and spring; slight end-checks,
splitting and surface-checking; very high
shrinkage.

The movement of seasoned timber is classified under Type IV for D. sublamellatus (keruing
kerut) and D. cornutus (keruing gombang) and Type V movement for D. kerrii (keruing gondo!),
D. costulatus (keruing kipas), D. grandiflorus (keruing belimbing) and D. lowii (keruing so!).
For kiln-drying, schedule D is recommended. Care must be taken as this timber is prone to
end-splitting and surface-checking. The surface ofthe timber may be rather resinous and sticky
when handled. Keruings which are believed to give the best yield of oleo-resin are D. cornutus,
D. crinitus, D. grandiflorus, D. hasseltii and D. kerrii. In Thailand, D. alatus is the best known
producer of this product. The timber (depending on the species) is moderately durable to non-
durable under exposed conditions in the tropics but is very easily treated with preservatives.
USES: This timber is suitable for heavy construction, posts, beams, joists, rafters, truck body
construction, container flooring and when treated, suitable for railway sleepers, harbour works,
bridges, power-line poles and telegraph poles.
Vernacular names applied include keruing (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) with various epithets, as
well as other localised names which are too numerous to list here. The most commonly met
species include D. elongatus, D. baudii, D. chartaceus, D. confertus, D. concavus, D. cornutus,
D. costatus, D. crinitus, D. dyeri, D. gracilis, D. grandiflorus, D. kerrii, D. kunstleri,D. lowii,
D. obtusifolius, D. rotundifolius, D. sublamellatus and D. verrucosus
Keruing asam (Sab.) = Dipterocarpus tempehes = KERUING.
Keruing babi (P.M.) = Vatica maingayi = RESAK.
Keruing baran (P.M.) = Dipterocarpus eurynchus = KERUING.

82
Keruing belimbing (P.M. and Sab.) = Dipterocarpus grandiflorus = KERUING.
Keruing beludu (P.M.) = Dipterocarpus obtusifolius = KERUING.
Keruing beludu kuning (Sab.) = Dipterocarpus con/ormis = KERUING.
Keruing bukW(P.M.) = Dipterocarpus costatus = KERUING.
Keruing bulu l (P.M.) = Dipterocarpus baudii and D. crinitus = KERUING.
Keruing bulu 2 (Sab.) = Dipterocarpus stellatus = KERUING.
Keruing chogan (P.M.) = Dipterocarpus rigidus = KERUING.
Keruing dadeh (NS. and Ml.) = Dipterocarpus baudii = KERUING.
Keruing daun besar l (P.M.) = Dipterocarpus dyeri = KERUING.
Keruing daun besar2 (Sab.) = Dipterocarpus applanatus = KERUING.
Keruing daun tebal (Sab.) = Dipterocarpus pachyphyllus = KERUING.
Keruing deran (Ph.)=Dipterocarpus caudatus = KERUING.
Keruing etoi (P.M.) = Dipterocarpus dyeri = KERUING.
Keruing gasing (P.M.) = Dipterocarpus caudatus = KERUING.
Keruing gombang l (P.M.) = Dipterocarpus cornutus = KERUING.
Keruing gombang2 (Jh.) = Dipterocarpus elongatus = KERUING.
Keruing gombang merah (P.M.) = Dipterocarpus kunstleri = KERUING.
Keruing gondol (P.M. and Sab.) = Dipterocarpus kerrii = KERUING.
Keruing gunung (P.M.) = Dipterocarpus retusus = KERUING.
Keruing jarang (Sab.) = Dipterocarpus lamellatus = KERUING.
Keruing kasugoi (Sab.) = Dipterocarpus validus = KERUING.
Keruing kelabu (P.M.) = Dipterocarpusfagineus = KERUING.
Keruing kelawar (Tr.) = Dipterocarpus rigidus = KERUING.
Keruing keluang (Ph.) = Dipterocarpus rigidus = KERUING.
Keruing kertas (P.M.) = Dipterocarpus chartaceus = KERUING.
Keruing kerukup (Sab.) = Dipterocarpus humeratus = KERUING.
Keruing kerukup kechil (Sab.) = Dipterocarpus hasseltii = KERUING.
Keruing kerut (P.M. and Sab.) = Dipterocarpus sublamellatus = KERUING.
Keruing kesat (P.M. and Sab.) = Dipterocarpus gracilis = KERUING.
Keruing kipas (P.M. and Sab.) = Dipterocarpus costulatus = KERUING.
Keruing kobis (Sab.) = Dipterocarpus confertus = KERUING.
Keruing latek (P.M.) = Dipterocarpus elongatus = KERUING.
Keruing mara keluang (NS.) = Dipterocarpus costatus and D. costulatus = KERUING.
Keruing mempelas (P.M. and Sab.) = Dipterocarpus crinitus = KERUING.
Keruing mengkai (P.M.) = Dipterocarpus rotundifolius = KERUING.
Keruing merah (P.M. and Sab.) = Dipterocarpus verrucosus = KERUING.
Keruing merkah (Sab.) = Dipterocarpus acutangulus = KERUING.
Keruing neram (P.M. and Sab.) = Dipterocarpus oblongifolius = KERUING.
Keruing padi (P.M.) = Dipterocarpus sublamellatus and D. eurynchus = KERUING.
Keruing palembang (Sab.) = Dipterocarpus palembanicus = KERUING.
Keruing paya (P.M.) = Dipterocarpus coriaceus = KERUING.
Keruing perak (P.M.) = Dipterocarpus perakensis = KERUING.
Keruing puteh (Sab.) = Dipterocarpus caudiferus = KERUING.
Keruine pipit (P.M.) = Dipterocarpusfagineus = KERUING.
Keruing ranau (Sab.) = Dipterocarpus ochraceus = KERUING.
Keruing rapak (Sab.) = Dipterocarpus kunstleri = KERUING.
Keruing rengkas (Sab.) = Homaliumfoetidum = TELOR BUAYA.
Keruing ropol (P.M.) = Dipterocarpus hasseltii = KERUING.
Keruing sarawak (P.M.) = Dipterocarpus sarawakensis = KERUING.

83
Keruing sendok (P.M.) = Dipterocarpus concavus = KERUING.
Keruing shol (P.M. and Sab.) = Dipterocarpus lowii = KERUING.
Keruing sol (P.M.) = Dipterocarpus lowii = KERUING.
Keruing tangkai panjang (Sab.) = Dipterocarpus geniculatus = KERUING.
Keruing ternek 1 (p.M.) = Dipterocarpus palembanicus = KERUING.
Keruing ternek2 (Tr.) = Dipterocarpus verrucosus = KERUING.
Kerukup (Sar.) = Shorea pachyphylla = DARK RED MERANTI.
KERUNTUM1- The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Combretocarpus rotundatus
(Anisophylleaceae). The timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy with a density of
640-800 kg m-3 air dry. It is classified under medium hardwood in Malaysia. The sapwood is
chalky white in colour and sharply defined from the heartwood, which is red or red-brown.
Texture is coarse and uneven, due to the presence of broad rays which produce an oak-like
silver figure. The timber is easy to saw and work although the nailing property is rated as poor.
The timber seasons rather slowly without serious degrade, 13 mm boards take 3 months to air
dry, while 38 mm boards take 6 months. Shrinkage is high, with radial shrinkage averaging
2.2% while tangential shrinkage averages 3.6%. The timber is moderately durable and is
amenable to preservative treatment.
USES: When properly seasoned, can be used for furniture, flooring and panelling. When treated
can be used for heavy construction and railway sleepers.
Vernacular names applied include kayu tom (Sar.), mutun (Sar.), perapat paya (Sab. and
Sar.), perapat perapat (Sab.), perepat perepat (Sab.) and sabutun (Sar.). This is a monotypic
timber.
Keruntum2 (P.M.) = Tristaniopsis spp. = PELAWAN.
Keruntum 3 (P.M.) = Rhodoleia championii = KERLIK.
Ketai mula (P.M.) = Erythroxylum spp. = CHINTA MULA.
Ketang ( Sar.) = Campnosperma spp. = TERENTANG.
KETAPANG - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Terminalia spp. (Combretaceae).
The timber of this genus shows a marked diversification in properties and further sub-divisions
may be warranted. The timber is moderately hard to hard and moderately heavy. The individual
species shows a marked variation in density, which ranges from 385 to 850 kg m-3 air dry. The
timber is classified under light hardwood in Malaysia. The sapwood is lighter in colour than
and is poorly defined from the heartwood, which is light brown in T. citrina and T. copelandii,
yellow in T. subspathulata and red-brown in T. catappa. Texture is moderately fine and even in
T. citrina and moderately coarse in others. Grain is interlocked, often deeply interlocked. The
timber is very strong to moderately strong (Strength group A for T. bellirica and Strength
group C for T. subspathulata). It is easy to saw and work and the planed surface is generally
smooth. The nailing property is rated as good. The timber seasons fairly rapidly to moderately
slowly with almost no degrade except for some minor insect attacks. 13 mm boards take
approximately 2-3.5 months to air dry, while 38 mm boards take 2.5-5 months. Shrinkage is
rather low, radial shrinkage averages 0.9% while tangential shrinkage averages 1.6%. The
timber is non-durable under exposed conditions.
USES: The timber is suitable as a general planking timber, interior finishing, panelling,
mouldings and skirtings. It is also suitable for furniture manufacture, plywood manufacture,
flooring, packing boxes and pallets.
Vernacular names applied include belang rimau (P.M.), bela wan (P.M. ),jaha (P.M. ),jelawai
(P.M.) with various epithets, mempelam babi (P.M.), talisai (Sab.) with various epithets, and
telinsi (Sar.). Major species include T. bellirica, T calamansanai, T catappa, T citrina,
T copelandii, T joetidissima, T phellocarpa and T. subspathulata.
Ketapang ambok (Sab.) = Magnolia spp. = CHEMPAKA.

84
Ketiau (P.M.) = Madhuca hirtiflora and M. motleyana = NYATOH.
Kian (Sar.) = Artocarpus elasticus = TERAP.
Kibatalia - A genus of shrubs or small to large trees up to 45(-65) m tall and 120 cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Apocynaceae. The common Malaysian name for the tree and timber is
JELUTONG PIPIT (q. v.). The timber is soft and light, with an average density of 450 kg m-3
air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is white in colour. Other
properties and uses of the timber are described under JELUTONG PIPIT. There are no other
vernacular names recorded. Major species include K. arborea and K. maingayi.
Kiga (Sab.) = Gironniera nervosa = KASAP.
Kihan (Sar.) = Artocarpus tamaran = TERAP.
Kijal (Tr.) = Anisoptera scaphula = MERSAWA.
Kikir buntal (P.M.) =Xerospermum spp. = RAMBUTAN PACHAT.
Kimayau (Sar.) = Dacryodes spp. = KEDONDONG.
Kinkidon mantok (Sab.) = Crypteronia paniculata var. paniculata = BEKOI.
Kirap (Sar.) = Cratoxylum glaucum = GERONGGANG.
Knema - A genus of small to medium-sized or rarely large trees up to 40(-50) m tall and 60(-70) cm
in diameter, belonging to the family Myristicaceae. The timber is grouped together with the
other members of the family and sold as PENARAHAN (q.v.). The timber is a light hardwood
with a density of 575-770 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is lighter in colour than the heartwood,
which is light yellow-brown. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under
PENARAHAN. Vernacular names applied include darah-darah (Sab.), darah-darah kerantu
(Sab.), dara kerbau (Kl.), kumpang (Sar.), mendarah (P.M.) and pala (Kd.). Major species
include K. conferta, K. furfuracea, K. hookeriana, K. kinabaluensis, K. korthalsii, K. laurina
and K. woodii.
Kogopon (Sab.) = Castanopsis buruana, C. ciemensii, C. endertii, C. microphylla and C. psilophylla
=BERANGAN.
Kokoona - A genus of small to large trees up to 55 m tall and 125 cm in diameter, belonging to
the family Celastraceae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is MATA ULAT (q. v.).
The timber is a medium hardwood with a density of895-1055 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is
lighter in coiour than and merges gradually into the heartwood, which is whitish to yellow-
brown. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under MATA ULAT. Vernacular
names applied include bajan (Sar.), bajan paya (Sar.), perupok (P.M.) and perupok kuning
(Sab.) in older literature. Major species include K. littoralis, K. ochracea, K. ovatolanceolata
and K. reflexa.
Kolomundui (Sab.) = Nephelium maingayi = RAMBUTAN.
Kondolon (Sab.) = Alangium spp. and A. javanicum var. ebenaceum = MENTULANG.
Koompassia - A genus of very large trees with tall buttresses, up to 85 m tall, branchless
up to 30 m and up to 290 cm in diameter, belonging the family Leguminosae. This genus
produces two distinct groups of timber. The Standard Malaysian Name for K. excelsa is
TUALANG (q.v.), while the Standard Malaysian Name for K. malaccensis is KEMPAS (q.v.).
Tualang is a medium hardwood with a density of 800-865 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is
buff or yellow-brown, often with a pink tinge and is sharply defined from the heartwood,
which is red-brown to deep brick-red-brown when fresh and darkens with age to a chocolate
brown. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under TUALANG. Vernacular
names applied include kayu raja (Sar.), mengaris (Sab.) and tapang (Sar.). This is a monotypic
timber.
Kempas is also a medium hardwood with a density of770-1120 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood
is white or pale yellow and sharply defined from the heartwood, which is pinkish when fresh
and darkens to a bright orange-red or deep brown. Other properties and uses of the timber are

85
described under KEMPAS. Vernacular names applied include impas (Sab.) and menggris (Sar.).
This is a monotypic timber.
Koordersiodendron - A monotypic genus of medium-sized to tall trees up to 50 m tall and
80(-200) cm in diameter, belonging to the family Anacardiaceae. The Standard Malaysian
Name for the timber is RANGGU (q.v.) while the ASEAN Standard Name, which is of
Indonesian origin, is MUGIS. The timber is moderately hard and heavy with a density
of 690-915 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is white to pale pink and is clearly defined from the
heartwood, which is pink-brown to red-brown and darkens on exposure. The vernacular name
applied is very uniform in that ranggu is used in both Sabah and Sarawak, although ranggu in
Sarawak is often applied to certain species of Azadirachta (Meliaceae). Only one species has
been recorded and this is K. pinnatum. This species is found in Sabah and Sarawak and not
recorded in Peninsular Malaysia.
Koping-koping (Sab.) = Aglaia argentea = PASAK.
Kostermansia - A monotypic genus of very big trees up to 48 m tall and 100 cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Bombacaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is DURIAN
(q. v.). The timber is medium weight with a density of about 865 kg m-3 air dry. The heartwood
is pink-brown or deep red-brown and moderately sharply defined from the pale yellow sapwood.
Other properties and uses of the timber are described under DURIAN. The vernacular names
for the timber are krepal (P.M.), krepau (P.M.) and durian tuang (P.M.). The only
species is K. malayana and is endemic to Peninsular Malaysia.
Kostermanthus - A genus of medium to large trees up to 33 m tall, belonging to the family
Chrysobalanaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is MERBATU (q.v.). The
timber is hard and heavy with a density of 700-900 kg m-3 air dry. The heartwood is pale
brown, darkening on exposure and not distinct from the sapwood. Texture is coarse and even,
with straight to slightly interlocked grain. Other properties and uses of the timber are described
under MERBATU. Vernacular names applied include merbatu (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) and rasak
batu (Sab. and Sar.). Major species include K. malayana and K. heteropetalus.
Krepal (P.M.) = Kostermansia malayana = DURIAN.
Krepau (P.M.) = Kostermansia malayana = DURIAN.
Krian (Sar.) = Ctenolophon parvifolius = MERTAS.
Kuat (P.M.) = Ploiarium alternifolium = RERIANG.
Kuat-kuat (P.M.) = Ploiarium alternifolium = RERIANG.
Kuayun (Sab.) = Gironniera subaequalis = KASAP.
Kubin (P.M.) = Macaranga gigantea = MAHANG.
Kukut (Sar.) = Atuna racemosa = MERBATU.
KULIM - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Scorodocarpus borneensis (Olacaceae).
The timber is a medium hardwood with a density of 640-975 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is
light yellow in colour and is moderately sharply differentiated from the heartwood, which is
dark purple-brown to dark red-brown. Texture is moderately fine and even, with shallowly to
deeply interlocked grain. The timber is very strong (Strength group A). It is slightly difficult to
difficult to resaw and is easy to slightly difficult to cross-cut. The air-dry material is slightly
difficult to plane but the quality of finish is smooth. The nailing property is rated as very poor.
The timber seasons fairly rapidly, with moderate end-checking and splitting and slight surface-
checking as the main sources of degrade. 13 mm boards take 2 months to air dry, while 38 mm
boards take 4 months. Shrinkage is fairly high, with radial shrinkage averaging 1.7% and
tangential shrinkage averaging 3.2%. The timber is moderately durable under exposed conditions
and its amenability to treatment is average.
USES: The timber is suitable for medium construction under cover, posts, beams, joists, rafters,
bridges. The timber possesses a certain degree of resistance to marine borers and may be used

86
in the marine environment. The timber is also suitable for flooring, railway sleepers and power-
transmission poles when treated with preservatives.
Vernacular names applied include bawang hutan (Sab. and Sar.) and ungsunah (Sar.). This
is a monotypic timber.
Kulimpapa (Sab.) = Vitex pinnata = LEBAN.
Kumoi (Kd.) = Diospyros spp. = KAYU MALAM.
Kumoi buldt (P.M.) = Diospyros spp. = KAYU MALAM.
Kumpan (Sar.) = Ficus bruneiensis = ARA.
Kumpang (Sar.) = Species ofMyristicaceae = PENARAHAN.
Kumpang daun panjang (Sar.) = Knema intermedia = PENARAHAN.
Kumpang ensluai (Sar.) = Knema glauca var. riparia = PENARAHAN.
Kumpang kabang (Sar.) = Knema uliginosa = PENARAHAN.
Kumpang paya (Sar.) = Horsfieldia crassifolia = PENARAHAN.
Kumpang pendarahan (Sar.) = Myristica lowiana = PENARAHAN.
Kumpang putih (Sar.) = Gymnacrantherafarquhariana = PENARAHAN.
Kumpang tembaga (Sar.) = Horsfieldia sessilifolia = PENARAHAN.
Kumpas (Sar.) = Koompassia malaccensis = KEMPAS.
Kumpat (Sab.) = Castanopsis evansii = BERANGAN.
Kumus (P.M.) = Shorea laevis = BALAU.
Kumus hitam (NS.) = Shorea maxwelliana = BALAU.
Kumus merah (NS.) = Shorea laevis = BALAU.
Kunau-kunau (Sab.) = Baccaurea parviflora and B. stipulata = TAMPOI.
KUNDANG - The common Malaysian name for the trees and timber of Bouea spp.
(Anacardiaceae). The timber is moderately hard to hard and_moderate heavy to heavy with a
density of 675-895 kg m-3 air dry. A density of910-1130 kg m-3 air dry was recorded for two
specimens of B. oppositifolia from Indonesia. The sapwood is not differentiated from the
heartwood, which is light brown with a red tinge or grey-brown. Sometimes, a core of dark
coloured wood is formed in some trees. Texture is slightly coarse and even, with interlocked
grain. The heartwood is reputed to be durable.
USES: Uses of the timber include house building such as joists and rafters, tool handles, rice
pounders. In Indo-China the frequently occurring burrs on the bole are used for joinery. The
dark brown core of the heartwood is sought after in Peninsular Malaysia for cabinet work and
tobacco pipes. The dense crowns render Bouea an attractive ornamental shade tree.
Vernacular names applied include kundang (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) with various epithets,
kundangan (P.M.), merapoh (P.M.), remia (P.M.) and remenia (P.M.). Only two species have
been recorded for Malaysia, viz. B. macrophylla and B. oppositifolia.
Kundang hutan (P.M.) = Bouea macrophylla = KUNDANG.
Kundang rumenia (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) = Bouea spp. (Sab. and Sar.) and Bouea oppositifolia
(P.M.) = KUNDANG.
Kundangan (P.M.) = Bouea macrophylla = KUNDANG.
KUNGKURI - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Albizia splendens (syn.:
Pithecellobium splendens) (Leguminosae). The timber is a light hardwood with a density of
465-850 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is white or light brown in colour and is sharply defined
from the heartwood, which is light red-brown and darkens on exposure to a deep shade of
brown. Texture is moderately coarse but even, with slightly interlocked and sometimes wavy
grain. The timber is strong (Strength group B). It is easy to resaw and cross-cut. Planing is easy
and the planed surface is smooth and lustrous. Nailing property is rated as good. The timber
seasons fairly slowly with only slight end-checking and splitting and moderate insect attacks
as the main sources of degrade. Boards of 13 mm thick take 3.5 months to air dry, while boards

87
of38 mm thick take 4.5 months. Shrinkage is extremely low. Radial shrinkage averages 0.6%,
while tangential shrinkage averages 0.9%. The movement of seasoned timber is classified
under Type III. The timber is moderately durable under exposed conditions and the sapwood is
highly susceptible to powder-post beetle attacks. The timber is moderately difficult to difficult
to treat with preservatives.
USES: The timber is suitable for furniture manufacture, high-class cabinet work, interior
finishing such as panelling and partitioning, carving and rotary cut veneers.
Vernacular name for the timber is kung/cur throughout the country.
Kungkur2 (P.M., Sar. and Sab.) = Archidendron spp.
Kungkurad (Sab.) = Elaeocarpus stipularis = SENGKURAT.
Kupangl (Sab.) = Parkia timoriana = PETAL
Kupang2 (Sab. and Sar.) = Peltophorum pterocarpum = JEMERLANG.
Kupi kupi (Sab.) = Gynotroches axillaris = MATA KELI.
Kupat (Sar.) = Castanopsisjavanica = BERANGAN.
Kurau (P.M.) = Metadina trichotoma = MERAGA.
Kurong (Sar.) = Bruguiera gymnorhiza = BAKAU.
Kwini (Sab. and Sar.) = Mangifera odorata = MACHANG.

88
L
Lagerstroemia - A genus of medium-sized to fairly large trees up to 40(-45) m tall and
100(-150) cm in diameter, belonging to the family Lythraceae. The common Malaysian name
for the timber is BUNGOR (q.v.) and this is universally applied in the country. The timber is
moderately hard and moderately heavy with a density of 515-785 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood
is light yellow-brown to grey-white, sometimes with a pink tinge, merging gradually into the
heartwood, which is pale red-brown and darkens on exposure. Other properties and uses of the
timber are described under BUNGOR. Vernacular names applied include bongor biru (Sab.),
perlimpong hutan (Sab.) and tibabah (Sab.). Major species include L. anisoptera, L. floribunda,
L. piriformis, L. pustulata, L. ovalifolia, L. siamica and L. speciosa.
Lahu (Sar.) = Gymnacrantheraforbesii var.forbesii = PENARAHAN.
Laka (Sab.) = Phyllanthus emblica = POKOK MELAKA.
Lakacho (Sar.) = Pentaspadon motleyi = PELAJAU.
Lamak ketam (Kd.) = Buchanania arborescens = OTAK UDANG.
Lamau-lamau (Sab.) = Nothaphoebe obovata = MEDANG.
Lampias (Sab.) = Nageia wallichiana = PODO.
Lanau (Sab.) = Gymnacranthera contracta = PENARAHAN.
Landin (Sar.) = Dacrycarpus imbricatus = PODO.
Langarai (Sab.) = Bruguiera parviflora = BAKAU.
Langgadai (Sab.) = Bruguiera parviflora = BAKAU.
Langgong (Sab.) = Cassiajavanica ssp. nodosa = BEBUSOK.
Langkubing (Sar.) = Hibiscus tiliaceus ssp. tiliaceus = BARU.
LANGSAT - The common Malaysian name for the trees and timber of Lansium spp. (Meliaceae).
The timber is hard to very hard and heavy to very heavy with a density of 945-1 040 kg m-3 air
dry. The sapwood is lighter in colour than the heartwood, which is yellow or orange-yellow.
Texture is moderately fine and uneven due to the presence of abundant parenchyma. Grain is
interlocked. The timber has not been tested in the FRIM, Kepong.
USES: The trees are more famous for their edible fruit than for their timber. The timber is
reported to be tough and elastic and is suitable for handles of tools and fence posts.
Vernacular names applied include duku (P.M.). Major species include L. domesticum.
Langsat-langsat (Sab.) = Aglaia odoratissima = PASAK.
Langsat monyet (Sab.) = Saraca declinata = GAPIS.
Languwai (Sar.) = Lithocarpus pusillus = MEMPENING.
Lanjing lanjing (Sab.) = Bruguiera parviflora = BAKAU.
Lanjut (P.M.) = Mangifera lagenifera = MACHANG.
Lansium - A small genus of medium-sized to large trees 15 m tall and 20 cm in diameter, belonging
to the family Meliaceae. The trees are often cultivated for their edible fruit, the langsat. The
common Malaysian name for the timber is LANGSAT (q.v.). The timber is hard to very hard
and heavy to very heavy with a density of 945-1 040 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is lighter in
colour than the heartwood, which is yellow or orange-yellow. Other properties and uses of the
timber are described under LANGSAT. Vernacular names applied include duku (P.M.). Major
species include L. domesticum.

89
Lantupak (Sab.) - A vernacular name applicable in Sabah to certain members of the family
Meliaceae. In Peninsular Malaysia, the individual members of this family bear their own
vernacular and trade names, viz. Aglaia sect. Aglaia (pASAK) or Aglaia sect. Amoora (BEKAK).
Lantupak jambu (Sab.) = Aglaia elliptica = PASAK.
Lantupak paya (Sab.) = Aglaia rubiginosa = BEKAK.
Lanyat (Sar.) = Mangifera caesia = MACHANG.
Lapokan (Sab.) = Macaranga hosei = MAHANG.
LARAN - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Neolamarckia cadamba (Rubiaceae).
The timber is soft and light with a density of29~65 kg m-3 air dry. It is classified under light
hardwood in Malaysia. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is white
with a yellow tinge and darkens to creamy yellow on exposure. Texture is moderately fine and
even, with straight grain. The timber is weak (Strength group D). It is easy to resaw and cross-
cut. Planing is easy and the planed surface produced is smooth. The timber seasons fairly
rapidly with slight end checks, splitting and insect attack as the main sources of degrade. The
timber is also moderately prone to sapstaining. 13 rom boards take approximately 2.5 months
to air dry, while 38 mm boards take 3.5 months. Shrinkage is rather low with radial shrinkage
averaging 0.8% and tangential shrinkage averaging 2.1 %. The timber is non-durable but should
be fairly easy to treat with preservatives.
USES: The timber is suitable for the manufacture of plywood, packing cases, wooden sandals,
disposable chopsticks and possibly as a source of short fibre pulp. It is also suitable for dug-
outs or canoes and less expensive furniture if properly seasoned.
Vernacular names applied include entipong (Sar.), kelampayan (P.M. and Sar.), kelempayan
(Sab.), limpoh (Sab.) and sempayan (Sar.). Only one species is of importance in this country.
Lauraceae - A large family of medium-sized to large trees, some of which are of commercial
importance. The timbers produced by this family are MEDANG and the famous BELIAN
(Eusideroxylon zwageri) and MALAGANGAI (Potoxylon malagangai) of Sabah and Sarawak.
Important genera include Actinodaphne, Alseodaphne, Beilschmiedia, Cinnamomum,
Cryptocarya, Dehaasia, Litsea, Nothaphoebe and Phoebe.
Layang-layang (Sab. and Sar.) = Parishia spp. (Sar.) andParishia insignis (Sab.) = LELAYANG.
LEBAN - The common Malaysian name of the trees and timber of Vitex spp. (Verbenaceae). The
timber is hard and heavy with a density of705-880 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is moderately
clearly defined and is lighter in colour than the heartwood, which is light straw-coloured to
light yellowish brown. Texture is fine and even with straight or interlocked grain. The timber
has not been tested in the FRIM, Kepong. The timber is reputed to be durable, even in contact
with the ground.
USES: No large sized lumber is produced by this species as the boles of the tree are normally
short and crooked. However, the timber has been used for posts, turnery, handles for tools and
is popularly used for carving and manufacture fancy articles.
Vernacular name applied in Sabah is kulimpapa, while in Sarawak it is known as leban
paya. The most common species of the genus is V. pinnata.
Leban nasi (P.M.) = Melicope spp. = PEPAUH.
Leban paya (Sar.) = Vitex spp. = LEBAN.
Lecythidaceae - A small family of treelets to medium-sized or rarely large trees. The timber is
grouped together under the Standard Malaysian Name is PUTAT (q.v.). Genera occurring in
Malaysia include Barringtonia, Careya and Planchonia.
Legai (Sar.) = Adinandra spp. and Schima wallichii = SAMAK.
Leguminosae - A large and economically important family in the country. The family produces
shrubs, tree lets to large trees. Among the more important timbers produced are Albizia splendens
(KUNGKUR), Cynometra spp. (KEKATONG), Dialium spp. (KERANJI), Intsia spp.
(MERBAU), Koompassia spp. (KEMPAS and TUALANG) and Sindora spp. (SEPETIR).

90
LELAYANG - The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN Standard Name for the
timber of Parishia spp. (Anacardiaceae). The timber is soft, light to moderately heavy with a
density of 545-755 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not well defined but is slightly lighter in
colour than the heartwood, which is red-brown to light brown. Texture is fine and even with
interlocked grain. Preliminary results oftests conducted in the FRIM, Kepong, indicate that the
timber is weak (Strength group D). It is very difficult to saw and difficult to work. The planed
surface produced is rough. The nailing property is rated as excellent. The timber seasons fairly
rapidly with only slight degrades in the form of cupping, bowing and twisting. 13 mm boards
take approximately 2 months to air dry, while 38 mm boards take 3-4 months. Shrinkage is
very high, especially in the tangential direction. Radial shrinkage averages 2.1 % while tangential
shrinkage averages 5.5%. The timber is non-durable, being susceptible to powder-post beetle
attacks.
USES: The timber is suitable for light construction, general planking, pallets, packing crates as
well as core veneers for plywood manufacture.
Vernacular names applied include kedondong kijau (P.M.), layang-layang (Sab.), sepul
(P.M.), surian (P.M.) and upi (Sar.) with various epithets. Major species include P. insignis,
P. maingayi and P. paucijuga.
Lemag (Sab.) = Nephelium cuspidatum = RAMBUTAN.
Lemantan (Sar.) = Mangifera torquenda = MACHANG.
Lemelai (Sar.) = Intsia palembanica = MERBAU.
Lemeng (Sar.) = Octomeles sumatrana = BINUANG.
Lemesa 1 (P.M.) = Parashorea stellata = GERUTU.
Lemesa 2 (Kl.) = Shorea guiso = RED BALAU.
Lemesa 3 (Kl.) = Shorea pauciflora = DARK RED MERANTI.
Lempoyang paya (Sab.) = Horsjieldia irya = PENARAHAN.
Lenggadai (P.M. and Sab.) = Bruguiera parviflora = BAKAU.
Lenggapus (P.M.) = Mesuaferrea = PENAGA.
Lenggaung (Sar.) = Nauclea spp.; Neonauclea spp.; and Ochreinauclea spp. = BANGKAL.
Leptospermum - A genus of small shrubs to small crooked trees up to 12(-16) m tall and 20 cm
in diameter, belonging to the family Myrtaceae. The common Malaysian name for the timber is
GELAM BUKlT (q. v.). The timber is hard and heavy with a density of945-995 kg m-3 air dry.
The sapwood is light brown and is only moderately sharply differentiated from the heartwood,
which is brown with streaks of darker brown. Other properties and uses of the timber are
described under GELAM BUKlT. Vernacular names applied include china maki (P.M.). Only
one species is recorded for this country, viz. L. javanicum.
Lia (Sar.) = Trigoniastrum hypoleucum = MARAJALI.
Liang (Sar.) = Horsjieldia androphora = PENARAHAN.
Licania - A genus of small to medium-sized trees up to 25 m tall and 80 cm in diameter, belonging
to the family Chrysobalanaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is MERBATU
(q. v.). The timber is hard and heavy with a density of 880-1130 kg m-3 air dry. The heartwood
is reddish or pale brown with a pink tinge and not well defined from the sapwood, which is
paler in colour. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under MERBATU.
Vernacular names applied include merbatu kechi! (P.M.), sampaluan and tampaluan (Sab.).
Three species are found in Malesian region, with a single species, viz. L. splendens, producing
timber. This species occurs in peninsular Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, West Java,
Borneo (Sabah, Sarawak, Brunei, Kalimantan) and Philippines.
Lidah kerbau 1 (P.M.) = Alangium ridleyi = MENTULANG.
Lidah kerbau 2 (P.M.) = Agrostistachys gaudichaudii = JENJULONG.
Lidah kerb au putih (P.M.) = Alangium ridleyi = MENTULANG.
Lidah-lidah (P.M.) = Drypetes spp. = ARAU.

91
LIGHT RED MERANTI - The Standard Malaysian Name for the pink-red and lightweight
timber of the genus Shorea (Dipterocarpaceae). This is a light hardwood with a density of
385-755 kg m~3 air dry. The sapwood is lighter in colour than, usually greyish and distinct
from the heartwood, which is light pink to light red or light brown. Texture is coarse but even,
with interlocked grain. The timber is only moderately strong (Strength group C). It is easy to
saw and work and gives a smooth planed surface. The nailing properties of most species tested
are good, except for S. hemsleyana, where they are rated as poor. The seasoning properties of
some species tested are summarised below:

Time to air dry Shrinkage (%)


(months) (Green to air dry)
Species Remarks
13mm 25mm 38mm Radial Tangential
boards boards boards

S. hemsleyana 2.5 5 1.9 5.4 Moderately slow drying; free from all
seasoning defects; high shrinkage,
especially in the tangential direction.
S. leprosula 2 3.5 4 2.1 5 Fairly fast drying; free from seasoning
defects; high shrinkage, especially in the
tangential direction.
S. parvifolia 2 3.5 4 1.5 4.8 Fairly fast drying; free from seasoning
defects; high shrinkage, especially in the
tangential direction.
S. teysmanniana 4.5 1.6 7.4 Moderately slow drying; slight bowing
and twist; very high tangential
shrinkage.

For kiln-drying, Schedule F is recommended. The timber dries rapidly without degrade.
The timber is non-durable under exposed conditions.
USES: The timber is very popular as a general utility timber, being suitable for furniture
manufacture, interior finishing, panelling, partitioning, mouldings, skirtings, etc. The timber is
also suitable for veneer and plywood manufacture.
Vernacular names used include majau (Sab.), meranti (P.M. and Sar.) with various epithets,
seraya batu (Sab.) with various epithets, red seraya (Sab.) and various other local names too
numerous to list here. Major species include S. acuminata (partly), S. dasyphylla, S. hemsleyana,
S. johorensis, S. lepidota, S. leprosula, S. ovalis, S. palembanica, S. parvifolia, S. platycarpa
(partly) and S. teysmanniana.
LILIN - The ASEAN Standard Name, which is of Indonesian origin, for the timber of
Xanthophyllum spp. (Polygalaceae). The Standard Malaysian Name is NYALIN (q. v.).
LIMPAGA i - The Standard Malaysian Name, which is of Sabah origin, for the timber of Toona
spp. (Meliaceae). The timber is soft and light with a density of 270-530 kg m~3 air dry. The
sapwood is grey-white or pink and is sharply differentiated from the heartwood, which is light
red or red-brown. Texture is moderately coarse and uneven due to the ring-porous nature of the
wood. The grain is interlocked or wavy. The timber is weak (Strength group D). It is easy to
resaw and cross-cut. Planing is easy and the planed surface is smooth. The timber seasons
fairly rapidly, without any degrade, except for some slight warping. 25 mm boards take
approximately 3.5 months to air dry. Shrinkage is moderate, with radial shrinkage averaging
1.1 % and tangential shrinkage averaging 2.7%.
For kiln-drying, Schedule J is recommended. The timber dries fast without any
degrade. 25 mm boards kiln-dry from 50 to 10% moisture-content in 6 days. The timber is non-
durable.

92
USES: This timber is equivalent to the red cedar of Australia and the Spanish cedar. It is highly
prized as a high-class cabinet wood and also suitable for interior finishing, panelling, furniture
manufacture, plywood, fancy article, cigar boxes and other decorative purposes.
Vernacular names applied include kalantas (Sab.), ranggau (Sab.), surian (P.M.) with various
epithets and tangisan burong (P.M.). The name limpaga is often applied to more than one
genus from the family Meliaceae in Sabah. Major species include Toona sinensis and T sureni.
Limpaga 2 (Sab.) - A vernacular name applicable in Sabah to a number of species belonging to
the family Meliaceae, principally Azadirachta spp. and Toona spp.
Limpaung (Sab.) = Baccaurea lanceolata = TAMPO!.
Limpoh (Sab.) = Neolamarckia cadamba = LARAN.
Linaceae - The family Linaceae sensu lato have been split into three families, viz. Linaceae,
Ixonanthaceae (q. v.) and Ctenolophonaceae (q. v.). Within Linaceae sensu stricto there are two
distinct subfamilies, Linoideae and Hugonioideae. It is a small family of climbers with hooks,
trees or rarely shrubs and has little economic importance.
Lindagong (Sab. and Sar.) = Trema tomentosa = MENARONG.
Lindera - A genus of shrubs or small to medium-sized trees up to 30(-36) m tall and 60(-80) em
in diameter, belonging to the family Lauraceae. The timber is commonly grouped together with
the other lightweight members ofthe family and sold as MEDANG (q. v.). Lindera yields a light
hardwood with a density of 400-480 kg m-3 air dry. The heartwood is whitish and probably not
distinctly demarcated from the sapwood. Texture is moderately fine and even, with straight to
slightly interlocked grain. Other properties and uses of this timber are described under
MEDANG. Vernacular names applied include medang perawas (P.M. and Sab.) and medang
serai (P.M.). Major species include L. bibracteata, L. lucida and L. oxyphylia.
Linggayong (Sab.) = Kandelia candel = BAKAU.
Linggayong laut (Sab.) = Kandelia candel = BAKAU.
Linkabong (Sab.) = Macaranga tanarius = MAHANG.
Lintah bukit (P.M.) = Hopea helferi = GIAM.
Litak (Sab.) = Pterospermum spp. = BAYUR.
Lithocarpus - A genus of medium-sized to fairly large trees up to 45(-52) m tall and
100(-150) cm in diameter, belonging to the family Fagaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name
for the timber, which includes the timber of Quercus spp., is MEMPENING (q. v.). The timber
is hard to very hard and moderately heavy to heavy, the majority being heavy with a density of
575-1010 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not always clearly defined but is usually lighter in
colour than the heartwood, which varies between yellow-brown and red-brown, sometimes
quite dark red. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under MEMPENING.
Vernacular names include mempening (P.M., Sab. and Sar.), which is rather widely applied in
the country, and sabah oak in Sabah. Major species include L. cantleyanus, L. cyclophorus,
L. encleisacarpus, L. ewyckii, L. gracilis, L. lampadarius, L. lucidus, L. maingayi, L. sundaicus.
L. urceolaris and L. waliichianus.
Litoh (Sar.) = Ctenolophon parvifolius = MERTAS.
Litsea - A genus of small to medium-sized or rarely large trees up to 45 m tall and 80(-110) cm
in diameter, belonging to the family Lauraceae. The timber is commonly grouped together with
the other lightweight members ofthe family and sold as MEDANG (q.v.). The timber is light to
moderately heavy with a density of350-755 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is usually not distinct
from the heartwood, which is olive-yellow to dark olive-green. Other properties and uses of
the timber are described under MEDANG. Medang (P.M., Sab. and Sar.), with various epithets,
is usually applied to the species of this genus. Major species include L. castanea, L. curtisii,
L. firma, L. grandis, L. costalis, L. nidularis, L. elliptica, L. robusta and L. tomentosa.

93
Loganiaceae - A small family of herbs, shrubs, woody climbers and trees, of which only one
genus is of economic importance as a timber, viz. Fagraea (TEMBUSU).
Loh (Ph.) = Anisoptera laevis = MERSAWA.
Longitam (Sab.) = Nephelium ramboutan-ake = RAMBUTAN.
Lophopetalum - A genus of small to medium-sized rarely large trees up to 40(-62) m tall and
70(-195) cm in diameter, belonging to the family Celastraceae. The Standard Malaysian Name
for the timber is PERUPOK (q.v.). The timber is a light hardwood with a density of
480-640 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not clearly defined and is generally lighter in colour
than the heartwood, which is light yellow or light yellow-brown when dry and pink when freshly
cut. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under PERUPOK. Vernacular names
applied include dual (Sab.), kerueh (P.M.) and tinjau tasek (Ph.). Major species include
L. floribundum, L. javanicum, L. multinervium, L. pallidum, L. subobovatum and L. wightianum.
Lotong (P.M.) = Nephelium cuspidatum = RAMBUTAN.
Luazon (Sab.) = Gironniera nervosa and G. subaequalis = KASAP.
LUDAI - The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN Standard Name for the timber of
Sapium spp. (Euphorbiaceae). The timber is soft and light with a density of290-465 kg m-3 air
dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is light yellow-brown,
sometimes with a pink tinge. Texture is moderately coarse but even, with straight or deeply
interlocked and sometimes wavy grain. The timber is weak (Strength group D). It is easy to saw
and works well with all tools. The planed surface is smooth. The timber seasons fairly rapidly
with defects, except for some insect attacks and some staining by fungi. 13 mm boards take 2
months to air dry, while 38 mm boards take 3 months. Shrinkage is very low, radial shrinkage
averages 0.8% while tangential shrinkage averages 1.8%. The timber is non-durable under
exposed conditions but the timber can be treated with preservatives easily.
USES: The timber is suitable for boxes and crates and also for core veneer plywood manufacture.
The timber is most likely to be suitable for pulp and paper manufacture.
Vernacular names applied include gurah (P.M. and Sar.) and mamah pelandok (P.M.). Only
two species are commonly found in the country, viz. S. baccatum and S. discolor.
Luis (Sar.) = Hopea spp. = MERAWAN.
Lulai (P.M.) = Garcinia merguensis = KANDIS.
Lumau (Sar.) = Ficus magnoliifolia = ARA.
Lumnitzera - A genus of shrubs or small to fairly large trees up to 37m tall and 60(-100) cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Combretaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber
adopted for Peninsular Malaysia and Sarawak is TERUNTUM (q.v.), while that for Sabah is
GERITING. The ASEAN Standard Name for the timber is TERUNTUM. The timber is hard
and heavy with a density of 755-835 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not well defined and is
lighter in colour than the heartwood, which is light grey-brown to light brownish red. Other
properties and uses of the timber are described under TERUNTUM. Vernacular names applied
include geriting (Sab.) with various epithets, sop-sop (Th.) and teruntum (P.M. and Sar.)
with various epithets. Only two species are present in Malaysia and they are L. littorea
and L. racemosa.
Lun puteh (Sar.) = Shorea spp. = WHITE MERANTI.
Lunau (Sab.) = Gymnacranthera contracta = PENARAHAN.
Lunok (Sar.) = Ficus microcarpa = ARA.
Lundagong (Sab.) = Trema tomentosa = MENARONG.
Lung bipuyoh (Sar.) = Nephelium lappaceum = RAMBUTAN.
Lythraceae - A family of herbs, shrubs and trees which only one genus, Lagerstroemia, is of
economic interest. The common vernacular name for the tree and timber of the genus is
BUNGOR.

94
M
Ma (Sar.) = Nephelium ramboutan-ake = RAMBUTAN.
Macaranga - A genus of small to medium-sized trees up to 30(-40) m tall and 50(-70) cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the
ASEAN Standard Name for the timber is MAHANG (q.v.). The timber is soft to moderately
hard and light to moderately heavy, with a density of270-495 kg m-3 air dry (in most species).
However, the average density of M. lowii in the FRIM wood collection is 815 kg m-3 air dry.
The timber is classified under light hardwood in Malaysia. The sapwood is not differentiated
from the heartwood, which is light yellow-brown, occasionally with a pink tinge. Other properties
and uses of the timber are described under MAHANG. Vernacular names applied include benuah
(Sar.), kubin (P.M.), lapokan (Sab.), mahang (P.M.) with various epithets, marakubong (Sab.),
merkabong (Sab.), mesepat (P.M.), linkabong (Sab.) andsedaman (Sab.) with various epithets.
Major species include M. beccarianus, M. gigantea, M. hosei, M. hypoleuca, M. lowii,
M. pruinosa and M. winkleri.
MACHANG - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Mangifera spp. (Anacardiaceae).
The timber is a light hardwood with a density of 545-610 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not
clearly defined from the heartwood, which is light pink-brown to light brown. In many trees, a
streaky corewood is produced, where the wood is dark brown interspersed with streaks of
blacks. This figured material is usually with a natural sheen. Texture is moderately fine and
even with straight to interlocked grain. The timber is only fairly strong (Strength group C). It is
slightly difficult to resaw when green but is easy when air dry. Planing is easy but the surface
produced is only moderately smooth with grain pick-up on the radial side. The nailing property
is excellent. The timber seasons fairly rapidly with very few defects. Slight bowing, end-checking,
splitting, cupping and some insect attacks are the main sources of degrade. 13 mm thick boards
take an average of 3 months to air dry while 38 mm boards take an average of 4 months.
Shrinkage is fairly low, with radial shrinkage averaging 1.1 % and tangential shrinkage averaging
1.9%. The timber is moderately durable to non-durable under exposed conditions. The sapwood
and heartwood are probably amenable to preservation treatment, while the core may be difficult
to treat.
USES: The timber is suitable for light construction, planking, flooring, packing boxes, crates,
plywood manufacture and pallets. The streaky corewood is highly prized as a decorative timber
and is used for high class cabinet work, interior finishing, panelling and partitioning, sliced
decorative veneers and also for furniture manufacture.
Many vernacular names for the species of this genus have been recorded and they include
asam (Sab.) with various epithets, bachang (P.M. and Sar.), lanjut (P.M.),jigured asam (Sab.),
machang api (P.M.), machang hutan (P.M.), mangga (P.M.), mempelam (P.M.), pauh (P.M.),
rawa (P.M.) and other localised names too numerous to list here. Major forest species of
Mangifera include M. applanata, M. caesa, M. foetida, M. grifJthii, M. indica, M. longipetiolata,
M. laurina, M. odorata, M.pajang, M. parviflora, M. quadrifida and M. torquenda.
Machang api (P.M.) = Mangifera laurina = MACHANG.
Machang hutan (P.M.) = Mangifera orophila = MACHANG.

95
Madhuca - A genus of small to medium-sized or large trees up to 50 m tall and 100 cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Sapotaceae. This genus produces two distinct groups of
timber. The Standard Malaysian Name for the heavier group is BITIS (q. v.) and the Standard
Malaysian Name for the lighter group is NYATOH (q.v.). In Sabah and Sarawak, the two
timber groups are not recognised as separate entities. The whole genus is sold as nyatoh along
with the species of Madhuca, Palaquium and Payena.
Bitis is a heavy hardwood with a density of 820-1200 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood
is yellow-brown to purple-grey-brown and is sharply differentiated from the heartwood, which
is red-brown to purple-chocolate-red-brown. Other properties and uses of the timber are described
under BITIS. Vernacular names applied include belian (P.M.) and seminai (P.M.). Major species
contributing to this timber is M utitis.
Nyatoh is a light hardwood with a density of 430-865 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is
light red-brown and moderately distinct from the heartwood, which is red-brown to
chocolate-red-brown. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under NYATOH.
Vernacular names applied include nyatoh (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) with various epithets, ketiau
(P.M.) and mentua taban (P.M.). Major species contributing to this timber include M curtisii,
M. kingiana, M. motleyana, M. penangiana, M penicillata, M. rufa and M sericea.
Magas (Sab.) = Duabanga moluccana = MAGASAWIH.
MAGASAWIH - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Duabanga spp.
(Sonneratiaceae). The timber is soft and light with a density of 385-465 kg m-3 air dry. The
sapwood is lighter in colour than and not sharply defined from the heartwood, which is light
red-brown. Texture is coarse but even, with interlocked grain. The timber has not been tested in
the FRIM, Kepong, but is reported to be fairly strong (Strength group C). It is reported to be
easy to saw and work. The timber is reputed to season well without serious degrade. Shrinkage
is very high, with radial shrinkage averaging 3.9% and tangential shrinkage averaging 6.6%.
The timber is non-durable and is difficult to treat.
USES: The timber is not used to any extent presently but should be suitable for general planking,
packing cases, shuttering and plywood manufacture. The trees are reputed to grow very rapidly
and this timber may be a source of short-fib red pulp for the manufacture of paper.
Vernacular names applied include berembang bukit (P.M.), magas (Sab.), sawih (Sar.) and
tagahas (Sab.). There are only two species in Malaysia, viz. D. grandiflora (occurring only in
Peninsular Malaysia) and D. moluccana (occurring only in Sabah and Sarawak).
Magnoliaceae - A family of shrubs or trees of which only one genus, viz. Magnolia, attains a big
enough size to be considered as exploitable. The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the
ASEAN Standard Name for the timber of the family is CHEMPAKA.
Magnolia - A genus of medium-sized to very large trees up to 60 m tall and 150(-200) cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Magnoliaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the
ASEAN Standard Name for the timber is CHEMPAKA (q. v.). The timber is moderately soft
and light to moderately heavy with a density of 300-705 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is white
to light yellow and is moderately distinct from the heartwood, which is light brown with a
green tinge. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under CHEMPAKA.
Vernacular names applied include chempaka with various epithets in almost all parts of the
country, e.g. chempaka bulu (Sab.), chempaka hutan (P.M.), kepayong ambok (Sab.), ketapang
ambok (Sab.) and very often medang (P.M.) with various epithets in error, e.g. medang limo
(P.M.). Major species include M. bintuluensis, M candolli var. obovata, M champaca,
M. elegans, M. montana, M. scortechinii and M tsiampacca subsp. moWs.

96
Maguwau (Sab.) = Crudia reticulata = MERBAU KERA.
MAHANG - The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN Standard Name for the
timber of Macaranga spp. (Euphorbiaceae). The timber is soft to moderately hard and light to
- moderately heavy, with density of most species ranging 270-495 kg m-3 air dry. Samples
of M lowii in the FRIM wood collection have an average density of 815 kg m-3 air dry. The
timber is classified under light hardwood in Malaysia. The sapwood is not differentiated from
the heartwood, which is light yellow-brown, occasionally with a pink tinge. Texture is moderately
fine and even, with· straight to shallowly interlocked grain. The timber has not been
tested in the FRIM, Kepong, but is reported to be very easy to work. The timber is
reputed to be non-durable.
USES: The timber is suitable for the manufacture of match splints, pulp and paper, particleboard,
cement-bonded board and is suitable for the production of plywood. Peeled mahang poles are
frequently used for temporary construction and especially for parts of native houses not in
contact with the ground. The timber is used for light framing, interior or trim, moulding and
packing cases. In the Philippines it has been a favourite wood for wooden shoes.
Vernacular names include benuah (Sar.), kubin (P.M.), linkabong (Sab.), mahang (P.M.)
with various epithets, marakubong (Sab.), merkabong (Sab.), mesepat (P.M.) and sedaman
(Sab.) with various epithets. Major species include M beccarianus, M gigantea, M. hosei,
M. hypoleuca, M. lowii, M pruinosa and M. winkleri.
Mahang gajah (P.M.) = Macaranga gigantea = MAHANG.
Mahang merah (P.M.) = Macaranga triloba = MAHANG.
Mahang puteh (P.M.) = Macaranga hypoleuca = MAHANG.
Maid maid (Sab.) = Crudia subsimplicifolia = MERBAU KERA.
Majau (Sab.) = Shorea spp. = LIGHT RED MERANTI.
Malaban (Sar.) = Tristaniopsis spp. = PELAWAN.
MALABERA - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Fagraea crenulata
(Loganiaceae). The timber is moderately soft and light with a density of 440-660 kg m-3 air
dry and an average density of 545 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the
heartwood, which is light cream in colour. Texture is fine and even with straight grain. The
timber is only moderately strong (Strength group C). It is easy to saw and work and the surface
produced is smooth. The timber seasons moderately slowly, with minor dimensional
movements, end-checking, splitting and insect and fungal attacks as the main defects. 13 mm
boards take 2 months to air dry, while 38 mm boards take 5 months. Shrinkage is average with
radial shrinkage averaging 1.2% while tangential shrinkage averaging 2.5%. The timber is
moderately durable and the amenability to preservative treatment is classified as average.
USES: The timber is suitable for light construction under cover, interior finishing, panelling
and partitioning, plywood manufacture, packing boxes, crates and pallets.
Vernacular names applied include malabira (Sab.). This is a mono specific timber.
MALABERA BUKIT - The common Malaysian name for the tree and timber of
Mussuendopsis beccariana (Rubiaceae). The timber is hard and heavy with a density of
915-930 kg m-3 air-dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is
orange-yellow with orange streaks. Texture is fine and even, with interlocked grain. The timber
is reported to be rather difficult to saw and durable when exposed to the weather.
USES: The timber has been used as a substitute for the more durable belian timber and reported
to be suitable for construction posts, shingles and boat building.
Vernacular names applied include mempedal babi (P.M.). Only one species been recorded
for this country, viz. M. beccariana.
Malabira (Sab.) = Fagraea crenulata = MALABERA.
Malai (KI.) = Anisoptera spp. = MERSAWA.

97
Malapari (P.M.) = Millettia pinnata = MEMPARI.
MALAS - The ASEAN Standard Name, which is of Indonesian origin, for the timber of
Parastemon urophyllum. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is NGILAS (q.v.).
Malayan kauri (P.M.) = Agathis borneensis = DAMAR MINYAK.
MALAYSIAN OAK - The Malaysian Name for the timber ofHevea brasiliensis (Euphorbiaceae).
The timber is commonly known as rubberwood in the country. It is a light hardwood with a
density of 560-640 kg m-3 air dry. The timber is moderately hard and light to moderately
heavy. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is pale cream in colour,
often with a pink tinge. Texture is moderately coarse but even, with straight to shallowly
interlocked grain. The timber is only moderately strong (Strength group C). It is easy to resaw
and cross-cut although latex may tend to clog up the saw teeth. The timber planes easily and
the finish is smooth. The nailing property is rated as good. The timber seasons fairly rapidly
with bowing and springing as the main defects. 13 mm boards take 2.5 months to air dry while
38 mm boards take 3.5 months. Shrinkage is rather low, radial shrinkage averages 0.8% while
tangential shrinkage averages 1.9%. For kiln-drying, Schedule D is recommended and 25 mm
boards can be dried in approximately 6 days. Main defects are bowing, springing and end-
splitting. The timber is non-durable and is susceptible to both fungal and insect attacks. The
timber is, however, very easily treated with preservative.
USES: The timber is used extensively for the manufacture of furniture. Other maj or uses include
flooring, toy, fruit bowl, chopping block, interior finishing, panelling, mouldings, charcoal
manufacture, wooden pallets, stair threads, banisters and other staircase components. It has
also been used as core material for blockboard and has been chipped for pulp and paper
manufacture. Rubberwood is used as the main source of fibres material for the production of
medium density fibreboard (MDF) in the country. A possible end-use for this timber is the
manufacture of rayon.
Vernacular names applied include kayu getah (P.M. and Sab.), rubberwood (P.M., Sab. and
Sar.) and para rubber (P.M., Sab. and Sar.).
Mallotus - A genus of small to medium-sized trees up to 25(-35) m tall and 50(-80) cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae. The common Malaysian name for the timber
is BALEK ANGIN (q.v.). The timber is soft to hard and light to heavy with a density
of 365-815 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is
straw-coloured. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under BALEKANGIN.
Vernacular names applied include balek angin bopeng (P.M.), enserai (Sar.), mallotus (Sab.)
with various epithets, perupok (P.M.), selung apid (Sab.), serapoh (P.M.), singin (Sar.) and
ulas (Sab.). Major species include M leucodermis, M. miquelianus, M. muticus andM wrayi.
Mallotus balabakan (Sab.) = Mallotus paniculatus = BALEKANGIN.
Mallotus binumbong (Sab.) = Mallotus lackeyi = BALEKANGIN.
Mallotus dapulan (Sab.) = Mallotus mollissimus = BALEK ANGIN.
Mallotus dau (Sab.) = Mallotus macrostachyus = BALEKANGIN.
Mallotus kemenyan-kemenyan (Sab.) = Mallotus penangensis = BALEK ANGIN.
Mallotus kering (Sab.) = Mallotus miquelianus = BALEK ANGIN.
Mallotus marambakan (Sab.) = Mallotusfloribundus = BALEKANGIN.
Mallotus minumbong (Sab.) = Mallotus korthalsii = BALEK ANGIN.
Mallotus paya (Sab.) = Mallotus muticus = BALEK ANGIN.
Mallotus rambai kuching (Sab.) = Mallotus philippensis = BALEK ANGIN.
Mallotus sagar-sagar (Sab.) = Mallotus wrayi = BALEK ANGIN.
Maluluk (Sab.) = Gordonia spp. = SAMAK.
Malut (P.M.) = Hopeaferrea = GIAM.

98
Malvaceae - A family of annual or perenial herbs, shrubs or trees. The timbers produced are of
limited economic importance. The timbers of Hibiscus and Thespesia are essentially similar
and grouped together as BARU.
Mamah pelandok (P.M.) = Sapium discolor = LUDAI.
Manat (Sar.) = Cratoxylum arborescens = GERONGGANG.
Mandailas (Sab.) = Parastemon grandifructus and P. urophyUus = NGILAS.
Mang (Sar.) = Hopea spp. = MERAWAN.
Manga wangi (Sab.) = Mangifera odorata = MACHANG.
Mangaris (Sab.) = Koompassia excelsa = TUALANG.
Mangga (P.M.) = Mangifera indica = MACHANG.
Manggalum (Sab.) = Nephelium cuspidatum = RAMBUTAN.
Manggilan 1 (Sab.) = Agathis borneensis = DAMAR MINYAK.
Manggilan 2 (Sab.) = Nageia wallichiana = PODO.
Manggis hutan (P.M.) = Garcinia hombroniana = KANDIS.
Mangifera - A genus of medium-sized to large trees up to 45(-54) m tall and 120(-150) cm in
diameter, often cultivated for their edible fruits, belonging to the family Anacardiaceae. The
Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is MACHANG (q. v.). The timber is a light hardwood
with a density of 545--61 0 kg m~3 air dry. The sapwood is not clearly defined from the heartwood,
which is light pink-brown to light brown. In many trees, a streaky corewood is developed,
where the wood is dark brown interspersed with streaks of black. This figured material is
usually with a natural sheen. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under
MACHANG. Vernacularnames recorded include asam (Sab.), bachang (P.M. and Sar.),jigured
asam (Sab.), lanjut (P.M.), machang api (P.M.), machang hutan (P.M.), mangga (P.M.),
mempelam (P.M.), pauh (P.M.), rawa (P.M.) and other localised names too numerous to list
here. Major forest species of Mangifera include M. applanata, M. caesa, M. foetida, M. griffthii,
M. indica, M. longipetiolata, M. laurina, M. odorata, M. pajang, M. parvijlora, M. quadrifida
and M. torquenda.
Mangitan (P.M.) = Platymitra macrocarpa = MEMPISANG.
Mangkal (P.M.) = Nauclea spp. = BANGKAL.
Manitan (P.M.) = Species of Annonaceae = MEMPISANG.
Mantan (Sar.) = Mangifera torquenda = MACHANG.
Marabahai (Sab.) = Millettia pinnata = MEMPARI.
MARAJALI - The common Malaysian name for the tree and timber of Trigoniastrum hypoleucum
(Trigoniaceae). The timber is hard or very hard and heavy or very heavy with an average
density of945 kg m~3 air dry. Sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is light
yellow with olive tinge. Texture is moderately fine and even, with straight grain. The timber is
reported to split badly during drying. It is non-durable when exposed to the weather or in
contact with the ground.
USES: Uses of the timber include furniture and other utility purposes.
Other vernacular names applied include mata pasak (P.M.) and meriali (P.M.). This is a
monospecific timber.
Maraka batu (Sar.) = Shorea albida = ALAN BATU.
Maraka bunga (Sar.) = Shorea albida = ALAN BUNGA.
Marakubong (Sab.) = Macaranga spp. = MAHANG.
Marang parang (Sab.) = Saraca declinata = GAPIS.
Maranthes - A genus of medium-sized to fairly large trees up to 40 m tall and 100(-160) cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Chrysobalanaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name as well as
the ASEAN Standard Name for the timber is MERBATU (q. v.). The timber is hard to very hard
and is heavy to very heavy with a density of915-975 kg m~3 air dry. The sapwood is not clearly

99
defined from the heartwood, which is red-brown, sometimes with a yellow tinge. Other
properties and uses of the timber are described under MERBATU. Vernacular names applied
include bangkawang (Sab.), merbatu laut (P.M.), nyalin laut (Sar.). Only one species is recorded
for Malaysia, viz. M. corymbosa.
Marapangi i (Sab.) = Endospermum spp. = SESENDOK.
MarapangF (Sab.) = Alangium kurzii and A. rotundifolium = MENTULANG.
Marong (Sar.) = Trema tomentosa = MENARONG.
Maruwit (Sar.) = Castanopsisfoxworthyi = BERANGAN.
Mastixia - A small genus of small to medium-sized or fairly large trees up to 40 m tall
and 80(-150) cm in diameter, belonging to the family Cornaceae. The common Malaysian
name for this timber is TETEBU (q.v.). The ASEAN Standard Name, which is ofIndonesian
origin, is KAYU KUNDUR. The timber is moderately soft and is light to moderately heavy
with a density of 560-770 kg m-3 air-dry. The sapwood is white to light yellow and is not well
defined from the heartwood, which is yellow with a greenish tinge. Other properties and uses of
the timber are described under TETEBU. Vernacular names applied include tebu-tebu (P.M.),
in obvious reference to the sugar cane smell of the cut bark, bantis (Sab.), itan beruang (Sar.)
and kayu wuku (Sab. and Sar.). Major species include M pentandra ssp. scortechinii and
M trichotoma.
Mata buaya i (P.M.) = Bruguiera spp. = BAKAU.
Mata buaya 2 (Sab.) = Bruguiera sexangula = BAKAU.
MATA KELI - The common Malaysian name for the tree and timber of Gynotroches axillaris
(Rhizophoraceae). The timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy with a density
of 540-71 0 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not defined and the heartwood is pale brown with a
pink or red hue or red-brown. Texture is slightly coarse to moderately coarse and uneven, due
to the presence of the broad rays. Grain is straight or interlocked. The timber is non-durable.
USES: The timber is suitable for general house construction under cover and other general
utility purposes.
Vernacular names applied include buloh-buloh (P.M.) and membuloh (P.M.). This is a
monospecific timber.
Mata kuching beludu (P.M.) = Hopea myrtifolia = MERAWAN.
Mata kuching bukit (P.M.) = Hopea pedicellata =MERAWAN.
Mata kuching hitam (P.M.) = Hopea dryobalanoides = MERAWAN.
Mata kuching merah (P.M.) = Hopeaferruginea = MERAWAN.
Mata kuching pipit (P.M.) = Hopeajohorensis = MERAWAN.
Mata lembu (P.M.) = Pterocymbium tinctorium = TELUTO.
Mata pasak (P.M.) = Trigoniastrum hypoleucum = MARAJALI.
Mata puteh (Kd.) = Hopea sublanceolata = MERAWAN.
MATA ULAT - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Kokoona spp. (Celastraceae).
The timber is a medium hardwood with a density of 895-1 055 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is
lighter colour than and merges gradually into the heartwood, which is whitish to yellow brown.
Texture is fine but uneven due to the thick bands of parenchyma. Grain is interlocked. The
timber is very strong (Strength group A). It is easy to resaw and cross-cut. Planing is easy and
the planed surface is smooth in the tangential direction but slightly rough due to some grain
pick-up in the radial direction. The seasoning characteristics are summarised in the following
table:

100
Time to air dry Shrinkage (%)
(months) (Green to air dry)
Species Remarks
13mm 38mm Radial Tangential
boards boards

K. littoralis 3 5 2.6 3 Fairly slow drying; slight splitting; moderate


end-checking and surface-checking; insect
attacks; fairly high shrinkage, especially in
the radial direction.
K. rejlexa 2 3.5 1.6 2 Fairly rapid drying; slight end-checking,
splitting and surface-checking; average
shrinkage.

For kiln-drying, Schedule C is recommended and 25 mm boards take approximately 10


days to dry. The timber is moderately durable and is very difficult to treat.
USES: The timber is suitable for heavy construction iftreated, e.g. posts, beams, joists, bridges
and railway sleepers. The timber is also suitable for heavy-duty furniture, parquet flooring,
window and door frames.
Vernacular names applied include bajan (Sar.) and perupok (P.M.) in older Malaysian
literature, when the species were grouped together with those of Lophopetalum and also
perupok kuning (Sab.). Major species include K. littoralis, K. ochracea, K. ovata-lanceolata
and K. reflexa.
Mati anak (P.M.) = Dracontomelon dao = SENGKUANG.
Matopus (P.M.) = Mesuaferrea = PENAGA.
Mawang (Sar.) = Mangifera pajang = MACHANG.
Mayang (P.M.) = Payena spp. = NYATOH.
MEDAN G 1 - The Standard Malaysian Name for the lightweight members of the family Lauraceae.
The timber is a light hardwood with a density of 350-880 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood ranges
from a light straw-colour to light yellow-green and is not distinct in some species but
moderately sharply defined from the heartwood in other species. The heartwood is
variable in colour, the majority being light olive-brown to dark green-brown, while some
Cryptocarya spp. and Phoebe spp. are light red-brown and some Cinnamomum spp. are
pink to light red. Beilschmiedia spp. are yellow-white in colour and Actinodaphne spp. are
light yellow-green to dark olive-green. Texture is moderately fine and even with straight or
slightly to moderately interlocked grain. The timber is fairly strong (Strength group C). It is
easy to slightly difficult to resaw and is easy to moderately easy to cross-cut. The timber is easy
to plane and the surface produced is smooth to moderately smooth. The nailing property is
rated as excellent. The seasoning characteristics of some medang species are summarised below:

101
Time to air dry Shrinkage (%)
(months) (Green to air dry)
Species Remarks
13mm 38mm Radial Tangential
boards boards

Alseodaphne insignis 3 5 1.6 3.2 Fairly slow drying rate; fairly high
shrinkage.
Cinnarnornurn porreeturn 3 5 1.1 2.2 Fairly slow drying; defect-free drying;
average shrinkage.
Dehaasia nigreseens 3 4.5 0.9 2.5 Fairly slow drying; slight splitting and
surface-checking; average shrinkage.
Li/sea firma 4 5 2 3.9 Fairly slow drying; slight staining; high
shrinkage.
L. eostalis 2.5 3.5 1.2 2.7 Fairly fast drying; slight bowing and
moderate staining; fairly high shrinkage.

The timber is on the whole non-durable, being subject to fungal attacks. Some species are
immune to termite attacks. The heartwood is difficult to treat while the sapwood absorbs
preservatives readily.
USES: The timber is suitable for decorative work such as interior finishing, panelling, furniture,
cabinet making, plywood manufacture and the heavier species are suitable for medium
construction under cover.
Vernacular names applied are usually medang (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) with various
epithets and other localised names too numerous to list here. Major species include
Actinodaphne sesquipedalis, A. sphaerocarpa; Alseodaphne insignis, A. nigrescens,
A. peduncularis, A. pendulifolia; Beilschemiedia insignis; Cinnamomum sintoc,
C. iners, C.javanicum, c.porrectum, C. scortechinii; Cryptocarya bracteolata, C. griffithiana,
C. kurzii; Dehaasia cuneata, D. pauciflora, D. polyneura; Lindera bibracteata, L. lucida,
L. oxyphylla; Litsea castanea, L. costalis, L. curtis ii, L. elliptica, L.firma, L. grandis, L. nidularis,
L. robusta, L. tomentosa; Nothaphoebe coriacea, N. obovata, N. panduriformis, N. umbelliflora;
Persea declinata, P excelsa, P rimosa; Phoebe declinata, P elliptica and P grandis.
Medang2 (Sar.) = Sarcotheca glauca = PUPOL
Medang asam (P.M.) = Ptychopyxis costata = MENDAROH.
Medang ayer (P.M.) = Cryptocarya kurzii = MEDANG.
Medang buloh (Sar.) = Nageia motleyi = PODO.
Medang busok (P.M.) = Persea declinata = MEDANG.
Medang dering (Sab.) = Cryptocarya griffithiana = MEDANG.
Medang gambak (P.M.) = Litsea tomentosa = MEDANG.
Medang gambong (P.M.) = Vernonia arborea = MENGGAMBONG.
Medang gatal (P.M.) = Schima wallichii = SAMAK.
Medang hitam (P.M.) = Alseodaphne dura, A. insignis; and Dehaasia spp. = MEDANG.
Medang inai (P.M.) = Persea declinata = MEDANG.
Medang jongkong (Sar.) = Dactyloclados stenostachys = JONGKONG.
Medang kanigara (Sab. and Sar.) = Mastixia trichotoma var. clearkeana = TETEBU.
Medang kasap (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) = Gironniera spp. = KASAP.
Medang kechawi (P.M.) = Actinodaphne malaccensis = MEDANG.
Medang keladi (P.M.) = Cinnamomum porrectum; Dehaasia incrassata; Litsea castanea, L.
grandis, L. costalis; and Phoebe elliptica = MEDANG.

102
Medang kelawar (P.M.) = Elaeocarpus spp. = SENGKURAT.
Medang kelipat (P.M.) = Ptychopyxis costata = MENDAROH.
Medang kemangi (P.M.) = Cinnamomum iners and C. porrectum = MEDANG.
Medang ketanah (P.M.) = Alseodaphne perakensis = MEDANG.
Medang kikisang (Sab.) = Litsea lancifolia = MEDANG.
Medang kulit manis (P.M.) = Cinnamomumjavanicum = MEDANG.
Medang kuningl (P.M.) = Actinodaphne spp.; Alseodaphne perakensis; Beilschmeidia
palembanica; and Cryptocarpaferrea = MEDANG.
Medang kuning2 (Sab.) = Litsea spp.= MEDANG.
Medang kuning3 (P.M.) = Gymnacrantheraforbesii = PENARAHAN.
Medang kunyit (P.M.) = Actinodaphne spp.; Cryptocarya impressa; Dehaasia polyneura; Litsea
castanea and L. johorensis = MEDANG.
Medang lade (Sab.) = Phoebe elliptica = MEDANG.
Medang lasa (P.M.) = Cinnamomum porrectum = MEDANG.
Medang lawang (P.M.) = Cinnamomum sintoc =MEDANG.
Medang lebar daun (P.M.) = Litsea grandis = MEDANG.
Medang lempong 1 (P.M.) = Blumeodendron spp. = GAHAM BADAK.
Medang lempong 2 (PM.) = Vernonia arborea = MENGGAMBONG.
Medang limo (Sar.) = Magnolia bintuluensis = CHEMPAKA.
Medang miang 1 (P.M.) = Cryptocarya crassinerva and Litsea nidularis = MEDANG.
Medang miang2 (Sab.) = Dactyloclados stenostachys = JONGKONG.
Medang pasir (P.M.) = Persea declinata = MEDANG.
Medang pawas (Sab.) = Litsea elliptica = MEDANG.
Medang payong (P.M.) = Actinodaphne sesquipedalis; Alseodaphne insignis, A. pendulifolia;
and Dehaasia cuneata, D. incrassata = MEDANG.
Medang perawas (P.M. and Sab.) = Lindera lucida = MEDANG.
Medang pijat-pijat (P.M.) = Prunus spp.= PEPIJAT.
Medang pisang (P.M.) = Litsea costalis and L. nidularis = MEDANG.
Medang sawa (P.M.) = Anisoptera laevis and A. scaphula = MERSAWA.
Medang seraF (P.M.) = Lindera oxyphylla = MEDANG.
Medang seraF (P.M. and Sab.) = Actinodaphne glomerata = MEDANG.
Medang sesudu (P.M.) = Alseodaphne ridleyi and Litsea nidularis = MEDANG.
Medang sisek (Sab.) = Alseodaphne bancana = MEDANG.
Medang surungan (Sab. and Sar.) = Mastixia pentandra ssp. scortechinii = TETEBU.
Medang tabak (Sab.) = Dactylocladus stenostachys = JONGKONG.
Medang tajing (P.M.) = Alseodaphne perakensis = MEDANG.
Medang tanah 1 (P.M.) = Alseodaphne insignis; Dehaasia incrassata; Litsea tomentosa; Phoebe
grandis, P elliptica; and Persea declinata = MEDANG.
Medang tanah 2 (P.M.) = Magnolia elegans = CHEMPAKA.
Medang tandok 1 (P.M.) = Actinodaphne macrophylla; Alseodaphne insignis, A. nigrescens;
Dehaasia incrassata; and Litsea nidularis, L. tomentosa = MEDANG.
Medang tandok2 (P.M.) = Magnolia elegans = CHEMPAKA.
Medang tandok3 (P.M.) = Bhesa spp. = BIKU-BIKU.
Medang teja 1 (P.M.) = Cinnamomum iners and C. scortechinii = MEDANG.
Medang teja 2 (P.M.) = Elaeocarpus spp.= SENGKURAT.
Medang teja lawang (P.M.) = Cinnamomum sintoc = MEDANG.
Medang telor 1 (P.M.) = Alseodaphne nigrescens; Dehaasia incrassata; Litsea castanea, L. curtisii,
L. costalis; Phoebe grandis; and Persea declinata = MEDANG.
Medang telor 2(P.M.) = Elaeocarpus spp.= SENGKURAT.

103
Medang tembakol (P.M.) = Alseodaphne pendulifolia = MEDANG.
Medang untut (P.M.) = Litsea costa lis = MEDANG.
Medang wangi (Sab.) = Beilschemiedia micrantha = MEDANG.
Melaban (Sar.) = Tristaniopsis spp. = PELAWAN.
Melabu (Sar.) = Heritiera spp. = MENGKULANG.
MELAGANGAI - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Potoxylon melagangai (syn.:
Eusideroxylon melagangai; Lauraceae). The timber is moderately hard and strong with a density
of 525-920 kg m-3 air dry. The timber is classified under heavy hardwood in Malaysia. The
sapwood is yellowish when fresh and sharply differentiate from the heartwood which is brown
with a distinct reddish tinge. Texture is moderately fine and even, with fairly straight grain. The
timber is very strong (Strength group A). It has not been tested in the FRIM, Kepong, but is
reported to saw easily. Shrinkage is high, i.e. radial shrinkage averages 2.4% while tangential
shrinkage averages 4.4%. The timber seasons fairly easily. It is very durable and difficult to
treat with preservatives.
USES: The timber is used for heavy construction, boat building, posts, paddles, fences, pepper
posts and shingles.
Vernacular names applied include belian kapok (Sar.), belian kebuau (Sar.) and belian
malagangai (Sar.).
Melaka, pokok (P.M.) = Phyllanthus emblica = POKOK MELAKA.
Melaleuca - A genus of twisted trees and rarely tall trees up to 24 m tall, belonging to family
Myrtaceae. The common Malaysian name for the tree is GELAM (q. v.). Properties and uses of
the timber are described under GELAM. No other vernacular names have been recorded. There
is only one species of Melaleuca (M. cajuputi) in Malaysia occurring mainly on swampy ground
near the coasts.
Melan (Sar.) = Cratoxylumformosum = DERUM.
Melanochyla - A genus of medium-sized to tall trees up to 30(-39) m tall and 100 cm
in diameter, belonging to the family Anacardiaceae. The timber is grouped together with those
of Gluta spp. and sold as RENGAS (q. v.). The timber is a medium hardwood with a density of
640-720 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is light brown with a grey tinge and is sharply defined
from the heartwood, which is dark red-brown with darker, almost black streaks. Other properties
and uses of the timber are described under RENGAS. The vernacular name rengas (P.M., Sab.
and Sar.) with various epithets is applied to the various species of the genus. Major species
include M. auriculata, M. beccariana and M. bracteata, M. caesia and M. fulvinervis.
MELANTAI - The Standard Malaysian Name for certain lightweight reddish and yellowish
timber of Shorea spp. (Dipterocarpaceae). The timber is separate from the red merantis on the
grounds that melantai is usually lighter in density and tends to have a bright yellow tinge. The
timber is a light hardwood with a density of 415-625 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is lighter in
colour, not sharply defined but moderately distinct from the heartwood, which is than and
yellow-pink when freshly cut, weathering to a light pink colour with a yellow tinge. Texture is
moderately coarse but even, with interlocked grain. The timber is only fairly strong (Strength
group C). It is easy to work and planes to a smooth and highly lustrous surface. The nailing
property is rated as good. The timber seasons fairly rapidly without any defects. 13 mm boards
take 2 months to air dry, while 38 mm boards take 4 months. Shrinkage is fairly low, especially
when compared with other species of Shorea. Radial shrinkage averages 0.9% while tangential
shrinkage averages 2.6%. For kiln-drying, Schedule H is recommended. The timber dries very
fast without degrade. 25 mm boards take an average of 6 days to kiln-dry from 50 to 10%
moisture content. The timber is non-durable in exposed conditions and is difficult to treat with
preservatives.
USES: The timber is suitable for interior finishing, mouldings, panelling, rotary cut veneers
and plywood, planking, shelving and the manufacture of doors.

104
Vernacular names applied include belantai (Kd.), kawang with various epithets in Sabah,
engkabang for S. maerophylla in Sarawak and melantai (P.M.). The species as a group are
more developed in the Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak than in the Peninsula. Only one
species occurs in Peninsular Malaysia and that is S. maeroptera. The other species belonging
to this group include S. maerophylla, S. parvistipulata ssp. parvistipulata, S. pilosa, S. pinanga
and S. seaberrima.
Melapi (Sab.) = Shorea spp. = WHITE MERANTI.
Melapi agama (Sab.) = Shorea agamii = WHITE MERANTI.
Melapi bunga (Sab.) = Shorea symingtonii= WHITE MERANTI.
Melapi daun besar (Sab.) = Shorea oehraeea = WHITE MERANTI.
Melapi lapis (Sab.) = Shorea lamellata = WHITE MERANTI.
Melapi laut (Sab.) = Shorea gratissima = WHITE MERANTI.
Melapi pa'ang (Sab.) = Shorea braeteolata = WHITE MERANTI.
Melapi sulang saling (Sab.) = Shorea vireseens = WHITE MERANTI.
Melastomataceae - A small family of herbs, shrubs and trees of which Daetylocladus spp.
(JONGKONG), Memeeylon (NIPIS KULIT) and Pternandra spp. (SIAL MENAHUN) are of
slight economic importance.
Melawis (P.M.) = Gonystylus spp. = RAMIN.
Melebu (Sar.) = Pterygota horsfieldii = KASAH.
Melembu (P.M.) = Pteroeymbium tinetorium = TELUTO.
Melenjau (Sar.) = Nephelium ramboutan-ake = RAMBUTAN.
Meliaceae - A fairly large family of medium-sized to large trees, This family is capable of
producing some very fine timbers but unfortunately, they are nowhere abundant in this country.
Among the more common timber species are Aglaia sect. Aglaia (PASAK), Aglaia sect. Amoora
(BEKAK), Azadiraehta exeelsa (SENTANG), Chukrasia (SURIAN BATU), Dysoxylum
(JARUM-JARUM), Lansium (LANGSAT), Sandorieum (SENTUL), Toona (LIMPAGA) and
Xyloearpus (NYIREH). Exotic species of the family such as Swietenia and Khaya have been
planted in Peninsular Malaysia.
Me/icope - A genus of shrubs or small to medium-sized trees up to 40 m tall and 60 cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Rutaceae. The common Malaysian name for the timber is
PEPAUH (q.v.). The ASEAN Standard Name, which is ofIndonesian origin, is SAMPANG.
The timber is soft and light with a density of 480-545 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not
differentiated from the heartwood, which is light yellow-white with a light orange tinge in some
specimens. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under PEPAUH. Vernacular
names applied include ehabang tiga (P.M.), leban nasi (P.M.) andpauh-pauh (P.M. and Sab.).
Major species include M. aeeendens, M. glabra, M. latifolia and M. lunu-ankenda.
Melima (P.M.) = Heritiera spp. = MENGKULANG.
Meluit (Kl.) = Shorea braeteolata = WHITE MERANTI.
Meluluk (Sab.) = Gordonia spp. = SAMAK.
MELUNAK - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Pentaee spp. (Tiliaceae). The
timber is a light hardwood with a density of 530-755 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is yellow or
light straw-coloured and is moderately sharply defined from the heartwood, which is brown
with a red or pink tinge or red-brown. Texture is moderately fine and even with shallowly to
deeply interlocked grain. The timber is only fairly strong (Strength group C). It is slightly
difficult to difficult to resaw and is easy to slightly difficult to cross-cut. Planing is easy to
slightly difficult and the quality of finish is generally smooth but the green material shows some
grain pick-up in the radial direction. The nailing property is rated as good. The timber seasons
fairly slowly with very few defects. Slight bowing, twisting, end-checking and staining are the
main sources of degrade. 13 mm boards take 3.5 months to air dry, while 38 mm boards

105
take 5 months. Shrinkage is moderate, radial shrinkage averages 1.4% while tangential shrinkage
averages 2.5%. The timber is only moderately durable and is very difficult to treat with
preservatives.
USES: The timber is suitable for interior finishing, panelling, superior joinery, furniture
manufacture, flooring and other light construction.
Vernacular names applied include balong ayam (P.M.), baru (Sar. ),janda baik (P.M.), kebal
ayam (P.M.), kempayang hantu (P.M.), melunak (P.M.) with various epithets, pinang baik
(P.M.) and taka lis (Sab.) with various epithets. Major species include P adenophora, P curtisii,
P laxiflora, P macrophylla and P. triptera.
Melunak bukit (P.M.) = Pentace curtisii and P macrophylla = MELUNAK.
Melunak pusat beludu (P.M.) = Pentace triptera = MELUNAK.
MELUR - The ASEAN Standard Name, which is of Indonesian origin, for the timber of
Dacrydium spp. and Phylloclados spp. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is
SEMPILOR (q.v.).
MEMBALUN - The ASEAN Standard Name, which is ofIndonesian origin, for the timber of
Dysoxylum spp. The common Malaysian name for the timber is JARUM-JARUM (q.v.).
Membatu 1 (P.M.) = Shorea guiso = RED BALAU.
Membatu 2 (P.M.) = Chaetocarpus castanocarpus = BEBATU.
Membatu jantan (P.M.) = Shorea ochrophloia = RED BALAU.
Memberas (P.M.) = Species of Aglaia sect. Aglaia = PASAK.
Membulan (P.M.) = Endospermum diadenum = SESENDOK.
MEMBULOHl - The common Malaysian name for the tree and timber of Pellacalyx spp.
(Rhizophoraceae). The timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy with a density
of 470-640 kg m-3 air dry and an average density of 545 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not
well defined from the heartwood, which is yellow-brown or light brown with a pink hue.
Texture is slightly coarse to moderately coarse and uneven, due to the presence of the broad
rays. Grain is straight or interlocked. This timber has not been tested in the FRIM, Kepong.
Vernacular names applied include buloh-buloh (P.M.), danguh (Sar.) and membuloh bulu (P.M.).
Major species include P. axil/aris and P. saccardianus.
Membuloh 2 (P.M.) = Gynotroches spp. = MATA KELI.
Membuloh bulu (P.M.) = Pellacalyx axil/aris = MEMBULOH.
Memecylon - A large genus of small to medium-sized trees up to 25(-30) m tall and
100(-200) cm in diameter, belonging to the family Melastomataceae. The common Malaysian
name for the tree and timber is NIPIS KULIT (q. v.). The timber is hard to very hard and heavy
to very heavy with a density of 850-1155 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is lighter in colour than
but not sharply differentiated from the heartwood, which is dark purple-brown in M. lilacinum
and various shades of yellow-brown or brown in the other species. Other properties and uses of
the timber are described under NIPIS KULIT. Vernacular names applied include delek tembaga
(P.M.). Major species include M. garcinioides, M. lilacinum and M. pubescens.
MEMINA - The ASEAN Standard Name, which is of Indonesian origin, for the timber of
Pimelodendron spp. The common Malaysian name is PERAH IKAN (q.v.).
MEMPARI - The common Malaysian Name for the tree and timber of Millettia pinnata
(Leguminosae). The timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy to heavy with a density of
625-865 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is light
yellow with a slight green tinge when fresh and darkens to a buff-yellow on exposure. Texture
is moderately fine and uneven due to the presence of abundant parenchyma. Grain is interlocked.
This timber has not been tested in the FRIM, Kepong. Vernacular names applied include
malapari (P.M.) and marabahai (Sab.). This timber is mainly from one species, viz. M. pinnata
(syn.: Pongamia pinnata).

106
Mempat (P.M.) = Cratoxylum maingayi= DERUM.
Mempedal babi (P.M.) = Mussaendopsis beccariana = MALABERA BUKIT.
Mempelam (P.M. and Sab.) = Mangifera indica = MACHANG.
Mempelam babNP.M.) = Terminalia phellocarpa = KETAPANG.
Mempelang (Sab.) = Alangiumjavanicum var. ebenaceum = MENTULANG.
MEMPENING - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Lithocarpus spp. and Quercus
spp. (Fagaceae). The timber is hard to very hard and moderately heavy to heavy with a density
of575-1010 kg m-3 air dry. The timber is classified under medium hardwood in Malaysia. The
sapwood is not always clearly defined but is usually lighter in colour than the heartwood, which
varies between yellow-brown and red-brown, sometimes dark red. Texture is rather coarse and
uneven due to the irregular distribution of the vessels and to the wide rays. Grain is straight to
interlocked and a true oak-line silver figure is prominent on the radial surface. The timber is
strong to very strong (Strength groups A and B). It is easy to saw when green but is slightly
difficult to work when air dried. The planed surface produced is smooth but the quality of finish
when turned is rough. The nailing property is poor. The timber seasons moderately slowly, with
only slight bowing, end-checking, splitting and moderate staining as the main defects. 13 mm
boards take 2 months to air dry, while 38 mm boards take 5 months. Shrinkage is high, especially
in the tangential direction. Radial shrinkage averages 1.9% while tangential shrinkage averages
4.2%. The timber is only moderately durable under exposed conditions.
USES: The timber is suitable for heavy and medium construction if protected from termite
attacks. If seasoned properly, the timber is suitable for interior finishing, panelling and parquets
flooring. It is also suitable for furniture manufacture and decorative veneers.
Vernacular names applied include mempening (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) which is widely
used throughout the country and sa bah oak in Sabah in obvious reference to its close
botanical relationship with the temperate oaks. Major species include Lithocarpus
cantleyanus, L. cyclophorus, L. encleisocarpus, L. ewyckii, L. gracilis, L. lampadarius, L.
lucidus, L. maingayi, L. sundaicus, L. urceolaris, L. wallichianus; Quercus argentata and Q.
gemelliflora.
Mempening rambut (Sab.) = Lithocarpus echinifer = MEMPENING.
MEMPISANG - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of the family Annonaceae. The
timber is a light hardwood with a density of370-975 kg m-3 air dry, although the majority of
the timbers fall within the range of 515-720 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is normally not
differentiated from the heartwood, which is light yellow-white or light yellow-brown, often
with a green tinge. Texture is rather coarse and uneven due to the presence of the extremely
large rays. The timber is fairly strong to strong (Strength groups B and C). The timber is easy
to work and plane and the surface produced may not be perfectly smooth. Boring is easy but
the surface obtained may be rough. Turning is easy and a smooth finish may be achieved. The
nailing property is rated as poor. The seasoning properties of the timber vary according to the
species. The seasoning characteristics of the species tested in the FRIM, Kepong, are summarised
in the following table:

107
Time to air dry Shrinkage (%)
(months) (Green to air dry)
Species Remarks
13 mm 38 mm Radial Tangential
boards boards

Mezzettia parviflora 1.5 2 4 4.4 Very fast drying; moderate cupping and
insect and fungal attacks; very high
shrinkage.
Monocarpia euneura 4 5 1.5 2.7 Fairly slow drying; moderate splitting; slight
end-checking and surface-checking;
moderate shrinkage.
Xylopia fusca 3 5 2.8 4.5 Fairly slow drying; moderate cupping,
bowing and staining; slight end-checking
and insect attacks; very high shrinkage.

Kiln-drying schedule H is recommended for mempisang. However, it is necessary to bring


to the attention of the kiln-drying operator that the present schedule is based on the test carried
out on the species of Mezzettia parvijlora, the density of which is about 670 kg m-3 air dry.
When dealing with the heavier varieties of mempisang, e.g. Alphonsea elliptica (density
= 975 kg m-3) andPolyalthia rumphii (density = 805-815 kg m-3), due care should be taken to
use a milder schedule to prevent the occurrence of drying defects. The timber is non-durable
under exposed conditions but is very amenable to preservative treatment.
USES: The timber is suitable for general light construction, sliced veneers, match boxes and
splints, packing cases and crates. The heavier species can be used for parquet and strip flooring,
tool handles and wooden mathematical instruments.
Vernacular names applied include akau (Sar.), antoi (P.M.), jangkang (P.M.), karai
(Sab. and Sar.) with various epithets, kepayang babi (Sar.), mangitan (P.M.), manitan (P.M.)
andpisang-pisang (P.M. and Sab.). Major species include Alphonsea curtisii, A. elliptica,
A. johorensis, A. maingayi; Cyathocalyx prunijerus, C. sumatranus; Mezzettia parvijlora;
Mitrephora maingayi, M. vulpina; Monocarpia euneura; Platymita siamensis;
Polyalthia glauca, P hypoleuca, P sclerophylla, P sumatrana; Xylopia ferruginea, X fusca
and X stenopetala.
MEMPOYAN - The common Malaysian name for the tree and timber of Rhodamnia cinerea
(Myrtaceae). The timber is very heavy with an average density of 1025 kg m-3 air dry. The
sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is grey-brown with a purple-red tinge.
Texture is fine and even, with shallowly interlocked grain. The timber works reasonably well
and turns well. It is moderately durable to very durable when exposed to the weather or in
contact with the ground. The hard and durable timber of mempoyan is used in the construction
oflocal houses, particularly for posts and for implements. It is also used to make good quality
charcoal. No other vernacular names have been recorded. Only one species is recorded for this
country.
MENARONG - The common Malaysian name for the trees and timber of Trema spp. (Ulmaceae).
The ASEAN Standard Name, which is of Philippine origin, is ANABIONG. The timber is soft
and light with a density of 415-465 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is straw-coloured and is
sharply differentiated from the heartwood, which is light brown with a grey tinge. Texture is
slightly coarse but even, with straight or interlocked grain. The timber is weak (Strength group
D). It is moderately easy to saw and work. Planing is easy to moderately easy but the surface
produced is rough. The timber seasons fairly rapidly but suffers severe cupping, bowing, twisting
and staining. 13 mm boards take approximately 2 months to air dry, while 38 mm boards take
3 months. Shrinkage is moderate, with radial shrinkage averaging 0.9% and tangential shrinkage
averaging 2.1 %. The timber is non-durable under exposed conditions.

108
USES: This timber is not obtainable in large dimensions. Its adverse seasoning characteristics
demand extreme care in handling this timber. The timber may be suited as a source of short
fibred pulp for paper and rayon manufacture.
Vernacular names applied include lindagong (Sab. and Sar.), lundagong (Sab.),
menerong (P.M.), mengkirai (P.M.), randagong (P.M. and Sab.), rondogong (Sab.), tikam (Sab.),
towi (Sar.) and tuku baroh (Sar.). Major species include T. angustifolia, T. orientalis and
T. tomentosa.
Menasi (P.M.) = Pouteria obovata = NYATOH KUNING.
Mendailas (Sab.) = Parastemon urophyllus = NGILAS.
Mendarah (P.M.) = Species of Myristicaceae = PENARAHAN.
MENDAROH - The common Malaysian name for the trees and timber of Ptychopyxis
(Euphorbiaceae). The timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy with an average density
of 675 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is brown
with a purple-grey tinge. Texture is fine and even, with straight grain. The timber has not been
tested in the FRIM, Kepong. Vernacular names applied include medang asam (P.M.), medang
kelipat (P.M.) and rambai hutan (P.M.). Major species include P. caput-medusae, P. costata
and P. kingii.
Mendong (PM.) = Elaeocarpus spp. = SENGKURAT.
Menengang (Sar.) = Anisophyllea spp. = DELEK.
Menerong (P.M.) = Trema spp. = MENARONG.
Mengalim (Sab.) = Nephelium cuspidatum = RAMBUTAN.
Mengarawan (P.M.) = Hopea pubescens = MERAWAN.
Mengaris (Sab.) = Koompassia excelsa = TUALANG.
Mengarung (Sab.) = Castanopsis psilophylla = BERANGAN.
Menggalum (Sab.) = Nephelium cuspidatum = RAMBUTAN.
MENGGAMBONG - The common Malaysian name for the tree and timber of Vernonia arborea
(Compositae). The timber is soft and light with a density of305-465 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood
is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is light straw-coloured. Texture is rather coarse
but even, with straight grain. The timber seasons well and can be worked easily. It is non-
durable.
USES: Uses of the timber include temporary construction, household appliances and matches,
carving and wooden clogs.
Vernacular names applied include medang gambong (P.M.), medang lempong (P.M.) and
tapong-tapong (Sab.). Only one species has been recorded in this country, viz. V. arborea.
Menggris (Sar.) = Koompassia malaccensis = KEMPAS.
Mengilan (Sab.) = Nageia wallichiana = PODO.
Mengilas (Sar.) = Parastemon urophyllus = NGILAS.
Mengkai (Pk.) = Dipterocarpus rotundifolius = KERUING.
Mengkal (P.M.) = Nauclea spp.; Neonauclea spp.; and Ochreinauclea spp. = BANGKAL.
Mengkapas (P.M.) = Xanthophyllum spp. = NYALIN.
Mengkeniab (Sab.) = Metadina trichotoma and Pertusadina spp. = MERAGA.·
Mengkirai (P.M.) = Trema spp. = MENARONG.
Mengkuang (Sab. and Sar.) = Dracontomelon spp. = SENGKUANG.
Mengkudang (P.M.) = Alphonsea maingayi = MEMPISANG.
MENGKUDU - The common Malaysian Name for the trees and timber of Morinda spp.
(Rubiaceae). The timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy with a density of
610-735 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is yellow-green and is distinct from the heartwood,
which is cherry-red. Texture is moderately fine and even, with straight or shallowly interlocked
grain. The timber has not been tested in the FRIM, Kepong. Vernacular names applied include
bengkudu (Sab.). Major species include M. citrifolia and M. elliptica.

109
Mengkula (P.M.) = Adinandra spp. = SAMAK.
MENGKULANG - The Standard Malaysian Name for the light timber of Heritiera spp.
(Sterculiaceae). The timber is a medium hardwood with a density of 625-895 kg m-3 air dry.
The sapwood is usually lighter in colour than and not always sharply defined from the heartwood,
which is red, red-brown to dark red-brown. Texture is slightly to moderately coarse but even,
with straight to shallowly interlocked grain. The timber is strong (Strength group B). It is
difficult to saw and is slightly difficult to plane. However, a smooth finish can be produced.
Nailing property is rated as good. The timber seasons fairly rapidly with slight cupping, end-
checking and surface-checking as the main defects. 13 mm boards take 2 months to air dry,
while 38 mm boards take 3 months. Shrinkage is high, radial shrinkage averages 1.5% while
tangential shrinkage averages 3.4%. For kiln-drying, Schedule D is recommended and 25 mm
boards take approximately 7 days to kiln-dry. The timber is non-durable in exposed conditions
and is susceptible to lyctus beetle attacks. The timber is, however, easily treated with
preservatives.
USES: The timber is suitable for plywood manufacture, flooring, interior finishing, furniture,
panelling, general planking and glue-lamination.
Vernacular names applied include mengkulang (P.M.) with various epithets, jambu
keluang (MI.), kembang (Sab.), melabu (Sar.) and melima (P.M.). Major species of the timber
include H. albiflora, H. aurea, H. borneensis, H. globosa, H. javanica, H. simplicifolia
and H. sumatrana.
Mengkulang jari (P.M.) = Heritierajavanica = MENGKULANG.
Mengkulang jari bulu (P.M.) = Heritiera sumatrana = MENGKULANG.
Mengkulang siku keluang (P.M.) = Heritiera simplicifolia = MENGKULANG.
MENGKUNDOR - The common Malaysian name for the tree and timber of Tetrameles nudiflora
(Datiscaceae). The timber is soft and light with a density of 305-415 kg m-3 air dry. The
sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is light straw-coloured with a slight
olive-green tinge. Texture is rather coarse and even, with shallowly interlocked grain. The
timber has not been tested in the FRIM, Kepong, but is reported to saw with ease and works to
a fairly smooth surface. The timber has also been found to give reasonably good, tight veneers
without any preliminary treatment. The timber is reputed to season easily with only insect
attacks as the main source of degrades.
USES: The timber is suitable for packing crates, tea-boxes and plywood.
No other vernacular names have been recorded. This is a monospecific timber which is
absent in the Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak.
Menoa (Sar.) = Hibiscus tiliaceus = BARU.
MENSIRA - The ASEAN Standard Name, which is of Indonesian origin, for the timber
of flex spp. The common Malaysian name for the timber is MENSIRAH (q.v.).
MENSIRAH - The common Malaysian name for the timber of !lex spp. (Aquifoliaceae). The
timber is of medium density, ranging 560-595 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated
from the heartwood, which is white and darkens on exposure to yellow-brown. The grain is
straight and the texture is fine but uneven due to the presence of the broad rays. The split
surface has a considerable sheen. The timber is reported to season well with only slight splitting.
The timber is non-durable, subject to attacks by sapstain fungi.
USES: This genus is rather rare in occurrence and coupled with its small size is very unlikely to
be of any commercial importance. The timber has been tried successfully for match splints and
may be a good furniture timber if available in large enough quantities.
Vernacular names applied include bangkulatan (Sab.), morogis (Sab.) and timah-timah
(P.M.). Major species include 1. cissoidea and 1. cymosa.
Mentalun (P.M.) = Terminalia calamansanai = KETAPANG.

110
Mentawa (Sar.) = Artocarpus anisophyllus = KELEDANG.
Mentelor (P.M.) = Parinari oblongifolia = MERBATU.
Mentua taban (P.M.) = Madhuca curtisii = NYATOH.
MENTULANGl - The common Malaysian name for the trees and timber of Alangium spp.
(Alangiaceae). The timber is moderately hard and heavy with a density of 440-1100 kg m-3 air
dry. The sapwood is moderately differentiated from the heartwood, which is chocolate- to
cinnamon-brown. Texture is fine and even with straight to sometimes interlocked or wavy
grain. The timber seasons well with little defect. It works well, bends easily and takes a high
finish. The timber is strong and moderately hard to hard. It is non-durable. The timber has not
been tested in the FRIM, Kepong.
USES: The timber can be used for house construction, furniture and cabinet works, carving,
bobbins, spindles, tool handles, walking sticks, gunstocks and handicraft articles.
Vernacular names applied include mentulang (P.M.) with various epithets, dadam (Sar.),
gadong hutan (Sab.), jadam (Sar.), jadam paya (Sar.), jenangan (Sar.), kalong (P.M.),
kondolon (Sab.), lidah kerbau (P.M.), lidah kerbau putih (P.M.), marapangi (Sab.),
midong (Sar.), sa lang rusa (P.M.), satu inchi (Sab.), sisit (Sar.), telor buaya (P.M), tinjau
laut (P.M.) and various other localised names too numerous to be listed here. Major
species includeA. griffith ii, A. havilandii, A.javanicum var. ebenaceum, A. kurzii,A. longiflorum,
A. nobile, A. ridleyi and A. rotundifolium.
Mentulang2 (Sab.) = Drypetes spp. = ARAU.
Mentulang bulu (P.M.) = Alangium nobile = MENTULANG.
Mentulang daun bujor (P.M.) = Alangium javanicum var. ebenaceum = MENTULANG.
Mentulang daun lebar (P.M.) = Alangium ridleyi = MENTULANG.
Menuang (P.M.) = Pterygota alata = KASAH.
Merabong (Sar.) = Pometia pinnata = KASAL
MERAGA - The common Malaysian name for the trees and timbers of Metadina trichotoma
and Pertusadina spp. (Rubiaceae). The trees of this genus have a very unusual form, in that the
trunks appear to have slots all over, producing a lattice-like effect. The timber is hard and
heavy with a density of790-940 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is lighter in colour than but is not
sharply differentiated from the heartwood, which is yellow-brown with an olive tinge. Texture
is fine and even, with straight grain. The timber has not been tested in the FRIM, Kepong, but
is reported to be easy to work.
USES: The unusual tree form prevents any extensive utilisation of the timber. The timber has
been used for fence posts and tool handles.
Vernacular names applied include berombong (P.M.), kurau (P.M.) and mengkeniab (Sab.).
Major species include Metadina trichotoma; Pertusadina eurhyncha and P malaccensis.
Meraka (Sar.) = Shorea alb ida = ALAN BATU.
Meraka alan (Sar.) = Shorea albida = ALAN BATU.
MERANSI - The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN Standard Name for the
timber of Carallia spp. (Rhizophoraceae). The timber is hard and heavy with a density
of 670-930 kg m-3 air dry. The timber is classified under medium hardwood in Malaysia. The
sapwood is lighter in colour than and is moderately distinct from the heartwood, which
is red-brown with an orange hue. Texture is coarse and uneven, due to the presence of the
extremely large rays. Grain is straight, interlocked or slightly wavy. The timber is very strong
(Strength group A). It is easy to fairly easy to resaw and cross-cut. Planing is also easy to fairly
easy and the surface produced is smooth to moderately smooth. The timber seasons fairly
slowly, with only slight insect attacks and sapstaining as the main sources of defects. l3 mm
boards take approximately 2 months to air dry, while 38 mm boards take 5 months. Shrinkage
is low in the radial direction (0.6%) and moderate in the tangential direction (1.3%). The timber
is moderately durable and is amenable to preservative treatment.

111
USES: The oak-like figure of this timber makes it suitable for interior furnishing, decorative
purposes, panelling, furniture manufacture, parquet flooring, sliced veneers and other fancy
articles.
Vernacular names applied include kemuning hutan (Sab.), merawai (Sab.), rabong (Sar.),
radipah (Sar.), tikolod (Sab.) andyulu tambang (Sab.). Major species include C. borneensis,
C. brachiata, C. euryoides and Carallia sp. 1.
MERANTI BAKAU - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Shorea uliginosa
(Dipterocarpaceae). The timber is a light hardwood with a density of 595-755 kg m-3 air dry.
The sapwood is lighter in colour than and is distinct from the heartwood, which is light pink to
light red-brown. Texture is rather coarse but even, with interlocked grain. The timber is only
fairly strong (Strength group C). It is easy to work and produces a moderately smooth surface.
The nailing property is rated as good. The timber seasons fairly rapidly with moderate cupping,
bowing and twisting as the main sources of degrade. 13 mm boards take approximately 2
months to air dry, while 38 mm boards take 3.5 months. Shrinkage is average, with radial
shrinkage averaging 1.0% and tangential shrinkage averaging 2.7%. For kiln-drying, Schedule
H is recommended. The timber kiln-dries fast without any degrade. The timber is moderately
durable under exposed conditions and is rather difficult to treat with preservatives.
USES: The timber is suitable for all general light construction, furniture manufacture, flooring,
rotary peeled veneer, plywood and wooden pallets.
Vernacular names applied include meranti paya (P.M., in error), meranti tenggelam (Pk.)
and seraya buaya hantu (Sab.). There is only one species contributing to this timber, viz.
Shorea uliginosa, although sometimes a timber derived from the true meranti paya
(Shorea platycarpa) cannot be confidently separated from meranti bakau.
NOTE: This timber is separated from the other red merantis based on colour and density.
Meranti bakau has the colour oflight red meranti but the density of dark red meranti.
Meranti batu (P.M.) = Shorea dasyphylla = LIGHT RED MERANTI.
Meranti belang (P.M.) = Shorea resinosa = WHITE MERANTI.
Meranti bukit (P.M.) = Shorea platyclados = DARK RED MERANTI.
Meranti bumbong (P.M.) = Shorea dealbata = WHITE MERANTI.
Meranti bunga 1 (P.M.) = Shorea teysmanniana = LIGHT RED MERANTI.
Meranti bunga2 (Sar.) = Shorea albida = ALAN BUNGA.
Meranti damar hitam (P.M.) = Shorea longisperma = YELLOW MERANTI.
MERANTI, DARK RED - See DARK RED MERANTI.
Meranti daun besar - A vernacular name applicable in Peninsular Malaysia to the tree of
Shorea hemsleyana. The timber produced by this tree can range from light pink-brown to dark
red-brown and therefore, can be accordingly classified as DARK RED MERANTI (the dark
coloured variety) and LIGHT RED MERANTI (the lighter coloured variety).
Meranti gajah (P.M.) = Shorea singkawang = DARK RED MERANTI.
Meranti gerutu (P.M.) = Parashorea stellata = GERUTU.
Meranti hijau (Kd.) = Shorea balanocarpoides = YELLOW MERANTI.
Meranti jerit (P.M.) = Shorea henryana = WHITE MERANTI.
Meranti kait-kait (Sl.) - A vernacular name applicable to the tree of Shorea platycarpa. The
timber produced by this species can range from light pink to dark red-brown and therefore, can
be accordingly classified as DARK RED MERANTI (the dark coloured variety) and LIGHT
RED MERANTI (the lighter coloured variety).
Meranti kampongl (Kd. and Ps.) = Shorea assamica ssp. globifera = WHITE MERANTI.
Meranti kampong2 (Kd.) = Shorea curtisii = DARK RED MERANTI.
Meranti kelim (P.M.) = Shorea blumutensis = YELLOW MERANTI.
Meranti kepong (P.M.) = Shorea ovalis = LIGHT RED MERANTI.

112
Meranti kepong hantu (P.M.) -A vernacular name applicable to the tree of Shorea macrantha.
The timber produced by this tree can range from light pink to dark red-brown and therefore,
can he classified as LIGHT RED MERANTI or DARK RED MERANTI.
Meranti langgai (Sab. and Sar.) = Shorea beccariana = DARK RED MERANTI.
Meranti langgong (P.M.) = Shorea lepidota = LIGHT RED MERANTI.
Meranti lapis (P.M.) = Shorea lamellata = WHITE MERANTI.
MERANTI, LIGHT RED - See LIGHT RED MERANTI.
Meranti laut (P.M.) = Shorea gratissima = WHITE MERANTI.
Meranti melantai (P.M.) = Shorea macroptera = MELANTAI.
Meranti mengkai (P.M.) = Shorea bentongensis = WHITE MERANTI.
Meranti nemesu (P.M.) = Shorea pauciflora = DARK RED MERANTI.
Meranti pa'ang (P.M.) = Shorea bracteolata = WHITE MERANTI.
Meranti paya 1 (P.M.) - A vernacular name applicable to the tree of Shorea platycarpa. The
timber produced by this tree can range from light pink to dark red-brown and therefore, can be
classified as DARK RED MERANTI or LIGHT RED MERANTI.
Meranti paya 2 (P.M.) - A vernacular name often erroneously applied to the tree of Shorea
uliginosa. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is MERANTI BAKAU.
Meranti pasirl (Pk.) - A vernacular name applicable to the tree of Shorea macrantha. The
timber produced by this tree can range from light pink to dark red-brown and therefore, can be
classified as LIGHT RED MERANTI or DARK RED MERANTI.
Meranti pasir2 (P.M.) = Parashorea densiflora = GERUTU.
Meranti pasir daun besar (P.M.) = Parashorea globosa = GERUTU.
Meranti pepijat (P.M.) = Shoreajohorensis = LIGHT RED MERANTI.
Meranti pipit (P.M.) = Shorea assamica ssp. globifera = WHITE MERANTI.
Meranti rambai daun (P.M.) -A vernacular name applicable to the tree of Shorea acuminata.
The timber produced by this species can range from light pink to dark red and therefore, can be
accordingly classified as DARK RED MERANTI or LIGHT RED MERANTI.
MERANTI, RED - See RED MERANTI.
Meranti sarang punai (P.M.) = Shorea parvifolia = LIGHT RED MERANTI.
Meranti sarang punai bukit (P.M.) = Shorea ovata = DARK RED MERANTI.
Meranti sengkawang (P.M.) = Shorea singkawang = DARK RED MERANTI.
Meranti sengkawang bulu (P.M.) = Shorea singkawang ssp. scabrosa = DARK RED MERANTI.
Meranti sengkawang merah (P.M.) = Shorea singkawang = DARK RED MERANTI.
Meranti sengkawang puteh (P.M.) = Shorea maxima = YELLOW MERANTI.
Meranti seraya (P.M.) = Shorea curtisii = DARK RED MERANTI.
Meranti seraya daun besar (P.M.) = Shorea curtisii ssp. grandis = DARK RED MERANTI.
Meranti sutra (Ps. and Kd.) = Shorea henryana = WHITE MERANTI.
Meranti telepok (P.M.) = Shorea peltata = YELLOW MERANTI.
Meranti temak (P.M.) = Shorea hypochra = WHITE MERANTI.
Meranti temak nipis (P.M.) Shorea roxburghii = WHITE MERANTI.
Meranti tembaga (P.M.) = Shorea leprosula = LIGHT RED MERANTI.
Meranti tenggelam (Pk.) = Shorea uliginosa = MERANTI BAKAU.
Meranti tengkawang (P.M.) = A vernacular name applicable to the tree of Shorea palembanica.
The timber produced by this species can range from light pink to dark red-brown and therefore,
can be accordingly classified as DARK RED MERANTI or LIGHT RED MERANTI.
Meranti tengkawang ayer (P.M.) = Shorea palembanica. See meranti tengkawang.
Meranti terbak l (Ph.) = Shorea hypochra = WHITE MERANTI.
Meranti terbak2 (Lk.) = Anisoptera costata = MERSAWA.
MERANTI, WHITE - See WHITE MERANTI.

113
MERANTI,YELLOW - See YELLOW MERANTI.
Marapangi (Sab.) = Alangium kurzii and A. rotundifolium = MENTULANG.
Merapoh 1 (P.M.) = Adinandra spp. = SAMAK.
Merapoh2 (P.M.) = Bouea oppositifolia = KUNDANG.
Merawai (Sab.) = Carallia sp. 1 = MERANSI.
MERAWAN - The Standard Malaysian Name for the light timbers of Hopea spp.
(Dipterocarpaceae). The timber is a medium hardwood with a density of 495-980 kg m-3 air
dry. The sapwood is generally lighter in colour than and poorly defined from the heartwood,
which is yellow when fresh but darkens to light brown or red-brown on exposure. Texture is
moderately fine and even, with interlocked grain. The timber is strong (Strength group B). It is
moderately easy to easy to resaw and cross-cut. Planing is fairly easy to easy and the surface
produced is smooth. Nailing property is rated as very poor. The timber seasons slowly with
slight cupping as the only defect. 13 mm boards take approximately 4 months to air dry while
38 rom boards take 6 months. Shrinkage is average, with radial shrinkage of H. sulcata averaging
0.9% and tangential shrinkage averaging 2.2%. For kiln-drying, Schedule H is recommended.
25 mm boards take approximately 5 days to kiln-dry from 50 to 10% moisture content. There
is no recorded drying degrade. The timber is moderately durable and is very resistant to
preservative treatment.
USES: The timber is suitable for rafters, joists, door and window frames, flooring, joinery,
furniture manufacture, veneer and plywood manufacture. The heavier species are suitable for
heavy construction under cover.
Vernacular names applied are usually merawan (P.M.) with various qualifying epithets,
luis (Sar.), mang (Sar.) and selangan (Sab. and Sar.) with various epithets. Gagil is used for
H. sangal in Sabah. The timber is usually mixed with the lighter species of Shorea and sold
as selangan batu No. 2 in Sabah. Major species of merawan include H. beccariana,
H. dryobalanoides, H. dyeir, H. jerruginea, H. glaucescens, H. grifjithii, H. latifolia,
H. mengarawan, H. montana, H. myrtifolia, H. nervosa, H. odorata, H. pierrei, H. pubescens,
H. sangal, H. sublanceolata and H. sulcata.
Merawan batu (P.M.) = Hopea beccariana = MERAWAN.
Merawan bunga (P.M.) = Hopea pubescens = MERAWAN.
Merawan daun bulat (P.M.) = Hopea latifolia = MERAWAN.
Merawan gunong (P.M.) = Hopea montana = MERAWAN.
Merawan hitam 1 (P.M.) = Hopea dyeri and H. sangal = MERAWAN.
Merawan hitam 2 (Ml.) = Hopea mengarawan = MERAWAN.
Merawan jangkang 1 (P.M.) = Hopea jerruginea, H. glaucescens, H. latifolia and H. nervosa =
MERAWAN.
Merawan jangkang2 (Pk.) = Hopea myrtifolia = MERAWAN.
Merawan jantan (P.M.) = Hopea grifjithii = MERAWAN.
Merawan jeruai (P.M.) = Hopea sublanceolata = MERAWAN.
Merawan kanching (P.M.) = Hopea subalata = GIAM.
Merawan meranti (P.M.) = Hopea sulcata = MERAWAN.
Merawan palit (P.M.) = Hopea dyeri = MERAWAN.
Merawan palong (P.M.) = Hopea pierrei = GIAM.
Merawan pasir (Ph.) = Hopea jerruginea = MERAWAN.
Merawan penak 1 (P.M.) = Hopea mengarawan = MERAWAN.
Merawan penak2 (Ph.) = Hopea nervosa = MERAWAN.
Merawan pipit (P.M.) = Hopea pubescens = MERAWAN.
Merawan smut (P.M.) = Hopea sangal = MERAWAN.
Merawan smut jantan (P.M.) = Hopea odorata = MERAWAN.

114
Merawan ungu (P.M.) = Hopea bracteata = MERAWAN.
MERBATU - The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN Standard Name for the
timbers of Atuna spp., Kostermanthus spp., Licania spp., Maranthes corymbosa and
Parinari spp. (Chrysobalanaceae). The timber is a medium hardwood with a density of
685-1000 kg m-3 air dry. The timber is moderately hard to very hard and is moderately heavy
to very heavy. The sapwood is lighter in colour than but not clearly defined from the heartwood,
which is red-brown, sometimes with a yellow tinge. Texture is moderately coarse but even,
with straight, spiral or wavy grain. The timber is strong (Strength group B). It is difficult to very
difficult to resaw and cross-cut due to the presence of silica and the twisted grain. The timber is
slightly difficult to plane but the surface produced is smooth. The nailing property is rated as
very poor. The timber seasons fairly rapidly with slight defects. Slight cupping, bowing, splitting
and some moderate amount of end-checking and staining are the main sources of
degrade. 13 mm boards take 1.5 months to air dry, while 38 mm boards take 3.5 months. Shrinkage
is fairly low, with radial shrinkage averaging 1.6% and tangential shrinkage averaging 2.6%.
The timber is only moderately durable under exposed conditions but is amenable to preservative
treatment.
USES: The timber is suitable for medium to heavy construction under cover, posts, beams, salt
water piling and other marine construction. The timber is also suitable for parquet flooring and
railway sleepers for secondary lines.
Other vernacular names applied to the trees include kemalau (P.M.), kukut (Sar.), mentelor
(P.M.), merbatu laut (P.M.), merbatu pipit (P.M.), nyalin laut (Sar.), rasak batu (Sab. and Sar.)
and torog (Sab.). Major species include Atuna cordata, A. nannodes, A. racemosa;
Kostermanthus heteropetalus; Maranthes corymbosa; Parinari costata, P. elmeri,
P. oblongifolia, P. rigida and P. rubiginosa.
Merbatu kechil (P.M.) = Licania splendens = MERBATD.
Merbatu laut (P.M.) = Maranthes corymbosa = MERBATU.
Merbatu pipit (P.M.) = Parinari costata ssp. costata = MERBATU.
MERBAU - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Intsia spp., principally I. palembanica
(Leguminosae). The timber is a heavy hardwood with a density of 515-1040 kg m-3 air dry.
The sapwood is pale yellow to light buff and is sharply differentiated from the heartwood,
which is yellowish to orange-brown when fresh, darkening to brown or dark red-brown on
exposure. Texture is rather coarse but even, with interlocked grain. The timber is strong (Strength
group B). It is moderately easy to resaw and cross-cut when green but is slightly difficult when
dried. Planing is easy to slightly difficult and the planed surface is smooth in most cases except
for slight picking up of grain on the radial face. Nailing property is rated as very poor. The
timber seasons slowly without any degrade except for some powder-post-beetle attacks on the
sapwood. 13 mm boards take approximately 4.5 months to air dry, while 38 mm boards take 6
months. Shrinkage values are particularly low, with radial shrinkage averaging 0.9% and
tangential shrinkage averaging 1.6%. The heartwood of merbau is durable under exposed
conditions and is reported to be resistant to termite attacks. The sapwood is, however, perishable.
The timber is very difficult to treat with preservatives.
USES: Merbau is a very attractive wood, with its growth ring figure and deep colour. The
timber is suitable for interior finishing, panelling, strip and parquet flooring, superior joinery,
cabinet-making, musical instruments, decorative and novelty items, veneers and power
transmission poles. The timber is widely used for the manufacture of reproduction antique
furniture and strip flooring in the country.
Vernacular names applied include merbau ipi/ (P.M.) and ipil laut (Sab.) for 1. bijuga.
Major species include 1. bijuga and 1. palembanica.
Merbau ayer (Sar.) = Intsia palembanica = MERBAU.

115
Merbau bukit (Sar.) = Intsia palembanica = MERBAU.
Merbau ipil (P.M.) = Intsia bijuga = MERBAU.
MERBAU KERA - The adopted common Malaysian name for the timber of Crudia spp.
(Leguminosae). The timber is very hard and very heavy with a density of
930-1120 kg m~3 air dry. The sapwood is walnut brown or dark yellow-brown and fairly sharply
differentiated from the heartwood, which is dark chocolate-brown with lighter-coloured streaks.
Texture is moderately fine and uneven due to the presence of abundant parenchyma. Grain is
interlocked and wavy. The timber is reported to be very strong (Strength group A). It is difficult
to work and has a dulling effect on tools. The timber is moderately durable.
USES: The timber is suitable for striking tool handles, heavy construction under cover or of a
temporary nature and also for flooring, door and window frames.
Vernacular names applied include angar-angar (Sab.), babi kurus (P.M.) andjering tupai
(P.M.). Major species include C. curtisii, C. reticulata and C. scortechinii.
MERBAU LALAT - The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN Standard Name for
the timber of Sympetalandra spp. (Leguminosae). The timber is moderately heavy with a density
of 640-720 kg m-3air dry. The sapwood is light pink-brown and is distinct from the heartwood,
which is pink-brown to brown with a red tinge. Texture is rather coarse and uneven due to the
presence of thick confluent bands of parenchyma. The timber has not been fully tested in the
FRIM, Kepong. However, the nailing property has been tested and found to be poor. The
timber seasons slowly with moderate amount of cupping, bowing and insect attacks as the main
sources of degrade. 13 mm boards take approximately 3 months to air dry, while 38 mm boards
take 6 months. Shrinkage is fairly high, especially in the radial direction. Radial shrinkage
averages 1.7% while tangential shrinkage averages 2.4%. The timber is durable under exposed
conditions (graveyard test result: average 5.2 years service life).
USES: The timber is suitable for light to medium construction under cover, rotary peeled veneers
and plywood and possibly for some interior finishing like partitioning.
Vernacular names applied include bellotan (Sab.), merbau laut (Sar.) and potai munjit (Sab.).
Major species include S. borneensis and S. unijuga. Both S. borneensis and S. unijuga are
common in Sabah and Sarawak, but S. hildebrandii is very rare in Peninsular Malaysia.
Merbau laut (Sar.) = Sympetalandra borneensis = MERBAU LALAT.
Merbau paya (Sab.) = Intsia bijuga = MERBAU.
Merbau tanduk (Sab.) = Aftelia rhomboidea = IPIL.
Merbulan (Sar.) = Blumeodendron spp. = GAHAM BADAK.
Merbuloh (Sar.) = Pellacalyx spp. = MEMBULOH.
Merebong (Sar.) = Dactyloclados stenostachys = JONGKONG.
Merelang (P.M.) = Species of Aglaia sect. Amoora = BEKAK.
Mergalang (Sar.) = Alstonia spp. = PULAI.
Mergasing (Sar.) = Kayea spp. = PENAGA TIKUS.
Meriali (P.M.) = Trigoniastrum hypoleucum = MARAJALI.
Meriang (P.M.) = Fagraea gigantea = TEMBUSU.
Meridian (Sar.) = Ixonanthes spp. = PAGAR ANAK.
Meritam (Sab.) = Nephelium ramboutan-ake = RAMBUTAN.
Meribut (P.M.) = Diospyros buxifolia and D. rigida = KAYU MALAM.
Meribut daun besar (P.M.) = Mitrephora maingayi = MEMPISANG.
Merjali (P.M.) = Trigoniastrum hypoleucum = MARAJALI.
Merkabong (Sab.) = Macaranga gigantea = MAHANG.
Merpak (Ph.) = A vernacular name applicable to the tree of Shorea palembanica. The timber
produced by this species can range from light pink to dark red-brown and therefore, can be
accordingly classified as DARK RED MERANTI or LIGHT RED MERANTI.

116
MERPAUH - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Swintonia spp. (Anacardiaceae).
The timber is a medium hardwood with a density of 640-880 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is
light brown with a grey or pink tinge and is not sharply differentiated from the heartwood,
which is light grey-brown with a pink tinge. Some trees develop a corewood, which is streaked
with orange and red lines. Texture is moderately coarse but even, with interlocked grain. The
timber is strong (Strength group B). It is difficult to very difficult to saw and cross-cut but is
easy to plane and the surface produced is smooth. The nailing property ranges from good to
very poor depending on species. The seasoning properties of some species tested are summarised
in the following table:

Time to air dry Shrinkage (%)


(months) (Green to air dry)
Species Remarks
!3mm 38mm Radial Tangential
boards boards

S. jloribunda 2.5 3.5 0.8 1.5 Fairly fast drying; moderate staining; slight
var. penangiana cupping, bowing, twist and insect attack;
low shrinkage.
S. schwenkii 2.5 4.5 1.4 2 Moderately fast drying; moderate staining;
slight cupping, bowing, twist, end-checks
and insect attack; average shrinkage.
S. spicifera 2 4 0.9 1.8 Fairly fast drying; moderate staining; end-
checks, slight cupping, bowing, twist and
insect attack; fairly low shrinkage.

The timber is moderately durable to non-durable under exposed conditions but absorbs
preservatives readily.
USES: The timber is suitable for light and medium construction under cover. The attractively
streaked corewood, if available is suitable for high-class joinery and furniture. The timber is
suitable for interior finishing, panelling, partitioning and flooring. The timber has been
successfully tried for rotary-cut veneers.
Vernacular names applied include merpauh (P.M.) with various epithets, periang (P.M.),
pitoh (Sar.), rengas (Sab.) and selan (Sar.). Major species include S. floribunda var. penangiana,
S. schwenkii and S. spicifera.
Merpauh daun run ching = Swintoniafloribunda var. penangiana = MERPAUH.
Merpauh daun tebal = Swintonia spicifera = MERPAUH.
Merpauh periang = Swintonia schwenkii = MERPAUH.
MERPITAS - The ASEAN Standard Name, which is of Indonesian origin, for the timber of
Erythroxylum spp. The common Malaysian name for the timber is CHINTA MULA (q. v.).
MERSAWA - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber ofAnisoptera spp. (Dipterocarpaceae).
The timber is a light hardwood with a density of 515-735 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not
sharply defined from the heartwood, which is light to dark yellow and darkens on exposure.
Texture is moderately coarse but even, with shallow to deeply interlocked and sometimes slightly
spiral grain. The timber is only fairly strong (Strength group C). It is difficult to resaw and
cross-cut and have a dulling effect on the cutters, due to the presence of silica. The timber is
difficult to plane but the surface produced is smooth. The nailing property is rated as good. The
timber dries very slowly but with only slight degrades. Minor cupping, bowing and surface-
checking are noted during drying. 13 mm boards take 6 months to air dry, while 25 mm
and 38 mm boards take 7.5 and 9 months respectively. Shrinkage is high, radial shrinkage
averaging 1.4% and tangential shrinkage averaging 3.5%. For kiln-drying, Schedule E is

117
recommended. The timber dries slowly and maintains high moisture content in the core.
25 mm boards take approximately 16-17 days to kiln-dry from 50 to 10% moisture content.
The timber is moderately durable under exposed conditions and is difficult to treat with
preservatives.
USES: The timber is extremely popular as a veneer and plywood species. Other uses include
light construction, furniture manufacture, pallets, boxes and crates.
The common vernacular names applied include Idjal (Tr.), loh (Ph.), medang sawa (P.M.),
mersawa (P.M. and Sar.) with various epithets, pengiran (Sab.) with various epithets,
rengkong (Ph.), sanai (P.M.), sepah petri (NS.) and terbak (Kd., Ps. and Kl.). Major species
include A. costata, A. curtisii, A. grossivenia, A. laevis, A. marginata, A. megistocarpa and
A. scaphula.
Mersawa api (P.M.) = Anisoptera megistocarpa = MERSAWA.
Mersawa durian (P.M.) = Anisoptera laevis = MERSAWA.
Mersawa gajah (P.M.) = Anisoptera scaphula = MERSAWA.
Mersawa kesat (P.M.) = Anisoptera costata = MERSAWA.
Mersawa kuning (P.M.) = Anisoptera curtisii = MERSAWA.
Mersawa merah (P.M.) = Anisoptera megistocarpa = MERSAWA.
Mersawa paya (P.M.) = Anisoptera marginata = MERSAWA.
Mersawa terbak (P.M.) = Anisoptera costata = MERSAWA.
Mersiput (P.M.) = Hopea sangal = MERAWAN.
Mertama (Sar.) = Anisophyllea corneri and A. disticha = DELEK.
MERTAS - The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN Standard Name for the timber
of Ctenolophon parvifoUus (Ctenolophonaceae). The timber is hard and heavy with a density
of 800-930 kg m-3 air dry. The timber is classified under medium hardwood in Malaysia. The
sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is brown to purple-red-brown. Texture
is moderately fine and even, with interlocked and sometimes wavy grain. The timber is strong
(Strength group B). It is difficult to work, especially in the radial direction where picking-up of
grain frequently occurs. The nailing property is rated as poor. The timber seasons fairly rapidly
without serious degrade, 13 mm boards take 1.5 months to air dry, while 38 mm boards take 4
months. End-checking is a common defect, especially in thicker specimens. Shrinkage is fairly
high, with radial shrinkage averaging 2% and tangential shrinkage averaging 3.3%. The timber
is moderately durable.
USES: The timber is suitable for medium construction, posts, beams, joists, marine construction,
parquet flooring, heavy duty flooring, power transmission poles and heavy duty pallets.
Vernacular names applied include besi-besi (Sab.) and Utoh (Sar.). The tree is sometimes
known as kelat, a mistake arising from the close resemblance of the leaves to those of
Syzygium spp.
Mertilan 1 (Sar.) = Cratoxylum arborescens = GERONGGANG.
Mertilan2 (Sar.) = Cratoxylum cochinchinense = DERUM.
MERUBII - The ASEAN Standard Name, which is of Indonesian origin, for the timber of
Pterriandra spp. The common Malaysian name for the timber is SIAL MENAHUN (q. v.).
MerubF (Sar.) = Artocarpus dadah = KELEDANG.
Mesekam (P.M.) = Baccaurea sumatrana = TAMPOI.
Mesepat (P.M.) = Macaranga conifera = MAHANG.
Mesua - A genus of small to medium-sized trees up to 25 m tall and 70 cm in diameter, belonging
to the family Guttiferae. The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN Standard Name
for the timber of M.ferrea is PENAGA (q.v.). Mesuaferrea produces a very hard and very
heavy timber with a density of 945-1185 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is pale yellow with a
pink tinge, becoming grey-brown on exposure and is sharply differentiated from the heartwood,

118
which is red-brown with a purple tinge when fresh, becoming dark red-brown on exposure.
Other properties and uses of the timber are described under PENAGA. Vernacular names applied
include lenggapus (P.M.) and matopus (P.M.). Only one species is recorded for this country,
viz. M ferrea.
Metadina - A genus of medium-sized to fairly large trees up to 40 m tall and 50 cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Rubiaceae. The common Malaysian name for the trees and timber is
MERAGA (q. v.). Metadina yields a density of 860-940 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is lighter
in colour than but is not sharply differentiated from the heartwood, which is yellow-brown with
an olive tinge. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under MERAGA. Vernacular
names applied include berombong (P.M.), kurau (P.M.) and mengkeniab (Sab.). Metadina is a
monotypic genus and the species is M. trichotoma. This genus is related to Adina and a group
of four small "satellite" genera (including Adinauclea, Haldina and Pertusadina) in the tribe
Naucleeae.
Mezzettia - A genus of small to tall trees up to 45 m tall and 80(-110) cm in diameter, belonging
to the family Annonaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is MEMPISANG
(q.v.). The timber is a light hardwood with a density of 420-755 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is
not differentiated from the heartwood, which is yellow-brown. Other properties and uses
ofthe timber are described under MEMPISANG. Vernacular names applied include akau (Sar.),
karai (Sab. and Sar.), kepayang babi (Sar.), manitan (P.M.) and pisang-pisang (P.M. and Sar.).
Only one species is common enough to be of commercial interest, viz. M. parviflora.
Miapa (Sab.) = Trigoniastrum hypoleucum = MARAJALI.
Michelia - The genus has been reduced to Magnolia. See Magnolia.
Microcos - A genus of shrubs or small to medium-sized trees up to 30 m tall and 60(-70) cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Tiliaceae. The common Malaysian name for the timber is
CHENDERAI (q.v.). The timber is moderately hard to hard, moderately heavy with a density
of 415-770 kg m-3 air dry. The heartwood is pale red to pale brown or pale pink-brown, often
becoming grey-brown on exposure, not differentiated from the paler sapwood. Other properties
and uses of the timber are described under CHENDERAI. Venacular names applied include
asam damat (P.M.), bunsi (Sar.), damak-damak (P.M.) and kerudong (Sab.). Major species
include M. antidesmifolia, M cinnamomifolia, M jibrocarpa, M latifolia, M. lanceolata,
M laurifolia, M triflora and M. tomentosa.
Midong (Sar.) = Alangium spp. = MENTULANG.
Miku (P.M.) = Artocarpus lowii = TERAP.
Millettia - A genus of woody climbers, treelets or small trees, belonging to the family Leguminosae.
The common Malaysian names for the timber are TULANG DAING (q.v.) and MEMPARl
(q.v.).
Tulang daing is used here to cover all species of Millettia in Peninsular Malaysia although,
strictly speaking, this name is only applicable to Callerya atropurpurea. In Sarawak, the
vernacular name used for the species is kedang belum. Properties and uses of the timber are
described under TULANG DAING. No other vernacular names have been recorded. Major
species include M galliflagrans and M xylocarpa.
Mempari is moderately hard and moderately heavy to heavy with a density of
625-865 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is light
yellow with a slight green tinge when fresh and darkens to a buff yellow on exposure. Other
properties and uses of the timber are described under MEMPARl. Other vernacular names
applied include malapari (P.M.) and marabahai (Sab.). Only one species has been recorded
for Malaysia, viz. M pinnata (syn.: Pongamia pinnata).
Minggi (Sar.) = Parartocarpus bracteatus, P. microcarpus and P. venenosus = TERAP.
Minyak berok (P.M. and Sab.) = Xanthophyllum spp. = NYALIN.

119
Mirinos (Sar.) = Cratoxylumformosum = DERUM.
Misi (P.M.) = Pouteria obovata = NYATOH KUNING.
Mitrephora - A genus of shrubs or small trees up to 21 m tall and 40(-50) cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Annonaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is
MEMPISANG (q. v.). The timber is a light hardwood with a density of780-950 kg m-3 air dry.
The heartwood is pale yellow-brown and not well defined from the sapwood. Other properties
and uses of the timber are described under MEMPISANG. Vernacular names applied include
karai (Sab.), meribut daun besar (P.M.) and pisang-pisang (P.M.). Major species include
M. maingayi and M. vulpina.
Momon (Sar.) = Engelhardtia serrata = DUNGUN PAYA.
Monocarpia - A genus of medium-sized trees up to 35 m tall and 60 cm in diameter, belonging to
the family Annonaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is MEMPISANG (q. v.).
The timber is a light hardwood with a density of 530-625 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not
differentiated from the heartwood, which is light yellow-brown with a slight green tinge. Other
properties and uses of the timber are described under MEMPISANG. Vernacular names applied
include akau (Sar.), karai (Sab.), manitan (P.M.) and pisang-pisang (P.M.). The genus comprises
two species, viz. M. euneura and M. kalimantan ens is, occurring in Thailand, Peninsular
Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo. Only one species is recorded for Malaysia, viz. M. euneura.
Mopu (Sar.) = Anisophyllea spp. = DELEK.
Moraceae - A fairly large family of trees, shrubs or woody climbers. This family is widespread
in Malaysia and produces a number of commercial timbers. Among the more common timbers
produced are Artocarpus (KELEDANG and TERAP), Ficus (ARA), Parartocarpus (TERAP)
and Streblus (TEMPINIS).
Morinda - A genus of climbers or rarely small trees, belonging to the family Rubiaceae. The
common Malaysian name for the tree and timber is MENGKUDU (q. v.). The timber is moderately
hard and moderately heavy with a density of610-735 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is yellow-
green and is distinct from the heartwood, which is cherry-red. Other properties and uses of the
timber are described under MENGKUDU. Vernacular name applied includes bengkudu (Sab.).
Major species include M. citri/olia and M. elliptica.
Morogis (Sab.) = Ilex spp. = MENSIRAH.
MUGIS - The ASEAN Standard Name, which is of Indonesian origin, for the timber of
Koordersiodendron pinnatum. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is RANGGU (q. v.).
Mujau (Sar.) = Nephelium maingayi and Nephelium ramboutan-ake = RAMBUTAN.
Mungal (P.M.) = Adinandra acuminata = SAMAK.
Murieng (Sar.) = Trema tomentosa = MENARONG.
Mussaendopsis - A genus of medium-sized to fairly large trees up to 35 m tall and 65(-75) cm in
diameter, found in swampy areas and belonging to the family Rubiaceae. The common Malaysian
name for the tree and timber is MALABERA BUKIT (q. v.). The timber is hard and heavy with
a density of 915-930 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood,
which is orange-yellow with or without streaks. Other properties and uses of the timber are
described under MALABERA BUKIT. Vernacular names applied include mempedal baN (p.M.).
Only one species is recorded in this country, viz. M. beccariana.
Mutun (Sar.) = Combretocarpus rotundatus = KERUNTUM.
Myristica - A genus of medium-sized to large trees up to 35(-45) m tall and 70(-100) cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Myristicaceae. The timber is grouped together with the other
members of the family and sold as PENARAHAN (q. v.). The timber is a light hardwood with a
density of 480-690 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is lighter in colour than and poorly defined
from the heartwood, which is light yellow-brown. Other properties and uses of the timber are
described under PENARAHAN. Vernacular names applied include alanagni (Sab.), darah-

120
darah (Sab.), dara kerbau (Kl.), kumpang (Sar.), mendarah (P.M.),pala (Kd.) andpenarahan
arang (P.M.). Major species of the genus include M. cinnamomea, M. elliptica, M. gigantea,
M. guatteriifolia, M. iners, M. lowiana and M. maingayi.
Myristicaceae - A fairly large family of small to large trees. This family produces a rather
uniform timber that is sold as PENARAHAN. Major species include Gymnacranthera,
Horsfieldia, Knema and Myristica.
Myrtaceae - A very large family of shrubs or trees. In Malaysia, only one genus is of importance
as a source of timber, viz. Syzygium (KELAT). Other notable genera include Leptospermum
(GELAM BUKIT) , Melaleuca (GELAM), Rhodamnia (MEMPOYAN) and Tristaniopsis
(PELAWAN).

121
N
Nageia - A genus of shrubs (rarely) or small to large trees up to 54 m tall and 130 cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Podocarpaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is
PODO (q.v.). It is commonly grouped together with other members of the family
(Dacrycarpus imbricatus and Podocarpus spp.) and sold as PODO. The timber is light to
heavy with a density of 410-920 kg m-3 air dry. The heartwood is pale pinkish brown to
pale yellowish brown, sometimes with an orange tinge and not distinct from the paler, straw-
coloured sapwood. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under PODO.
Vernacular names applied include lampias (Sab.), manggilan (Sab.), medang buloh (Sar.),
mengilan (Sab.), podo kebal musang (P.M.) and podo kebal musang gunong (P.M.).
Major species include N. motleyi and N. wallichiana.
Nangka (P.M.) = Artocarpus heterophyllus = KELEDANG.
Nangka-nangka (P.M.) = Pouteria spp. = NYATOH KUNING.
Nangka pipit (P.M.) = Artocarpus rigidus = TERAP.
Nasi-nasi (Sab.) = Trema tomentosa = MENARONG.
Nauclea - A genus of shrubs to fairly large trees up to 35 m tall and 80(-100) cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Rubiaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN
Standard Name for the timber is BANGKAL (q. v.). The timber is soft to moderately hard with
a density of335-750 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is lighter in colour than and merges gradually
into the heartwood, which is characterised by a bright yellow or orange hue. Other properties
and uses of the timber are described under BANGKAL. Vernacular names applied include
bangkal (Sab.) with various epithets, jengkai (Sar ), lenggaung (Sar.), mangkal (P.M.) and
mengkal (P.M.). Major species include N. ofJicinalis and N. subdita.
Neesia- A genus of medium-sized to large trees up to 50 m tall and 120 cm in diameter, belonging
to the family Bombacaceae. The timber is grouped together with those from Durio spp.,
Coelostegia spp. and Kostermansia malayana and sold as DURIAN (q. v.). The timber is a light
hardwood with a density of 420-710 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is pale yellow and sharply
defined from the heartwood, which is brown with a red tinge. Other properties and uses ofthe
timber are described under DURIAN. Vernacular names applied include apa-apa (P.M.),
bengang (P.M. and Sar.) and durian monyit (Sab.). Major species include N. altissima,
N. kostermansiana, N. malayana and N. synandra.
Nemusu (P.M.) = Shorea pauciflora = DARK RED MERANTI.
Neobalanocarpus - A monospecific genus of large trees, sometimes over 60 m tall and with an
average of90 cm in diameter, belonging to the family Dipterocarpaceae. The Standard Malaysian
Name for the timber is CHENGAL (q.v.). The timber is a heavy hardwood with a density of
915-980 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is light yellow and sharply defined from the heartwood
which is light yellow-brown with a distinct green tinge, darkening on exposure to dark
purple-brown or rust-red. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under
CHENGAL. Due to the popularity of this timber, many other species, sometimes totally unrelated,
have been given names closely resembling chengal. Only one other vernacular name has been
recorded for this species and that is penak (P.M.), which is also applicable to Hopea semicuneata.
The only species ofthis genus is Neobalanocarpus heimii, occurring only in Peninsular Malaysia.

122
Neolamarckia - A genus of medium-sized to large trees up to 45 m tall and 100(-160) cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Rubiaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is
LARAN (q.v.) but it is popularly known as kelempayan. The timber is soft and light with a
density of 290-465 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood,
which is white with a yellow tinge and becomes creamy yellow on exposure. Other properties
and uses of the timber are described under LARAN. Vernacular names applied include entipong
(Sar.), kelampayan (P.M. and Sar.), kelempayan (Sab.), limpoh (Sab.) and sempayan (Sar.).
This genus consists of two species and occurs from Sri Lanka, India, Nepal and Bangladesh
eastward through Malesia to New Guinea. Only one species, viz. N. cadamba, occurs in this
country.
Neonauclea-Agenus of small to fairly large trees up to 40(-45) tall and 80(-150) cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Rubiaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name, as well as the ASEAN
Standard Name for the timber is BANGKAL (q.v.). Neonauclea yields a medium to heavy
hardwood with a density of 560-980 kg m-3 air dry. The heartwood is pale to bright orange or
dark yellow to pink becoming paler on exposure and merging gradually with the sapwood.
Other properties and uses of the timber are described under BANGKAL. Vernacular names
include bangkal (Sab.) with various epithets, lenggaung (Sar.) and mengkal (P.M.). Major
species include N. calycina, N. gigantea, N. lanceolata and N. pallida.
Neoscortechinia - A genus of small to fairy large trees up to 36 m tall and 100 cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae. The timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy
with a density of 470-900 kg m-3 air dry. The heartwood is light straw-coloured and not clearly
defined from the sapwood. Texture is moderately fine and even, with straight to wavy grain.
Wood working properties are average to good. It machines well and turns, bores and finishes to
a smooth surface. Shrinkage upon seasoning is low to moderate. 25 mm and 50 mm thick
boards take about 3 and 10 days to kiln-dry respectively. Flat-sawn boards are particularly
prone to drying defects such as end-splitting and surface checking. The timber is non-durable.
The timber is only moderately penneable to preservative treatments.
USES: The timber is used for general, light to temporary construction, interior trim, moulding,
flooring, joinery, window sills, tumery, furniture, veneer and plywood.
Vernacular names include agar-agar (Sab.), bantas (Sar.), beki (P.M.),jintek-jintek (P.M.),
perupoh jantan (P.M.), salah (P.M) and tembatu (P.M.). There are four species recorded in
Peninsular Malaysia. The most common species is N. kingii.
Nephelium - A genus of medium-sized to large trees up to 35(-44) m tall and 90(-140) cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Sapindaceae. The common Malaysian name for the timber is
RAMBUTAN (q. v.). The timber is hard to very hard and heavy to very heavy with a density of
880-1075 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is lighter in colour than and is only moderately sharply
differentiated from the heartwood, which is red-brown to light purple-brown. Other properties
and uses of the timber are described under RAMBUTAN. Vernacular names applied include
kelamondoi (Sab.), lotong (P.M.), meritam (Sab.), pulasan (P.M.), rambutan hutan (P.M.),
rambutan pachat (P.M.), redan (P.M.), and various other localised names too numerous to be
listed here. Major species include N. cuspidatum, N. daedaleum, N. lappaceum, N. maingayi,
N. meduseum, N. melanomiscum and N. ramboutan-ake.
Ngayong (Sar.) = Brnguiera cylindrica = BAKAU.
NGILAS - The Standard Malaysian Name, which is of Sarawakian origin, for the timber of
Parastemon spp. (Chrysobalanaceae). The ASEAN Standard Name for the timber, which is of
Indonesian origin, is MALAS. The timber is very hard and very heavy with a density
of 915-1105 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is light purple-brown when fresh, becoming grey-
brown to light red-brown on exposure and is not sharply differentiated from the heartwood,
which is purple-brown when fresh, becoming brown with a light purple or red tinge when dry.

123
Texture is moderately fine and even, with straight or slightly interlocked grain. The timber is
very strong (Strength group A). It is very difficult to resaw and cross-cut and is generally
slightly difficult to work and plane. The surface produced, however, is smooth. The nailing
property is rated as very poor. The timber seasons fairly rapidly with slight defects. Slight
cupping, bowing, splitting and a moderate amount of end-checking are the main sources of
degrade. 13 mm boards take 2 months to air dry, while 38 mm boards take 4 months. Shrinkage
is very high especially in the tangential direction. Radial shrinkage averages 2.7% and tangential
shrinkage 4.8%. The timber is only moderately durable.
USES: The timber is suitable for medium to heavy construction if protected. Other uses may
include heavy-duty flooring, laboratory benches, parquet flooring and fence posts.
Vernacular names applied include mendailas (Sab.) and nyalas (P.M.). Major species include
P. grandifructus and P. urophyllus.
Ngilis (Sar.) = Trigoniastrum hypoleucum = MARAJALI.
NIPIS KULIT - The common Malaysian name for the trees and timber of Memecylon spp.
(Melastomataceae). The timber is hard to very hard and heavy to very heavy with a density of
850-1155 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is lighter in colour than but not sharply defined from
the heartwood, which is dark purple-brown in M. lilacinum and various shades of yellow-
brown or brown in the other species. Texture is fine or moderately fine and uneven due to the
presence of included phloem. Grain is interlocked and sometimes irregular. The timber is
strong (Strength group B). It is difficult to resaw and cross-cut, causing rapid blunting of the
cutter tools. Planing is also difficult and the planed surface produced is smooth on the tangential
side but only moderately smooth on the radial side. The nailing property is rated as very poor.
The timber seasons fairly slowly with moderate amount of borer attacks, slight bowing, twisting,
end-checking and surface-checking as the main sources of defects. 13 mm boards take
approximately 4 months to air dry, while 38 mm boards take 6 months. Shrinkage is high, with
radial shrinkage averaging 2.7% and tangential shrinkage averaging 4%. The timber is
moderately durable. The sapwood readily absorbs preservatives, while the heartwood is
impenetrable.
USES: The small size of the tree precludes any extensive utilisation of this timber. It has been
used for poles and firewood.
Vernacular names applied include delek tembaga (p.M.). Major species include M. garcinioides,
M. lilacinum and M. pubescens.
Nothaphoebe-A genus of small to medium-sized trees up to 30(-36) m tall and 70(-90) cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Lauraceae. The timber is commonly grouped together with
the other lightweight members of the family and sold as MEDANG (q. v.). The timber is a light
hardwood with a density of 465-755 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not distinct and is lighter
in colour than the heartwood, which is light olive-brown and darkens to a dark green-brown.
Other properties and uses of the timber are described under MEDANG. Medang (P.M., Sab.
and Sar.) with various epithets, and lamau-lamau (Sab.) are usually applied as vernacular names
to the species of this genus. Major species include N. coriacea, N. obovata, N. panduriformis
and N. umbelliflora.
Nulong (P.M.) = Agrostistachys borneensis = JENmLONG.
Nyalas (P.M.) = Parastemon urophyllus = NGILAS.
Nyaletang (Sab.) = Campnosperma spp. = TERENTANG.
NYALIN 1 - The Standard Malaysian Name, which is of Sarawakian origin, for the timber of
Xanthophyllum spp. (Polygalaceae). The ASEAN Standard Name, which is of Indonesian origin,
for the timber is LlLIN. The timber is hard to very hard and heavy to very heavy with a density
of 595-960 kg m-3 air dry. The timber is classified under medium hardwood in Malaysia. The
sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is white to bright yellow when fresh
and darkens to a strong orange-yellow. Texture is moderately coarse to coarse and uneven.

124
Grain is straight, sometimes wavy. The timber is strong (Strength group B). It is easy to saw
and works well and the planed surface is moderately smooth. The nailing property is rated as
good. The timber seasons moderately slowly with only slight defects like cupping, bowing and
end-checking. The timber is, however, subject to insect attacks during seasoning. 13 mm boards
require 4 months to air dry, while 38 mm boards take 5 months. Shrinkage is very high, especially
in the tangential direction. Radial shrinkage averages 2.6% while tangential shrinkage averages
4.9%. The timber is non-durable under exposed conditions and is also susceptible to drywood
termites.
USES: The timber is suitable for medium or heavy construction, which is temporary or protected
from attacks by drywood termites. Also suitable for panelling, parquet flooring, planking and
plywood manufacture. The timber has also been successfully used for the manufacture of
blockboards.
Vernacular names applied include mengkapas (P.M.) and minyak berok (P.M. and Sab.).
Major species include X affine, X amoenum, X obscurum and X stipitatum.
Nyalin2 (Sar.) = Allantospermum borneense.
Nyalin 3 (Sar.) = Trigoniastrum hypoleucum = MARAJALI.
Nyalin babe (Sar.) = Cratoxylumformosum = DERUM.
Nyalin bintek (Sar.) = Trigoniastrum hypoluecum = MARAJALI.
Nyalin laut (Sar.) = Maranthes corymbosa = MERBATU.
NYATOH - The Standard Malaysian Name for the light and reddish timber of the family
Sapotaceae. The timber is a light hardwood with a density of 400-1075 kg m-3 air dry. The
sapwood is lighter in colour than and is only moderately sharply differentiated from the
heartwood, which is deep pink-red or red-brown. Texture is moderately fine to slightly coarse,
with straight to shallowly interlocked and sometimes wavy grain. The timber ranges from
moderately strong to strong, depending on the density of the material (Strength groups Band C
for most species but Strength group A for Palaquium impressinervium). Wood working properties
of the timber vary with most of the lighter species being easy to saw and work, producing
surfaces that are smooth or rarely rough in the radial direction as in Palaquium maingayi. The
heavier species, like P. impressinervium, are very difficult to saw, cross-cut and work while the
planed surface is only moderately smooth. Nailing property ranges from good to excellent.
Seasoning properties of some species of nyatoh are summarised below:

Time to air dry Shrinkage (%)


(months) (Green to air dry)
Species Remarks
!3 mm 38 mm Radial Tangential
boards boards

Madhuca motleyana 3 4 2.4 3 Fairly slow drying; slight cupping; fairly


high shrinkage.
Palaquium gutta 2 4 1.9 Fairly fast drying; slight cupping, bowing
and splitting and insect attack; moderate
end-checking; fairly low shrinkage.
P hispidum 3.5 4.5 1.3 2.8 Fairly slow drying; slight bowing, end-
checking and insect attacks; fairly high
shrinkage.
P impressinervium 4 6 3 3.6 Slow drying; slight end-checking and insect
attacks; high shrinkage.
P maingayi 3 5 2.3 4.3 Fairly slow drying; slight bowing, end-
checking and moderate insect attack; very
high shrinkage.

125
For the lighter species of nyatoh, the recommended kiln schedule is E and 25 mm material
takes approximately II days to kiln-dry. Heavier species should be dried using Schedule D or
C. The timber is moderately durable to non-durable and is rated as difficult to treat.
USES: Nyatoh is very popular as a furniture and solid door timber. It is suitable for high class
decorative interior finishing such as panelling and partitioning. Other uses include strip and
parquet flooring, ceilings boat decking, rotary and sliced veneers, plywood and pallets.
Vernacular names applied include nyatoh (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) with various epithets
and also bengku (P.M.), ekor (P.M.),jangkar (Sar.), mentua taban (P.M.), rian (Sar.), semaram
(P.M.), sundik (P.M.), taban (P.M.) and taban merah (p.M.). Major species of the timber include
Madhuca curtis ii, M. kingiana, M. motleyana, M. erythrophylla, M. laurifolia, M. longistyla,
M. penicillata, M. sericea, M. sp. A, M. sp. B; Palaquium clarkeanum, P. gutta, P. hexandrum,
P. hispidum, P. impressinervium, P. maingayi, P. microphyllum, P. obovatum, P. oxleyanum,
P. regina-montium, P. rostratum, P. semaram, P xanthochymum; Payena dasyphylla,
P. lanceolata, P. maingayi and P. obscura.
Nyatoh babi (P.M.) = Palaquium xanthochymum = NYATOH.
Nyatoh baya (P.M.) = Palaquium xanthochymum = NYATOH.
Nyatoh bukit (P.M.) = Palaquium stellatum = BITIS.
Nyatoh bulu (Sab.) = Palaquium beccarianum = NYATOH.
Nyatoh durian (P.M.) = Payena maingayi = NYATOH.
Nyatoh ekor (P.M.) = Payena lanceolata = NYATOH.
Nyatoh gunung (P.M.) = Palaquium regina-montium = NYATOH.
Nyatoh jambak (P.M.) = Palaquium hexandrum = NYATOH.
Nyatoh kabu (P.M.) = Palaquium xanthochymum = NYATOH.
Nyatoh ketiau (P.M.) = Madhuca motleyana = NYATOH.
Nyatoh king (Sab.) = Madhuca kingiana = NYATOH.
NYATOH KUNING - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber ofPouteria spp. (Sapotaceae).
The timber is moderately hard to hard and is moderately heavy to heavy with a density
of 690-880 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is
creamy white to light yellow. Texture is moderately fine and even, with straight to shallowly
interlocked grain. The timber is only moderately strong (Strength group C). It is moderately
easy to saw and is easy to work. The timber produces a smooth planed surface. It seasons
slowly with only some staining as the main source of degrade. 25 mm boards take 5 to 6 months
to air dry. Shrinkage is very high, with radial shrinkage averaging 2.3% and tangential shrinkage
averaging 4.3%. The timber is non-durable under exposed conditions.
USES: The timber is suitable for medium construction under cover, interior finishing, panelling,
partitioning, railings, shelves and mouldings. It can also be peeled for veneers and it is suitable
for the manufacture of furniture.
Vernacular names applied include menasi (P.M.), misi (P.M.), nangka-nangka (P.M.), nyatoh
laut (Sab.), nyatoh nangka (P.M.) with various epithets and umas-umas (Sab.). In Sabah and
Sarawak, this timber is mixed with other members ofSapotaceae and sold as NYATOH. Major
species include P. maingayi and P. malaccensis.
Nyatoh laut (Sab.) = Pouteria obovata = NYATOH KUNING.
Nyatoh mayang (P.M.) = Palaquium sukoei = NYATOH.
Nyatoh nangka (P.M.) = Pouteria spp. = NYATOH.
Nyatoh nangka kuning (P.M.) = Pouteria malaccensis = NYATOH KUNING.
Nyatoh nangka merah (P.M.) = Pouteria maingayi = NYATOH KUNING.
Nyatoh pipit (P.M.) = Palaquium microphllum = NYATOH.
Nyatoh puteh (P.M.) = Palaijuium obovatum = NYATOH.
Nyatoh sarawak (Sab.) = Madhuca cheongiana = NYATOH.

126
Nyatoh semaram (P.M.) = Palaquium semaram = NYATOH.
Nyatoh sidang (P.M.) = Palaquium rostra tum = NYATOH.
Nyatoh sundek (P.M.) = Payena obscura = NYATOH.
Nyatoh surin (P.M.) = Palaquium impressinervium = NYATOH.
Nyatoh taban merah (P.M.) = Palaquium gutta = NYATOH.
Nyatoh taban puteh 1 (P.M.) = Palaquium oxleyanum = NYATOH.
Nyatoh taban puteh 2 (Sab.) = Payena acuminata = NYATOH.
Nyatoh tembaga (P.M.) = Palaquium maingayi and P. hispidum = NYATOH.
Nyatoh tembaga kuning (P.M.) = Palaquium hispidum = NYATOH.
NYlREH - The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN Standard Name for the timber
of Xylocarpus spp. (Meliaceae). The timber is moderately hard to hard and is moderately heavy
to heavy with a density of 625-880 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is light yellow-brown, straw-
coloured or light pink and is sharply differentiated from the heartwood, which is light red to
very dark red, sometimes streaked with darker colours. Texture is fine and even, with interlocked
and irregular grain. The timber is reported to be difficult to saw and work due to the presence
ofthe irregular grain but a smooth finish can be obtained. The timber dries moderately slowly.
The sapwood can be severely attacked by pinhole borers during drying and the timber is also
subject to end-checking and splitting. Shrinkage is moderately high with radial shrinkage
averaging 2% and tangential shrinkage averaging 3.2%. The timber is moderately durable under
exposed conditions.
USES: The timber is very attractive and is suitable for high class cabinet work, interior finishing,
panelling, partitioning, stair railings and shelves. The timber is extensively used for carvings
and the manufacture of fancy articles and ornaments.
Vernacular names applied include nyireh (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) with various epithets. Major
species include X moluccensis and X. granatum.
Nyireh batu (P.M.) = Xylocarpus moluccensis = NYlREH.
Nyireh bunga (P.M.) = Xylocarpus granatum = NYlREH.
Nyonyolong (P.M.) = Agrostistachys borneensis = JENJULONG.

127
o
Obah 1 (Sab.) = Syzygium spp. = KELAT.
Obah 2 (Sab.) = Ctenolophon parvifolius = MERTAS.
Obah merah (Sab.) = Syzygium cerasiforme = KELAT.
Obah nasi (Sab.) = Glochidion borneense = UBAH.
Obah umum (Sab.) = Syzygium tawahense = KELAT.
Obak sulut (Sab.) = Shorea spp. = DARK RED MERANTI.
Obar suluk (Sab.) - A vernacular name applicable to the trees and timber of Shorea pauciflora,
in particular, and of all species of Shorea producing a dark red and lightweight timber, in
general. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is DARK RED MERANTI.
Ochanostachys - A monotypic genus of medium-sized to sometimes large trees up to 30(-50) m
tall and 60(-80) cm in diameter, belonging to the family Olacaceae. The Standard Malaysian
Name as well as the ASEAN Standard Name for the timber is PETALING (q. v.). The timber is
hard to very hard and is heavy to very heavy with a density of 800-1105 kg m-3 air dry. The
sapwood is dark yellow-brown or light red-brown and is moderately defined from the heartwood,
which is red-brown to purple-red-brown, darkening on exposure. Other properties and uses of
the timber are described under PETALING. Vernacular names applied include degong (Kl.),
petikal (Sar.), sentikal (Sar.), tanggal (Sab.) and tangkal (Sab.). This genus has only one species,
viz. O. amentacea.
Ochreinauclea - A genus of medium-sized trees up to 25 m tall and 65(-100) cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Rubiaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the
ASEAN Standard Name for the timber is BANGKAL (q.v.). Ochreinauclea has a density of
540-795 kg m-3 air dry. The heartwood is pale brown or yellow-brown with a pink tinge, not
well defined from the pale yellow sapwood. Other properties and uses of the timber are described
under BANGKAL. Vernacular names applied include bangkal (Sab.) with various epithets,
lenggaung (Sar.) and mengkal (P.M.). Major species include O. maingayi.
Octomeles - A genus of large to very large trees up to 60(-75) m tall and 250(-400) cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Datiscaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is
BINUANG (q. v.). The timber is soft and light with a density of 270-465 kg m-3 air dry. The
sapwood is white with a greyish tinge and is moderately sharply defined from the heartwood,
which is buff to pale brown or sometimes pinkish brown. Other properties and uses of the
timber are described under BINUANG. Vernacular names applied include benuang (Sar.) and
binong (Sar.). Only one species, viz. 0. sumatrana, has been recorded in this country.
Odopon puteh (Sab.) = Drypetes longifolia = ARAU.
OIL PALM - The common name for the palm Elaeis guineensis, family Palmae. It occurs naturally
in the tropical rain forests of West Africa stretching from Senegal to Angola and extending
further along the Congo river. The oil palm was first introduced into Malaysia in 1870 through
the Botanic Garden, Singapore. But the interest in the commercial exploitation of oil palm
started only in the early 1900s. Today, Malaysia is one of the major exporters of palm oil in the
world. Oil palms are felled after an economic life-span of25-30 years. Research carried out in
the FRIM indicates that oil palm trunk may also be exploited commercially for various purposes
such as the manufacture of composite panel products such as medium density fibreboard,

128
blockboard, laminated veneer lumber (LVL), mineral-bonded particleboard and plywood. Other
uses suggested include furniture and paper making. Oil palm, however, has a great variation of
density values at different parts of the stem. Density is low in the centre of the stem and increases
gradually toward the bark. Average density values range 200-600 kg m-3 air dry. Processing of
the stem is difficult, particularly at the region near the bark, due to the presence of silica in the
cells. Poor machining properties have been reported. The lumber of oil palm trunk is difficult
to dry and suffers from various drying defects, including raised grain, warping and collapse.
The timber is very susceptible to fungal and insect attacks due to the presence of high sugar and
starch contents.
Olacaceae - A small family of climbers, shrubs and trees. In Malaysia, the tree sized genera are
Ochanostachys (PETALING), Scorodocarpus (KULIM) and Strombosia (DEDALI and
KAMAP).
Ombinaton (Sab.) = Fagraea fragrans = TEMBUSU.
Ondogon (Sab.) = Trema tomentosa = MENARONG.
Oriang (P.M.) = Albizia lebbeck = BATAI.
Ormosia - A genus ofsmall to medium-sized trees up to 30 m tall and 70(-100) cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Leguminosae. The common Malaysian name for the tree and timber is
SAGA (q.v.). However, the name saga is also applied to the tree and timber of Adenanthera
spp. Ormosia has a density of 480-830 kg m-3 air dry. The heartwood is grey-brown or reddish
yellow with paler streaks, sharply differentiated from the pale yellow-brown sapwood. Other
properties and uses of the timber are described under SAGA. Other vernacular names
recorded include keranji lotong (P.M.), saga hutan (P.M. and Sab.), saga laut (Sab.) and
sepit-sepit (P.M.). Major species include 0. bancana, O. gracilis, 0. macrodisca, O. polita and
O. sumatrana.
Orophea - A genus of small or rarely medium-sized trees up to 15(-25) m tall and 30 cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Annonaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is
MEMPISANG (q. v.). The timber is a light hardwood with a density of 550-81 0 kg m- 3 air dry.
The heartwood is yellow-brown and not clearly defined from the sapwood. Other properties
and uses of the timber are described under MEMPISANG. No other vernacular names have
been recorded and only one species is of importance, viz. 0. cuneiformis.
OTAK UDANG - The common Malaysian name for the trees and timber of Buchanania spp.
(Anacardiaceae). The timber is soft to moderately hard and light to moderately heavy with a
density of 465-690 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is lighter in colour than but is not clearly
defined from the heartwood, which is pinkish brown, often with a grey tinge. Texture is rather
fine and even, with straight or slightly interlocked grain. The timber is reported to be rather
weak. The timber is reputed to work easily and planes to a smooth finish. Sawdust may cause
dermatitis. The timber seasons well. Kiln-drying of 25 mm thick boards from green to 12%
moisture content takes about 3 days. Boards containing tension wood may distort badly.
Shrinkage is moderate to high. The timber is non-durable when exposed to the weather.
USES: The small size of the tree precludes any extensive utilisation of this timber. The timber
has been used for light temporary construction, plywood, match boxes and cheap cigar boxes.
Other uses include furniture, light framing, turneries and blockboards.
Vernacular names applied include otak udang (P.M.) with various epithets, kepala tundang
(Sab.), kepala tundang tungkai pendek (Sab.), lamak ketam (Kd.) and rengas ayam (P.M.).
Major species include B. arborescens and B. sessifolia.
Otak udang daun tajam (P.M.) = Buchanania sessifolia = OTAK UDANG.
Otak udang daun tumpul (P.M.) = Buchanania arborescens = OTAK UDANG.
Owl (Sar.) = Engelhardtia serrata = DUNGUN PAYA.
Oxalidaceae - A family of herbs, shrubs, climbers or trees. It is uncommon in Malaysia and has
only one big tree, Sarcotheca spp. (PUPOI).

129
p
Paar (P.M.) = Engelhardtia spp. = DUNGUN PAYA.
Pachu (Sab.) = Mangiferafoetida = MACHANG.
Padeh siah (Sar.) = Lithocarpus conocarpus = MEMPENING.
PAGAR ANAK - The common Malaysian name for the trees and timber of Ixonanthes spp.
(Ixonanthaceae). The timber is moderately hard to very hard and moderately heavy to heavy
with a density of 655-1 040 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood,
which is brown with a slight purple-grey tinge in I. icosandra and light yellow-brown with a
slight pink tinge in 1. reticulata. Texture is rather fine and even, with deeply interlocked and
spiral grain. It is slightly durable to non-durable.
USES: The small size of the trees and the hardness of the timber preGlude any large scale
utilisation of this timber. The timber has been used for poles, firewood, posts, local house
building and handles for tools.
Vernacular names applied include inggir burong (P.M.) and redin (Sar.). Major species
include I. icosandra and 1. reticulata.
Pahau pahau (Sab.) = Gynotroches axillaris = MATAKELI.
Pajanelia - A genus of medium-sized to large trees up to 30(-36) m tall and 115 cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Bignoniaceae. The common Malaysian name for the tree and timber is
BEKA (q. v.). The timber is soft and light with a density of350-370 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood
is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is light grey-brown. Other properties and uses
of the timber are described under BEKA. Vernacular names applied include bonglai (P.M.).
Only one species is recorded for this region, viz. P longifolia.
Pala (Kd.) = Species of Myristicaceae = PENARAHAN.
Pala munsoh (Sar.) = Artocarpus rigidus = KELEDANG.
Pala tupai (Sar.) = Artocarpus lanceifolius = KELEDANG.
Palan (Sar.) = Lithocarpus conocarpus = MEMPENING.
Palan baboi (Sar.) = Quercus percoriacea = MEMPENING.
Palaquium - A genus of medium-sized to very large trees up to 60 m tall and 130(-250) cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Sapotaceae. This genus produces two distinct groups of timber.
The Standard Malaysian Name for the heavier group is BITIS (q.v.), while the Standard
Malaysian Name for the lighter group is NYATOH (q.v.).
Bitis is a heavy hardwood with a density of 815-1200 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood
is only moderately sharply defined from the heartwood, which is purple-red-brown or grey-
purple-brown. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under BITIS. Vernacular
names applied include bitis (P.M.) with various epithets. Major species contributing to this
timber include P. ridleyi and P. steliatum.
Nyatoh is a light hardwood with a density of 400-1075 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is
yellow with a red tinge and is moderately sharply differentiated from the heartwood, which is
light red-brown. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under NYATOH.
Vernacular names applied include nyatoh (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) with various epithets and other
localised names too numerous to list here. Major species include P. clarkeanum, P gutta,
P hexandrum, P hispidum, P impressinervium, P maingayi, P microphylium, P obovatum,
P oxleyanum, P regina-montium, P rostratum, P semaram and P. xanthochymum.

130
Pallu (Sab.) = Antiaris toxicaria = IPOH.
Pamatadon (Sab.) = Canarium decumanum = KEDONDONG.
Pamatudon (Sab.) = Canarium decumanum = KEDONDONG.
Pangin (Sar.) = Mangiferafoetida = MACHANG.
Pangiz (Sab.) = Thespesia populnea = BARU.
Parnatodon (Sab.) = Canarium decumanum = KEDONDONG.
Pangium - A monotypic genus of small to medium-sized trees up to 20 m tall and often cultivated,
belonging to the family Flacourtiaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN
Standard Name for the timber is KEPAYANG (q.v.). The timber is soft to moderately hard and
is light to moderately heavy with a density of 415-705 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not
differentiated from the heartwood, which is pale yellow or yellow-brown. Other properties and
uses of the timber are described under KEPAYANG. The vernacular name applied is rather
uniform throughout the country in that kepayang is used in all states. Only one species has been
recorded, viz. P. edule.
Parartocarpus - A genus of medium-sized to large trees up to 45 m tall and 90 cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Moraceae. The timber is grouped with the lighter species of Artocarpus
and sold as TERAP (q. v.). The timber is a light hardwood with a density of 54H25 kg m-3 air
dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is yellow to light
yellow-brown. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under TERAP.
Vernacular names applied include ara berteh (P.M.) and terap hutan (Sab.). Major species
include P. bracteatus and P. venenosus.
Para rubber (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) = Hevea brasiliensis = MALAYSIAN OAK.
Paraserianthes - A genus of medium to large trees up to 40 m tall and 100 cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Leguminosae. The Common Malaysian Name for the timber is BATAI
(q. v.). The timber is soft to hard and light to very heavy with a density of 270-880 kg m-3 air
dry. The sapwood is not always defined from the heartwood, which is white to light brown,
with a pink tinge. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under BATAI.
The species P. falcataria is widely planted as a plantation timber in Malaysia.
Parashorea - A genus of large to very large trees of 35-50(---60) m tall and 100(-200) cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Dipterocarpaceae. This genus is better developed in Sabah
and Sarawak, both in terms of species diversification as well as in volume. Two distinct timbers
are apparently produced by this genus. The Standard Malaysian Name for the heavier group is
GERUTU (q. v.), while the Standard Malaysian Name for the lighter group is WHITE SERAYA
(q.v.).
Gerutu is a light hardwood with a density of 640-880 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is
whitish yellow and is moderately distinct from the heartwood, which is light golden brown,
darkening to a deep brown on exposure. Other properties and uses of the timber are described
under GERUTU. Vernacular names applied include gerutu (P.M.) with various epithets, heavy
white seraya (Sab.), meranti gerutu (P.M.), urat mata (Sab. and Sar.) with various epithets,
and other localised names which are too numerous to be listed here. Major species
include P. densiflora, P. globosa and P. stellata (from Peninsular Malaysia); and P. parvifolia
and P. smythiesii (from Sabah and Sarawak).
White seraya is also a light hardwood with a density of 400---655 kg m-3 air dry. The timber
is produced by species found exclusively in the Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak. The
sapwood is paler in colour than and not clearly defined from the heartwood, which is pinkish
cream when fresh, turning to straw-colour or light brown on exposure. Other properties and
uses of the timber are described under WHITE SERAYA. Vernacular names applied include
urat mata (Sab. and Sar.) with various epithets. Major species include P. malaanonan
and P. tomentella.

131
Parastemon - A genus of small to fairly large trees up to 40 m tall and 70 cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Chrysobalanaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is
NGILAS (q.v.). The ASEAN Standard Name, which is ofIndonesian origin, is MALAS. The
timber is very hard and very heavy with a density of 915-11 05 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is
light purple-brown when fresh, becoming grey-brown to light red-brown on exposure and is
not sharply differentiated from the heartwood, which is purple-brown when fresh, becoming
brown with a light purple or red tinge when dry. Other properties and uses of the timber are
described under NGILAS. Vernacular names applied include gilas (Sar.), kayu ajung (Sab.),
mendailas (Sab.) and nyalas (P.M.). Major species include P grandifructus and P urophyllus.
Parinari - A genus of small to large or very large trees up to 50(-60) m tall and 110 cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Chrysobalanaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name as well as
the ASEAN Standard Name for the timber is MERBATU (q. v.). The timber is moderately hard
to hard and moderately heavy to very heavy with a density of 690-960 kg m-3 air dry. The
sapwood is lighter in colour than but not clearly defined from the heartwood, which is red-
brown, sometimes with a yellow tinge. Other properties and uses of the timber are described
under MERBATU. Vernacular names applied include bangkawang (Sab.), kemalau (P.M.),
mentelor (P.M.), merbatu (P.M.) with various epithets, and torog (Sab.). Major species include
P. costata ssp. costata, P elmeri, P oblongifolia, P rigida and P. rubiginosa.
Parishia - A genus of medium-sized to very large trees up to 60 m tall and 110(-120) cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Anacardiaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the
ASEAN Standard Name for the timber is LELAYANG (q.v.). The timber is moderately hard
and moderately heavy with a density of 545-755 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not well
defined and is lighter in colour than the heartwood, which is red-brown to light brown. Other
properties and uses of the timber are described under LELAYANG. Vernacular names
applied include kedondong kijau (P.M.), layang-layang (Sab.), sepul (P.M.), surian (P.M.),
and upi (Sar.) with various epithets. Other vernacular names mistakenly applied in
Peninsular Malaysia include kedondong, rengas and suriano Major species include
P insignis, P maingayi and P. paucijuga.
Parius-parius (Sab.) = Elaeocarpus spp. = SENGKURAT.
Parkia - A genus of medium-sized to large trees up to 50 m tall and 100(-250) cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Leguminosae. The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN
Standard Name for the timber is PETAl (q. v.). The timber is soft and light as in P. timoriana
and P. speciosa with a density of 415-960 kg m-3 air dry, or moderately hard and moderately
heavy as in P. singuiaris with a density of 690-815 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is white to
yellow-brown and is extremely wide and sharply differentiated from the heartwood, which is
dark brown. However, this dark coloured heartwood is seldom developed. Other properties
and uses of the timber are described under PETAL Vernacular names include kerayong (P.M.),
kupang (Sab.), and petai (P.M. and Sar.) with various epithets. Major species include P. timoriana,
P singularis and P. speciosa.
PASAK - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber ofAglaia sect. Agiaia species (Meliaceae).
The timber is hard and heavy to very heavy with a density of 770-995 kg m-3 air dry. The
sapwood is pale yellow-brown, light straw-coloured or light pink-brown and is moderately to
sharply differentiated from the heartwood, which is light red, orange-red or red-brown and
becoming dark red-brown or walnut-brown on exposure. Texture is fine to moderately fine or
moderately coarse and even. Grain is straight to interlocked, sometimes irregular or wavy. The
timber usually dries well without much degrade except for some slight collapse and twisting.
Some species are reported to season fairly rapidly, with only slight cupping, bowing, end-
checking and insect attacks as the main sources of degrade. Boards of 13 mm take 1.5 months
to air dry, while 38 mm boards take 3.5 months. Shrinkage is rather high, especially in the
radial direction, which averages 2.4% while the tangential shrinkage also averages 2.4%. The

132
timber works well and can be sawn and machined easily except the heavier species which
require more power in sawing. Nailing property of some species is reported to be excellent.
The timber is rated as moderately durable to durable when in contact with the ground or when
exposed to the weather. The heartwood is very difficult to treat with preservatives.
USES: the timber should be suitable for furniture, flooring, cabinet, turnery, decorative wall
panelling, face-veneer for plywood. The heavier woods have also been used for general
construction such as beams, joists, rafters, boat building, agriculture implements and tool handles.
Vernacular names applied include kalambiao (Sab.), koping-koping (Sab.), langsat-langsat
(Sab.), lantupak (Sab.), lantupak jambu (Sab.), memberas (P.M.) and segera (Sar.). Major
species include A. argentea, A. elliptica, A. exstipulata, A. grandis, A. hiernii, A. odoratissima,
A. palembanica and A. tomentosa.
Pasak lingga (P.M.) = Aglaia rubiginosa = BEKAK.
Paserujan gunugo (Sar.) = Pellacalyx lobbii = MEMBULOH.
Pasoi (Sab.) = Saraca declinata = GAPIS.
Patok entilit (Sar.) = Irvingia malayana = PAUH KIJANG.
Patok tilan (Sar.) = Cratoxylumformosum and C. maingayi = DERUM.
Patoli entelit (Sar.) = Mastixia rostrata ssp. caudatifolia = TETEBU.
Pau yang (Kl. and Ph.) = Hopea sublanceolata = MERAWAN.
Pauh (P.M.) = Mangifera indica = MACHANG.
PAUH KIJANG - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Irvingia malayana
(Simaroubaceae). The ASEAN Standard Name for the timber, which is of Thai origin, is
KABOK. The timber is very hard and very heavy with a density of 930-1250 kg m-3 air dry.
The timber is classified under medium hardwood in Malaysia. The sapwood is lighter in colour
than and is only moderately sharply defined from the heartwood, which is yellow-brown with a
slight green tinge. A dark grey-brown striped core is found in some logs. Texture is moderately
fine and even, with shallowly interlocked grain. The timber is very strong (Strength group A).
It is slightly difficult to work when green and is difficult when dry. Planing is difficult but the
planed surface is moderately smooth with some grain pick-up in the radial face. The nailing
property is rated as poor. The timber seasons slowly with moderate end-checking, surface-
checking, insect and fungal attacks as the main sources of degrade. Slight bowing and cupping
are also recorded. 13 mm boards take approximately 5 months to air dry, while 38 mm boards
take 7 months. Shrinkage is rather high, with radial shrinkage averaging 2.7% and tangential
shrinkage averaging 4.3%. The timber is only moderately durable under exposed conditions. It
is difficult to treat with preservatives.
USES: The timber is not often exploited due to the high buttresses and poor form. It is also very
hard and difficult to work. The timber is, however, suitable for heavy construction if treated,
piles, railway sleepers, outdoor furniture, heavy duty furniture, panelling and the dark streaky
core is suitable for parquet flooring and decorative furniture.
Vernacular name for the tree, pauh kijang, is uniformly applied throughout the country.
Only one species, viz. 1. malayana, is recorded in this region.
Pauh-pauh (P.M. and Sab.) = Melicope spp. = PEPAUH.
Pawuk (Sar.) = Mangiferafoetida = MACHANG.
Payena - A genus ofsmall to large trees up to 45(-50) m tall and 100 cm in diameter, belonging
to the family Sapotaceae. The timber is grouped together with the lighter members ofthe family
and sold as NYATOH (q.v.). The timber is a light hardwood with a density of515-1075 kg m-3
air dry. The sapwood is in various shades of yellow to straw-colour and merges gradually into
the heartwood, which is deep pink, red or red-brown. Other properties and uses of the timber
are described under NYATOH. Vernacular names applied include nyatoh (P.M., Sab. and Sar.)
with various qualifying epithets and other local names too numerous to list here. Major species
include P dasyphylla, P lanceolata, P maingayi and P. obscura.

133
Pechi mata (Sar.) = Sarcotheca ochracea = PUPOL
Pedada (Sab.) = Sonneratia alba = PERAPAT.
Pedalai (Sar.) = Artocarpus elasticus = TERAP.
Pedayang (Sab.) = Castanopsis hypophoenicea = BERANGAN.
Pegula hutan (P.M.) = Adinandra integerrima = SAMAK.
Pei (Sar.) = Anisophyllea beccariana = DELEK.
Pelai (Sar.) = Alstonia spp. = PULAL
PELAJAU - The Standard Malaysian Name, which is of Sabah origin, for the timber of
Pentaspadon spp. (Anacardiaceae). The ASEAN Standard Name, which is ofIndonesian origin,
is PELAJU. The timber is fairly hard and fairly heavy with a density of 480-835 kg m-3 air dry.
The timber is classified under light hardwood in Malaysia. The sapwood is white with a green
tinge or light yellow with a pink tinge and is not clearly defined from the heartwood, which is
light yellow-green, sometimes with a pink tinge and darkens to grey-green on exposure. Texture
is rather fine and even, with shallowly interlocked grain. The timber of P. velutinus was tested
and found to be weak (Strength group D), but the heavier species should be much stronger. It is
easy to resaw and cross-cut. Planing is also easy and the planed surface is smooth. The nailing
property is rated as poor. The timber seasons fairly slowly, with very minor defects. Slight
cupping, bowing and staining have been noted during drying. 13 mm boards take approximately
3 months to air dry, while 38 mm boards take approximately 4.5 months. Shrinkage is rather
high, with radial shrinkage averaging 2% and tangential shrinkage averaging 3.4%. The timber
is only moderately durable under exposed conditions.
USES: The timber is suitable for interior finishing, panelling, partitioning, mouldings, skirtings,
flooring and other planking works. It has been successfully used as a peeler log for plywood
manufacture.
Vernacular names applied include emplangau (Sar.), kedondong kijau (P.M.), lakacho (Sar.),
pelong (P.M.) with various epithets, umit (Sar.) and uping (Sar.). Major species include
P. motleyi and P. velutinus.
PELAJU - The ASEAN Standard Name, which is of Indonesian origin, for the timber of
Pentaspadon spp. The Standard Malaysian Name is PELAJAU (q. v.).
Pelasih (Sar.) = Pentaspadon motleyi = PELAJAU.
PELAWAN - The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN Standard Name for the
timber of Tristaniopsis spp. (Myrtaceae). The timber is hard to very hard and heavy to very
heavy with a density of915-1250 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is pink-brown or red-brown and
is lighter in colour than the heartwood, which is pink-brown, red-brown or purple-brown,
sometimes with a grey tinge. Texture is rather fine and even, with interlocked, sometimes wavy
grain. The timber has not been tested in the FRIM, Kepong, but is expected to be very strong.
The timber is reported to be difficult to saw but can be finished to a very smooth surface. The
timber is reputed to be very durable and is reported to be resistant to marine borers.
USES: The timber is suitable for all heavy constructional works, posts, tools and handles, boat
framing and other marine construction. It should also be suitable for heavy-duty flooring.
Vernacular names applied include keruntum (P.M.), malaban (Sar.). melaban (Sar.),pelawan-
pelawan (Sab.), selunchor (P.M.), selunsor (Sar.) and selunsor puteh (Sar.). Major species
include T. merguensis, T. obovata and T. whiteana.
Pelawan-pelawan (Sab.) = Tristaniopsis spp. = PELAWAN.
Pellacalyx- A genus of small to fairly large trees up to 35(-45) m tall and 40(--65) cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Rhizophoraceae. The common Malaysian name for the tree and timber
is MEMBULOH (q. v.). The timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy, with a density of
470-640 kg m-3 air dry and an average of 545 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not well defined
from the heartwood, which is yellow-brown or light brown with a pink hue. Other properties

134
and uses of the timber are described under MEMBULOH. Vernacular names applied include
buloh-buloh (P.M.), danguh (Sar.) and membuloh bulu (P.M.). Major species include P. axillaris
and P. saccardianus.
Pelong (P.M.~ Sab. and Sar.) = Pentaspadon spp. = PELAJAU.
Pelong beludu (P.M.) = Pentaspadon velutinus = PELAJAU.
Pelong lichin (P.M.) = Pentaspadon motleyi = PELAJAU.
Peltophorum - A small genus of small to medium-sized trees up to 20 m tall and 40 cm in
diameter, often cultivated as a roadside tree, belonging to the family Leguminosae. The common
Malaysian name for the tree and timber is JEMERLANG (q. v.). The timber is moderately hard
and moderately heavy with a density of 480-770 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is light brown
with a pink tinge, occasionally with light purple-brown streaks and is moderately sharply defined
from the heartwood, which is orange-red-brown or purple-red-brown with dark zones, giving
the wood a streaked appearance. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under
JEMERLANG. Vernacular names applied include jemerlang (P.M.) with various epithets,
timbarayong (Sab.) and yellow flame (P.M., Sab. and Sar.). Major species include P. dasyrachis,
P. pterocarpum and P. racemosum.
PENAGA - The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN Standard Name for the timber
of Mesua ferrea (Guttiferae). The timber is very hard and very heavy with a density of
945-1185 kg m-3 air dry. The timber is classified under heavy hardwood in Malaysia. The
sapwood is pale yellow with a pink tinge, becoming grey-brown on exposure and is sharply
differentiated from the heartwood, which is red-brown with a purple tinge when fresh, becoming
dark red-brown on exposure. Texture is rather fine and even, with interlocked or spiral grain.
The timber is very strong (Strength group A). It is slightly difficult to difficult to resaw and
cross-cut but is easy to plane, producing a smooth finish. The nailing property is rated as very
poor. The timber seasons very slowly with a moderate amount of end-checking and splitting
and slight cupping as the main sources of degrade. 13 mm boards take approximately 7 months
to air dry, while 38 mm boards take 8 months. Shrinkage is very high, especially in the radial
direction, which averages 4.3%, while the tangential shrinkage averages 5.5%. The timber is
only moderately durable and is liable to be attacked by termites.
USES: The timber is suitable for all forms of heavy construction, heavy-duty furniture, parquet
flooring, posts and tool handles. In India, this timber has been used successfully as a railway
sleeper.
Vernacular names applied include lenggapus (P.M.) and matopus (P.M.). This timber is
mainly from one species, viz. Mesuaferrea.
Penaga bayan (P.M.) = Kayea grandis, K. kochummeniana andK. lepidota = PENAGA TIKUS.
Penaga laut (P.M. and Sab.) = Calophyllum inophyllum = BINTANGOR.
Penaga lilin (P.M.) = Kayea nuda = PENAGA TIKUS.
Penaga sabut (P.M.) = Kayea grandis and K. kochummeniana = PENAGA TIKUS.
PENAGA TIKUS - The common Malaysian name for the trees and timber of Kayea spp.
(Guttiferae). The timber is moderately hard to hard and moderately heavy to heavy with a
density of705-880 kg m-3 air dry. The timber is classified under medium hardwood in Malaysia.
The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is red-brown or grey-brown with
a red tinge. Texture is fine to moderately fine and even, with straight to shallowly interlocked
grain. The timber does not have any distinct odour or taste. The timber seasons well but is
subject to checking and staining. It works well with a smooth finish. The timber is non-durable
in exposed situation or in contact with the ground.
USES: The timber is infrequently used. It is suitable for indoor usage and may be a suitable
cabinet timber. Poles of good form may be useful for fences and round sleepers in temporary
tracks.

135
Vernacular names applied include bintangor batu (Sab.), mergasing (Sar.),penaga bayan
(P.M.), penaga Win (P.M.), and penaga sabut (P.M.). Major species include K grandis,
K kochummeniana, K lepidota, K macrantha and K nuda.
Penak 1 (P.M.) = Neobalanocarpus heimii = CHENGAL.
Penak2 (P.M.) = Hopea semicuneata = GIAM.
PENARAHAN - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber from the family Myristicaceae.
The timber is a light hardwood with a density of 370-770 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is
lighter in colour than and is poorly defined from the heartwood, which is light yellow-brown,
brown with occasional pink tinge and dark red-purple stripes. A blood-red core is found in
some species. Texture is rather fine to slightly coarse and even, with straight grain. The timber
is only moderately strong (Strength group C). It is easy to saw and work and the planed surface
is moderately smooth to smooth. Nailing property is rated as good. The timber seasons fairly
slowly with slight cupping, bowing, end-checking, splitting and insect attacks as the main
sources of degrade. 13 mm boards take approximately 3 months to air dry, while 38 mrn
boards take 4 months. Shrinkage is fairly high, radial shrinkage averages 2.2% while tangential
shrinkage averages 3.2%. The timber is non-durable and is subject to attacks by powder-post
beetles and dry wood termites. It is, however, amenable to preservative treatment.
USES: The timber is suitable for pattern making, packing cases, crates, plywood, light temporary
construction, internal partitioning and flooring.
Vernacular names applied include darah-darah (Sab.), darah-darah kerantu (Sab.), dara
kerbau (Kl.), kumpang (Sar.), lempoyang paya (Sab.), lunau (Sab.), mendarah (P.M.), pala
(Kd.) and penarahan arang (P.M.). Major species contributing to the timber include
Gymnacranthera bancana, G. contracta, G. farquhariana var. eugeniifolia, G. forbesii;
Horsjieldia grandis, H. irya, H. polyspherula, H. punctatifolia, H. irya, H. sucosa, H. superba;
Knema conferta, Kfurfuracea, K hookeriana, K laurina; Myristica cinnamomea, M. elliptica,
M. gigantea, M. iners, M. lowiana and M. maingayi.
Penarahan arang (P.M.) = Myristica iners and M. maxima = PENARAHAN.
Penarahan arang ayer (P.M.) = Myristica elliptica = PENARAHAN.
Penarahan arang bukit (P.M.) = Myristica gigantea and M. maingayi = PENARAHAN.
Penarahan arang gambut (P.M.) = Myristica lowiana = PENARAHAN.
Penarahan pianggu (Sar.) = Horsjieldia irya = PENARAHAN.
Penatan (Sab.) = Aporosa elmeri = KAYU MASAM.
Pengarawan bukit (Tr.) = Hopea sulcata = MERAWAN.
Pengarawan bunga (Tr.) = Hopea grifJithii = MERAWAN.
Pengarawan pasir (Ph.) = Hopea dyeri = MERAWAN.
Pengarawan penak (P.M.) = Hopea mengarawan = MERAWAN.
Pengiran (Sab.) =Anisoptera spp. = MERSAWA.
Pengiran durian (Sab.) = Anisoptera laevis = MERSAWA.
Pengiran gajah (Sab.) = Anisoptera reticulata = MERSAWA.
Pengiran kerangas (Sab.) = Anisoptera marginata = MERSAWA.
Pengiran kesat (Sab.) = Anisoptera costata = MERSAWA.
Pengiran kunyit (Sab.) = Anisoptera grossivenia = MERSAWA.
Pengolaban (Sab.) = Litsea graciae = MEDANG.
Pening-peningan (Sab.) = Lithocarpus leptogyne = MEMPENING.
Pentace - A genus of medium-sized to large trees up to 60 m tall and 125 cm in diameter, belonging
to the family Tiliaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is MELUNAK (q. v.). The
timber is a light hardwood with a density of 530-755 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is yellow or
light straw-coloured and is moderately sharply defined from the heartwood, which is brown
with a red or pink tinge or red-brown. Other properties and uses of the timber are described

136
under MELUNAK. Vernacular names applied include melunak (P.M.) with various epithets,
balong ayam (P.M.), baru (Sar.), Janda baik (P.M.), kebal ayam (P.M.), kempayang hantu
(P.M.), pinang baik (P.M.), and takalis (Sab.) with various epithets. Major species
include P. adenophora, P. curtisii, P. laxiflora, P. macrophylla and P. triptera.
Pentacme - The genus has been reduced to Shorea (Dipterocarpaceae). See Shorea.
Pentaspadon - A genus oflarge trees up to 50(-60) m tall and 85 cm in diameter, belonging to the
family Anacardiaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is PELAJAU (q. v.). The
ASEAN Standard Name, which is ofIndonesian origin, is PELAJU. The timber is fairly hard
and fairly heavy with a density of 480-835 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is white with a green
tinge or light yellow with a pink tinge and is not clearly defined from the heartwood, which is
light yellow-green, sometimes with a pink tinge and darkens to grey-green on exposure. Other
properties and uses of the timber are described under PELAJAU. Vernacular names applied
include emplangau (Sar.), lakacho (Sar.), kedondong kijau (P.M.),pelong (P.M.) with various
epithets, umit (Sar.) and uping (Sar.). Major species include P. motleyi and P. velutinus.
PENYAU - The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN Standard Name for the timber
of Upuna borneensis (Dipterocarpaceae). The timber is very hard and very heavy with a density
of 945-1040 kg m-3 air dry. The timber is classified under heavy hardwood in Malaysia. The
sapwood is lighter in colour than and is distinctly differentiated from the heartwood, which is
dark brown. Texture is fine to moderately fine but even, with straight to only shallowly interlocked
grain. The timber is extremely strong (Strength group A). It is slightly difficult to saw due to its
hardness and resinous nature. Planing is easy and the surface is generally smooth although
there is a slight pick-up of grain in radially sawn material. The nailing property is rated as poor.
The timber seasons moderately slowly, with very minor seasoning defects except for some
insect damage. 13 mm boards take approximately 3 months to air dry, while 38 mm boards take
4 months. Shrinkage is fairly high, with radial shrinkage averaging 1.8% and tangential shrinkage
averaging 2.9%. The timber is very durable (graveyard test = 11.7 years) under exposed
conditions and is extremely resistant to preservative treatment.
USES: The timber is suitable for all forms of heavy construction, heavy-duty furniture, heavy-
duty flooring, railway sleepers and power transmission poles, if sufficient lengths can be obtained.
Vernacular names applied include upun (Sab.). Only one species has been recorded,
viz. U. borneensis.
Penyibong (Sar.) = Lithocarpus andersonii = MEMPENING.
PepilTah (P.M.) = Anisophyllea corneri = DELEK.
PEPAUH - The common Malaysian name for the timber ofMelicope spp. (Rutaceae). The ASEAN
Standard Name, which is ofIndonesian origin, is SAMPANG. The timber is soft and light with
a density of 480-545 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood,
which is light yellow-white with a light orange tinge in some specimens. Texture is fine and
even, with straight or shallowly interlocked grain. The timber has not been tested in the FRlM,
Kepong, but is reported to be fairly strong (Strength group C). It is reputed to be non-durable
under exposed conditions.
USES: The timber is suitable for interior finishing, panelling, mouldings, plywood manufacture,
packing boxes and crates as well as for carving and handicraft items.
Vernacular names applied include chabang tiga (P.M.), leban nasi (P.M.) and pauh-pauh
(P.M. and Sab.). Major species include M. glabra and M. lunu-ankenda.
PEPIJAT - The common Malaysian name for the trees and timber of Prunus spp.
(Rosaceae). The ASEAN Standard Name, which is of Indonesian origin, for the timber is
TENANGAU. The timber is moderately hard and light to moderately heavy with a
density of 465-785 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood,
which is grey-brown with a purple tinge or light red-brown with a purple tinge. Texture is

137
moderately fine to slightly coarse and even, with irregular, wavy or deeply interlocked
grain. The timber has not been tested in the FRIM, Kepong. Vernacular names used include
kelanus (Sab.). Major species include P. arborea, P. malayana and P. polystachya.
Pepisang bukit (P.M.) = Alphonsea maingayi = MEMPISANG.
PEPULUT - The common Malaysian name for the trees and timber of Chrysophyllum spp.
(Sapotaceae). The timber is moderately hard to hard and moderately heavy to heavy with a
density of 610-930 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood,
which is white when freshly cut and darkens to straw-colour on exposure. Texture is very fine
and even, with straight or interlocked grain. Earlier limited tests results indicated that this
timber is very brittle. The timber seasons well with little degrade but is susceptible to blue
stain. It planes to a very smooth surface with little picking up especially on radial surface. The
timber is non-durable and the permeability of the timber is low.
USES: The timber should be suitable for general planking and temporary structures. It can also
be used for flooring, interior trim, panelling and partitioning, light tool handles, furniture and
cabinet making, veneer and plywood.
Vernacular names applied include pulut-pulut (P.M.). Major species include C. cainito,
C. lanceolatum and C. oliviforme. Chrysophyllum cain ito and C. oliviforme have been introduced
from the Americas.
Peradang (P.M.) = Artocarpus nitidus ssp. griffithii = KELEDANG.
PERAHI - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Elateriospermum tapos
(Euphorbiaceae). The ASEAN Standard Name, which is of Indonesian origin, is TAPUS. The
timber is very hard and very heavy with a density of 735-1235 kg m-3 air dry. The timber js
classified under medium hardwood in Malaysia. The sapwood is light yellow-brown and is
sharply defmed from the heartwood, which is dark brown with a red tinge and streaked alternately
with lighter and darker stripes. A central core of darker coloured wood may be found in some
trees. Texture is moderately fine and even with straight or only shallowly interlocked grain.
The timber is strong (Strength group B). It is difficult to saw but planes well and produces a
smooth finish. The timber seasons fairly fast with no defects except for some sap stain and
insect attacks. 13 mm boards take 2.5 months to air dry, while 38 mm boards take 4 months.
Shrinkage is high, with radial shrinkage averaging 2.4% and tangential shrinkage averaging
3.3%. The timber is non-durable and is susceptible to termite and powder-post beetle attacks.
Except for the corewood, the timber is easily treated.
USES: The timber is suitable for medium and heavy construction indoors and when treated,
should be suitable for all heavy construction, railway sleepers, parquet flooring and fence posts.
Vernacular names applied include dungku (Sar.), kelampai (Sar.) and perah ikan (P.M. and
Sab.). Only one species is recorded, viz. E. tapos.
Perah 2 (P.M.) = Pimelodendron spp. = PERAH IKAN.
PERAH lKAN 1 - The common Malaysian name for the timber of Pimelodendron spp.
(Euphorbiaceae). The ASEAN Standard Name, which is of Indonesian origin, is MEMINA.
The timber is soft to moderately hard and is light to moderately heavy with a density
of 415-720 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is
light straw-coloured. Texture is moderately fine and even, with straight grain. Sawing of the
timber is moderately easy with a relatively smooth finish; machining properties are fair when
green, but rated as poor when air dry. Shrinkage upon seasoning is moderate. The timber is
non-durable but can be treated easily with preservatives.
USES: The timber is used for general light or temporary construction, interior trim, lining,
shelving, joinery, utility furniture, mouldings, tool handle for non-impact purposes, veneer and
plywood.
Vernacular names applied include perah (P.M.). Major species include P. griffithianum.

138
Perah ikan 2 (P.M. and Sab.) = Elateriospermum tapos = PERAH.
Perajau (Sar.) = Pentaspadon motleyi = PELAJAU.
Peranak (Sab.) = Ficus schwarzii = ARA.
PERAPAT - The common Malaysian name for the timber of Sonneratia spp. (Sonneratiaceae).
The timber is moderately hard to hard and moderately heavy to heavy with a density of
530-690 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is grey in S. alba and is not sharply defined but is light
coloured and clearly defined in S. caseolaris. The heartwood is pale grey in S. alba and light
brown to dark chocolate in S. caseolaris. Texture is fine and even, with straight to slightly
interlocked grain. The timber has not been tested in the FRIM, Kepong, but is reported to be
fairly strong (Strength group C). It is reputed to work easily and takes a beautiful finish. Shrinkage
is rather low, with radial shrinkage averaging 0.8% and tangential shrinkage averaging 1.6%.
The timber is moderately durable.
USES: The timber is suitable as a general utility timber. It can be used for planking, flooring,
furniture components, wooden sandals and possibly as a source of pulp.
Vernacular names applied include berembang (P.M.), gedabu (P.M.), pedada (Sab.) and
perapat laut (Sab.). Major species include S. alba, S. caesolaris and S. ovata.
Perapat burung (Sab.) = Erythroxylum spp. = CHINTA MULA.
Perapat laut (Sab.) = Sonneratia caseolaris = PERAPAT.
Perapat paya (Sab.) = Combretocarpus rotundatus = KERUNTUM.
Perapat-parapat (Sab.) = Combretocarpus rotundatus = KERUNTUM.
Perawan (Kl.) = Hopea griffithii = MERAWAN.
Perdoh (Sar.) = Elaeocarpus spp. = SENGKURAT.
Perdu (Sar.) = Acer laurinum.
Perepat (Sar.) = Sonneratia alba and S. caseolaris = PERAPAT.
Perepat burong (Sab.) = Erythroxylum spp. = CHINTA MULA.
Perepat paya (Sab. and Sar.) = Combretocarpus rotundatus = KERUNTUM.
Perepat-perepat (Sab.) = Combretocarpus rotundatus = KERUNTUM.
Periang (P.M.) = Swintonia spp. = MERPAUH.
Perlimpong hutan (Sab.) = Lagerstroemia pustulata = BUNGOR.
Peronema - A genus of small to medium-sized trees up to 18 m tall and 40 cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Verbenaceae. The timber is commonly known as SUNGKAI (q.v.).
The timber is moderately hard and medium in weight with a density of 520-730 kg m-3 air dry.
The heartwood is cream coloured to light yellow or light brown and not well defined from the
sapwood. The timber resembles teak wood very much. Other properties and uses of the timber
are described under SUNGKAI. No other vernacular names have been recorded. Only one
species, viz. P canescens, is found in the country.
Persea-Agenus of small to medium-sized trees up to 30(-40) m tall and 80(-90) cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Lauraceae. The timber is commonly grouped together with the other
lightweight members of the family and sold as MEDANG (q. v.). Persea yields a density of
530-830 kg m-3 air dry. The heartwood is pale red-brown, pink-yellow or dark olive-buff,
moderately sharply differentiated from the sapwood. Other properties and uses of the timber
are described under MEDANG. Vernacular names applied include medang inai (P.M.),
medang tanah (P.M.) and medang telor (P.M.). Major species include P deciinata, P excelsa
and P rimosa.
Pertusadina - A genus of medium-sized to large trees up to 45 m tall and 150(-200) cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Rubiaceae. The common Malaysian name for the tree and
timber is MERAGA(q. v.). Pertusadina yields a density of790-860 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood
is lighter in colour than but is not sharply differentiated from the heartwood, which is
yellow-brown with an olive tinge. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under

139
MERAGA. Other vernacular names applied include berombong (P.M.) and mengkeniab (Sab.).
Major species include P eurhyncha and P malaccensis. This genus is related to Adina and a
group of four small "satellite" genera (including Adinauclea, Haldina and Metadina) in the
tribe Naucleeae.
Perupak (Sar.) = Gymnacranthera ocellata = PENARAHAN.
PERUPOK 1 - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Lophopetalum spp. (Celastraceae).
The timber is a light hardwood with a density of 480-640 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not
clearly defined and is generally lighter in colour than the heartwood, which is light yellow or
light yellow-brown when dry and pink when freshly cut. Texture is fine to moderately fine and
even, with interlocked grain. The timber is only fairly strong (Strength group C). It is easy to
saw and works very well and the planed surface produced is smooth. The nailing property is
poor. The timber seasons very rapidly but is prone to end-checking, splitting, surface-checking
and some insect attacks during seasoning. 13 mm boards take 1 month to air dry, while 38 mm
boards take 1.5 months. Shrinkage is fairly high, especially in the radial direction. Radial
shrinkage averages 2.4% while tangential shrinkage averages 3%. The timber is non-durable.
USES: The timber is suitable for interior finishing, panelling and partitioning, furniture
manufacture, veneers and plywood, boxes and crates. Perupok can also be used for the
manufacture of mathematical instruments.
Vernacular names applied include dual (Sab.), kerueh (P.M.) and tinjau tasek (Ph.). Major
species include L. floribundum, L. javanicum, L. multinervium, L. pallidum, L. subobovatum
and L. wightianum.
Perupok2 (P.M.) = Kokoona spp. = MATA ULAT.
Perupok3 (P.M.) = Mallotus leucodermis = BALIK ANGIN.
Perupok4 (Sar.) = Lophopetalum spp. = PERUPOK.
Perupok dual (Sab.) = Lophopetalum javanicum = PERUPOK.
Perupok kuning (Sab.) = Kokoona ochracea = MATA ULAT.
PETAl - The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN Standard Name for the timber of
Parkia spp. (Leguminosae). The timber is soft to moderately hard and is light to moderately
heavy with a density of 415-815 kg m-3 air dry. The timber is classified under light hardwood
in Malaysia. The sapwood is white to yellow-brown and is extremely wide. The heartwood is
seldom developed but if found, is dark brown in colour. Texture is rather coarse and uneven,
with straight or shallowly interlocked grain. The timber is weak (Strength group D). It is easy to
saw and work and produces a smooth planed surface. The nailing property is rated as excellent.
The timber seasons fairly slowly with the following defects: moderate amount of end-checking,
insect and fungal attacks, slight amount of cupping, bowing, twisting and splitting. 13 mm
boards take approximately 3.5 months to air dry, while 38 mm boards take 5 months. Shrinkage
is rather low, with radial shrinkage averaging 1.1 % and tangential shrinkage averaging 1.9%.
The timber is non-durable and is susceptible to powder-post beetle and sapstain fungal attacks.
The timber can be treated easily with preservative.
USES: The genus is more famous for its edible fruits rather than its timber which has been
successfully used in the manufacture of plywood and for boxes and crates. The timber is also
suitable for some interior works, like partitioning, stair railings and skirtings.
Vernacular names applied include kupang (Sab.), kerayong (P.M.), and petai (P.M. and
Sar.) with various epithets. Major species include P. timoriana, P. singularis and P. speciosa.
Petai belalang l (P.M.) = Senna siamea = BEBUSOK.
Petai belalang2 (Sar.) = Archidendron spp.
Petai kerayong (P.M.) = Parkia timoriana = PETAL
Petai meranti (P.M.) = Parkia singularis = PETAL

140
PETALING - The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN Standard Name for the
timber of Ochanostachys amentacea (Olacaceae). The timber is hard to very hard and heavy to
very heavy with a density of 800-11 05 kg m-3 air dry. The timber is classified under medium
hardwood in Malaysia. The sapwood is dark yellow-brown or light red-brown and is moderately
defined from the heartwood, which is red-brown to purple red-brown, darkening on exposure.
Texture is fine and even with interlocked grain. The timber is strong (Strength group B). It is
easy to saw and work and produces a smooth planed surface. The nailing property is rated as
poor. The timber seasons very slowly with very slight defects. The sapwood is moderately
prone to attacks by insects and slight cupping, bowing, end- and surface-checking have
been noted during drying. 13 mm boards take 6 months to air dry, while 38 mm boards
take 9 months. Shrinkage is high, with radial shrinkage averaging 1.9% and tangential shrinkage
averaging 3.8%. The timber is only moderately durable under exposed conditions.
USES: The timber is suitable for piling, posts, heavy and medium construction under cover,
furniture manufacture, strip flooring, pallets, boxes and crates.
Vernacular names applied include degong (Kl.), petikal (Sar.), sentikal (Sar.), tanggal (Sab.)
and tangkal (Sab.). This genus has only one species, viz. O. amentacea.
Petaling gajah (P.M.) = Strombosia ceylanica = KAMAP.
Petikal (Sar.) = Ochanostachys amentacea = PETALING.
Petir (Sar.) = Copaifera palustris and Sindora spp. = SEPETIR.
Petuta bukit (P.M.) = Adinandra sarosanthera = SAMAK.
Phoebe - A genus of shrubs or small to medium-sized trees up to 25(-30) m tall and 75 cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Lauraceae. The timber is commonly grouped together with
the other lightweight members of the family and sold as MEDANG (q. v.). The timber is a light
hardwood with a density of 525-690 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is light straw-coloured with
a green tinge or light yellow-green and is moderately sharply differentiated from the heartwood,
which is light red-brown or light olive-brown. Other properties and uses of the timber are
described under MEDANG. Medang (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) with various epithets as usually
applied as the vernacular names to the species of this genus. Major species include P. grandis
and P. elliptica.
Phyllanthus - A genus of herbs, straggling shrubs or rarely medium-sized trees up to 36 m tall
and 50 cm in diameter, belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae. The common Malaysian name
for the tree and timber is POKOK MELAKA (q. 11.). The timber is moderately hard and moderately
heavy with a density of770-785 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not defined from the heartwood,
which is purple-red-brown. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under POKOK
MELAKA. Vernacular names applied include laka (Sab.) and pokok laka (P.M.). Twenty species
of Phyllanthus are found in Peninsular Malaysia, but only one species attains commercial size,
viz. P. emblica.
Phyllocladus - A genus of shrub or small to medium-sized trees up to 30 m tall and 50(-100) cm
in diameter, belonging to the family Podocarpaceae. Phyllocladus is found in the montane
forests of Borneo from 915 m to 2135 m altitude. The timber is a softwood. It is usually sold
together with those of Dacrydium spp. under the Standard Malaysian Name of SEMPILOR
(q. v.). The timber is fairly soft and moderately heavy with a density of 515-640 kg m-3 air dry.
The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is pinkish buff. Other properties
and uses of the timber are described under SEMPILOR. No vernacular name for this species
has been recorded. The genus is represented by one species in this region, viz. P. hypophyllus.
Piang (Sar.) = Sarcotheca glauca and S. macrophylla = PUPOL
Pidang (Sar.) = Cratoxylum glaucum = GERONGGANG.
Pien (Sar.) = Artocarpus elasticus = TERAP.
Pili (Sar.) = Lithocarpus pusillus = MEMPENING.

141
Pimelodendron - A genus of small to medium-sized trees up to 30(-40) m tall and 80 cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae. The common Malaysian name for the timber
is PERAH IKAN (q. v.). The ASEAN Standard Name for the timber, which is of Indonesian
origin, is MEMINA. The timber is soft to moderately hard and is light to moderately heavy
with a density of 415-720 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the
heartwood, which is light straw-coloured. Other properties and uses ofthe timber are described
under PERAH IKAN. Vernacular names applied include perah (P.M.). Major species include
P. grifjithianum.
Pinang baik1 (P.M.) = Gonystylus affinis = RAMIN.
Pinang baik2 (P.M.) = Pentace spp. = MELUNAK.
Pinang muda (P.M.) = Gonystylus confusus and G. maingayi = RAMIN.
Pinggi (Sar.) = Parartocarpus bracteatus and P venenosus = TERAP.
Pinggoh (Sab.) = Sarcotheca rubrinervis = PUPOL
Pinguh (Sab.) = Sarcotheca rubrinervis = PUPOL
Pipin (Sar.) = Ficus schwarzii = ARA.
Piraus (Sar.) = Lithocarpus conocarpus = MEMPENING.
Pisang-pisang (P.M. and Sab.) = Species of Annonaceae = MEMPISANG.
Pisau-pisau (Sab.) = Horsjieldia laticostata = PENARAHAN.
Pisiah (Sar.) = Horsjieldia spp. = PENARAHAN.
Pithecellobium - Species formerly included in Pithecellobium sect. Archidendron and sect.
Clypearia have been transferred to Archidendron. The timber producing species, Pithecellobium
splendens (KUNGKUR), has been transferred to Albizia splendens. See Archidendron and
Albizia.
Pitoh (Sar.) = Swintonia spp. = MERPAUH.
Pitoh ayer (Sar.) = Swintonia acuta = MERPAUH.
Pitoh paya (Sar.) = Swintonia glauca = MERPAUH.
Planchonella - The genus has been reduced to Pouteria. See Pouteria.
Planchonia - A genus of small to large trees up to 50 m tall and 150(-200) cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Lecythidaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN
Standard Name for the timber is PUTAT. However, the timber is more correctly known as
PUTAT PAYA (q.v.). The timber is hard and heavy with a density of610-1010 kg m-3 air dry.
The sapwood is lighter in colour than and is sharply defined from the heartwood, which is
reddish brown. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under PUTAT PAYA.
Vernacular names applied include putat paya (Sab.). Major species include P. valida.
Platymitra - A genus of medium-sized to fairly large trees up to 40 m tall and 80(-150) cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Annonaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is
MEMPISANG (q.v.). The timber is a light hardwood with a density of 610-890 kgm-3 air dry
and an average density of 835 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the
heartwood, which is light yellow-white with a slight green tinge. Other properties and uses of
the timber are described under MEMPISANG. Vernacular names applied include akau (Sar.),
mangitan (P.M.), manitan (p.M.) and pisang-pisang (P.M. and Sab.). Only one species is recorded
for this region, viz. P macrocarpa.
Ploiarium - A genus of shrubs to small bushy trees found in the fresh water swamps of the
country and belonging to the family Guttiferae. The common Malaysian name for the
tree and timber is RERIANG (q.v.). The timber is hard and very heavy with a density
of 945-975 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is
bright orange-red and darkens to a deep red on exposure. Other properties and uses of the
timber are described under RERIANG. Vernacular names applied include kayu kuat (P.M.),
kuat (P.M.), kuat-kuat (P.M.), riang-riang (P.M.) and sauma (Sab.). Only one species is recorded
for this country, viz. P alternifolium.

142
PODO - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Dacrycarpus imbricatus, Nageia spp.
and Podocarpus spp. (Podocarpaceae). The timber is a softwood and varies considerably in
hardness and in density, which ranges from 380 to 920 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not
distinct from the heartwood, which is light yellow with a greenish tinge or light golden brown.
Texture is very fine and even, with straight grain. The timber is fairly strong (Strength group
C). It has not been tested in the FRIM, Kepong. Reports indicate that the timber is easy to work
and the planed surface is smooth and lustrous. The timber is reported to season well without
serious degrade. The timber is non-durable under exposed conditions.
USES: The timber is suitable for many decorative purposes, interior finishing, panelling, high
class furniture and cabinets, fancy plywood and flooring.
Vernacular names applied include podo (P.M.) with various epithets,jati bukit (P.M.),jati
laut (P.M.), kayu china (Sab.), kebal musang (P.M.), lampias (Sab.), landin (Sar.), rempayan
(Sab.), ru bukit (P.M.) and setada (P.M.). Major species include Dacrycarpus imbricatus;
Nageia motleyi, N wallichiana; Podocarpus neriifolius, P. polystachyus and P. rumphii.
Podo bukit (P.M.) = Podocarpus neriifolius = PODO.
Po do cucor atap (P.M.) = Dacrycarpus imbricatus = PODO.
Podo kebal musang (P.M.) = Nageia motleyi = PODO.
Podo kebal musang gunong (P.M.) = Nageia wallichiana = PODO.
Po do laut (P.M.) = Podocarpus polystachys = PODO.
Podocarpus - A genus of small or medium-sized to large coniferous trees up to 45 m tall
and 100 cm in diameter, belonging to the family Podocarpaceae. The Standard Malaysian
Name for the timber is PODO (q.v.). The timber exhibits variable hardness and density, with
most material ranging 415-735 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not distinct from the heartwood,
which is light yellow with a greenish tinge or light golden brown. Other properties and
uses of the timber are described under PODO. Vernacular names applied include jati bukit
(P.M.),jati laut (P.M.), kayu china (Sab.), podo bukit (P.M.) and setada (P.M.). Major species
include P. neriifolius, P. polystachyus and P. rumphii.
Podocarpaceae - A small family of conifers, mainly confined to the higher altitudes. Three
genera are found in Malaysia, none of which are important commercially. The family is
represented by Dacrydium (SEMPILOR), Phyllocladus (SEMPILOR), Dacrycarpus imbricatus
(PO DO), Nageia (PO DO) and Podocarpus (PODO).
Pokok getah 1 (P.M.) = Hevea brasiliensis = MALAYSIAN OAK.
Pokok getah 2 (Ps.) = Dipterocarpus kerrii = KERUING.
Pokok laka (P.M.) = Phyllanthus emblica = POKOK MELAKA.
POKOK MELAKA - The common Malaysian name for the trees and timber of Phyllanthus
spp. (Euphorbiaceae). The timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy with a density of
770-785 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not defined from the heartwood, which is purple-red-
brown. Texture is moderately coarse and uneven, with shallowly interlocked or slightly wavy
grain. The timber has not been tested in the FRIM, Kepong. Vernacular names applied include
laka (Sab.) and pokok laka (P.M.). Only one species attains commercial size, viz. P. emblica.
Pokok sutubal (P.M.) = Alangium nobile = MENTULANG.
Polyalthia - A genus of shrubs, small to medium-sized or occasionally large trees up to
40(-50) m tall and 60(-90) cm in diameter, belonging to the family Annonaceae. The Standard
Malaysian Name for the timber is MEMPISANG (q. v.). The timber is a light hardwood with a
density of390-900 kg m-3 air dry depending on the species. The sapwood is not differentiated
from the heartwood, which is yellow with a pink or green tinge. Other properties and uses of the
timber are described under MEMPISANG. Vernacular names applied include akau (Sar.),
angilan hutan (Sab.), karai (Sab.) with various epithets, manitan (P.M.) and p'isang-pisang
(P.M.). Maj or species include P. cauliflora, P. glauca, P. hypoleuca, P. microtus, P. sclerophylla,
P. sumatrana and P. xanthopetala.

143
Polygalaceae - A small family of herbs, shrubs, climbers or trees. In Malaysia, only one genus of
trees is represented, viz. Xanthophyllum (NYALIN).
Pometia - A small genus of medium-sized to tall trees up to 40(-50) m tall and 100(-140) cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Sapindaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is
KASAl (q. v.). The timber is a medium hardwood with a density of735-915 kg m-3 air dry. The
sapwood is lighter in colour than and not sharply defined from the heartwood, which is pink,
red or red-brown. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under KASAL Vernacular
names applied include datanut (Sab.), enselan (Sar.), kasai (p.M., Sab. and Sar.) with various
epithets, rapanah (Sar.), sibu (Sar.) and silak (Sar.). Major species include P. pinnata
andP. ridleyi.
Pongamia - The genus has been reduced to Millettia. See Millettia.
Pongpong raya (P.M.) = Adinandra sarosanthera = SAMAK.
Porterandia - A genus of small trees up to 12 m tall, belonging to the family Rubiaceae. The
common Malaysian name for the tree and timber is TINJAU BELUKAR (q.v.). Porterandia
yields a density of 645-720 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood,
which is pale brown with a pink tinge. Other properties and uses Q.f the timber are described
under TINJAU BELUKAR. Vernacular names applied include bembalor (Sab.). Only a single
species, viz. Porterandia anisophyllea, has been reported to be used for it timber.
Potai munjit (Sab.) = Sympetalandra unijuga = MERBAU LALAT.
Potoxylon - A small to medium-sized tree, up to 25 m tall and 100 cm in diameter, belonging to
the family Lauraceae. Potoxylon is a monotypic genus endemic to Borneo and the only species
is Potoxylon melagangai (syn.: Eusideroxylon melagangai). The Standard Malaysian Name
for the timber is MELAGANGAI (q. v.). The timber is moderately hard and strong with a density
of 525-920 kg m-3 air dry. The heartwood is brown with a distinct reddish tinge and is sharply
differentiated from the yellowish sapwood when freshly cut. Other properties and uses of the
timber are described under MELAGANGAI. Vernacular names applied include belian kapok
(Sar.), belian kebuau (Sar.), belian malagangai (Sar.).
Pouteria - A genus of shrubs to large trees up to 50 m tall and 100(-150) cm in diameter, belonging
to the family Sapotaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is NYATOH KUNING
(q. v.). In Sabah and Sarawak, this timber is mixed and sold with other members ofSapotaceae
as NYATOH. The timber is moderately hard a~d heavy with a density of 690-880 kg m-3 air
dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is cream-white to light
yellow. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under NYATOH KUNING.
Vernacular names applied include nangka-nangka (P.M.), nyatoh nangka kuning (P.M.), nyatoh
laut (Sab.), nyatoh nangka merah (P.M) and umas-umas (Sab.). Major species include P. glabra,
P. maingayi, P. malaccensis, P. obovata and P. paucinervia.
Priabu ( Sar.) = Mastixia trichotoma var. clearkeana = TETEBU.
Proteaceae - A family of trees and shrubs, represented in Malaysia by two genera, viz. Helicia
and Heliciopsis (SAWA LUKA).
Prunus - A genus of small to big trees up to 35(-40) m tall and 100 cm in diameter, belonging to
the family Rosaceae. The genus now incorporates all the species described in previous Malaysian
literature under Pygeum. The common Malaysian name for the tree and timber is PEPIJAT
(q. v.), while the ASEAN Standard Name; which is ofIndonesian origin, is TENANGAU. The
timber is moderately hard and light to moderately heavy with a density of 465-785 kg m-3 air
dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is grey-brown with a purple
tinge or light red-brown with a purple tinge. Other properties and uses ofthe timber are described
under PEPIJAT. Vernacular name applied include kelanus (Sab.). Major species are P. arborea,
P. malayana and P. polystachya.

144
Pternandra - A genus of small to medium-sized trees up to 25(-30) m tall and 90 cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Melastomataceae. The common Malaysian name for the tree and
timber is SIAL MENAHUN (q. v.). The ASEAN Standard Name, which is of Indonesian
origin, is MERUBI. The timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy with a density of
625-690 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is lighter in colour than and is fairly distinct from the
heartwood, which is yellow or yellow-brown, often with an olive-green tinge. Other properties
and uses of the timber are described under SIAL MENAHUN. Vernacular names used include
sireh-sireh (Sab.). Major species include P. coerulescens.
Pterocarpus - A genus of tall trees up to 40 m tall and 350 cm in diameter, belonging to the family
Leguminosae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is SENA (q.v.). The timber is
moderately hard and moderately heavy with a density of 560-690 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood
is white or pale straw and is clearly defined from the heartwood, which is golden brown,
occasionally streaked with darker stripes. Other properties and uses of the timber are described
under SENA. Vernacular names applied include angsana (P.M. and Sab.). Only one species is
recorded in this country, viz. P. indicus.
Pterocymbium - Agenus of medium-sized to large trees up to 50 m tall and 90(-120) cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Sterculiaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the
ASEAN Standard Name for the timber is TELUTO (q. v.). The timber is soft and light with an
average density of 465 kg m~3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood,
which is pale straw-coloured, with a pink tinge. Other properties and uses of the timber are
described under TELUTO. Vernacular names applied include mata lembu (P.M.) and melembu
(P.M.). Major species include P. tinctorium.
Pterospermum - A genus of medium-sized to large trees up to 45 m tall and 100(-120) cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Sterculiaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the
ASEAN Standard Name is BAYUR (q. v.). The timber is soft and moderately hard with a density
of 385-705 kg m~3 air dry. The sapwood is creamy white to light yellow-brown and merges
gradually into the heartwood, which is light red-brown in colour and darkens to brown on
exposure. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under BAYUR. In the
West Coast of Sabah, the trees are known as litak. The major species of the genus include
P. diversifolium, P.jackianum, P.javanicum and P. starjianum.
Pterygota - A genus of medium-sized to very tall trees up to 50 m tall and 120 cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Sterculiaceae. The common Malaysian name for the tree and timber is
KASAH (q. v.). The timber is soft to moderately hard and light to moderately heavy with a
density of 575-640 kg m~3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood,
which is straw-coloured to light brown. Other properties and uses of the timber are described
under KASAH. Vernacular names applied include kangsar (P.M.), kasah (P.M.), melebu (Sar.)
and menuang (P.M.). Two species are found in this country, viz. P. alata and P. horsjieldii.
Ptychopyxis - A small genus of small to medium-sized or rarely fairly large trees up to 30(-40)
m tall and 50(-70) cm in diameter, belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae. The common
Malaysian name for the tree and timber is MENDAROH (q. v.). The timber is moderately hard
and moderately heavy with an average density of 675 kg m~3 air dry. The sapwood is not
differentiated from the heartwood, which is brown with a purple-grey tinge. Other properties
and uses of the timber are described under MENDAROH. Vernacular names applied include
medang asam (P.M.), medang kelipat (P.M.) and rambai hutan (P.M.). Major species include
P. caput-medusae, P. costata and P. kingii.
Pudau (Sar.) = Artocarpus rigidus = KELEDANG.
Pudu (P.M. and Sab.) = Artocarpus kemando = KELEDANG.
Pudun (Sar.) = Nephelium ramboutan-ake = RAMBUTAN.

145
PULAI - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Alstonia spp. (Apocynaceae). The
timber is a light hardwood with a density of 210-500 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not
differentiated from the heartwood, which is cream to light yellow in colour. Texture is moderately
fine to rather coarse, with straight to shallowly interlocked grain. The timber is weak (Strength
group D). It is easy to saw and work and the planed surface is smooth. The nailing property is
rated as excellent. The timber seasons very rapidly with very minimal degrade like cupping,
bowing, twisting and end-checking. The timber is prone to powder-post beetle and sap-stain
fungi attacks. 13 mm boards take approximately 1.5 months to air dry, while 38 mm boards take
2.5 months. Shrinkage is rather high, especially in the radial direction, where it averages 2.3%
while the tangential shrinkage averages 2.8%. For kiln-drying, Schedule J is recommended.
The timber dries fast but is prone to stain, mould and insect attacks. 25 mm boards take
approximately 5 days to kiln-dry from 50 to 10% moisture content. The timber is non-durable
but is easily treated with preservatives.
USES: The timber is suitable for pattern making, fret work, carving, picture frames, toys, packing
cases, crates and also for core veneers in plywood manufacture. It has also been successfully
used for making wooden clogs as well as disposable chopsticks. The root-wood fromA. spatulata
and A. pneumatophora, which is known as basong is very light, only 50-80 kg m-3 air dry and
has been used in the manufacture of pith-helmets.
Vernacular names applied include mergalang (Sar.), pelai (Sar.), pulai (P.M., Sab. and Sar.)
with various epithets and sayongan (Sab.). Major species includeA. angustifolia, A. angustiloba,
A. macrophylla, A. pneumatophora, A. scholaris and A. spatulata.
Pulai basong (P.M. and Sab.) = Alstonia pneumatophora andA. spatulata = PULAI.
Pulai bukit (Sab.) = Alstonia angustiloba = PULAI.
Pulai daun besar (Sab.) = Alstonia macrophylla = PULAI.
Pulai paya (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) = Alstonia spatulata = PULAI.
Pulai penipu bukit (P.M.) = Alstonia macrophylla = PULAI.
Pulai penipu paya (P.M.) = Alstonia angustifolia = PULAI.
Pulasan (P.M.) = Nephelium ramboutan-ake = RAMBUTAN.
Puloh (Sar.) = Gironniera nervosa = KASAP.
Pulutan (Sab.) = Artocarpus integer = KELEDANG.
Pulut-pulut (P.M.) = Chrysophyllum lanceolatum = PEPULUT.
PUNAH - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Tetramerista spp. (Tetrameristaceae).
The timber is a medium hardwood with a density of 625-800 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is
lighter in colour than and not always clearly defined from the heartwood, which is pink-brown,
weathering to light brown. Texture is moderately coarse but even, with straight, interlocked
and sometimes spiral grain. The timber is very strong (Strength group A). It is easy to saw and
work. Planing is easy although the surface produced is only moderately smooth to rough. The
nailing property is rated as good. The timber dries moderately fast but is prone to a large
amount of seasoning degrade like bowing, end-checking, splitting, surface-checking and staining.
13 mm boards take approximately 2.5 months to air dry, while 38 mm boards take 4 months.
Shrinkage is very high, with radial shrinkage averaging 3.2% and tangential shrinkage averaging
4.5%. For kiln-drying, Schedule C is recommended. The timber dries fast without much degrade,
except for thicker sections, which are prone to surface-checking and end-splitting. 25 mm
boards take approximately 7 days to kiln-dry from 50 to 10% moisture content. The timber is
only moderately durable under exposed conditions and its amenability to preservative treatment
is rated as average.
USES: The timber is suitable for all forms of heavy construction under cover, posts, beams,
joists, rafters, heavy duty furniture, heavy duty flooring and railway sleepers (treated).

146
Vernacular names applied include entuyut (Sar.), kayu chelega (Sar.), kayu hujan (Sar.),
kayu tangiran (Sar.), samondu (Sab.), suyut (Sab.), tuyot (Sab.) and tuyut (Sab.). Only one
species is of importance in this country, viz. T glabra.
Punggai (P.M.) = Coelostegia griffithii = DURIAN.
Punggai daun besar (P.M.) = Coelostegia borneensis = DURIAN.
PUPOI - The common Malaysian name for the trees and timber of Sarcotheca spp. (Oxalidaceae).
The timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy with a density of 650-840 kg m~3 air dry.
The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is straw-coloured. Texture is
rather fine and even, with straight grain. The timber is reported to be easy to work with moderate
durability. The timber is used for roofing and interior works. It can also be used for furniture,
agriculture implement, temporary construction, veneer and plywood. Vernacular names applied
include belimbing bulat (Sar.), belimbing manik (Sar.), buah piang (Sar.),jintek-jintek (P.M.),
setundok (P.M.), tabarus (Sab.) and various other localised names too numerous to be listed
here. Major species include S. diversifolia, S. glauca, S. grif)ithii, S. macrophylla, S. ochracea
and S. rubrinervis.
Puro (Sar.) = Ficus magnoliifolia = ARA.
Pusing-pusing (Sab.) = Engelhardtia serrata = DUNGUN PAYA.
PUTAT - The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN Standard Name for the timber of
Barringtonia spp. (Lecythidaceae). The timber is moderately hard to hard and moderately
heavy to heavy with a density of 480-815 kg m~3 air dry. The sapwood is light yellow-brown
and is not differentiated from the heartwood Texture is moderately fine and even, with straight
to interlocked grain. The timber is strong (Strength group B). It is easy to resaw and easy to
fairly easy to cross-cut. Planing is easy and the planed surface produced is smooth to moderately
smooth. The timber seasons fairly slowly, without any degrade except for slight insect and
fungal attacks. 13 mm boards take approximately 2 months to air dry while 38 mm boards take
5 months. Shrinkage is rather high, with radial shrinkage averaging 1.9% and tangential shrinkage
averaging 3.1 %. The timber is non-durable under exposed conditions.
USES: The timber is suitable for temporary construction, non-striking tool handles, general
planking, boxes and crates, veneers for plywood manufacture and also wooden pallets.
Other vernacular names include tampalang (Sab.). Major species include B. asiatica,
B. macrostachya, B. pendula, B. sarcostachys and B. scortechinii.
Putat bukit (P.M.) = Palaquium stellatum = BITIS.
PUTAT PAYA - The common Malaysian name for the timber of Planchonia spp. (Lecythidaceae).
The timber is of medium to heavy weight with a density of 610-1010 kg m~3 air dry. The
timber is moderately strong to strong and hard to very hard. The sapwood (up to 8 cm wide) is
light yellow and distinctly demarcated from the heartwood, which is brown, dark brown or
dark red-brown. Texture is moderately fine to moderately coarse and even. Grain is interlocked.
The timber is reported to be difficult to season with moderate to high shrinkage. It is fairly easy
to difficult to work and picking up of grain may occur on quarter-sawn material. The timber is
moderately durable to durable even in contact with the ground. It is difficult to treat with
preservatives.
USES: the timber is suitable for medium construction, posts, beams,joists, rafters, tool handles.
The timber is reported to be popular for temporary construction in logging operations such as
bridge bearers and log launching skids.
Vernacular names include putat paya (Sab.) and kasui (Sab.) for P valida and putat nasi
(P.M.) for P grandis.
Putut (Sab.) = Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and B. sexangula = BAKAU.

147
Q
Quercus - A small genus of medium-sized to large trees up to 40 m tall and 130 cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Fagaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber, which includes.
the timber of Lithocarpus spp., is MEMPENING (q. v.). The timber is hard to very hard and
heavy to very heavy with a density of 815-960 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not clearly
defined but is lighter in colour than the heartwood, which is yellow-brown to red-brown and
sometimes dark red. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under MEMPENING.
Vernacular names include mempening (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) with various epithets and sa bah
oak (Sab.). Major species include Q. argentata and Q. gemelliflora.

148
R
Raba (Sar.) = Mangifera parvifolia = MACHANG.
Rabong (Sar.) = Carallia brachiata and Carallia sp. 2 = MERANSI.
Rade (Sar.) = Mangifera torquenda = MACHANG.
Radipah (Sar.) = Carallia brachiata = MERANSI.
Raja tugag (Sar.) = Cratoxylumformosum = DERUM.
Rambai (P.M. and Sab.) = Baccaurea spp. = TAMPOI.
Rambai hutan l (P.M. and Sab.) = Baccaurea kunstleri = TAMPOI.
Rambai hutan 2 (P.M.) = Ptychopyxis caput-medusae = MENDAROH.
Rambai-rambai (Sab.) = Crypteronia griffithii = BEKOI.
RAMBUTAN - The common Malaysian name for the trees and timber of Nephelium spp.
(Sapindaceae). The timber is hard to very hard and heavy to very heavy with a density
of 880-1075 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is lighter in colour than and is only moderately
sharply defined from the heartwood, which is red-brown to light purple-brown. Texture
is moderately fine and even, with interlocked or slightly irregular grain. The timber of
N. lappaceum is liable to splitting during seasoning. It is moderately hard to very hard, strong
and tough. The timber is easy to work and can be finished well. It is durable under cover and
generally resistant to insect attacks, but susceptible to fungal attack. The timber is used for
general construction, furniture, tool handles, door and window frames, agriculture implements
and other general utility purposes. Vernacular names applied include kelamondoi (Sab.),
lotong (P.M.), meritam (Sab.), pulasan (P.M.), rambutan hutan (P.M.), rambutan pachat (P.M.),
redan (P.M.) and various other localised names too numerous to be listed here. Major
species include N. cuspidatum, N. daedaleum, N. lappaceum, N. maingayi, N. meduseum,
N. melanomiscum and N. ramboutan-ake.
Rambutan ake (Sab.) = Nephelium ramboutan-ake = RAMBUTAN.
Rambutan hutan l (P.M.) = Nephelium lappaceum = RAMBUTAN.
Rambutan hutan 2 (Sar.) = Nephelium meduseum = RAMBUTAN.
Rambutan hutan 3 (Sab.) = Nephelium ramboutan-ake = RAMBUTAN.
RAMBUTAN PACHAT 1 - The common Malaysian name for the trees and timber of
Xerospermum spp. (Sapindaceae). The timber is moderately hard to hard and heavy to very
heavy with a density of 880-1040 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the
heartwood, which is light brown. Texture is moderately fine and even, with straight grain. The
timber of rambutan pachat has been used for construction, carts, ploughs and rice pounder.
Vernacular names applied include ilat (Sar.), kikir buntal (P.M.), resat (Sab.) and tundun biawak
(Sar.). Major species include X laevigatum and X noronhianum.
Rambutan pachatz (P.M.) = Nephelium lappaceum = RAMBUTAN.
RAMIN - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Gonystylus spp. (Thymelaeaceae).
The timber is a light hardwood with a density of 530-785 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is
lighter in colour than and is poorly defined from the heartwood, which is white to creamy
yellow. Texture is moderately fine and even, with shallowly interlocked grain. The timber is
moderately strong (Strength group C). It is easy to saw, cross-cut and plane and the surfaces
produced are smooth. The timber is easy to bore but the finish is rough. The nailing property is

149
rated as poor, but the resistance to splitting will be improved ifthe nails used are clinched. The
timber seasons fairly slowly, with moderate cupping, bowing, surface-checking and staining
as the main sources of degrade. 13 mm boards take 3.5 months to air dry, while 38 mm boards
take 4 months. Shrinkage is high, especially in the tangential direction. Radial shrinkage averages
l.6% while tangential shrinkage averages 3.4%. For kiln-drying, Schedule C or B is
recommended. Timbers of more than 40 mm in thickness are prone to surface-checking and
end-splitting and the milder Schedule B is more suitable. The timber is non-durable but is
easily treated with preservatives.
USES: The timber has established a reputation as a first class joinery timber. The timber is
suitable for furniture manufacture, panelling, flooring, stringers and stair threads, wooden
mathematical instruments, drawing boards, toys, turnery and rotary peeled plywood.
Vernacular names applied include ramin (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) with various epithets, dara
elok (P.M.), the old trade name melawis (P M.),pinang baik (P.M.) andpinang muda (P.M.).
Major species include G. affinis, G. bancanus, G. brunnescens, G. con/usus and G. maingayi.
Ramin dara elok (P.M.) = Gonystylus affinis = RAMIN.
Ramin daun tebal (P.M.) = Gonystylus brunnescens = RAMIN.
Ramin melawis (P.M.) = Gonystylus bancanus = RAMIN.
Ramin pinang muda (P.M.) = Gonystylus con/usus = RAMIN.
Ramin pipit (P.M.) = Gonystylus maingayi = RAMIN.
Randagong (Sab.) = Trema spp. = MENARONG.
Randia - Randia sensu lato in Peninsular Malaysia was an heterogenous assemblage of genera,
which was analysed by Wong in 1984 to contain eight genera (viz. Aidia, Catunaregam,
Ceriscoides, Fagerlindia, Kochummenia, Oxyceros, Porterandia and Rothmannia). Randia is
now considered an exclusively American genus. Only a single genus, viz. Porterandia, has
been reported to be used for its timber in Malaysia. See Porterandia.
Randog (Sab.) = Hibiscus macrophyllus = BARU.
Rangalau (Sab.) = Nephelium lappaceum = RAMBUTAN.
Ranggau (Sab.) = Toona spp. = LIMPAGA.
RANGGU 1 - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Koordersiodendron pinnatum
(Anacardiaceae). The ASEAN Standard Name, which is ofIndonesian origin, is MUGIS. The
timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy to heavy with a density of 690-915 kg m-3 air
dry. The timber is classified under medium hardwood in Malaysia. The sapwood is white to
pale pink and is clearly defined from the heartwood, which is pink-brown to red-brown and
darkens on exposure. Texture is rather fine and even, with straight to interlocked grain. The
timber is reported to be strong (Strength group B). It is reported to be easy to saw and works
well with all tools, although there is a slight tendency for grain pick-up on radial surfaces. The
nailing property is variously reported as good to poor. The timber is reputed to season slowly,
with moderate staining, slight bowing and end-checking as the main sources of degrade. 13 mm
boards take approximately 5 months to air dry, while 38 mm boards take 6 months. Shrinkage
is fairly high, with radial shrinkage averaging 1.7% and tangential shrinkage averaging 2.6%.
The timber is only moderately durable under exposed conditions.
USES: The timber is suitable for flooring, interior construction, furniture and cabinet making,
general joinery, door panels and turneries.
Vernacular names applied include ranggu (Sab. and Sar.), although in Sarawak, ranggu is
also applicable to certain species of the family Meliaceae. This species is found in the Malaysian
states of Sabah and Sarawak and is absent in the Peninsula. This is a monospecific timber.
Ranggu 2 (Sar.) = Azadirachta excelsa = SENTANG.
Rangkas-rangkas (Sab.) = Sarcotheca glauca = PUPOL
Rapanah (Sar.) = Pometia pinnata = KASAL

150
RASAMALA - The common Malaysian name for Altingia excelsa (Hamamelidaceae). The timber
is medium to heavy in weight with a density of 61 0-900 kg m-3 air dry. The heartwood is dark
pinkish, red or reddish brown, gradually merging into the yellowish or reddish brown sapwood.
TextUre is fine and even. Grain is straight to slightly interlocked. Altingia dries slowly and with
considerable defects such as cupping, twisting and checking. The rate of shrinkage is high,
from green to oven dry: 5.6% radial and 11.6% tangential. Thus, the timber must be dried
carefully and stacked properly. The air drying of 20 mm thick boards takes about 5 months
whereas 30 mm thick boards require almost 7 months. The timber is easy to work and shows
very good results in planing, boring, mortising, turning and sanding. The timber is moderately
durable to durable but the timber from the plantation indicates a lesser durability.
USES: Rasamala is regarded as the most valuable timber in West Java. Because of its ability to
form very long branchless boles, it was favoured for frames of bridges and columns and beams
for buildings. Other uses include power trasmission and telephone lines poles, railway sleepers,
vehicle bodies, boat and ship building, heavy duty flooring and rafters, veneer and plywood.
The bole yields an aromatic resin, called "getah malai", which is collected and used as an
incense.
No other vernacular names have been recorded and only a single species, A. excelsa, is
represented in Peninsular Malaysia.
Rasak batu (Sab. and Sar.) = Kostermanthus heteropetalus = MERBATU.
Rasu (Sar.) = Pellacalyx lobbii = MEMBULOH.
Rawa (P.M.) = Mangifera grifjithii = MACHANG.
Rawal (Sab.) = Adenanthera kostermansii = SAGA.
Redan (P.M.) = Nephelium maingayi = RAMBUTAN.
RED BALAU - The Standard Malaysian Name for the heavy, red to red-brown timbers of
the genus Shorea (Dipterocarpaceae). The timber is a heavy hardwood with a density of
800-880 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is pink, purple-brown or grey-brown and is fairly distinct
from the heartwood, which is light to deep red-brown. Texture is moderately fine to slightly
coarse and even, with deeply interlocked grain. The timber is strong (Strength groups A or B).
It is slightly difficult to difficult to saw and work, although planing is easy and the surface
produced is smooth to slightly rough. Nailing property varies according to species; S. guiso is
reported to be excellent, while S. ochrophloia is good and S. kunstleri is poor. The seasoning
characteristics of some of the species tested are summarised below:

Time to air dry Shrinkage (%)


(months) (Green to air dry)
Species Remarks
13mm 38mm Radial Tangential
boards boards

S. guiso 4 6 1.6 3.6 Fairly slow drying; moderate end-checking;


slight cupping, splitting, surface-checking,
insect attack and staining; high shrinkage.
S. kunstleri 4 6 2.2 3.3 Fairly slow drying; moderate end-checking;
slight splitting and surface-checking;
high shrinkage.
S. ochrophloia 3 5 1.4 3.2 Fairly slow drying; moderate end-checking;
slight splitting and surface-checking;
high shrinkage.

151
For kiln-drying, Schedule G is recommended. The timber is moderately durable and is
resistant to treatment with preservatives.
USES: The timber is suitable for heavy construction under cover, beams, posts, joists, heavy
duty furniture, heavy duty flooring, door and window frames, railway sleepers (treated) and
power transmission poles (treated).
Vernacular names applied are too many to be listed here except for the more common ones,
viz. balau laut merah (P.M.), balau merah (P.M.), damar laut merah (P.M.), membatu (P.M.),
red selangan batu (Sab. and Sar.), selangan batu merah (Sab. and Sar.), semayur (Sar.),
seraya (P.M.) and seraya batu (P.M.). Major species include S. collina, S. guiso, S. inaequilateris,
S. kunstleri and S. ochrophloia.
RED MERANTI - A Trade Name used to cover a group of timbers that include both LIGHT
RED MERANTI and DARK RED MERANTI.
Red selangan batu (Sab. and Sar.) = Shorea spp. = RED BALAU.
RED SERAYA - The red meranti botanical group of Shorea produces timbers varying in density
from 640 to 960 kg m-3 air dry in Sabah and Sarawak. Generally, the lighter weight timbers
with density 'Jelow 640 kg m-3 air dry produced by the group are known as red seraya and may
vary in colour from almost white to fairly deep red (which is equivalent to light red meranti,
melantai and some lighter-weight dark red meranti timbers in Peninsular Malaysia). For heavy
red seraya, the density is more than 640 kg m-3 air dry with the colour of the timber varying
from pale pink, pale brown or red but never the deep red of obar suluk and obak sulut (equivalent
of dark red meranti in Peninsular Malaysia).
Redin (Sar.) = Ixonanthes spp. = PAGAR ANAK.
Remia (P.M.) = Bouea oppositifolia = KUNDANG.
Rempayan (Sab.) = Dacrycarpus imbricatus = PODO.
RENGASI - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Gluta spp. and Melanochyla spp.
(Anacardiaceae). The timber is a medium hardwood with a density of 640-960 kg m-3 air dry.
The sapwood is light pink-brown or light brown and is sharply differentiated from the heartwood,
which is dark red-brown or deep blood-red, with bands of darker, almost black streaks. Texture
is moderately coarse to fairly fine and even, with interlocked or occasionally straight grain. The
timber is strong (Strength group B). It is slightly difficult to resaw and cross-cut and the planed
surface is only moderately smooth. The nailing property is rated as excellent. The timber seasons
moderately slowly, with slight twisting and insect attacks as the main degrade. 13 mm boards
take approximately 2 months to air dry, while 38 mm boards take 5 months. Shrinkage is fairly
low, radial shrinkage averages 1.0% while tangential shrinkage averages 1.8%. The timber is
moderately durable, being susceptible to termite attacks. The heartwood is extremely difficult
to treat, while the sapwood is amenable.
USES: Due to the poisonous nature of the sap, the timber is not very often exploited. The
seasoned timber, however, is quite safe to handle and is highly prized as a cabinet wood due to
its streaky figure and blood red colour. The timber is also suitable for panelling, parquet flooring,
fancy articles, walking sticks, turnery and sliced veneers. The timber is strong enough for medium
construction provided it is protected from termites.
Vernacular names applied are usually rengas (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) with various epithets.
The major species contributing to the timber include Gluta aptera, G. elegans, G. malayana,
G. renghas, G. torquata, G. wallichii, G. wrayi; Melanochyla auriculata, M. bracteata,
M. caesia and M. fulvinervis.
Rengas 2 (P.M.) = Parishia spp. = LELAYANG.
Rengas 3 (Sab.) = Swintonia spp. = MERPAUH.
Rengas ayam (P.M.) = Buchanania sessifolia = OTAK UDANG.
Rengas ayerl (P.M.) = Gluta elegans, G. renghas and G. wrayi = RENGAS.

152
Rengas ayer2 (Sab.) = Gluta spp. = RENGAS.
Rengas kerb au jalang (P.M.) = Gluta aptera, G. malayana, G. torquata and G. wallichii =
RENGAS.
Rengas landok (P.M.) = Melanochyla spp. = RENGAS.
Rengas lupi (Sab.) = Melanochyla beccariana = RENGAS.
Rengas padi (P.M.) = Gluta spp. = RENGAS.
Rengas paya (P.M.) = Gluta spp. = RENGAS.
Rengas pisang (P.M.) = Melanochyla spp. = RENGAS.
Rengkong (Ph.) = Anisoptera curtisii = MERSAWA.
Repoh (P.M.) = Chukrasia tabularis = SURIAN BATU.
RERIANG - The common Malaysian name for the tree and timber of Ploiarium alternifolium
(Guttiferae, previously Theaceae). The timber is hard and very heavy with a density of
945-975 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is bright
orange-red and darkens to a deep red on exposure. Texture is slightly coarse but even, with
moderately straight or irregular grain. The timber has not been tested in the FRlM, Kepong.
Vernacular names applied include kayu kuat (P.M.), kuat (P.M.), kuat-kuat (P.M.), riang-riang
(P.M.) and sauma (Sab.). Only one species is recorded for this country, viz. P alternifolium.
RESAK - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Cotylelobium spp. and Vatica spp.
(Dipterocarpaceae). The timber is a heavy hardwood with a density of 655-1155 kg m-3 air
dry. The sapwood is lighter in colour than the heartwood and is sharply defined in Cotylelobium
but not generally so in Vatica. The heartwood is pale yellow when fresh and turns to deep red-
brown on exposure in Cotylelobium and a fine brown with a green tinge in Vatica. Texture is
fine and even, with straight or only shallowly interlocked grain. The timber is strong (Strength
group B). It is difficult to resaw and cross-cut in Vatica, while Cotylelobium is moderately easy
to slightly difficult to resaw. Planing is easy to slightly difficult and the finished surface is
smooth. The timber seasons fairly slowly with very negligible degrade. Only slight cupping,
end-checking, splitting and surface-checking are noted during drying. 13 mm boards take
approximate 3 months to air dry, while 38 mm boards take 5 months. Shrinkage is high, especially
in the tangential direction. Radial shrinkage averages 1.5% while tangential shrinkage averages
3.4%. The timber is very durable and is very difficult to treat with preservatives.
USES: The timber is suitable for all forms of heavy construction, bridges, piling, beams, posts,
joists, heavy duty flooring, power transmission poles, railway sleepers, parquet flooring, heavy
duty furniture and wooden containers.
Vernacular names applied include resak (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) with various epithets, balau
(P.M.) in error, damar keluang (Ph.), jenuong (Th.) and keruing babi (P.M.). Major species
include Cotylelobium lanceolatum, C. melanoxylon; Vatica bella, V. cuspidata, V. jlavida,
V. havilandii, V. heteroptera, V. lowii, V. maingayi, V. mangachapoi, V. nitens and v.scortechinii.
Resak ayer (P.M.) = Vatica pauciflora = RESAK.
Resak bajau (Sab.) = Vatica mangachapoi = RESAK.
Resak banka (Sab.) = Vatica venulosa ssp. venelosa = RESAK.
Resak biabas (Sab.) = Vatica odorata = RESAK.
Resak bukW (P.M.) = Cotylelobium lanceolatum = RESAK.
Resak bukUZ (Sab.) = Vatica dulitensis = RESAK.
Resak bulu (Sab.) = Vatica micrantha = RESAK.
Resak daun merah (Sab.) = Vatica maingayi = RESAK.
Resak daun panjangl (P.M.) = Vatica nitens = RESAK.
Resak daun panjang2 (Sab.) = Vatica oblongifolia = RESAK.
Resak daun runcing (P.M.) = Vatica cuspidata = RESAK.
Resak degong (P.M.) = Vatica havilandii = RESAK.

153
Resak gajah (P.M.) = Vatica sp. A = RESAK.
Resak gunung (P.M.) = Vatica heteroptera = RESAK.
Resak hitam (P.M.) = Shorea maxwelliana = BALAU.
Resak irian (Sab.) = Vatica rassak = RESAK.
Resakjulong (P.M.) = Vatica mangachapoi = RESAK.
Resak kechil (P.M.) = Vatica pallida = RESAK.
Resak kelabu (Sab.) = Cotylelobium lanceolatum = RESAK.
Resak keluang (P.M.) = Vatica bella = RESAK.
Resak labuan (Sab.) = Vatica umbonata = RESAK.
Resak langgong (P.M.) = Vatica scortechinii = RESAK.
Resak laru! (P.M.) = Vatica lobata, V. pauciflora and V. stapfiana = RESAK.
Resak laru 2 (Sab.) = Vatica pauciflora = RESAK.
Resak laut! (P.M.) = Vatica cinerea = RESAK.
Resak laut 2 (Sab.) = Vatica maritima = RESAK.
Resak letop (P.M.) = Vatica venulosa = RESAK.
Resak lidi (P.M.) = Vatica maingayi = RESAK.
Resak mempening (P.M.) = Vatica stapfiana = RESAK.
Resak padi (P.M.) = Vaticaflavida = RESAK.
Resak paya (P.M.) = Vatica lobata = RESAK.
Resak pengasoh (Sab.) = Vatica scortechinii = RESAK.
Resak pipit (P.M.) = Vatica lowii = RESAK.
Resak puteh! (P.M.) = Vatica perakensis = RESAK.
Resak puteh 2 (Sab.) = Vatica albiramis = RESAK.
Resak rambai (Jh.) = Hopea polyalthioides = GIAM.
Resak ranting kesat (P.M.) = Vatica odorata = RESAK.
Resak remania (Ml.) = Shorea glauca = BALAU.
Resak samak (Ph.) = Shorea guiso = RED BALAU.
Resak Sarawak (Sab.) = Vatica sara wakens is = RESAK.
Resak tempurong (P.M. and Sab.) = Cotylelobium melanoxylon = RESAK.
Resat (Sab.) = Xerospermum noronhianum = RAMBUTAN PACHAT.
Rhizophora - A genus of mangrove trees up to 30 m tall and 50(-70) cm in diameter, belonging
to the family Rhizophoraceae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is BAKA U (q. v.).
The timber is very hard and very heavy with a density of 960-1170 kg m-3 air dry. The
sapwood is yellow-brown and not sharply differentiated from the heartwood, which is
red-brown in R. apiculata and yellow-brown in R. mucronata. Other properties and uses of the
timber are described under BAKAU. Vernacular names applicable to the species of this genus
include bakau (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) with various epithets and bangkita (Sab.). Major species
include R. apiculata and R. mucronata.
Rhizophoraceae - A family which is noted for the mangrove species, although there are important
members found in the lowland and hill forests. The major economic species include the mangrove
species: Bruguiera, Ceriops and Rhizophora (BAKAU), the inland species, Carallia
(MERANSI), Gynotroches (MATA KELI) and Peliacalyx (MEMBULOH).
Rhodamnia - A genus of small to medium-sized trees up to 25(-32) m tall and 50(-65) cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Myrtaceae. The common Malaysian name for the tree
and timber is MEMPOYAN (q.v.). The timber is very heavy with an average density of
1025 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is grey-brown
with a purple-red tinge. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under
MEMPOYAN. There is no other vernacular name recorded. Only one species is recorded for
this country, viz. R. cinerea.

154
Rhodoleia - A genus of large shrubs, small to medium-sized trees up to 25(-33) m tall
and 45(-100) cm in diameter, belonging to the family Hamamelidaceae. The common Malaysian
name for the tree and timber is KERLIK (q. v.). The timber is moderately hard and moderately
heavy with a density of 640-800 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is lighter in colour than but not
sharply defined from the heartwood which is red-brown. Other properties and uses of the timber
are described under KERLIK. Vernacular names applied include keruntum (P.M.). Only one
species is recorded, viz. R. championi. This genus is absent in Sabah and Sarawak.
Rhu bukit (Sar.) = Gymnostoma sumatranum = RU.
Rhu laut (Sab.) = Casuarina spp. = RU.
Rhu ronang (Sar.) = Gymnostoma nobile and G. sumatranum = RU.
Rian (Sar.) = Palaquium gutta = NYATOH.
Riang-riang (P.M.) = Ploiarium alternifolium = RERIANG.
Rogam (Sar.) = Sonneratia ovata = PERAPAT.
Rondogong (Sab.) = Trema tomentosa = MENARONG.
Rosaceae - A family of shrubs or trees. It is not an important timber producing family in Malaysia.
The genera of importance in Malaysia include Eriobotrya, Prunus (PEPIJAT) and Pyrus.
Rozan (Sab.) = Gironniera parvifolia = KASAP.
RU - The common Malaysian name for the timbers of Casuarina spp. and Gymnostoma spp.
(Casuarinaceae). The ASEAN Standard Name, which is of Philippine origin, is AGOHO. The
timber is very hard and very heavy with a density of 850-1120 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is
lighter in colour than and distinct from the heartwood, which is pink-brown, red-brown or dark
brown. Texture is coarse and uneven due to the presence of the extremely large aggregate rays.
The timber is strong (Strength group B), with straight, spiral or wavy grain. It is easy to resaw
and cross-cut when green but is difficult when dry. Planing is also easy when green but difficult
when dry and the planed surface is smooth to moderately smooth. Nailing property is rated as
very poor. The timber seasons fairly rapidly with moderate end-checking and staining, slight
cupping, bowing and surface-checking as the main sources of degrade. 13 mm boards take
approximately 2.5 months to air dry, while 38 mm boards take 4 months. Shrinkage is high,
with radial shrinkage averaging 1.6% and tangential shrinkage averaging 3.4%. The timber is
only moderately durable and its amenability to preservative treatment is average.
USES: The timber is suitable for tool handles, fence posts and fuel both as firewood and charcoal.
Vernacular names applied include aru (Sab.) and sempilau (Sab.) with various epithets. Major
species include Casuarina equisetifolia; Gymnostoma nobile and G. sumatranum.
Ru bukit l (P.M.) = Dacrydium beccarii and D. elatum = SEMPILOR.
Ru bukit2 (P.M.) = Dacrycarpus imbricatus = PODO.
Ru gunong (P.M.) = Falcatifoliumfalciforme = SEMPILOR.
Ruazon (Sab.) = Gironniera parvifolia = KASAP.
Rubberwood (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) = Hevea brasiliensis = MALAYSIAN OAK.
Rubiaceae - A very large family of herbs, shrubs or trees but of very limited importance as
timber trees. Main tree producing genera include Metadina (MERAGA), Morinda
(MENGKUDU), Mussuendopsis (MALABERA BUKIT), Nauclea (BANGKAL), Neolamarkia
(LARAN), Neonauclea (BANGKAL), Pertusadina (MERAGA) and Porterandia (TINJAU
BELUKAR).
Rumenia (P.M.) = Bouea oppositifolia = KUNDANG.
Russen (Sab.) = Gironniera subaequalis = KASAP.
Rutaceae - A family of herbs, shrubs and rarely medium-sized trees, more noted for the edible
fruits than the timber. Species that are of some limited importance as a source of wood include
Melicope spp. (PEPAUH) and Zanthoxylum spp. (HANTU DURI).
Ruwayon (Sab.) = Gironniera subaequalis = KASAP.

155
s
Sabah agathis (Sab.) = Agathis borneensis = DAMAR MINYAK.
Sabah ebony (Sab.) = Diospyros spp. = KAYU MALAM.
Sabah oak (Sab.) = Lithocarpus spp. and Ouercus spp. = MEMPENING.
Sabutun (Sar.) = Combretocarpus rotundatus = KERUNTUM.
SAGA - The common Malaysian name for the trees and timber of Adenanthera spp. and
Ormosia spp. (Leguminosae). From physical and anatomical evidence, these two timbers should
be separated; however, as these two timbers have yet to be tested exhaustively, they are placed
together here for the time being. The timber of Adenanthera spp. is very hard and very
heavy with a density of 595-1100 kg m-3 air dry, while the timber of Ormosia spp.
ranges 815-915 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood of Adenanthera spp. is straw-coloured and is
sharply differentiated from the heartwood, which is bright yellow when fresh and turns to golden
brown or dark red-brown on exposure. On the other hand, the sapwood of Ormosia spp. is light
yellow-brown and is moderately to very distinct from the heartwood, which is either grey-
brown with lighter coloured streaks or brown with grey-brown stripes and lighter coloured
streaks. Texture of Adenanthera spp. is slightly coarse but even, while Ormosia spp. is rather
coarse and uneven, due to the presence of abundant parenchyma. Both the timbers of
Adenanthera spp. and Ormosia spp. have not been tested in the FRlM, Kepong. However, it
has been reported that the timbers of both Adenanthera and Ormosia may be suitable for
construction under cover, flooring, furniture manufacture and turnery. Vernacular names applied
include saga (P.M. and Sar.) with various epithets and sepit-sepit (P.M.) for O. sumatrana.
Major species include Adenanthera malayana, A. pavonina; Ormosia bancana, 0. gracilis, 0.
macrodisca, 0. polita and O. sumatrana.
Saga daun tajam (P.M.) = Adenanthera malayana = SAGA.
Saga daun tumpul (P.M.) = Adenanthera pavon ina = SAGA.
Saga hitam (P.M.) = Adenanthera malayana = SAGA.
Saga hutan (P.M. and Sab.) = Ormosia spp. = SAGA.
Saga laut (Sab.) = Ormosia bancana = SAGA.
Saga paya (Sar.) = Adenanthera kostermansii and A. malayana = SAGA.
Sagad berauh (Sar.) = Ochanostachys amentacea = PETALING.
Sagan berauh (Sar.) = Scorodocarpus borneensis = KULIM.
Saka-saka (Sab.) = Glochidion littorale = UBAR.
Salah (P.M.) = Neoscortechinia kingii.
Salad (Sar.) = Lithocarpus hallieri, L. hatusimae, L. kochummenii; and Quercus percoriacea =
MEMPENING.
Salad kup (Sar.) = Lithocarpus lampadarius = MEMPENING.
Salad padeh (Sar.) = Lithocarpus papillijer = MEMPENING.
Salad repak (Sar.) = Lithocarpus ewyckii = MEMPENING.
Salad urong (Sar.) = Lithocarpus pulcher = MEMPENING.
Salang (Sab.) = Agathis borneensis = DAMAR MINYAK.
Salang rusa (P.M.) = Alangium grifjithii = MENTULANG.
Saled 1 (Sar.) = Castanopsis paucispina = BERANGAN.

156
Saled 2 (Sar.) = Lithocarpus conocarpus, L. gracilis and L. pusillus = MEMPENING.
Saled arong (Sar.) = Lithocarpusjacobsii and L. lucidus = MEMPENING.
Saled birar (Sar.) = Lithocarpus confertus = MEMPENING.
SIlled kup (Sar.) = Lithocarpus hallieri = MEMPENING.
Saled urong (Sar.) = Lithocarpus revolutus and L. stonei = MEMPENING.
Salong banggi (Sab.) = Dacryodes rostrata var. cuspidata = KEDONDONG.
Salud kup (Sar.) = Lithocarpus ruminatus = MEMPENING.
SAMAK - The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN Standard Name for the timbers
of Adinandra, Gordonia and Schima (Theaceae). The timber is moderately hard and moderately
heavy with a density of 530-920 kg m-3 air dry. In Gordonia and Schima, the sapwood is
usually lighter in colour than or dirty white and is poorly defined from the heartwood,
which is red, red-brown or purple-red-brown, sometimes with streaks of darker colour. In
Adinandra, the sapwood is lighter in colour than and not clearly defined from the
heartwood which is grey-brown with a purple tinge to dark red-brown. Texture is rather fine
and even, with interlocked and frequently irregular grain. The timber is strong (Strength group
B). It is fairly easy to easy to resaw and cross-cut and is easy to slightly difficult to plane. The
finish is, however, smooth. Nailing property ranges from excellent in Schima to poor in
Adinandra. Seasoning properties of the timber are summarised below:

Time to air dry Shrinkage (%)


(months) (Green to air dry)
Species Remarks
13 mm 25 mm 38 mm Radial Tangential
boards boards boards

Adinandra dumosa 3 4 2.3 2.4 Moderately slow drying; moderate


cupping and splitting; severe staining;
fairly high shrinkage.
A. villosa 5 1.7 4.4 Slow drying; slight twisting; high
shrinkage.
Schima wallichii 2.5 3 2.1 3.4 Fairly fast drying; severe cupping,
bowing, twisting and splitting; slight
end-checking and surface-checking;
high shrinkage.

The timber is non-durable and the heartwood is easy to impregnate with preservatives.
USES: The timber is suitable for flooring, panelling, door and window frames, planking, plywood
manufacture, wooden pallets and charcoal manufacture.
Vernacular names applied include bangkao (Sab.), bangkau (Sab.), bawing (Sab.),
gatal-gatal (P.M.), gegatal (P.M.),jalong (P.M.), legai (Sar.), medang gatal (P.M.), meluluk
(Sab.), mengkula (P.M.), samak pulut (P.M.), tekoyong-koyong (Sar.), tetiup (P.M.) and tiup-
tiup (P.M.). Major species of the timber include Adinandra caudatifolia, A. dumosa, A.
integerrima, A. sarosanthera, A. villosa; Gordonia muitinervis, G. taipingensis; and Schima
wallichii.
Samak pulut (P.M.) = Gordonia spp. = SAMAK.
Samala (Sab.) = Cantleya corniculata = DEDARU.
Samondu (Sab.) = Tetramerista glabra = PUNAH.
Sampa rantu (Sab.) = Sindora beccariana = SEPETIR.
Sampaluan (Sab.) = Licania splendens = MERBATU.
SAMPANG - The ASEAN Standard Name, which is of Indonesian origin, for the timber of
Melicope spp. The common Malaysian name for the timber is PEPAUH (q.v.).

157
Sampar bantu (Sar.) = Copaifera spp. and Sindora spp. = SEPETIR.
SAMRONG - The Standard ASEAN Name, which is of Thai origin, for the timber of Scaphium
spp. The Standard Malaysian Name is KEMBANG SEMANGKOK (q.v.).
Sanai (P.M.) = Anisoptera scaphula = MERSAWA.
Sandoricum - A genus ofsmall to large trees up to 45(-50) m tall and 75(-lOO) cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Meliaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN
Standard Name for the timber is SENTUL (q.v.). The timber is soft to moderately hard and
light with a density of 435-575 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is light yellow-brown with a pink
tinge, gradually merging into the heartwood, which is pink to red. Other properties and uses of
the timber are described under SENTUL. Vernacular names applied include kelampu (Sar.)
and sentul hutan (Sab.). Major species include S. beccarianum and S. koetjape.
Sanga (Sar.) = Elaeocarpus spp. = SENGKURAT.
Sanga burong (P.M.) = Elaeocarpus spp. = SENGKURAT.
Sangan (Sar.) = Nephelium lappaceum = RAMBUTAN.
Sangkuak (Sar.) = Anisophyllea ferruginea = DELEK.
Sansag (Sab.) = Crudia ornata and C. venenosa = MERBAU KERA.
Sansanglang (Sar.) = Engelhardtia spp. = DUNGUN PAYA.
Santikal (Sar.) = Ochanostachys amentacea = PETALING.
Santiria - A genus of medium-sized to large trees up to 35(-45) m tall and 120 cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Burseraceae. The timber is commonly grouped together with the other
members of the family and sold as KEDONDONG (q. v.). The timber is a light hardwood with
a density of 495-915 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood of some species is not differentiated from the
heartwood, while in some other species it is yellow-white in colour and sharply defined. The
heartwood is variable in colour, pink or light red-brown in S. conferta and S. tomentosa and
yellow-green-brown in S. grifJithii and S. rubiginosa. Other properties and uses of the timber
are described under KEDONDONG. Vernacular names applied include kedondong (P.M. and
Sab.) with various epithets, kerantai (P.M. and Sab.) and seladah (Sar.). Major species include
S. apiculata, S. conferta, S. grifJithii, S. laevigata, S. rubiginosa and S. tomentosa.
Sapetir (Sab.) = Sindora coriacea = SEPETIR.
Sapindaceae - A family of climbers, shrubs and tall trees, many of which are cultivated for their
edible fruits. Species of possible economic importance as timbers include Nephelium
(RAMBUTAN), Pometia (KASAl) andXerospermum (RAMBUTAN PACHAT).
Sapium - A genus of medium-sized to large trees up to 30(-39) m tall and 60(-95) cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN
Standard Name for the timber is LUDAI (q.v.). The timber is soft and light with a density of
290-465 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is light
yellow-brown, sometimes with a pink tinge. Other properties and uses of the timber are described
under LUDAI. Vernacular names applied include gurah (P.M. and Sar.) and mamah pelandok
(P.M.). Major species include Excoecaria indicum, S. baccatum and S. discolor.
Sapotaceae - An important timber family in Malaysia, producing the very fine and popular
timber NYATOH (Madhuca spp., Payena spp. and Palaquium spp.). Other timbers produced
by this family include BITIS (Madhuca utilis and Palaquium spp.), NYATOH KUNING
(Pouteria spp.) and PEPULUT (Chrysophyllum spp.).
Saraca - A genus of small to medium-sized trees up to 20(-290) m tall and 40(-60) cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Leguminosae. The common Malaysian name for the timber is GAPIS
(q. v.). The timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy with a density of 515-640 kg m-3
air dry. The sapwood is yellow-white with a pink tinge and is sharply differentiated from the
heartwood, which is dark-brown with darker lines. Other properties and uses of the timber are
described under GAPIS. Vernacular names applied include babai (Sar.) andgolak (P.M.). Major
species include S. declinata, S. indica and S. thaipingensis.

158
Sarasoo (Sab.) = Crudia subsimplicifolia = MERBAU KERA.
Sarcotheca - A genus of shrubs or small to occasionally large trees up to 42 m tall and 100 cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Oxalidaceae. The common Malaysian name for the tree and
timber is PUPOI (q.v.). The timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy with a
density of 650-840 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood,
which is straw-coloured. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under
PUPOL Vernacular names applied include belimbing bulat (Sar.), belimbing manik (Sar.),
buah piang (Sar.), jintek-jintek (P.M.), setundok (P.M.), tabarus (Sab.) and various other
localised names too numerous to be listed here. Major species include S. diversifolia, S. glauca,
S. griffithii, S. macrophylla, S. ochracea and S. rubrinervis.
Sarusup tembauog (Sab.) = Lithocarpus lucidus = MEMPENING.
Satu iochi (Sab.) = Alangiumjavanicum = MENTULANG.
Sauma (Sab.) = Ploiarium alternifolium = RERIANG.
SAWA LUKA - The common Malaysian name for the trees and timber of Helicia spp. and
Heliciopsis spp. (Proteaceae). The timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy to heavy
with a density of 515-785 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is yellow-pink and is sharply
differentiated from the heartwood, which is brown with a salmon pink tinge. Texture is slightly
coarse and uneven due to the presence ofthe extremely broad rays. The timber saws easily and
planes to a smooth surface. The timber is reported to season well, with very little end-splitting
and slight surface-checking as the main sources of defects. The timber is non-durable. It is
resistant to pressure impregnation.
USES: The timber has not been used extensively but should be suitable for cabinet making,
superior joinery, high class furniture and interior finishing due to the presence of the oak-like
silver figure.
No other vernacular names have been recorded. Major species include Helicia rufescens,
Heliciopsis montana and H rufidula.
Sawar bubu l (Sar.) = Gynotroches axillaris = MATA KELI.
Sawar bubu 2 (Sar.) = Pellacalyx spp. = MEMBULOH.
Sawih (Sar.) = Duabanga moluccana = MAGASAWIH.
Sayoogao (Sab.) = Alstonia macrophylla = PULAI.
Scaphium - A genus of large deciduous trees up to 45 m tall and 80 cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Sterculiaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is
KEMBANG SEMANGKOK (q.v.). The ASEAN Standard Name, which is of Thai origin, is
SAMRONG. The timber is soft to moderately hard and light to moderately heavy with a density
of 515-755 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is lighter in shade than and merges gradually
into the heartwood, which is yellow-brown, light buff or light brown. Other properties and uses
of the timber are described under KEMBANG SEMANGKOK. Vernacular names include
kembang semangkok (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) with various qualifying epithets. Major species include
S. linearicarpum, S. longiflorum, S. longipetiolatum, S. macropodum and S. scaphigerun.
Schima - A genus of medium trees up to 47 m tall and 125 cm in diameter, belonging to the
family Theaceae. The timber is grouped together with the related genera Adinandra and Gordonia
and sold as SAMAK (q. v.). The timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy with a density
of 450-920 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is white and merges gradually into the heartwood,
which is red or red-brown and sometimes with darker bands. Other properties and uses
of the timber are described under SAMAK. Vernacular names applied include gatal-gatal
(P.M. and Sab.), gegatal (P.M.), legai (Sar.) and medang gatal (P.M.). Only one species is
recorded for Malaysia, viz. S. wallichii.

159
Schoutenia - A genus of small to medium-sized trees up to 35 m tall and 60 cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Tiliaceae. The common Malaysian name for the tree and timber is
BAYUR BUKIT (q. v.). The timber is very hard and very heavy with a density of945-995 kg m-3 air
dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is purple-grey-brown. Other
properties and uses of the timber are described under BAYUR BUKIT. There is no other
vernacular name applied and only one species attains tree size, viz. S. accrescens.
Scorodocarpus - A monotypic genus of medium-sized to large trees up to 40(-60) m tall and
80(-150) cm in diameter, belonging to the family Olacaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name
for the timber is KULIM (q.v.). The timber is a medium hardwood with a density of
640-975 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is light yellow in colour and is moderately sharply
differentiated from the heartwood, which is dark purple-brown to dark red-brown. Other
properties and uses of the timber are described under KULIM. Vernacular names include
bawang hutan (Sab. and Sar.), in obvious reference to the garlic-like smell of the leaves and
fruits and also ungsunah (Sar.). Only one species is recorded for this this genus, viz. S. borneensis.
Scutinanthe - A genus of small to medium-sized trees up to 35 m tall and 90 cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Burseraceae. The timber is commonly grouped together with the other
members of the family and sold as KEDONDONG (q.v.). The timber is a light hardwood with
a density of 655-770 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is lighter in colour than and moderately
sharply defined from the heartwood, which is deep red-brown. Other properties and uses of the
timber are described under KEDONDONG. Vernacular names applied include kedondong
(P.M. and Sab.) with various epithets and seladah (Sar.). This genus comprises two species, but
only one species is recorded in Malaysia, viz. S. brunnea.
Sebasah (P.M.) = Aporosa spp. = KAYU MASAM.
Sedaman (Sab.) = Macaranga hypoleuca = MAHANG.
Sedaman jari (Sab.) = Macaranga beccarianus = MAHANG.
Sedam an puteh (Sab.) = Macaranga hypoleuca = MAHANG.
Sedaman rimba (Sab.) = Macaranga winkleri = MAHANG.
Segera 1 (Sar.) = Species of Aglaia sect. Aglaia = PASAK.
Segera2 (Sar.) = Species of Aglaia sect. Amoora = BEKAK.
Seladah (Sar.) = Dacryodes spp., Dacryodes macrocarpa var. patentinervia; Canarium spp.; and
Santiria spp. = KEDONDONG.
Selan (Sar.) = Swintonia spp. = MERPAUH.
Selangan (Sab. and Sar.) = Hopea spp. = MERAWAN or GIAM.
Selangan batu (Sab. and Sar.) = Shorea spp. = BALAU.
Selangan batu asah (Sab.) = Shorea asahi = BALAU.
Selangan batu as am (Sab.) = Shorea maxwelliana = BALAU.
Selangan batu bersisik (Sab.) = Shoreafoxworthyi = BALAU.
Selangan batu biabas (Sab.) = Shorea leptoderma = BALAU.
Selangan batu biawak (Sab.) = Shorea biawak = BALAU.
Selangan batu daun halus (Sab.) = Shorea superba = BALAU.
Selangan batu gelombang (Sab.) = Shorea isoptera = BALAU.
Selangan batu hitam (Sab.) = Shorea atrinervosa = BALAU.
Selangan batu jantan (Sab.) = Hopea semicuneata = GIAM.
Selangan batu kelabu (Sab.) = Shorea hypoleuca = BALAU.
Selangan batu kumus (Sab.) = Shorea laevis = BALAU.
Selangan batu kurap (Sab.) = Shorea scrobiculata = BALAU.
Selangan batu laut (Sab.) = Shoreafalciferoides ssp. glaucescens = BALAU.
Selangan batu mata-mata (Sab.) = Shorea domatiosa = BALAU.
Selangan batu merah 1 (Sab.) = Shorea guiso = RED BALAU.

160
Selangan batu merah 2 (Sab. and Sar.) = Shorea spp. = RED BALAU.
Selangan batu No.1 (Sab.) = Shorea spp. = BALAD.
Selangan batu No. 21 (Sab.) = Shorea spp. = BALAU.
Selangan batu No. 22 (Sab.) = Hopea spp. = MERAWAN.
Selangan batu pinang (Sab.) = Shorea havilandii = BALAD.
Selangan batu tandok (Sab.) = Shorea obscura = BALAU.
Selangan batu tembaga (Sab.) = Shorea exelliptica = BALAD.
Selangan batu terendak (Sab.) = Shorea seminis = BALAD.
Selangan biabas (Sab.) = Cratoxylum cochinchinense = DERUM.
Selangan bukit (Sab.) = Hopea montana = MERAWAN.
Selangan bukit kerangas (Sab.) = Hopea vesquei = MERAWAN.
Selangan daun bulat (Sab.) = Hopea wyatt-smithii = MERAWAN.
Selangan daun halus (Sab.) = Hopea dyeri = MERAWAN.
Selangan daun kapur (Sab.) = Hopea dryobalanoides = MERAWAN.
Selangan jambu (Sab.) = Terminalia citrina = KETAPANG.
Selangan jangkang (Sab.) = Hopea nervosa = MERAWAN.
Selangan kaca (Sab.) = Shorea spp. = YELLOW MERANTI.
Selangan kangkong (Sab.) = Planchonia valida = PDTAT PAYA.
Selangan kuning (Sab.) = Shorea spp. = YELLOW MERANTI.
Selangan lima urat (Sab.) = Hopea pentanervia = GIAM.
Selangan lunas (Sab.) = Hopea micrantha = MERAWAN.
Selangan mata kucing (Sab.) = Hopeaferruginea = MERAWAN.
Selangan perak (Sab.) = Hopea beccariana = MERAWAN.
Selangan, Red (Sab. and Sar.) = Shorea spp. = RED BALAD.
Selangan sama (Sab.) = Hopea aequalis = MERAWAN.
Selangan tandok (Sab.) = Irvingia malayana = PADH KIJANG.
Selangan unit (Sab.) = Hopea cernua = MERAWAN.
Selangapid (Sab.) = Crudia reticulata = MERBAD KERA.
Selangkingl (Sar.) = Parartocarpus bracteatus = TERAP.
Selangking2 (Sar.) = Artocarpus dadah. = KELEDANG.
Selangking3 (Sar.) = Streblus glaber = TEMPINIS.
Selimbar l (P.M.) = Hopea polyalthioides = GIAM.
Selimbar2 (P.M.) = Shorea collina = RED BALAD.
Selimbar3 (Ph.) = Shorea kunstleri = RED BALAD.
Selimbar4 (Ph.) = Shorea laevis = BALAD.
Selimpoh (Sab.) = Neolamarckia cadamba = LARAN.
SELUMAR - The common Malaysian name for the timber of Jackiopsis ornata (Rubiaceae).
This name, which is used in Sabah and Sarawak, is also applicable in Indonesia and is now
adopted as the ASEAN Standard Name. The timber is hard and heavy with a density
of 785-915 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not clearly differentiated from the heartwood,
which is red to purple-red-brown. Texture is moderately fine and even, with straight grain. The
timber works easily and it is fairly durable when exposed to the weather or in contact with the
ground.
USES: The following uses for this timber have been recorded: fencing, house posts, carrying
poles, paddles, rice pounders and other domestic implements.
Vernacular names applied include sentulang (P.M.). This is a monospecific timber.
Selunchor (P.M.) = Tristaniopsis spp. = PELAWAN.
Selungapid l (Sab.) = Mallotus muticus = BALEK ANGIN.
Selungapid2 (Sab.) = Saraca declinata = GAPIS.

161
Selunsor (Sar.) = Tristaniopsis spp. = PELAWAN.
Selunsor puteh (Sar.) = Tristaniopsis spp. = PELAWAN.
Semapak (Sar.) = Adinandra dumosa = SAMAK.
Semaram (P.M.) = Palaquium semaram = NYATOH.
Semayur (Sar.) = Shorea inaequilateralis = RED BALAU.
Seminai (P.M.) = Madhuca utilis = BITIS.
Sempayan (Sar.) = Neolamarckia cadamba = LARAN.
Sempetan (Sar.) = Mastixia eugenioides = TETEBU.
Sempilau (Sab.) = Gymnostoma nobile = RU.
Sempilau bukit (Sab.) = Gymnostoma sumatranum = RU.
Sempilau laut (Sab.) = Gymnostoma nobile = RU.
SEMPILOR - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Dacrydium spp., Falcatifolium
falciforme and Phyllocladus spp. (Podocarpaceae). The ASEAN Standard Name, which is of
Indonesian origin, for the timber is MELUR. The timber is a softwood with a density
of 435-705 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is buff
with a pinkish tinge or golden brown. Texture is very fine and even, with straight grain. The
timber is reported to be weak. The timber is reputed to work very easily and produces a smooth
and somewhat lustrous surface. Gluing, nailing and peeling properties are satisfactory. The
timber seasons well without serious degrade. Thicker boards must be dried slowly to avoid
surface-checking. Warping in the form of slight to moderate twist may occasionally occur,
while flat-sawn boards may cup to a slight extent. Shrinkage is very high, with radial shrinkage
averaging 2% and tangential shrinkage averaging 4.7%. The timber is non-durable and is subject
to drywood termite attacks.
USES: The timber should be suitable for decorative works, if available in sufficient quantities.
It can be used for panelling, partitioning, veneers and plywood, joinery and furniture manufacture.
Vernacular names applied include ekor (P.M.) with various epithets,jati padang (P.M.) and
ru (P.M.) with various epithets. Major species include Dacrydium beccarii, D. comosum,
D. elatum, D. gibbsiae; Falcatifolium falciforme; and Phyllocladus hypophyllus.
SENA - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Pterocarpus indicus (Leguminosae).
The timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy with a density of 560-690 kg m-3 air dry.
The sapwood is white or pale straw-coloured and is sharply differentiated from the heartwood,
which is golden brown, occasionally streaked with darker stripes. Texture is moderately coarse
and uneven, due to the ring-porous structure. Grain is interlocked and sometimes wavy. The
timber is only moderately strong (Strength group C). It is slightly difficult to resaw and
cross-cut due to the presence of severely interlocked grain. Planing is easy but the finish is only
moderately smooth with some grain pick-Up in radial sawn material. The timber seasons fairly
slowly, with very little degrade, except for some insect and fungal attacks on the
sapwood. 13 mm boards take approximately 4 months to air dry and 38 mm boards take
5 months. Shrinkage is low, with radial shrinkage averaging 0.9% and tangential shrinkage
averaging 1%. The timber is only moderately durable, with the sapwood being highly perishable.
USES: This timber is one of the rare ring-porous timbers found in this country and as such is
highly prized as a cabinet wood. The timber is suitable for all forms of decorative work, interior
finishing, high class furniture and cabinets, sliced veneers and fancy articles. Vernacular
names applied include angsana (P.M. and Sab.). Only one species is recorded for this country,
viz. P. indicus.
Sendok (Sab.) = Endospermum spp. = SESENDOK.
Sendok-sendok (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) = Endospermum spp. = SESENDOK.
Sendak-sendok mata (Sab.) = Endospermum diadenum = SESENDOK.
Sengawan (Sar.) = Shorea albida = ALAN BATU.

162
Senggai (Ml. and NS.) = Shorea longisperma and S. multiflora = YELLOW MERANTI.
Senggeh (P.M.) = Canarium pseudosumatranum = KEDONDONG.
Sengkawang 1 (P.M.) - A vernacular name applicable to the tree of Shorea palembanica. The
timber produced by this species can range from light pink to dark red-brown and therefore, can
be accordingly classified as DARK RED MERANTI or LlGHT RED MERANTI.
Sengkawang2 (P.M.) = Shorea exelliptica, S. scrobiculata and S. sumatrana = BALAU.
Sengkawang3 (P.M.) = Shorea maxima = YELLOW MERANTI.
Sengkawang ayer (P.M.) = Shorea sumatrana = BALAU.
Sengkawang darat (P.M.) = Shorea scrobiculata = BALAU.
SENGKUANG - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Dracontomelon dao
(Anacardiaceae). The timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy with a density of
500-690 kg m-3 air dry. The timber is classified under light hardwood in Malaysia. The sapwood
is pinkish or greyish yellow and is clearly defined in trees with coloured heartwood. The
heartwood produced by some trees is coloured and is walnut grey-brown, while other trees
produce a greyish or greenish yellow heartwood with irregular concentric dark brown to nearly
black bands. Texture is moderately coarse and even with straight or interlocked and sometimes
wavy grain. The timber has not been tested in the FRIM, Kepong, but is reputed to work easily
and produces a smooth surface that takes a very high finish. It is also reported to season well.
The timber is non-durable under exposed conditions and is susceptible to termite attacks.
USES: The coloured material is highly prized as a cabinet wood and is suitable for furniture
manufacture, interior finishing, panelling, sliced decorative veneers and plywood. The
uncoloured material is suitable for temporary construction, shuttering, pallets and packing cases.
Vernacular names applied include mati anak (P.M.).
SENGKURAT - The Standard Malaysian Name, which is of Sarawakian origin, for the timber
of Elaeocarpus spp. (Elaeocarpaceae). The ASEAN Standard Name for the timber, which is of
Indonesian origin, is JENITRI. The timber is soft to moderately hard and light to moderately
heavy with a density of 465-785 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the
heartwood, which is light yellowish white to pink-brown and mauve in E.floribundus. Texture
is moderately fine and even, with straight to shallowly interlocked grain. The timber is weak
(Strength group D). It is easy to resaw and cross-cut. Planing is easy and the planed surface is
moderately smooth. Nailing property is rated as good. The timber seasons fairly slowly with
moderate insect attack and slight end-checking and surface-checking as the main sources of
defects. 13 mm boards take approximately 3 months to air dry, while 38 mm boards take 4.5
months. Shrinkage is fairly low, with radial shrinkage averaging 0.8% and tangential shrinkage
averaging 2.2%. The timber is non-durable and is difficult to treat with preservatives.
USES: The timber is suitable for general planking purposes, shuttering, boxes, crates. wooden
pallets, match splints, veneers and plywood manufacture.
Vernacular names applied include empedu (Sar.), kungkurad (Sab.),parius-parius (Sab.),
perdoh (Sar.), sanga (Sar.) and sanga burong (P.M.). Medang (P.M.), with various epithets,
has also been erroneously applied to some of these species. Major species include E.
apiculatus, E. floribundus, E. palembanicus, E. obtusus, E. griffith ii, E. petiolatus E.
polystachys, E. robustus, E. angustifolius and E. stipularis.
Senna - A genus of herbs, shrubs or small to medium-sized trees up to 20(-30) m tall and 50 cm
in diameter, belonging to the family Leguminosae. The common Malaysian name for the
timber is BEBUSOK(q.v.). Senna yields a medium to heavy hardwood with a density of
600-1010 kg m-3 air dry. The heartwood is black-brown with paler streaks, sharply demarcated
from the pale sapwood. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under BEBUSOK.
Vernacular names applied include johor (P.M.), juah (P.M.) and petai belalang (P.M.). Only
one species is recorded for Peninsular Malaysia, viz. S. siamea.

163
SENTANG - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Azadirachta excelsa (Meliaceae).
The timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy with a density of 560-770 kg m-3 air dry.
However, sentang from the plantations may have lower density, e.g. 5-year-old sentang
(340-600 kg m-3) and 8-year-old sentang (482-648 kg m-3). The timber is classified under
light hardwood in Malaysia. The sapwood is straw-coloured or pale red and is moderately
sharply differentiated from the heartwood, which is reddish brown. Texture is slightly coarse
and uneven, due to a tendency towards a ring-porous structure. The timber is reported to be
moderately strong (Strength group C). It is generally easy to work, taking a good finish. The
boring properties are rated as good and planing and shaping as moderately good. Tests in
Sabah showed that the timber peels well without pretreatment; the veneer dries well without
serious degrade. The timber seasons fairly rapidly, with only slight twisting and end-
checking as the main sources of degrade. 13 mm boards take approximately 2 months to air
dry, while 38 mm boards take 4 months. Shrinkage is very low with both radial and tangential
shrinkage averaging 0.5%. The timber is non-durable.
USES: The timber is suitable for high class joinery works, furniture manufacture, interior
finishing, panelling, partitioning, sliced veneers, flooring, fancy articles and turneries.
Other vernacular names applied include limpaga (Sab.), which is also applicable to some
other members of the family, and ranggu (Sab. and Sar.), which is also applicable to
Koordersiodendron pinnatum (Anacardiaceae). Only one species has been recorded in this
country.
Sentikal (Sar.) = Ochanostachys amentacea = PETALING.
SENTUL - The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN Standard Name for the timber
of Sandoricum spp. (Meliaceae). The timber is soft to moderately hard and light with a density
of 435-575 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is light yellow-brown with a pink tinge, gradually
merging into the heartwood, which is pink to red. Texture is moderately fine to slightly coarse,
with interlocked, sometimes wavy grain. The timber is easy to saw and can be planed and
finished well, sometimes a little furry, and takes a high polish. Shrinkage upon seasoning is low
to high; the timber seasons well with little checking and splitting. The timber is non-durable
when exposed to the weather or in contact with the ground. The heartwood is resistant to
preservative treatments.
USES: The timber is suitable for light construction under cover, furniture components, wooden
sandals, packing cases and butchers' block.
Vernacular names applied include kelampu (Sar.) and sentul hutan (Sab.). Major species
include S. beccarianum and S. koetjape.
Sentul hutan (Sab.) = Sandoricum koetjape = SENTUL.
Sentulang (P.M.) = Jackiopsis ornata = SELUMAR.
SENUMPUL - The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN Standard Name for the
timber of Hydnocarpus spp. (Flacourtiaceae). The timber is moderately hard to hard and
moderately heavy with a density of 690-930 kg m-3 air dry. The timber is classified under
medium hardwood in Malaysia. The sapwood is not defined from the heartwood, which is pale
yellow to yellow-brown. Texture is fine and even, with straight or deeply interlocked grain.
The timber has not been tested in the FRlM, Kepong. The timber is reported to be easy to work
and the planed surface is dull but smooth. It is reputed to season well without serious defects.
The timber is moderately durable but susceptible to termite attacks.
USES: The timber is suitable as a general utility timber. If obtained in sufficient quantities, it
may be suitable for furniture manufacture, flooring, mouldings and partitioning.
Vernacular names applied include karpus (Sab.) with various epithets and setumpul (P.M.).
Major species include H. borneensis, H. castanea, H. ji/ipes, S. kunstleri and H. woodii.
Sepab petri (NS.) = Anisoptera megistocarpa = MERSAWA.

164
Sepam (P.M.) = Mangifera quadrifida = MACHANG.
SEPANG - The common Malaysian name for the species of Caesalpinia sappan (Leguminosae).
The timber is hard and heavy with a density of 980-1 045 kg m-3 air dry. Texture is moderately
line and even. Grain is straight, wavy or spiral. The sapwood is white with a pinkish tinge and
sharply differentiated from the heartwood, which is orange-red, darkening on exposure to dark
purple-red-brown. The timber is said to be durable to the weather. The species is a source of
yellow dye, but the timber is also said to be used for cabinet work. The timber has not been
tested in the FRIM, Kepong. However, tests elsewhere indicate that the timber is subject to
checking and warping when seasoned in the log. Wood working properties have been rated as
moderately easy and takes a high finish.
SEPETIR - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Copaifera palustris and
Sindora spp. (Leguminosae). The timber is a light hardwood with a density of 530-785 kg m-3
air dry. The sapwood is light grey-brown or beige with a pink tinge and is clearly defined from
the heartwood, which is brown with a pink tinge and darkens on exposure. A corewood, which
is streaked with layers of darker coloured to almost black wood is often developed. Texture is
moderately fine and even, with straight or shallowly interlocked grain. The timber is only
moderately strong (Strength group C). It is slightly difficult to difficult to resaw and cross-cut
but is easy to plane and the surface produced is smooth. The nailing property is rated as good.
The timber dries moderately slowly, with almost no degrade, although the sapwood is likely to
be attacked by pOWder-post beetles. 13 mm boards take approximately 3 months to air dry,
while 38 mm boards take 5 months. Shrinkage is rather high, with radial shrinkage averaging
1.5% and tangential averaging 2.9%. For kiln-drying, Schedule G is recommended. The timber
dries fast but has a marked tendency to warp if the boards contain dark streaks. For such
material, Schedule D is recommended. The timber is moderately durable and is very difficult
to treat with preservatives.
USES: The timber is suitable for general planking, light construction, ceiling, packing cases
and pallets. The streaked material is, however, highly prized as a superior cabinet wood and is
suitable for decorative works like joinery and panelling. The timber has also been used for
flooring, furniture manufacture and rotary cut veneers for plywood.
Vernacular names applied include sepetir (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) with various epithets,
petir (Sar.), tampar hantu (Sar.) and tepih (Sar.). Major species include Copaifera palustris;
Sindora coriacea, S. echinocalyx, S. siamensis, S. velutina and S. wallichii.
Sepetir beludu besar (P.M.) = Sindora velutina = SEPETIR.
Sepetir beludu kechil (P.M.) = Sindora velutina = SEPETIR.
Sepetir daun oipis (P.M.) = Sindora echinocalyx = SEPETIR.
Sepetir dauo tebal (P.M.) = Sindora wallichii = SEPETIR.
Sepetir lichio (P.M.) = Sindora coriacea = SEPETIR.
Sepetir mempelas (P.M.) = Sindora siamensis = SEPETIR.
Sepetir paya (Sab. and Sar.) = Copaifera palustris and Sindora leiocarpa = SEPETIR.
Sepit-sepit (P.M.) = Osmosia sumatrana = SAGA.
Sepitir (Sab.) = Sindora affinis = SEPETIR.
Sepul (P.M.) = Parishia spp. = LELAYANG.
Serai (Ph.) = Shorea laevis = BALAU.
Serait (Sar.) = Nephelium maingayi = RAMBUTAN.
Seraog (Sab. and Sar.) = Melicope spp. = PEPAUH.
Serapoh (P.M.) = Mallotus muticus = BALIK ANGIN.
Seraya 1 (P.M. and Sab.) = Shorea curtisii = DARK RED MERANTI.
Seraya2 (P.M.) = Shorea kunstleri = RED BALAU.
Seraya 3 (Ph.) = Shoreafaguetiana = YELLOW MERANTI.

165
Seraya batu! (P.M.) = Shorea ochrophloia = RED BALAU.
Seraya batu 2 (Sab.) = Shorea dasyphylla = LIGHT RED MERANTI.
Seraya binkai (Sab.) = Shorea rubra = LIGHT RED MERANTI.
Seraya buaya hantu (Sab.) = Shorea rugosa and S. uliginosa = MERANTI BAKAU.
Seraya bukit (Sab.) = Shorea platyclados = DARK RED MERANTI.
Seraya bunga (Sab.) = Shorea teysmanniana = LIGHT RED MERANTI.
Seraya daun besar! (P.M.) = Shorea curtisii ssp. grandis = DARK RED MERANTI.
Seraya daun besar2 (Sab.) = Shoreaflaviflora = DARK RED MERANTI.
Seraya daun kasar (Sab.) = Shoreafallax = LIGHT RED MERANTI.
Seraya daun mas (Sab.) = Shorea argentifolia = DARK RED MERANTI.
Seraya daun merah (Sab.) = Shorea andulensis = LIGHT RED MERANTI.
Seraya daun tajam (Sab.) = Shorea revoluta = LIGHT RED MERANTI.
Seraya daun tumpul (Sab.) = Shorea retusa = LIGHT RED MERANTI.
Seraya gunong (Sab.) = Shorea monticola = DARK RED MERANTI.
Seraya kabut (Sab.) = Shorea parvistipulata ssp. nebulosa = LIGHT RED MERANTI.
Seraya kelabu (Sab.) = Shorea waltonii = LIGHT RED MERANTI.
Seraya kepong (Sab.) = Shorea ovalis = LIGHT RED MERANTI.
Seraya kepong kasar (Sab.) = Shorea slootenii = DARK RED MERANTI.
Seraya kerangas (Sab.) = Shorea venulosa = DARK RED MERANTI.
Seraya kerukup (Sab.) = Shorea almon = LIGHT RED MERANTI.
Seraya ketam! (P.M.) = Shorea kunstleri = RED BALAU.
Seraya ketam 2 (Kl.) = Shoreafaguetiana = YELLOW MERANTI.
Seraya kuning (Sab.) = Shoreafaguetoides = YELLOW MERANTI.
Seraya kuning baron (Sab.) = Shorea xanthophylla = YELLOW MERANTI.
Seraya kuning bukit (Sab.) = Shorea angustifolia = YELLOW MERANTI.
Seraya kuning gajah (Sab.) = Shorea gibbosa = YELLOW MERANTI.
Seraya kuning jantan (Sab.) = Shorea hopeifolia = YELLOW MERANTI.
Seraya kuning keladi (Sab.) = Shorea laxa = YELLOW MERANTI.
Seraya kuning kudat (Sab.) = Shorea kudatensis = YELLOW MERANTI.
Seraya kuning pinang (Sab.) = Shorea patoiensis = YELLOW MERANTI.
Seraya kuning quoin (Sab.) = Shorea polyandra = YELLOW MERANTI.
Seraya kuning runehing (Sab.) = Shorea acuminatissima = YELLOW MERANTI.
Seraya kuning smut (Sab.) = Shorea faguetiana = YELLOW MERANTI.
Seraya langgai (Sab.) = Shorea beccariana = LIGHT RED MERANTI.
Seraya lop (Sab.) = Shorea scabrida = LIGHT RED MERANTI.
Seraya lupa (Sab.) = Shorea parvistipu/ata = LIGHT RED MERANTI.
Seraya majau (Sab.) = Shoreajohorensis = LIGHT RED MERANTI.
Seraya melantai (Sab.) = Shorea macroptera = MELANTAI.
Seraya melantai keeil (Sab.) = Shoreaferruginea = MELANTAI.
Seraya mempelas (Sab.) = Shorea scaberrima = MELANTAI.
Seraya minyak (Sab.) = Shoreafallax = LIGHT RED MERANTI.
Seraya paya (Sab.) = Shorea p/atycarpa = LIGHT RED MERANTI.
Seraya punai (Sab.) = Shorea parvifolia = LIGHT RED MERANTI.
Seraya punai bukit (Sab.) = Shorea ovata = DARK RED MERANTI.
SERAYA, RED - See RED SERAYA.
Seraya strap (Sab.) = Shorea kunstleri = RED BALAU.
Seraya sudu (Sab.) = Shorea quadrinervis = LIGHT RED MERANTI.
Seraya tangkai panjang (Sab.) = Shorea coriacea = DARK RED MERANTI.
Seraya tembaga (Sab.) = Shorea leprosula = LIGHT RED MERANTI.

166
Seraya timbau (Sab.) = Shorea smithiana = LIGHT RED MERANTI.
Seraya urat banyak (Sab.) = Shorea myrionerva = LIGHT RED MERANTI.
SERAYA, WHITE - See WHITE SERAYA.
SERAYA, YELLOW - See YELLOW SERAYA.
Seri mula (P.M.) = Erythroxylum spp. = CHINTA MULA.
Seringawan (Sar.) = Shorea albida = ALAN BATU.
Serunai (Sar.) = Bhesa paniculata = BIKU-BIKU.
Serungan 1 (Sab.) = Cratoxylum arborescens = GERONGGANG.
Serungan2 (Sab.) = Cratoxylum cochinchinense and C. sumatranum = DERUM.
Serungan batu (Sab.) = Cratoxylum spp. = DERUM.
Serungan labakan (Sar.) = Cratoxylum arborescens = GERONGGANG.
SESENDOK - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Endospermum spp.
(Euphorbiaceae). The timber is a light hardwood with a density of305-655 kg m-3 air dry. The
sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is bright yellow when fresh, often
with a green tinge and darkens to light brown on exposure. Texture is rather coarse but even
with spiral, shallowly interlocked or slightly wavy grain. The timber is weak (Strength
group D). It is easy to saw and plane and produces a smooth surface. Nailing property
is excellent. The timber seasons fairly rapidly without serious degrade except for some insect
attacks. 13 mm boards take 2 months to air dry, while 38 mm boards take 3 months. Shrinkage
is low, with radial shrinkage averaging 1.2% and tangential shrinkage averaging 1.3%. For
kiln-drying, Schedule J is recommended. 25 mm boards take approximately 5 days to kiln-dry
to 10% moisture content. The timber is non-durable but is extremely easy to treat with
preservatives.
USES: The timber is a favoured species for the manufacture of match splints and boxes. The
timber is also suitable for pattern making, manufacture of drawing boards, trays, plywood,
crates, toys and wooden clogs. It is also used for the manufacture of disposable chopsticks.
Only one species, viz. E. diadenum, occurs in Peninsular Malaysia, while in Sabah and
Sarawak there is another species, E. peltatum. Vernacular names applied include ekor belangkas
(Sar.), inchong Perlis (Kd.), membulan (P.M.), sendok (Sab.), sendok-sendok (P.M., Sab. and
Sar.), sendok-sendok mata (Sab.) and terbulan (Sar.).
Setada (P.M.) = Podocarpus polystachyus = PODO.
Setumpul (P.M.) = Hydnocarpus spp. = SENUMPUL.
Setundok (P.M.) = Sarcotheca griffithii = PUPOL
Shol (Ph.) = Dipterocarpus lowii = KERUING.
Shorea - A very large and well-developed genus, belonging to the family Dipterocarpaceae. This
genus is probably the most economically important genus in this country. The timbers produced
are very diverged, ranging from light to very heavy, with colour ranging from white, yellow,
pink, dark-red to brown. The detailed descriptions of these timbers are found under their
individual timber names. The timbers produced by this genus are ALAN, BALAU, DARK
RED MERANTI, LIGHT RED MERANTI, MELANTAI, MERANTI BAKAU, RED BALAU,
TEMAK BATU, WHITE MERANTI and YELLOW MERANTI.
SIAL MENAHUNI - The common Malaysian name for the trees and timber of Pternandra spp.
(Rosaceae). The ASEAN Standard Name, which is of Indonesian origin, for the timber
is MERUBI. The timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy with a density of
625-690 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is lighter in colour than and is fairly distinct from the
heartwood, which is yellow or yellow-brown, often with an olive-green tinge. Texture is
moderately fine but uneven, due to the presence of islands of included phloem. Grain is
interlocked. This timber has not been tested in the FRIM, Kepong. Vernacular names applied
include sireh-sireh (Sab.). Major species include P coerulescens.

167
Sial menahun 2 (Sar.) = Anisophyllea spp. = DELEK.
Siangus (P.M.) = Diospyros spp. = KAYU MALAM.
Sibu (Sar.) = Pometia pinnata = KASAL
Sidodot (Sar.) = Cratoxylumformosum = DERUM.
Sikop (Sar.) = Garcinia spp. = KANDIS.
Silak (Sar.) = Pometia pinnata = KASAL
Simaroubaceae - A rather small family of shrubs and trees of limited economic importance in
this country. Irvingia malayana (PAUB KlJANG) , A ilanthus and Allantospermum are the species
that are capable of reaching timber size.
SIMPOH - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Dillenia spp. (Dilleniaceae). The
timber is a medium hardwood with a density of675-820 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is lighter
in colour than and merges gradually into the heartwood, which is red-brown, sometimes with a
purplish tinge and darkens on exposure. Texture is coarse and uneven, with straight to
shallowly interlocked grain. The timber is strong (Strength group B). It is fairly easy to resaw
and cross-cut. Planing is easy to fairly easy and the planed surface produced is smooth. The
nailing property is rated as poor. The timber dries moderately slowly, with cupping and splitting
as the major defects. 13 mm boards take approximately 4 months to air dry, while 38 mm
boards take 5 months. Shrinkage is high, with radial shrinkage averaging 2.2% and tangential
shrinkage averaging 3.9%. The timber is non-durable under exposed conditions, being subject
to attacks by pOWder-post beetles and termites. It is, however, amenable to preservative treatment.
USES: The timber has an attractive silver figure and is suitable for sliced veneers, interior
finishing, panelling, parquet flooring, furniture manufacture and strip flooring.
Vernacular names applied include simpoh (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) with various epithets. Major
species include D. borneensis, D. excelsa, D. grandifolia, D. pulchella and D. reticulata.
Simpoh ayer (P.M.) = Dillenia sujJruticosa and D. pulchella = SIMPOH.
Simpoh beludu (P.M.) = Dillenia ovata = SIMPOH.
Simpoh daun merah (P.M.) = Dillenia grandifolia = SIMPOH.
Simpoh gajahl (P.M.) = Dillenia reticulata = SIMPOH.
Simpoh gajah2 (Sab.) = Dillenia borneensis = SIMPOH.
Simpoh jangkang (P.M.) = Dillenia grandifolia and D. reticulata = SIMPOH.
Simpoh laki (Sab.) = Dillenia excelsa = SIMPOH.
Simpoh padang (P.M.) = Dillenia obovata = SIMPOH.
Simpoh paya (P.M.) = Dillenia pulchella and D. sujJruticosa = SIMPOH.
Simpoh puteh (P.M.) = Dillenia albiflos = SIMPOH.
Simpoh ungu (P.M.) = Dillenia excelsa = SIMPOH.
Simun (Sar.) = Bhesa paniculata = BIKU-BIKU.
Sinampar (Sab.) = Sindora beccariana = SEPETIR.
Sindok (Sar.) = Scorodocarpus borneensis = KULIM.
Sindora - A genus of medium-sized to sometimes tall deciduous trees up to 20-35(-46) m tall
and 100(-180) cm in diameter, belonging to the family Leguminosae. The Standard Malaysian
Name for the timber is SEPETIR (q. v.). The timber is a light hardwood with a density
of 530-785 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is light grey-brown or beige with a pink tinge and is
clearly defined from the heartwood, which is brown with a pink tinge and darkens on exposure.
Other properties and uses of the timber are described under SEPETIR. Vernacular names applied
include sepetir (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) with various epithets,petir (Sar.) and tampar hantu (Sar.).
Major species include S. coriacea, S. echinocalyx, S. siamensis, S. velutina and S. wallichii.
Sindu (Sar.) = Scorodocarpus borneensis = KULIM.
Sindur (Sab.) = Sindora beccariana = SEPETIR.
Singawan batu (Sar.) = Shorea albida = ALAN BATU.

168
Singawan bunga (Sar.) = Shorea albida = ALAN BUNGA.
Singin (Sar.) = Mallotus spp. = BALEK ANGIN.
Siphonodon - A genus of medium-sized to fairly large trees up to 40 m tall and 90 cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Celastraceae. Siphonodon yields a density of 735-780 kg m-3 air dry.
The heartwood is cream or pale brown to yellowish brown, not clearly demarcated from the
straw-coloured sapwood. Texture is fine and even, with straight or slightly interlocked grain.
The timber is fairly strong, hard and moderately durable when exposed to the weather or in
contact with ground. It splits easily. The timber is used for construction (posts), turnery, interior
finish and utensils. It is also suitable for carving, engraving, drawing instruments and rulers.
Vernacular names used include kalantaid (Sab.). Only one species, viz. S. celastrineus, yields
timber.
Siput melantai (P.M.) = Shorea singkawang = DARK RED MERANTI.
Sira (Sar.) = Fagraea spicata = TEMBUSU.
Sireh-sireh 1 (Sab.) = Pternandra spp. = SIAL MENAHUN.
Sireh-sireh2 (Sar. ) = Anisophyllea corneri = DELEK.
Sisit (Sar.) = Alangium havilandii = MENTULANG.
Situgog (Sar.) = Nephelium lappaceum = RAMBUTAN.
Sokong ranyai (Sar.) = Fagraea volubilis = TEMBUSU.
Sol (P.M.) = Dipterocarpus elongatus and D. lowii = KERUING.
Sonneratia - A genus of small to medium-sized or sometimes fairly large trees up to 20(-40) m
tall and 100 cm in diameter, belonging to the family Sonneratiaceae. The common Malaysian
name for the timber is PERAPAT (q.v.). The timber is moderately hard to hard and moderately
heavy to heavy with a density of 530-690 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is grey in S. alba and is
not sharply defined, but is light coloured and clearly defined in S. caseolaris. The heartwood is
pale grey in S. alba and light brown to dark chocolate in S. caseolaris. Other properties and
uses of the timber are described under PERAPAT. Vernacular names applied include
berembang (P.M.), gedabu (P.M.), pedada (Sab.) and perapat laut (Sab.). Major species
include S. alba, S. caseolaris and S. ovata.
Sonneratiaceae - A small family of limited economic importance in this country, consisting of
the mangrove species Sonneratia (PERAPAT) and the inland species Duabanga
(MAGASAWIH).
Sop-sop (Jh.) = Lumnitzera spp. = TERUNTUM.
Sosopon bonging (Sab.) = Gironniera nervosa = KASAP.
Sterculia - A genus of small to large trees up to 36 m tall and 60 cm in diameter, belonging to the
family Sterculiaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN Standard Name for
the timber is KELUMPANG (q. v.). The timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy with
a density of 560-MO kg m-3 air dry. The timber is classified under light hardwood in Malaysia.
The sapwood is lighter in colour than and is not sharply differentiated from the heartwood,
which is straw-coloured to light brown. Other properties and uses of the timber are described
under KELUMPANG. Vernacular names applied include kelumpang (P.M. and Sab.) with various
epithets and biris (Sar.). Major species include S. cordata, S. oblongata, S. macrophylla
and S. parviflora.
Sterculiaceae - A family of herbs, climbers, shrubs or tall trees. Some members of this family are
of commercial importance, viz. Heritiera (MENGKULANG and DUNGUN) and Scaphium
(KEMBANG SEMANGKOK). Other tree-sized members include Pterocymbium (MELEMBU),
Pterospermum (BAYUR), Pterygota (KASAH) and Sterculia (KELUMPANG).
Stereospermum -Agenus of medium-sized deciduous trees up to 30 m tall and 100(-160) cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Bignoniaceae. The common Malaysian name for the timber
is CHICHAH (q. v.). The timber is moderately hard to hard and moderately heavy to heavy with

169
a density of 705-880 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is lighter in colour than but is not well
defined from the heartwood, which is light yellow-brown with a grey tinge. Other properties
and uses of the timber are described under CHICHAH. No other vernacular names have been
recorded. Only one species is commonly found, viz. S. fimbria tum.
Streblus - A genus of shrubs or rarely medium-sized trees up to 30 m tall, belonging to the family
Moraceae. The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN Standard Name for the timber
is TEMPINIS (q.v.). The timber is very hard and very heavy with a density of915-1025 kg m-3
air dry. The sapwood is light yellow-brown and is sharply differentiated from the heartwood,
which is red-brown when fresh, darkening to a deep shade of brown or dark chocolate-brown
on exposure. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under TEMPINIS. Vernacular
names applied appear to be very uniform in that only tempinis is used throughout the country.
Only one species attains tree size, viz. S. elongatus.
Strombosia - A genus of medium-sized trees up to 30(-40) m tall and 70(-120) cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Olacaceae. This genus produces two distinct timbers. The Standard
Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN Standard N arne for the heavier group is KAMAP (q. v.)
and for the lighter group is DEDALI (q.v.).
Kamap is hard and heavy with a density of 815-1 060 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is light
yellow-brown and is moderately sharply defined from the heartwood, which is purple-brown to
dark brown. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under KAMAP. Vernacular
names applied include petaling gajah (P.M.) and belian landak (Sar.). Major species
include S. ceylanica.
Dedali is soft to moderately hard and light to moderately heavy with a density of
575-720 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is lighter in colour than and is moderately sharply defined
from the heartwood, which is pale yellow with an olive-brown tinge, darkening to light orange-
brown. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under DEDALI. Vernacular names
applied include bayam badak (Kd., Pk. and Ph.) and belian landak (Sar.). Major species include
S. javanica.
Styracaceae - A small family, represented by only one genus in Malaysia, viz. Styrax. The trees
are better known for their resin, benzoin or Gum Benjamin, than for their timber that is known
as KEMENYAN.
Styrax - A small genus of shrubs or trees up to 30(-40) m tall and 60 cm in diameter, belonging
to the family Styracaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN Standard
Name for the timber is KEMENYAN (q. v.). The timber is moderately heavy with a density of
575-640 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is light
brown with a pink tinge. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under
KEMENYAN. The vernacularname applied to the trees is rather uniform throughout the region
and is derived from the vernacular name for the resin produced by the bark, which is
used medicinally as well as an incense. Major species include S. crotonoides, S. benzoin
and S. paralleloneurum.
Sukang ranyai (Sar.) = Fagraea cuspidata = TEMBUSU.
Sukong ganyai (Sar.) = Fagraea cuspidata = TEMBUSU.
Sukun (P.M.) = Artocarpus altilis = TERAP.
Sundik (P.M.) = Palaquium maingayi = NYATOH.
SUNGKAI - The common Malaysian Name for the timber of Peronema canescens (Verbenaceae).
The timber is moderately hard and medium in weight with a density of 520-730 kg m-3 air dry.
The heartwood is cream-coloured to light yellow or light brown and not well defined from the
sapwood. The timber resembles teak wood very much and as such, it is often referred to as
"white teak" in the trade. Texture is moderately fine to moderately coarse and uneven. Grain is
straight to wavy. The timber is only moderately strong. The woodworking properties of the

170
timber are rated as moderately easy except that the saw may blunt easily due to the presence of
silica. Planing and turning give moderate results whereas boring and sanding are good. Good
veneer can be peeled and can be glued with urea-formaldehyde to produce good quality plywood.
The timber is rated as moderately durable with an average service life in contact with ground
of about 3 years. It is readily attacked by pin-holes beetles but is believed to be moderately
resistant to drywood termites and resistant to powder-post beetles attack. The timber is easy to
treat with preservatives.
USES: The timber can be used for interior finishing, furniture and fittings, decorative veneer
and plywood, parquet flooring and ornamental items.
Suntang (P.M.) = Chukrasia tabularis = SURIAN BATU.
Suntang puteh (P.M.) = Chukrasia tabularis = SURIAN BATU.
Surian! (P.M.) = Toona spp. = LIMPAGA.
Surian 2 (P.M.) = Parishia spp. = LELAYANG.
SURIAN BATU - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Chukrasia tabularis
(Meliaceae). The timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy to heavy with a density of
625-880 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is light yellow-brown or pink-brown and is moderately
sharply or sharply defined from the heartwood, which is light red-brown or red, darkening to
dark walnut-brown on exposure. Texture is moderately fine and uneven, due to the conspicuous
layers of parenchyma. Grain is interlocked and sometimes wavy. It is difficult to very difficult
to resaw and cross-cut but planes easily and produces a moderately smooth finish. The timber
seasons fairly rapidly without any form of degrade. 13 mm boards take approximately 1.5
months to air dry, while 38 mm boards take 2.5 months. Shrinkage is rather low, with radial
shrinkage averaging 1.3 % and tangential shrinkage averaging 1.7%. The timber is moderately
durable.
USES: The timber is equivalent to the famous "Indian wood"- chikrassy, which is highly
prized as a high-class cabinet wood. The timber is suitable for interior finishing, panelling,
moulding, fancy furniture, sliced veneer, boat decking, flooring and fancy articles. The timber
is also suitable for heavy and medium construction under cover.
Vernacular names applied include cherana puteh (P.M.), repoh (P.M.), suntang (P.M.) and
suntang puteh (P.M.). This is a monotypic timber.
Surian bawang (P.M.) = Toona sinensis = LIMPAGA.
Surian wangi (P.M.) = Toona sureni = LIMPAGA.
Suyut (Sab.) = Tetramerista glabra = PUNAH.
Swintonia - A genus of medium-sized to large trees up to 40(-55) m tall and 70(-120) cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Anacardiaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber
is MERPAUH (q. v.). The timber is a medium hardwood with a density of 640-880 kg m-3 air
dry. The sapwood is light brown with a grey or pink tinge and is not sharply differentiated from
the heartwood, which is light grey-brown with a pink tinge. Some trees develop a corewood,
which is streaked with orange and red lines. Other properties and uses of the timber are described
under MERPAUH. Vemacularnames applied include periang (P.M.),pitoh (Sar.), rengas (Sab.)
and selan (Sar.). Major species include S. jloribunda ssp. penangiana, S. schwenkii and
S. spicifera.
Symingtonia - Although the generic name Exbucklandia was originally rejected in favour of
Symingtonia because of its apparent invalid publication, it is accepted under the present rules
of botanical nomenclature. See Exbucklandia.
Sympetalandra - A genus of medium-sized to fairly tall trees up to 30 m tall and 85(-150) cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Leguminosae. The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the
ASEAN Standard Name for the timber is MERBAU LALAT (q. v.). The timber is moderately
heavy with a density of 640-720 kg m- 3 air dry. The sapwood is light pink-brown and is distinct

171
from the heartwood, which is pink-brown to brown with a red tinge. Other properties and uses
of the timber are described under MERBAU LALAT. Vernacular names applied include bel/otan
(Sab.), merbau laut (Sar.) and potai munjit (Sab.). Major species include S. borneensis
and S. unijuga. Both S. borneensis and S. unijuga are common in Sabah and Sarawak,
but S. hildebrandii is very rare in Peninsular Malaysia.
Syzygium -A very large genus of shrubs to large trees up to 45(-50) m tall and 150(-200) cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Myrtaceae. The genus now incorporate all species described
in previous Malaysian literatures under Eugenia. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber
is KELAT (q.v.). The timber is a medium hardwood with a density of 495-1010 kg m-3 air dry.
The sapwood is not sharply differentiated from the heartwood, which is light brown, pink-brown,
red-brown or purple-brown with a grey tinge. Other properties and uses of the timber are described
under KELAT. Vernacular names applied include jambu (P.M.), kelat (P.M.) with various epithets,
obah (Sab.) and ubah (Sar.).

172
T
Ta'alan (Sar.) = Lithocarpus ewyckii = MEMPENING.
Taban (P.M.) = Palaquium gutta = NYATOH.
Taban merab (P.M.) = Palaquium gutta = NYATOH.
Tabarus (Sab.) = Sarcotheca diversifolia and S. rubrinervis = PUPOL
Tagabas (Sab.) = Duabanga moluccana = MAGASAWIH.
Tagal (Sab.) = Ceriops tagal = BAKAU.
Tagandop (Sab.) = Saraca declinata = GAPIS.
Tabid (Sar.) = Koompassia excelsa = TUALANG.
Takalis (Sab.) = Pentace spp. = MELUNAK.
Takalis daun bulat (Sab.) = Pentace adenophora = MELUNAK.
Takalis daun balus (Sab.) = Pentace laxiflora = MELUNAK.
Takaliu (Sab.) = Homalium spp. = TELOR BUAYA.
Talauma - The genus has been united with Magnolia. See Magnolia.
Talisai (Sab.) = Terminalia spp. = KETAPANG.
Talisai jambu (Sab.) = Terminalia citrina = KETAPANG.
Talisai ketapang (Sab.) = Terminalia catappa = KETAPANG.
Talisai paya (Sab.) = Terminalia copelandii = KETAPANG.
Talolonandim (Sab.) = Intsia bijuga = MERBAU.
Tamaran (Sar.) = Artocarpus tamaran = TERAP.
Tamasuk butan (Sab.) = Fagraea belukar = TEMBUSU.
Tamasuk jantan (Sab.) = Fagraea rugulosa = TEMBUSU.
Tambakis (Sab.) = Saraca declinata = GAPIS.
Tambaluang (Sab.) = Bombax spp. = KEKABU.
Tambiaton (Sab.) = Fagraeafragrans = TEMBUSU.
Tambinaton (Sab.) = Fagraeafragrans = TEMBUSU.
Tambulian (Sab.) = Eusideroxylon spp. = BELIAN.
Tambun ranggas (Kl.) = Parashorea stellata = GERUTU.
Tampalang (Sab.) = Barringtonia spp. = PUTAT.
Tampaluan (Sab.) = Licania splendens = MERBATU.
Tampang (P.M.) = Artocarpus nitidus = KELEDANG.
Tampang gajab (P.M.) = Artocarpusfulvicortex = KELEDANG.
Tampar bantu (Sar.) = Copaifera spp. and Sindora spp. = SEPETIR.
Tampar bantu paya (Sar.) = Sindora leiocarpa = SEPETIR.
Tampasu (Sab.) = Crypteronia borneensis = BEKOI.
TAMPOI - The common Malaysian name for the timber of Baccaurea spp. (Euphorbiaceae).
The timber is moderately hard and heavy with a density of 630-950 kg m-3 air dry. The timber
is classified under medium hardwood in Malaysia. The sapwood is not differentiated by colour
from the heartwood, which is light yellow-brown and darkening to brown with a purple-red or
orange-yellow tinge. Texture is moderately fine but uneven due to the presence of the large
rays. Grain is straight or shallowly interlocked. The timber seasons moderately slowly without
serious degrade. It is reputed to be durable and can be treated with preservatives.

173
USES: The timber is suitable for medium construction under cover, posts, beams, joists, rafters,
furniture (general purposes) and plywood. Vernacular names applied include tampoi (P.M. and
Sab.) with various epithets, asam pohong (P.M.), asam tambun (P.M.), belimbing hutan
(Sab.),jintek bukit (P.M.),jintek-jintek (P.M.), kunau-kunau (Sab.), limpaung (Sab.), mesekam
(P.M.) and rambai hutan (P.M. and Sab.). Major species include B. angulata, B. sumatrana
and B. parviflora.
Tampoi kera (P.M.) = Baccaurea sumatrana = TAMPOI.
Tampoi kuning (Sab.) = Baccaurea pubera = TAMPOI.
Tampoi merah (Sab.) = Baccaurea macrocarpa = TAMPOI.
Tampoi paya (Sab.) = Baccaurea bracteata = TAMPOI.
Tangal (Sab.) = Ceriops tagal = BAKAU.
Tanggajun (Sab.) = Parartocarpus venenosus = TERAP.
Tanggal (Sab.) = Ochanostachys amentacea = PETALING.
Tanggar-angor (Sab.) = Crudia reticulata = MERBAU KERA.
Tangilan (Sab.) = Agathis lenticula = DAMAR MINYAK.
Tangisan burong (P.M.) = Toona sureni = LIMPAGA.
Tangkal (Sab.) = Ochanostachys amentacea = PETALING.
Tanid (Sar.) = Koompassia excelsa = TUALANG.
Tanjiong awam (Sab.) = Dactylocladus stenostachys = JONGKONG.
Tansanglang (Sar.) = Engelhardtia spp. = DUNGUN PAYA.
Tanug (Sab.) = Ceriops tagal = BAKAU.
Tanyit (Sar.) = Koompassia excelsa = TUALANG.
Tapang (Sar.) = Koompassia excelsa = TUALANG.
Tapian diwit (Sab.) = Ficus minahassae = ARA.
Tapong-tapong (Sab.) = Vernonia arborea = MENGGAMBONG.
TAPUS - The ASEAN Standard Name, which is of Indonesian origin, for the timber of
Elateriospermum tapos. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is PERAH (q. v.).
Tarap (Sab.) = Artocarpus spp. = TERAP.
Taring buaya (P.M.) = Dolichandrone spathacea = TUI.
Tasem (Sar.) = Antiaris toxicaria = IPOH.
Tat (Sar.) = Cratoxylum arborescens = GERONGGANG.
Tawak (Sar.) = Artocarpus anisophyllus = KELEDANG.
TEAK - The trade name for the timber of Tectona grandis (Verbenaceae). The local name for
the timber is JAT!. Teak is not indigenous to Malaysia but it has been trial planted in Malaysia
with encouraging results. Teak is a medium weight timber with a density of610-750 kg m-3 air
dry. The sapwood is yellowish white or pale yellow-brown and up to 50 mm thick and is
distinct from the heartwood, which is dull yellowish when fresh turning to golden brown or
dark greyish brown on exposure, often with greyish or dark coloured streaks. Texture is rather
coarse and uneven. Grain is straight, wavy or slightly interlocked. The timber is moderately
strong. Teak is not difficult to work, but requires some effort, mainly because of the presence
of silica in the cells. Tools tipped with tungsten carbide are recommended for sawing and
planing operations. The wood turns well. The nailing property is rated as good but pre-boring
is recommended. Gluing is good on freshly machined or newly sanded surfaces. Staining and
polishing require freshly machined surfaces or a pretreatment with a thinner. Teak can be
vanished or polished well. It is easy to cut into smooth, tight veneer of uniform thickness after
heating the log to a temperature of 90-95°C. The veneer dries flat and split-free with low
shrinkage. Teak has very low radial shrinkage of 0.7-l.5% and tangential shrinkage of 1.1-
2.5% from green to air dry condition. Generally, teak dries very well with few defects except
that the timber is liable to colour changes and high initial temperature should be avoided.

174
Boards of 13 mm thick take 15 days to air dry from 40 to 15% moisture content; boards of 25
mm thick take 30 days and boards of38 mm thick take 50 days. The heartwood of teak is rated
as durable to very durable depending on the condition of exposure. Stake tests show an average
service life in contact with ground of more than 10 years (5.6 years in Malaysia) under tropical
conditions and more than 25 years under the temperate conditions. The sapwood is susceptible
to attack by powder-post beetles. The heartwood is difficult to treat with preservatives.
USES: The favourable properties of teak make it suitable for a wide variety of purposes. The
timber has been used for ship decking and other constructional work in boat building such as
furniture and interior fittings of boats. Being classified as very resistant to teredo activity, teak
is an excellent timber for bridge building and other construction in contact with water such as
docks, quays, piers and floodgates in fresh water. The timber has also been extensively used
for house construction like interior and exterior joinery (window, solid panel doors, framing)
and is used for floors exposed to light to moderate pedestrian traffic. Other uses of teak include
musical instruments, toys, carving, laboratory and kitchen tables, vats, veneer and plywood
manufacture.
Tebu-tebu (P.M.) = Mastixia spp. = TETEBU.
Tectona - A genus not indigenous to Malaysia but has been widely planted throughout the country,
particularly the northern states of Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah. There are three species of
Tectona but only the species Tectona grandis is widely planted. The natural distribution of the
genus is India, Myanmar, Laos, Thailand and the Philippines. A large volume ofteak has also
been found in Indonesia but is probably not indigenous to the country as there are indications
that it was introduced to Java about 400-600 years ago. In the Philippines, teak is represented
by a distinct and narrow endemic species. In its natural habitats, the trees of teak are small to
large up to 50 m tall and 150(-250) cm in diameter, belonging to the family Verbenaceae. The
timber is traded as TEAK (q. v.) and it is locally known as JATI. Teak is a medium weight
timber with a density of 610-750 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is yellowish white or pale
yellow-brown and up to 50 mm thick and is distinct from the heartwood, which is dull yellowish
when fresh turning to golden brown or dark greyish brown on exposure, often with greyish or
dark coloured streaks. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under TEAK.
Teijsmanniodendron - A genus of small to medium-sized trees up to 30 m tall and 50(-120) cm
in diameter, belonging to the family Verbenaceae. The common Malaysian name for the timber,
which is of Sarawakian origin, is ENTAPULOH (q.v.). The timber is moderately hard and
moderately heavy and it has been classified under medium hardwood with a density of
432-896 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is yellow and is fairly distinct from the heartwood,
which is pale yellowish brown. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under
ENTAPULOH. Vernacular names applied include buak-buak (Sab.) with various epithets. Major
species include T. bogoriense, T. coriaceum, T. holophyllum and T. pteropodum.
Teja (P.M. and Sar.) = Cinnamomum spp. = MEDANG.
Tekalat (Sar.) = Lithocarpus brochidodromus and L. gracilis = MEMPENING.
Tekalat uak (Sar.) = Lithocarpus graciliS = MEMPENING.
Tekaled (Sar.) = Lithocarpus andersonii = MEMPENING.
Tekalet kapuong (Sar.) = Lithocarpus porcatus = MEMPENING.
Tekalong (Sar.) = Artocarpus elasticus = TERAP.
Tekam (Sar.) = Shorea spp. = BALAU.
Tekoyong-koyong (Sar.) = Gordonia spp. = SAMAK.
Tekulud (Sab.) = Lithocarpus spp. = MEMPENING.
Telatang (Sab.) = Campnosperma spp. = TERENTANG.
Teletang (Sar.) = Crypteronia macrophylla = BEKOL
Telinga badak (P.M.) = Crypteronia griffithii = BEKOL
Telinsi (Sar.) = Terminalia spp. = KETAPANG.

175
TELOR BUAYA 1 - The common Malaysian name for the timber of Homalium spp.
(Flacourtiaceae). The ASEAN Standard Name for the timber, which is ofIndonesian origin, is
DELINSEM. The timber is moderately hard to hard and moderately heavy to very heavy with
a density of 720-995 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood,
which is reddish brown. Occasionally, a streaky corewood is produced in some trees. Texture
is fine and even, with usually straight but sometimes interlocked grain. The timber is very
strong (Strength group A). It is difficult to resaw and cross-cut. Planing is slightly difficult and
the planed surface is moderately smooth. The timber seasons fairly slowly with only slight
bowing and springing as the main sources of defects. 13 mm boards take approximately 3
months to air dry, while 25 mm boards take 4 months and 38 mm boards take 5 months.
Shrinkage is rather low, with radial shrinkage averaging 1.3% and tangential shrinkage averaging
1.9%. The timber is only moderately durable but is easy to treat with preservatives, except for
the corewood, which is not amenable.
USES: The timber is suitable for temporary heavy construction, door and window frames,
flooring, furniture manufacture, turneries and wooden pallets.
Vernacular names applied include kayu batu (P.M.) and takaliu (Sab.). Major species include
H. dictyoneurum, H. foetidum, H. grandiflorum and H. longifolium.
Telor buaya2 (P.M) = Alangium ridleyi = MENTULANG.
TELUTO - The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN Standard Name for the timber
of Pterocymbium spp. (Sterculiaceae). The timber is soft and light, with an average density of
465 kgm-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is pale straw-
coloured with a pink tinge. Texture is moderately coarse and uneven due to the presence of the
extremely large rays. Grain is straight. The timber has not been tested in the FRIM, Kepong.
Reports indicate that this timber is easy to saw and work but is difficult to finish. The timber
seasons rapidly without much degrade except for staining by sapstain fungi. The timber is non-
durable, being extremely perishable.
USES: The timber is only suitable for very temporary construction, shuttering, packing cases,
matches and match-boxes, wooden clogs, fish-net floats and possibly as core veneers in plywood
manufacture.
Vernacular names applied include mata lembu (P.M.) and melembu (P.M.). Only one species
is of importance, viz. P. tinctorium.
Temak 1 (P.M.) = Shorea roxburghii = WHITE MERANTI.
Temak2 (Pk.) = Shorea hypochra = WHITE MERANTI.
TEMAK BATU - The common Malaysian name for the timber of Shorea siamensis
(Dipterocarpaceae). The timber is hard to very hard and very heavy with a density of
975-1090 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is lighter in colour than and is only moderately sharply
differentiated from the heartwood, which is brown with a purple-red tinge. Texture is fine and
even, with interlocked or sometimes wavy grain. The timber has not been tested in the FRIM,
Kepong, but work done in Burma ( Myanmar) and India indicates that the timber is strong,
although not as strong as chengal or balau. The timber is reported to work with some difficulty
but the planed surface is smooth. The timber is reputed to season slowly but with no real
degrade. The timber is naturally durable and should be very difficult to treat with preservatives.
USES: .The trees are normally gnarled and twisted and therefore, large sections or long lengths
of this timber may not be available. If available, the timber is suitable for all forms of heavy
construction, bridges, piles, railway sleepers and posts.
Vernacular name applied appears to be uniform throughout the country in that temak batu
is used throughout. This is a monospecific timber.
Temasuk (Sab.) = Fagraeafragrans and F gigantea = TEMBUSU.
Temasuk hutan (Sab.) = Fagraea gigantea = TEMBUSU.

176
Temasuk laut (Sab.) = Fagraeafragrans = TEMBUSU.
Temasuk pasir (Sab.) = Fagraeafragrans = TEMBUSU.
Tembaran (Sar.) = Artocarpus tamaran = TERAP.
Tembatu (P.M.) = Neoscortechinia kingii.
TEMBUSU - The Standard Malaysian N arne for the heavy timber of Fagraea spp. (Loganiaceae).
The timber is a heavy hardwood with a density of 640-1075 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not
differentiated from the heartwood, which is light yellow-brown, darkening on exposure to
deep golden or orange-brown. Texture is fine and even, with straight to slightly wavy grain.
The timber is strong (Strength group B). It is easy to resaw and cross-cut. Planing is easy and
the planed surface is smooth. The nailing property is rated as good. The timber seasons extremely
slowly, with only slight end-checking and surface-splitting as the main sources of degrade.
13 mm boards take approximately 5 months to air dry, while 38 mm boards take 16 months.
Shrinkage is fairly low, with radial shrinkage averaging 1.1 % and tangential shrinkage averaging
1.6%. The timber is durable and is difficult to treat with preservatives.
USES: The timber is suitable for heavy construction, bridges, wharves, heavy duty flooring,
parquet flooring, panelling, heavy duty furniture, wooden mathematical instruments, drawing
boards and butchers' blocks. It has an excellent reputation as a carving timber.
Vernacular names applied include tembusu (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) with various epithets,
banati (Sab.), meriang (P.M.), temasuk (Sab.) and various other localised names too numerous
to be listed here. Major species include F belukar, F cuspidata,. F fragrans, F gigantea, F
resinosa, F rugulosa, F spicata, F teysmannii and F volubilis.
Tembusu bukit (Sab.) = Fagraea belukar = TEMBUSU.
Tembusu gajah (Sar.) = Fagraea cuspidata = TEMBUSU.
Tembusu hutan (P.M.) = Fagraea gigantea = TEMBUSU.
Tembusu padang (P.M.) = Fagraeafragrans = TEMBUSU.
Tembusu tagai (Sab.) = Fagraea belukar = TEMBUSU.
Tempan (Sar.) = Ficus lamponga, F ruficaulis and F subfulva = ARA.
TEMPINIS - The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN Standard Name for the
timber of Streb Ius elongatus (Moraceae). The timber is very hard and very heavy with a density
of915-1025 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is light yellow-brown and is sharply differentiated
from the heartwood, which is red-brown when fresh, darkening to a deep shade of brown or
dark chocolate-brown on exposure. Texture is fine and even with interlocked grain. The timber
is very strong (Strength group A). It is moderately easy to difficult to resaw and is slightly
difficult to difficult to cross-cut. Planing is difficult but the planed surface is smooth. The
nailing property is rated as very poor. The timber seasons fairly rapidly with no defects at all.
13 mm boards take approximately 2.5 months to air dry, while 38 mm boards take 3.5 months.
Shrinkage is very low, with radial shrinkage averaging 0.8% and tangential shrinkage averaging
1%. The timber is very durable (graveyard test on the wood of S. elagatus gives a service life
of 11.3 years).
USES: The timber is suitable for all forms of heavy construction like bridges, wharves, etc.
The timber is also attractive enough to be suitable for parquet flooring and heavy-duty flooring.
Other uses include railway sleepers and power transmission poles.
Vernacular name applied appears to be very uniform in that only tempinis is used throughout
the country. Only one species attains tree size, viz. S. elongatus.
Temponek (P.M. and Sar.) = Artocarpus rigidus = KELEDANG.
TENANGAU - The ASEAN Standard Name, which is of Indonesian origin, for the timber of
Prunus spp. The common Malaysian name for the tree and timber is PEPIJAT (q. v.).
Tengar 1 (P.M.) = Ceriops tagal = BAKAU.
Tengar2 (Sab.) = Ceriops decandra = BAKAU.

177
Tengar samak (Sar.) = Ceriops tagal = BAKAD.
Tengar tikus (Sar.) = Ceriops decandra = BAKAD.
Tenghilan (Sab.) = lrvingia malayana = PAUH KIJANG.
Tengkaras (P.M.) = Aquilaria malaccensis = KARAS.
Tengkawang 1 (P.M.) = Hopea nutans = GIAM.
Tengkawang2 (P.M.) = Shorea sumatrana = BALAD.
Tengkawang3 (P.M.) - A vernacular name applicable to the tree of Shorea palembanica. The
timber produced by this species can range from light pink to dark red-brown and therefore, can
be accordingly classified as DARK RED MERANTI or LIGHT RED MERANTI.
Tengkawang ayer (P.M.) - A vernacular name applicable to the tree of Shorea palembanica.
The timber produced by this species can range from light pink to dark red-brown and therefore,
can be accordingly classified as DARK RED MERANTI or LIGHT RED MERANTI.
Tengkawang batu 1 (Tr.) = Shorea collina = RED BALAD.
Tengkawang batu2 (Ph. and Tr.) = Shorea kunstleri = RED BALAU.
Tengkawang bukit (Ph. and Tr.) = Shorea kunstleri = RED BALAD.
Tengkawang jantong (Tr.) = Parashorea stellata = GERUTD.
Tengkawang iampong (Tr.) = Shorea singkawang var. scabrosa = DARK RED MERANTI.
Tengkawang pasir (Tr.) = Parashorea densiflora = GERUTU.
TENGKURUNG - The ASEAN Standard Name, which is ofIndonesian origin, for the timber
of Blumeodendron spp. The common Malaysian name for the timber is GAHAM BADAK
(q.v.).
Tengoda (Sar.) = AnisophylleaJerruginea = DELEK.
Tenug (Sab.) = Ceriops tagal = BAKAD.
Tepada (Sar.) = Gironniera parvifolia = KASAP.
Tepanga (Sar.) = Engelhardtia serrata = DUNGUN PAYA.
Tepih (Sar.) = Copaifera palustris = SEPETIR.
Teraling (P.M.) = Engelhardtia serrata = DUNGUN PAYA.
Terampayoh (Sar.) = Castanopsis oviformis = BERANGAN.
TERAP - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of the lighter species of Artocarpus spp.
and Parartocarpus spp. (Moraceae). The timber is a light hardwood with a density of
400-560 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood, except for some rare cases, is generally not differentiated
from the heartwood, which is yellow to light yellow-brown. Occasionally, a dark brown
heartwood with an orange tinge is developed, in which case, the sapwood is distinct. Texture is
moderately coarse to coarse. The heavier members are moderately strong (Strength group C),
while the lighter members are weak (Strength group D). The timber is generally easy to resaw
and cross-cut except for the air dry material of Parartocarpus, which is slightly difficult. Planing
is easy, again with the exception of air-dry Parartocarpus, which is slightly difficult. The
planed surface is smooth on the tangential side but rough on the radial side due to picking up of
grain. The nailing property is rated as good. Seasoning properties are variable according to
species and some test results obtained in the FRIM, Kepong, are shown in the table below:

Time to air dry Shrinkage (%)


(months) (Green to air dry)

13mm 38mm Radial Tangential


boards boards

Artocarpus elasticus 2.5 1.5 2.9 Very fast drying; no defects except for stains
by fungi; fairly high shrinkage.
A. scortechinii 3 4 1.6 3.9 Fairly slow drying; slight bowing, cupping
and checking; high shrinkage.
Parartocarpus 3.5 5 2 4.4 Fairly slow drying; slight bowing, cupping,
venenosus twisting and checking; very high shrinkage.

178
The timber is non-durable but easy to moderately difficult to treat with preservatives.
USES: The timber is suitable for light construction, strip flooring, core veneer in plywood
manufacture, boxes, crates and wooden pallets.
Vernacular names applied include terap (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) with various epithets, ara
berteh (P.M.), miku (P.M.),paliu (Sab.), sukun (P.M.), timadang (Sab.) and timbangan (Sab.).
Major species include Artocarpus altilis,A. elasticus,A. lowii,A. odoratissima,A. scortechinii,
A. tamaran, A. teysmannii; Parartocarpus bracteatus and P. venenosus.
Terap hitam 1 (P.M.) = Artocarpus scortechinii = TERAP.
Terap hitam 2 (Sab.) = Artocarpus spp. and Parartocarpus spp. = TERAP.
Terap hutan (Sab.) = Artocarpus spp. = KELEDANG.
Terap ikal (Sab.) = Artocarpus anisophyllus = KELEDANG.
Terap nasi (P.M.) = Artocarpus elasticus = TERAP.
Terap togop (Sab.) =Artocarpus elasticus = TERAP.
Terbak 1 (P.M.) = Shorea collina = RED BALAU.
Terbak2 (Kl.) = Shorea kunstleri = RED BALAU.
Terbak3 (Ph.) = Shorea hypochra = WHITE MERANTI.
Terbak4 (Kd., Ps. and Kl.) = Anisoptera scaphula = MERSAWA.
Terbak5 (P.M.) = Alphonsea elliptica and A. maingayi = MEMPISANG.
Terbak paya (Ph.) = Shorea coltina = RED BALAU.
Terbulan (Sar.) = Endospermum spp. = SESENDOK.
TERENTANG - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Campnosperma spp.
(Anacardiaceae). The timber is a light hardwood with a density of 320-560 kg m-3 air dry and
an average density of 432 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not clearly defmed from the heartwood,
which is bright pink when fresh and takes on a grey tinge on exposure. Texture is fine and
even, with interlocked grain. The timber is weak (Strength group D) and as such, is not
recommended for general construction purposes. It is easy to resaw and cross-cut. Planing is
easy but the planed surface is rough and woolly with considerable picking up of the grain.
Nailing property is rated as excellent. Seasoning properties vary with species and results obtained
from tests conducted in the FRIM, Kepong, are summarised in the table below:

Time to air dry Shrinkage (%)


(months) (Green to air dry)
Species Remarks
13 mm 38 mm Radial Tangential
boards boards

C. auricula tum 2 1.6 3.2 Very fast drying; slight bowing; moderate
twisting, insect attacks and staining;
high shrinkage.
C. coriaceum 5 2.1 5.5 Fairly slow drying; severe splitting; very
high tangential shrinkage.

The timber has not been tested for its kiln-drying characteristics but judging from its low
density and air drying properties, there should not be any difficulty in this timber using the
schedule for the red merantis (schedule F) or even that for jelutong (schedule H). The timber is
non-durable under exposed conditions, but is easily treated with preservatives.
USES: The timber is suitable for match-boxes, match splints, packing cases, veneers for plywood
manufacture, disposable chopsticks, ladies' shoes soles, sandals and particleboards.
Vernacular names applied include ketang (Sar.), tela tang (Sab.), and terentang (P.M., Sab.
and Sar.) with various epithets. Major species include C. auriculatum, C. coriaceum and
C. squama tum.

179
Terentang daun besar (P.M.) = Campnosperma auricula tum = TERENTANG.
Terentang daun kecil (P.M.) = Campnosperma squama tum = TERENTANG.
Terentang kelintang (P.M.) = Campnosperma coriaceum = TERENTANG.
Terentang paya (Sar.) = Campnosperma coriaceum = TERENTANG.
Terentang puteh (Sar.) = Campnosperma squamatum = TERENTANG.
Terentang simpoh (P.M.) = Campnosperma coriaceum = TERENTANG.
Terongau paya (Sar.) = Fagraea resinosa = TEMBUSU.
Termina[ia - A genus of medium-sized but more frequently large deciduous trees up to
50(-60)m tall and 150(-300) cm in diameter, belonging to the family Combretaceae. The
genus shows a marked diversification in properties and further studies should be conducted on
a regional basis before proper grouping of the timbers can be achieved. For the time being, the
timbers are grouped together under the Standard Malaysian Name ofKETAPANG (q.v.). The
timber is moderately hard to hard and moderately heavy. The individual species show a marked
variation in density, which ranges from 385 to 850 kg m-3 air dry. The timber is classified
under light hardwood in Malaysia. The sapwood is lighter in colour and is poorly defined from
the heartwood, which is light brown in T. citrina and T. copelandii, yellow in T. subspathulata
and red-brown in T. catappa. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under
KETAPANG. Vernacular names applied include antoi puteh (P.M.), belang rimau (P.M.),
belawan (P.M.), jaha (P.M.), jelawai (P.M.) with various epithets, mempelam babi (P.M.),
talisai (Sab.) with various epithets and telinsi (Sar.). Major species include T. bellirica,
T. calamansanai, T. catappa, T. citrina, T.joetidissima, T. phellocarpa and T. subspathulata.
TERUNTUM - The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN Standard Name for the
timber of Lumnitzera spp. (Combretaceae). The timber is hard and heavy with a density of
755-835 kg m-3 air dry. The timber is classified under medium hardwood in Malaysia. The
sapwood is not well defined and is lighter in colour than the heartwood, which is light grey-
brown to light brownish red. Texture is very fine and even, with straight to shallowly interlocked
grain. The timber has not been tested in the FRIM, Kepong, but is expected to be strong. The
timber is reported to saw readily and planes very cleanly, producing a smooth and glossy
surface. It is reputed to season well with little degrade. Shrinkage is rather low, radial shrinkage
averages I % while tangential shrinkage averages 1.3%. The timber is only moderately durable
and is subject to termite attacks.
USES: The poor form of the trees excludes this timber from many uses. This timber is popular
in Sabah for marine piling. This timber, with its easy working qualities and glossy finish,
should be suitable for flooring, furniture manufacture, interior finishing, panelling, mouldings,
skirtings and door and window frames. The timber should also be suitable for making wooden
pallets and packing crates.
Vernacular names applied include teruntum (P.M. and Sar.) with various epithets, geriting
(Sab.) with various epithets and sop-sop (Jh.). Major species include L. littorea and the pole-
sized L. racemosa.
Teruntum merah (P.M.) = Lumnitzera littorea = TERUNTUM.
Teruntum puteh (P.M.) = Lumnitzera racemosa = TERUNTUM.
Tetang (Sab.) = Campnosperma spp. = TERENTANG.
TETEBU - The common Malaysian name for the timber of Mastixia spp. (Cornaceae). The
ASEAN Standard Name for the timber, which is of Indonesian origin, is KAYU
KUNDUR. The timber is moderately soft and is light to moderately heavy with a density of
560-770 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is white to light yellow and is not well defined from the
heartwood, which is yellow with a greenish tinge. Texture is fine and even with straight to
shallowly interlocked grain. The timber is only moderately strong (Strength group C). It is
easy to saw and work and produces a smooth surface. The timber seasons slowly and is prone
to staining. 25 mm boards take 5 months to air dry. Shrinkage is very high, especially in the

180
tangential direction. Radial shrinkage averages 2% while tangential shrinkage averages 5.2%.
It has not been tested for its durability but is expected to be non-durable under exposed
conditions. It is very easily treated with preservatives.
USES: The timber has not been used in any great extent in the country. Due to its high shrinkage,
the timber may not be suitable for a large number of constructional uses. Possible usage include
packing crates, pallets, shuttering and perhaps particleboard manufacture.
Vernacular names applied are ban tis (Sab.), itan beruang (Sar.), tebu-tebu (P.M.) and tetebu
(P.M.), in obvious reference to the strong sugar-cane smell of the cut bark. Major species
include M. pentandra and M trichotoma.
Tetiup (P.M.) = Adinandra dumosa = SAMAK.
Tetrameles-Agenus of very large deciduous trees up to 50 m tall and 120(-200) cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Datiscaceae. The common Malaysian name for the timber is
MENGKUNDOR (q.v.). The timber is soft and light with a density of305-415 kg m-3 air dry.
The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is light straw-coloured with a
slight olive-green tinge. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under
MENGKUNDOR. No other vernacular names have been recorded. This is a monospecific
genus and is absent in Sabah and Sarawak. The only species is T. nudiflora.
Tetramerista - A genus of medium-sized to large trees up to 40 m tall and 100(-150) cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Theaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is
PUNAH (q.v.). The timber is a medium hardwood with a density of 625-800 kg m-3 air dry.
The sapwood is lighter in colour than and not always clearly defined from the heartwood,
which is pink-brown, weathering to light brown. Other properties and uses of the timber are
described under PUNAH. Vernacular names applied include entuyut (Sar.), kayu chelega (Sar.),
kayu hujan (Sar.), kayu tangiran (Sar.), samondu (Sab.), suyut (Sab.), tuyot (Sab.) and tuyut
(Sab.). Only one species is of importance in this country, viz. T. glabra.
Tetrameristicaceae - A family represented in this country by Tetramerista glabra (PUNAH).
The timber is usually found in the peat swamps of the country.
Theaceae - A family of shrubs and trees, which is famous for the tea plant. The family has
limited economic value as a timber producer in this country. Genera that attain timber size in
this country include Adinandra, Gordonia, Ploiarium and Schima.
Thespesia - A genus of small to medium-sized trees up to 30 m tall and 60 cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Malvaceae. The common Malaysian name for the timber is BARU
(q. v.). The timber is soft to moderately hard and light to moderately heavy with a density of
450-625 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood ranges from white to light yellow and is not defined to
sharply differentiated from the heartwood which varies from light yellow, light grey-brown,
grey-black, purple-black to red-brown. Other properties and uses of the timber are described
under BARU. Vernacular names applied include baru laut (Sab.) and bebaru (P.M.). Only one
species is recorded in this country, viz. T. populnea.
Thymelaeaceae - A family of trees, shrubs or climbers of which the genera Aquilaria and
Gonystylus are of some importance in this country. The genus Aquilaria produces a soft, light
and whitish wood known as KARAS and also a dense, dark brown and resin impregnated
wood known as GARARU, which is highly prized as an incense. Gonystylus (RAMIN), a light
coloured timber, is highly-prized as a furniture and panelling timber.
Tian (Sar.) = Artocarpus elasticus = TERAP.
Tibabah (Sab.) = Lagerstroemia speciosa = BUNGOR.
Tihaig (Sab.) = Lithocarpus elegans = MEMPENING.
Tikam (Sab.) = Trema tomentosa = MENARONG.
Tikalod (Sab.) = Lithocarpus brochidodromus, L. conocarpus, L. cantleyanus, L. graciliS
and L. leptogyne = MEMPENING.
Tikolod (Sab.) = Carallia sp. 1 = MERANSI.

181
Tiliaceae - A family of trees, shrubs or rarely herbs. Genera that attain timber size are Microcos
(CHENDERAI), Pentace (MELUNAK) and Schoutenia (BAYUR BUKIT).
Timadang (Sab.) = Artocarpus odoratissimus = TERAP.
Timah-timah (P.M.) = flex cymosa = MENSIRAH.
Timau (Sar.) = Cratoxylum glaucum = GERONGGANG.
Timbangan (Sab.) = Artocarpus tamaran = TERAP.
Timbarayongl (Sab.) = Adenanthera kostermansii = SAGA.
Timbarayong2 (Sab.) = Peltophorum racemosum = JEMERLANG.
Tindas (Sab.) = Litsea elliptica = MEDANG.
Tinggirang pirak (Sar.) = Fagraea cuspidata = TEMBUSU.
TINJAU BELUKAR - The common Malaysian name for the tree and timber of Porterandia
anisophyllea (Rubiaceae). The timber is moderately hard to hard and moderately heavy to
heavy with a density of 645-720 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the
heartwood, which is pale brown with a pink tinge. Texture is fine and even, with straight grain.
The timber has not been tested in the FRIM, Kepong. It is reported to be easy to saw and
machines and turns well and finishes to a good surface. The timber is reputed to be moderately
durable.
USES: The timber has been used for fencing, beams, walking sticks, tools and implements. It
has also been tested and found to have good pulping properties.
Vernacular names applied include bembalor (Sab.). Only a single species, viz.
Porterandia anisophyllea, has been reported to be used for its timber.
Tinjau laut (P.M.) = Alangium griffithii = MENTULANG.
Tinjau tasek (Ph.) = Lophopetalum multinervium = PERUPOK.
Tiup-tiup (P.M.) = Adinandra spp. = SAMAK.
T-izos-izos (Sab.) = Sarcotheca glauca = PUPOL
Todopon puak (Sab.) = Fagraea cuspidata and F spicata = TEMBUSU.
Todopon puok (Sab.) = Fagraea volubilis = TEMBUSU.
Toona - A genus of tall trees up to 40(-60) m tall and 50(-70) cm in diameter, belonging to the
family Meliaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber, which is of Sabah origin, is
LIMPAGA (q. v.). In Peninsular Malaysia, the timber is popularly known as suriano The timber
is soft and light with a density of 270-530 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is grey-white or pink
and is sharply defined from the heartwood that is light red or red-brown. Other properties and
uses of the timber are described under LIMPAGA. Vernacular names applied include ranggau
(Sar.), surian, surian bawang, surian wangi and tangisan burong (P.M.). The name limpaga is
used for more than one timbers in Sabah. Major species include T. sinensis and T. sureni.
Torog (Sab.) = Parinari laurina = MERBATU.
Towi (Sar.) = Trema spp. = MENARONG.
Trema - A genus of shrubs, small or rarely medium-sized trees of the secondary forest, belonging
to the family Ulmaceae. The common Malaysian name for the tree and timber is MENARONG
(q. v.). The ASEAN Standard Name, which is of Philippine origin, is ANABIONG. The timber
is soft and light with a density of 415-465 kg m- 3 air dry. The sapwood is straw-coloured and
is sharply differentiated from the heartwood, which is light brown with a grey tinge. Other
properties and uses of the timber are described under MENARONG. Vernacular names applied
include menerong, mengkirai (P.M.) and randagong (Sab.). Major species include T. angustifolia
and T. orienta lis.
Trigoniaceae - A small family of trees or shrubs, represented in Malaysia by one genus, viz.
Trigoniastrum (MARAJALI).
Trigoniastrum - A genus of small to medium-sized trees up to 30(-40) m tall and 50(-60) cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Trigoniaceae. The common Malaysian name for the tree and
timber is MARAJALI (q.v.). The timber is hard or very hard, heavy or very heavy with an

182
average density of 945 kg m-3 air dry. Sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood,
which is light yellow with olive tinge. Other properties and uses of the timber are described
under MARAJALI. This is a monotypic genus with T. hypoleucum as the only species.
Trigonopleura - A small genus of rather small trees up to 27 m tall and 40 cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae. The common Malaysian name for the timber is
GAMBIR HUTAN (q. v.). The ASEAN Standard Name, which is ofIndonesian origin, is KAYU
GAMBIR. The timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy with an average density
of 625 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is light
brown colour. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under GAMBIR HUTAN.
Only one species is recorded in this region, viz. T. malayana.
Triomma - A genus of medium-sized to large trees up to 60 m tall and 100(-115) cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Burseraceae. The timber is commonly grouped together with the other
members of the family and sold as KEDONDONG (q.v.). The timber is a light hardwood with
a density of 675-770 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is lighter in colour than and not well defined
from the heartwood, which is usually deep red-brown. Other properties and uses of the
timber are described under KEDONDONG. Vernacular names applied include kedondong
(P.M. and Sab.) with various epithets and seladah (Sar.). This genus has only one species, viz.
T malaccensis.
Tristaniopsis - A genus of shrubs, small or medium-sized trees up to 45 m tall and 70(-120) cm
in diameter, belonging to the family Myrtaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the
ASEAN Standard Name for the timber is PELAWAN (q.v.). The timber is hard to very hard
and heavy to very heavy with a density of 915-1250 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is pink-
brown or red-brown to purple-brown, sometimes with a grey tinge. Other properties and uses
of the timber are described under PELAWAN. Vernacular names applied include keruntum
(P.M.), malaban (Sar.), melaban (Sar.), pelawan-pelawan (Sab.), selunchor (P.M.), selunsor
(Sar.) andselunsor puteh (Sar.). Major species include T. merguensis, T obovata and T. whiteana.
Troduh (Sar.) = Scorodocarpus borneensis = KULIM.
TVAI - The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN Standard Name for the timber of
Bischofia javanica (Euphorbiaceae). The timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy
with a density of 545-880 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is brick red-brown and is sharply
defined from the heartwood, which is purple-red-brown and darkens on exposure. Texture is
moderately fine to rather coarse but even, with interlocked grain. The timber has not been
tested in the FRlM, Kepong. It is reported to be slightly difficult to work but planes to a
smooth finish. The timber is reputed to be very difficult to season without serious defects.
Cracks, warping and even honeycombing have been noted during seasoning. Shrinkage is very
high and may account for the seasoning problems of this timber. Work done in Australia indicated
radial shrinkage to be as high as 2.6% and tangential shrinkage to be 6.2%. (green to 12%
moisture content). The timber is non-durable. The sapwood is amenable to preservative treatment
while the heartwood is refractory.
USES: The timber is not likely to be used extensively due to its adverse properties. The timber
may be suitable for temporary planking, packing cases, boxes and charcoal manufacture.
Vernacular names applied include jitang (P.M.). This genus has only one species, viz.
B. javanica.
TVALANG - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Koompassia excelsa
(Leguminosae). The timber is a medium hardwood with a density of 800-865 kg m-3 air dry.
The sapwood is buff-coloured or yellow-brown, often with a pink tinge and is sharply
differentiated from the heartwood, which is reddish brown to deep brick-red-brown when fresh
and darkens with age to a deep chocolate-brown. Texture is rather coarse but even except in
areas where included phloem occurs. Grain is interlocked, often deeply interlocked. The timber
is very strong (Strength group A). It is easy to resaw and cross-cut when green but is slightly

183
difficult to resaw when dry. Planing is easy in either condition and the surface produced is
smooth to moderately smooth. Nailing property is rated as good. The timber dries moderately
slowly to slowly with slight end-checking, surface-checking and insect attacks as the main
sources of degrade. 13 mm boards take 3.5 months to air dry, while 38 mm boards take 6
months. Shrinkage is average, with radial shrinkage averaging 1.5% and tangential shrinkage
averaging 1.7%. The timber is moderately durable and is highly amenable to preservative
treatment.
USES: Treated, the timber is suitable for all heavy construction, like posts, beams, joists, railway
sleepers and power transmission poles. Untreated, the timber is suitable for parquet and strip
flooring, panelling and heavy-duty furniture.
Vernacular names applied include kayu raja (Sar.), mengaris (Sab.) and tapang (Sar.). This
is a monospecific timber.
Tuba buah (P.M.) = Diospyros wallichii = KAYU MALAM.
Tubu (Sar.) = Agathis orbicula = DAMAR MINYAK.
TVI - The common Malaysian name for the tree and timber of Dolichandrone spathacea
(Bignoniaceae). The timber is soft and light with an average density of 480 kg m-3 air dry. The
sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is white in colour. Texture is rather
fine and even, with straight grain. Vernacular names applied include taring buaya (P.M.). This
is a monospecific timber.
Tuih (Sar.) = Dolichandrone spathacea = TUI.
Tukalod (Sab.) = Castanopsis psilophylla = BERANGAN.
Tuku baroh (Sar.) = Trema tomentosa = MENARONG.
TVLANG DAING - The common Malaysian name for the tree and timber of Callerya
atropurpurea (Leguminosae), used here to cover all species of Fordia and Millettia in
Malaysia. The timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy to heavy with a density
of595-815 kg m-3 air dry. The timber is classified under medium hardwood in Malaysia. The
sapwood is not sharply differentiated from the heartwood, which is pale orange-brown, streaked
with lighter coloured zones of parenchyma. Texture is coarse and uneven due to the presence
of abundant wood parenchyma. Grain is interlocked. The timber has not been tested in the
FRIM, Kepong, but is reported to be slightly difficult to work due to the interlocked grain. It is
non-durable, liable to be attacked by both fungi and insects.
USES: The timber is suitable for tumery, panelling, medium construction under cover, furniture,
interior finishing, flooring, partitioning and for boxes and crates.
Vernacular names applied includejenerek (P.M.), kayu rindu (P.M.), kedang belum (Sar.)
and urat rusa (P.M.). Major species include Fordia albiflora; Callerya atropurpurea, C. vasta;
and Milletia decipiens, M galliflagrans and M hemsleyana.
Tulang kwe (Sar.) = Trigoniastrum hypoleucum = MARAJALI.
Tulang payung piang (Sar.) = Sarcotheca glauca = PUPOL
Tululs hobui (Sab.) = Saraca declinata = GAPIS.
Tumu (Sar.) = Agathis endertii = DAMAR MINYAK.
Tumu merah (P.M.) = Bruguiera gymnorrhiza = BAKAU.
Tumu puteh (P.M.) = Bruguiera sexang,tla = BAKAU.
Tumuh (Sar.) = Agathis orbicula = DAMAR MINYAK.
Tundun biawak (Sar.) = Xerospermum noronhianum = RAMBUTAN PAC HAT.
Tungilan (Sab.) = Agathis lenticula = DAMAR MINYAK.
Turug (Sab.) = Lithocarpus leptogyne = MEMPENING.
Tutor (P.M.) = Hibiscus macrophyllus = BARU.
Tuyot (Sab.) = Tetramerista glabra = PUNAH.
Tuyut (Sab.) = Tetramerista glabra = PUNAH.

184
u
UBAH 1 - The common Malaysian name for the trees and timber of Glochidion spp.
(Euphorbiaceae). The timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy with a density of
440-890 kg m-3 air dry. The pale brown sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood,
which is light purple-grey-brown or red-brown. Texture is moderately fine and even, with
straight grain. Shrinkage upon seasoning is moderate to very high, especially in the tangential
direction. It is non-durable to moderately durable and resistant to preservative treatment.
USES: The timber of ubah is used to build native and temporary houses, mainly as poles and
rafters and for tool handles. In New Guinea it is used for light framing, flooring, moulding,
interior trim and utility furniture. The trees yield a good fuelwood and the boles have been
used in mushroom cultivation.
Vernacular names applied include gerumongjantan (Sab.), obah nasi (Sab.) and saka-saka
(Sab.). Major species include G. borneense, G. littorale, G. obscurum, G. perakense and
G. superbum.
Ubah 2 (Sar.) = Syzygium spp. = KELAT.
Ubah samak (Sar.) = Crypteronia macrophylla = BEKOI.
Ubah semut (Sar.) = Crypteronia griffith ii, C. macrophylla and C. paniculata var. paniculata =
BEKOI.
Uchip bali (Sar.) = Fagraea teysmannii = TEMBUSU.
Ulas (Sab.) = Mallotus miquelianus = BALEK ANGIN.
Ulmaceae - A small family of shrubs or trees represented in this country by Celtis, Gironniera
(KASAP) and Trema (MENARONG). The trees are too scattered to be of any economic
importance.
Umas-umas (Sab.) = Pouteria obovata = NYATOH KUNING.
Umit (Sar.) = Pentaspadon motleyi = PELAJAU.
Umpo (Sar.) = Horsjieldia spp. = PENARAHAN.
Ungsunah (Sar.) = Scorodocarpus borneensis = KULIM.
Untoh bulu (Sar.) = Gironniera subaequalis = KASAP.
Uok (Sar.) = Ficus septica = ARA.
Upang (Sar.) = Horsjieldia spp. = PENARAHAN.
Upi (Sar.) = Parishia spp. = LELAYANG.
Upi bunga (Sar.) = Parishia insignis = LELAYANG.
Upi paya (Sar.) = Parishia maingayi = LELAYANG.
Uping (Sar.) = Pentaspadon motleyi = PELAJAU.
Upun (Sab.) = Upuna borneensis = PENYAU.
Upuna - A large tree up to 55 m tall and 190 cm in diameter, belonging to the family
Dipterocarpaceae. The monotypic genus Upuna is endemic to Borneo where it occurs in
South and West Kalimantan, Sarawak, Brunei and Sabah. The genus has only one
species, U borneensis, which occurs scattered and is only very locally abundant, in primary
lowland mixed dipterocarp forest. It prefers well-drained, deep, sandy soils with a low clay
content, on hills and ridges up to 350 m altitude. The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the
ASEAN Standard Name for the timber is PENYAU (q.v.). The timber is very hard and very

185
heavy with a density of 945-1040 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is paler in colour than and
sharply defined from the heartwood, which is dark brown. Texture is fine to moderately fine
but even, with straight to only shallowly interlocked grain.
USES: The timber is suitable for all heavy constructional work where strength and durability
are essential, such as bridges, wharves and mining timber.
Other vernacular names applied include upun (Sab.).
Urat mata (Sab. and Sar.) = Parashorea spp. = GERUTU and WHITE SERAYA.
Urat mata batu (Sab.) = Parashorea smythiesii = GERUTU.
Urat mata beludu (Sab.) = Parashorea tomentella = WHITE SERAYA.
Urat mata dauo kechil (Sab.) = Parashorea parvifolia = GERUTU.
Urat mata dauo lichio (Sab.) = Parashorea malaanonan = WHITE SERAYA.
Urat rusa (P.M.) = Fordia albiflora and F bracteolata = TULANG DAING.

186
v
Vatica - A genus of medium-sized to large trees up to 40 m tall and 125 cm in diameter, belonging
to the family Dipterocarpaceae. The timber is known as RESAK (q. v.) in the trade. The timber
is a heavy hardwood with a density of 655-1135 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is lighter
in colour than and generally not sharply defined from the heartwood, which is brown and
occasionally with a green tinge. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under
RESAK. Vernacular names applied include resak (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) with various epithets,
balau (P.M.) in error, damar keluang (Ph.), jenuong (Jh.) and keruing babi (P.M.). Major
species include V. bella, V. euspidata, V. jlavida, V. havilandii, V. heteroptera, V. lowii,
V. maingayi, V. mangaehapoi, V. nitens and V. seortheehnii.
Verbenaceae - A family of herbs, climbers, shrubs and trees. The most famous timber of this
family is teak (Teetona grandis), which does not occur naturally in Malaysia but has been tried
in plantation there with considerable success. Genera which attain tree size in this country
include Peronema (SUNGKAI), Teijsmanniodendron (ENTAPULOH) and Vitex (LEBAN).
Vernonia - A very large genus of herbs or rarely small to medium-sized trees up to 30(-40) m tall
and 60(-100) cm in diameter, belonging to the family Compositae. The common Malaysian
name for the tree and timber is MENGGAMBONG (q. v.). The timber is soft and light with a
density of 305-465 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood,
which is light straw-coloured. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under
MENGGAMBONG. Vernacular names applied include medang gambong (P.M.), medang
lempong (P.M.) and tapong-tapong (Sab.). Only one species is recorded in this country,
viz. V. arborea.
Vitex - A genus of shrubs or small to sometimes large trees up to 45 m tall and 125(-200) cm in
diameter, belonging to the family Verbenaceae. The common Malaysian name for the timber is
LEBAN (q. v.). The timber is hard and heavy with a density of 705-880 kg m-3 air dry. The
sapwood is moderately clearly defined and is lighter in colour than the heartwood, which is
light straw-coloured to light yellowish brown. Other properties and uses of the timber are
described under LEBAN. Vernacular names applied include kulimpapa (Sab.) and leban paya
(Sar.). The most common species of this genus is V. pinnata.

187
w
Wahab (Sab.) = Mangifera grifjithiii = MACHANG.
Wani (Sab.) = Mangifera odorata = MACHANG.
Waringin (Sar.) = Ficus benjamina = ARA.
Wau (Sar.) = Castanopsis hypophoenicea = BERANGAN.
WIDTE MERANTI - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of the Anthoshorea group
of Shorea (Dipterocarpaceae). The trees of this timber group occur in all types of dipterocarp
forest up to 600 m elevation and occasionally higher. However, the trees of white
meranti are poorly represented on hills and absent from the upper dipterocarp forests except S.
heryana which favours hills on the island of Langkawi. Other species such as S.
assamica (merantipipit) frequently inhabit river banks and S. dealbata (meranti bumbong) is
noted to occur in dipterocarp swamp forest. Generally, the trees are large and well-shaped with
prominent buttresses. The timber is a light hardwood with a density of 495-995 kg m-3 air dry.
The sapwood is white and is moderately sharply differentiated from the heartwood, which is
almost white when fresh and becomes light yellow-brown on exposure. Texture is moderately
coarse and even, with rarely straight, usually shallowly interlocked or occasionally deeply
interlocked grain. The timber is generally only moderately strong (Strength group C), but the
heavier species can be strong (Strength group B). It is easy to slightly difficult to resaw in the
green condition and slightly difficult to very difficult in the air-dry condition. Cross-cutting is
also easier in the green than in the air-dry condition. Planing is easy to slightly difficult and the
surface produced is smooth to rough. Nailing property ranges from good to poor depending on
species. The logs can be peeled easily producing smooth veneer. Gluability of the veneers is
rated as good. The timber, in general, seasons well and the seasoning characteristics of species
tested in the FRIM, Kepong, are summarised in the table below:

Time to air dry Shrinkage (%)


(months) (Green to air dry)
Species Remarks
13 mrn 25 mrn 38 mrn Radial Tangential
boards boards boards

S. assamiea 3.5 1.1 2.9 Fairly slow drying; shrinkage rather


high.
S. braeteo/ata 2 3 1.8 3 Fairly fast drying; slight cupping,
bowing, end-checking and surface-
checking, insect and fungi attacks;
shrinkage fairly high.
S. henryana 3 5 1.1 2.6 Fairly slow drying; only slight end-
checks and staining; shrinkage rather
high.
S. hypochra 3 5 1.3 2.7 Fairly slow drying; only slight splitting
and staining; shrinkage rather high.
S. roxburghii 3 4 5 0.6 1.7 Fairly slow drying; no defects;
shrinkage fairly low.

188
For kiln-drying, Schedule J is recommended. The timber dries rapidly without any defects.
25 mm boards take approximately 5 days to kiln-dry from 50 to 10% moisture content. When
drying timbers ofthickness above 40 mm and up to 75 mm, the relative humidity ofthe original
drying schedule should be 5 percent higher in each case and for timber greater than 75 mm
thick, the relative humidity should be increased correspondingly by 10 percent. The timber is
moderately durable and is amenable to treatment.
USES: The timber is suitable for general utility purposes, planking, stair stringers, treads and
railings, light to medium construction, panelling and partitioning, furniture manufacture and
flooring. This timber is very popular as a plywood species.
Vernacular names applied include meranti (P.M. and Sar.) with various epithets, melapi
(Sab.) with various epithets and other localised names too numerous to list here. Major species
include S. agami, S. assamiea, S. braeteolata, S. dealbata, S. henryana, S. hypoehra, S. lamellata,
S. resinosa and S. roxburghii.
WHITE SERAYA - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of the lighter species of
Parashorea (Dipterocarpaceae). This timber is confined to the states of Sabah and Sarawak.
The timber is a light hardwood with a density of 400--655 kg m-3 air dry. The timber is classified
under light hardwood in Malaysia. The sapwood is paler in colour than and not clearly defined
from the heartwood, which is pinkish cream when fresh, turning to straw-colour or light brown
on exposure. Texture is moderately coarse and even with interlocked grain. The timber is
moderately strong (Strength group C). It is fairly easy to work although it has a dulling effect
on the tools. The planed surface of the tangential boards is smooth, but on the radial boards,
there is a tendency for tearing of grain. The timber dries moderately slowly to slowly and is
subject to warping and checking and also staining by fungi. 25 mm boards take
approximately 5.5 months to air dry. Shrinkage is high, especially in the tangential direction.
Radial shrinkage from green to 12% moisture content averages 2.5% while the corresponding
figure for tangential shrinkage is 5.3%. For kiln-drying, Schedule J is recommended. The
timber is reported to season fairly rapidly with minimum defects except for some cupping. It is
non-durable and is difficult to treat with preservatives.
USES: The timber is suitable for interior finishing, panelling, partitioning, plywood manufacture,
fumiture manufacture, mouldings and skirtings. It has also been successfully tried for hardboard
manufacture.
Vernacular names applied include urat mata (Sab. and Sar.) with various epithets. Major
species include P. malaanonan and P. tomentella.

189
x
Xanthophyllum - A genus of small to big trees up to 50 m tall and 120 cm in diameter, belonging
to the family Polygalaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber, which is of
Sarawakian origin, is NYALIN (q.v.). The ASEAN Standard Name, which is of Indonesian
origin, is LlLIN. The timber is hard to very hard and heavy to very heavy with a
density of 595-960 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood,
which is white to bright yellow when fresh and darkens to a strong orange-yellow. Other
properties and uses of the timber are described under NYALIN. Vernacular names applied
include mengkapas (P.M.) and minyak berok (P.M. and Sab.). Major species include X. affine,
X. amoenum, X obscurum and X. stipitatum.
Xerospermum - A genus of small to medium-sized trees up to 36 m tall and 100 cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Sapindaceae. The common Malaysian name for the tree and timber is
RAMBUTAN PACHAT (q. v.). The timber is moderately hard to hard and heavy to very heavy
with a density of880-1 040 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood,
which is light brown. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under RAMBUTAN
PACHAT. Vernacular names applied include itat (Sar.), kikir buntal (P.M.), resat (Sab.) and
tundun biawak (Sar.). Major species include X noronhianum andX laevigatum.
Xy/ocarpus - A genus of mangrove trees of rather poor form, up to 20(-30) m tall and
90(-100) cm in diameter, belonging to the family Meliaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name
as well as the ASEAN Standard Name for the timber is NYIREH (q. v.). The timber is moderately
hard to hard and is moderately heavy to heavy with a density of 625-880 kg m-3 air dry. The
sapwood is light yellow-brown, straw-coloured or light pink and is sharply differentiated from
the heartwood, which is light red to very dark red, sometimes streaked with darker colours.
Other properties and uses ofthe timber are described under NYIREH. Vernacular names applied
include nyireh (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) with various epithets. Major species include X moluccensis
and X. granatum.
Xy/opia - A genus of small to fairly large trees up to 40 m tall and 70 cm in diameter, belonging
to the family Annonaceae. The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber is MEMPISANG
(q. v.). The timber is a light hardwood with a density of295-975 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is
not differentiated from the heartwood, which is light yellow-brown with a green tinge. Other
properties and uses of the timber are described under MEMPISANG. Vernacular names applied
include akau (Sar.), ako (Sar.), antoijangkang (P.M.),jangkang (P.M.) with various epithets,
karai (Sab.), karaijangkang (Sab.), manitan (P.M.) andpisang-pisang (P.M.). Major species
include X. jerruginea, X jusca and X. stenopetala.

190
y
Yellow flame (P.M., Sab. and Sar.) = Peltophorum pterocarpum = JEMERLANG.
YELLOW MERANTI - The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of the Richetia
group of Shorea (Dipterocarpaceae). The timber is a light hardwood with a density of
575-735 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is lighter in colour than and is clearly defined from the
heartwood, which is lighter yellow-brown with a green tinge, darkening to deeper shades of
yellow-brown or brown. Texture is moderately coarse but even, with usually interlocked and
sometimes wavy grain. The timber is only moderately strong (Strength group C). It is easy to
resaw and cross-cut in both green or air dry conditions. Planing is also easy and the planed
surface is smooth to moderately smooth. Nailing property ranges from good to poor depending
on the species. The timber dries moderately slowly, with very little degrade, except for some
cupping, bowing and powder-post beetle attacks in the sapwood. 13 mm boards take
approximately 3 months to air dry, while 38 mm boards take 5 months. Shrinkage is rather
high to high, especially in the tangential direction. Radial shrinkage ranges between 0.9 and
1.2% while tangential shrinkage ranges between 3.1 and 3.8%. For kiln-drying, Schedule J is
recommended. The timber is reported to dry well, without any defects. It is non-durable under
exposed conditions and is moderately difficult to treat with preservatives.
USES: The timber is suitable for general utility purposes, planking, light construction, panelling
and partitioning, furniture manufacture, flooring and pallets. This timber is highly prized as a
plywood species.
Vernacular names applied include bam (Ph.), damar hitam (P.M.) with various epithets,
meranti (P.M. and Sar.) with various epithets, seraya (Ph.), seraya kuning (Sab.) with
various epithets and other localised names too numerous to list here. Major species
include S. dolichocarpa, S. jaguetiana, S. gibbosa, S. hopeifolia, S. longisperma, S. maxima
and S. multiflora.
Yellow seraya (Sab.) = Shorea spp. = YELLOW MERANTI.
YEMANE - A common name for the timber of Gmelina arborea (Verbenaceae). The species
was introduced into Peninsular Malaysia in 1920 as plantation timber species. The timber is
light and soft with an average density of 408 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is lighter in colour
than but not clearly distinct from the heartwood which is straw-yellow to creamy white, turning
to reddish brown with age. Texture is moderately coarse but even. Grain is straight, moderately
interlocked or wavy. The timber is only moderately strong (with strength value fairly similar to
meranti tembaga-Shorea leprosula). The timber is easy to resaw and cross-cut. Planing, boring
and turning are easy with smooth finishing. Nailing property is rated as excellent. The logs are
easy to peel by rotary peeling even without pretreatment. The veneers of 1.6 mm and 0.8 mm
are easy to handle without the tendency to tear and remain fairly flat after drying. The gluing
properties are reported to be good. The timber dries very slowly with very few degrades except
with some slight cupping, bowing, staining and moderate end-checking. 13 mm boards
take 3.5 months to air dry, while 38 mm thick boards take about 10 months. Shrinkage is low.
Radial shrinkage ranges 0.5-0.6% while tangential shrinkage is about 1.1 %. For kiln-drying,
Schedule K is recommended. The timber is non-durable under exposed conditions. However,
it has been reported that in Burma, house posts ofyemane were still sound after 30 years of

191
service (in Malaysia, average service life in exposed conditions - 1.3 years). Tests in the United
Kingdom showed the heartwood was moderately durable with respect to fungal attack. In
India, timber of Gmelina was found to be susceptible to marine borers. Generally, it is difficult
to treat the heartwood of Gmelina with preservatives by the normal pressure process. Even
sapwood is moderately resistant.
USES: The timber can be used for boat decking, panels and general carpentry works. The
timber is widely used as furniture wood in Sierra Leone due to its light colour, stability and
good working properties. Tests in Nigeria indicated that yemane is suitable for match splints.
In India, the timber is used for such purposes as furniture, panelling, boxes and crates, musical
instruments, railway carriages and building.
Yulu tambang (Sab.) = Carallia sp. 1 = MERANSI.

192
z
Zanthoxylum - A genus of shrubs or fairly large trees up to 35 m tall and 60 cm in diameter,
belonging to the family Rutaceae. The common Malaysian name for the tree and timber is
HANTU DURI (q. v.). The timber is soft to moderately hard and light to moderately heavy with
a density of 335-675 kg m-3 air dry. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood,
which is yellow to buff. Other properties and uses of the timber are described under
HANTU DURI. Other vernacular names applied include chenkring (p.M.). Major species include
Z. myriacanthum and Z. rhetsa.

193
Appendix

195
Species in the first edition that have been synonymised in this edition

Synonym Correct name

Acer caesium (Reinw. ex Blume) Kosterm. Acer laurinum Hassk.


Aftelia borneensis Harms Aftelia rhomboidea (Blanco) Vidal
Aglaia barbatula Koord. & Valeton Aglaia pachyphylla Miq.
Aglaia cordata Hiem Aglaia tomentosa Teijsm. & Binn.
Aglaia gamopetala Merr. Aglaia leptantha Miq.
Aglaia ganggo Miq. Aglaia silvestris (M.Roem.) Merr.
Aglaia grifJithii (Hi em) Kurz Aglaia exstipulata (Griff.) W.Theob.
Aglaia merostela Pellegr. Aglaia grandis Korth. ex Miq.
Aglaia oligocarpa Miq. Aglaia lawii (Wight) C.J.Saldanha ex Ramamoorthy
Aglaia ridleyi (King) Pannell Aglaia spectabilis (Miq.) S.SJain & Bennet
Aglaia rubescens (Hiem) Pannell Aglaia macrocarpa (Miq.) Pannell
Aglaia sp. 2 Aglaia erythrosperma Pannell
Aglaia sp. 3 Aglaia multinervis Pannell
Aglaia sp. 5 Aglaia sexipetala Griff.
Aglaia sp. 6 Aglaia crassinervia Kurz ex Hiem
Aglaia sp. 7 Aglaiafoveolata Pannell
Agrostistachys longifolia (Wight) Trimen Agrostistachys borneensis Becc.
Alangium ebenaceum (C.B.Clarke) Harms Alangiumjavanicum (Blume) Wangerin var.
ebenaceum (C.B.Clarke) Berhaman
Albiziafalcataria (L.) Fosberg Paraserianthes falcataria (L.) Nielsen
Alseodaphne coriacea Kosterm. Nothaphoebe coriacea (Kosterm.) Kosterm.
Amoora lanceolata Hiem Aglaia multinervis Pannell
Amoora maingayi Hiem Aglaia lawii (Wight) Saldanha ex Ramamoorthy
Amoora malaccensis Rid!. Aglaia malaccensis (Rid!.) Pannell
Amoora ridleyi King Aglaia spectabilis (Miq.) Jain & Bennet
Amoora rubescens Hiem Aglaia macrocarpa (Miq.) Pannell
Amoora rubiginosa Hiem Aglaia rubiginosa (Hi em) Pannell
Anthocephalus chinensis (Lam.) A.Rich. ex Walp. Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb.) Bosser
Aromadendron elegans Blume Magnolia elegans (Blume) H.Keng
Aromadendron nutans Dandy Magnolia bintuluensis (A.Agostini) Noot.
Artocarpus communis J.R.Forst. & G.Forst. Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg
Atuna e7ata (King) Kosterm. Atuna racemosa Rafin. subsp. racemosa
Atuna excelsa (Jack) Kosterm. Atuna racemosa Rafin. subsp. excelsa (Jack) Prance
Avicennia lanata Rid!. Avicennia rumphiana Hallierf

Baccaurea kingii Gage Baccaurea sumatrana (Miq.) MUl!.Arg.


Baccaurea scortechinii Hook! Baccaurea parviflora (MUl!. Arg.) MUl!.Arg.
Balanocarpus heimii King Neobalanocarpus heimii (King) P.S.Ashton
Beilschmiedia praecox Koord. & Valeton Beilschmiedia lucidula (Miq.) Kosterm.

Calophyllum curtisii King Calophyllum calaba L. var. bracteatum (Wight)


P. F. Stevens
Calophyllum inophylloide King Calophyllum teysmanii (Miq.) var. inophylloide
(King) P.F.Stevens
Calophyllum retusum Wall. ex Choisy Calophyllum ferrugineum Rid!. var. ferrugineum
Cassia nodosa Buch.-Ham. ex Roxb. Cassiajavanica L. subsp. nodosa (Buch.-Ham. ex
Roxb.) K.Larsen & S.S.Larsen
Cassia siamea Lam. Senna siamea (Lam.) Irwin & Bameby
Castanopsis dispersispina Merr. Castanopsis hypophoenicea (Seemen) Soepadmo
Casuariana rumphiana Miq. Gymnostoma rumphianum (Miq.) L.A.S.Johnson
Casuarina nobilis Whitmore Gymnostoma nobile (Whitmore) L.A.S.Johnson

197
Synonym Correct name

Casuarina sumatrana Jungh. ex de Vriese Gymnostoma sumatranum (Jungh. ex de Vriese)


L.A.S.Johnson
Cheilosa malayana (Hookf.) Comer ex Airy Shaw Cheilosa montana Blume
Chrysophyllum roxburghii G.Don Chrysophyllum lanceolatum (Blume) DC.
Cinnamomum cinereum Gamble Cinnamomum sintoc Blume
Cinnamomum velutinum Ridi. Cinnamomum scortechinii Gamble
Cotylelobium malayanum Slooten Cotylelobium lanceolatum Craib

Dacrydiumfalciforme (ParI.) Pilg. Falcatifoliumfalciforme (ParI.) de Laub.


Dehaasia curtisii Gamble Dehaasia pauciflora Blume
Dehaasia elliptica Ridi. Dehaasia polyneura (Miq.) Kosterm.
Dehaasia microcarpa Blume Dehaasia incrassata (Jack) Kosterm.
Dehaasia nigrescens Gamble Alseodaphne nigrescens (Gamble) Kosterm.
Dialium havilandii Ridl. Dialium platysepalum Baker
Dialium Idngii Prain Dialium platysepalum Baker
Dialium laurinum Baker Dialium indum L.
Dialium maingayi Baker Dialium platysepalum Baker
Dialium patens Baker Dialium indum L.
Dialium wallichii (Baker) Prain Dialium platysepalum Baker
Diospyros discolor Willd. Diospyros blancoi A.DC.
Diospyros durionoides Bakh. Diospyros blancoi A.DC.
Dipterocarpus apterus Foxw. Dipterocapus elongatus Korth.
Dipterocarpus exalatus Slooten ex Wood Dipterocarpus kunstleri King
Dipterocarpus warburgii Brandis Dipterocarpus validus Blume
Drypetes macrophylla (Blume) Pax & K.Hoffm. Drypetes longifolia (Blume) Pax & K.Hoffm.
Dysoxylum corneri Hend. Dysoxylum grande Hiem
Dysoxylum thyrsoideum Hiem Dysoxylum alliaceum (Blume) Blume
Dysoxylum venulosum King Dysoxylum cyrtobotryum Miq.

Elaeocarpus leptomischus Ridi. Elaeocarpus palembanicus (Miq.) Comer


Elaeocarpus paniculatus Wall. Elaeocarpus grifJithii (Wight) A.Gray
Elaeocarpus sphaericus (Gaertn.) K.Schum. Elaeocarpus angustifolius Blume
Elmerrillia mollis Dandy Magnolia tsiampacca (L.) Figlar subsp. mollis
(Dandy) Noot.
Endospermum malaccense Benth. Endospermum diadenum (Miq.) Airy Shaw
Erythrina orientalis (L.) Murr Erythrina variegata L.
Eugenia cerasiformis (Blume) DC. Syzygium cerasiforme (Blume) Merr. & Perry
Eugenia cerina M.R.Hend. Syzygium cerinum (M.R. Hend.) I.M.Tumer var.
cerinum
Eugenia chlorantha Duthie Syzygium chloranthum (Duthie) Merr. & Perry
Eugenia grandis Wight Syzygium grande (Wight) Walp.
Eugenia papillosa Duthie Syzygium papillosum (Duthie) Merr. & Perry
Eugenia tawahensis Korth. Syzygium tawahense (Korth.) Merr. & Perry
Euodia aromatica Blume Melicope lunu-ankenda (Gaertn.) T.G.Hartley
Euodia glabra (Blume) Blume Melicope glabra (Blume) T.G.Hartley
Euodia roxburghiana (Cham.) Benth. Melicope lunu-ankenda (Gaertn.) T.G.Hartley
Eusideroxylon melagangai Symington Potoxylon melagangai (Symington) Kosterm.

Ficus glomerata Roxb. Ficus racemosa L.

198
Synonym Correct name

Ganua curtisii (King & Gamble) H.J.Lam Madhuca curtisii (King & Gamble) Rid!.
Ganua hirtiflora (Rid!.) P.Royen Madhuca hirtiflora (Rid!.) H.J.Lam
Ganua kingiana (Brace ex King & Gamble) Madhuca kingiana (Brace ex King & Gamble)
Van den Assem H.J.Lam
Ganua motleyana (de Vriese) Pierre ex Dubard Madhuca motleyana (de Vriese) J.F.Macbr.
Ganua Pierre ex Dubard Madhuca Buch.-Ham. ex 1.F.Gme!.
Ganua sarawakensis Pierre ex Dubard Madhuca cheongiana Yii & P.Chai
Garcinia forbesii King Garcinia beccarii Pierre
Gironniera hirta Rid!. Gironniera nervosa Planch.
Gordonia concentricicatrix Burkill Gordonia multinervis King
Grewia antidesmifolia King Microcos antidesmifolia (King) Burret
Grewia blattaefolia Comer Microcos latifolia Burret
Grewia laurifolia Hook. ex Mast. Microcos laurifolia (Hook. ex Mast.) Burret
Gymnacranthera eugeniifolia (ADC.) Sinclair Gymnacranthera farquhariana (Wall. ex Hook!
& Thomson) Warb. var. eugeniifolia (ADC.)
R.T.ASchouten

Hopea argentea Meijer Hopea cernua Teijsm. & Binn.


Horsfieldia subglobosa (Miq.) Warb. Horsfieldia irya (Gaertn.) Warb.

Leptospermum flavescens Sm. Leptospermum javanicum Blume


Litsea megacarpa Gamble Litsea costalis (Nees) Kosterm.
Litsea nigricans (Meisn.) Boer!. Litsea elliptica Blume
Litsea odorifera Valeton Litsea elliptica Blume
Litsea petiolata Hook! Litsea elliptica Blume

Mallotus ricinoides (Perss.) Miil!.Arg. Mallotus mollissimus (Geiseler) Airy Shaw


Mangifera longipes Griff. Mangifera laurina Blume
Mangifera sp. B Mangifera orophila Kosterm.
Mastixia pentandra Blume Mastixia pentandra Blume subsp. scortechinii (King)
K.M.Matthew
Melanochyla kunstleri King Melanochyla caesia (Blume) Ding Hou
Melanochyla rugosa King Melanochylafulvinervis (Blume) Ding Hou
Memecylon laevigatum Blume Memecylon lilacinum Zol!. & Moritzi
Memecylon myrsinoides Blume Memecylon lilacinum Zol!. & Moritzi
Mesua gandis (King) Kosterm. Kayea grandis King
Mesua kochummeniana Whitmore Kayea kochummeniana (Whitmore) P.F.Stevens
Mesua lepidota T.Anderson Kayea lepidota (T.Anderson) Pierre
Mesua macrantha (Bail!.) Kosterm. Kayea macrantha Baill.
Mesua nuda Kosterm. ex Whitmore Kayea nuda (Kosterm. ex Whitmore) P.F.Stevens
Mezzetia leptopoda (Hook! & Thomson) Olivo Mezzettia parviflora Becc.
Michelia champaca L. Magnolia champaca (L.) Baillon ex Pierre
Michelia montana Blume Magnolia montana (Blume) Figlar
Michelia scortechinii (King) Dandy Magnolia scortechinii King
Millettia albiflora Prain Fordia albiflora (Prain) Dasuki & Schot.
Millettia atropurpurea (Wall.) Benth. Callerya atropurpurea (Wall.) Schot
Millettia decipiens Prain Millettia xylocarpa Miq.
Millettia hemsleyana Prain Millettia xylocarpa Miq.
Millettia vasta Kosterm. Callerya vasta (Kosterm.) Schot
Monocarpia marginalis (Scheff.) J.Sinclair Monocarpia euneura Miq.

199
Synonym Correct name

Neonauclea bernardoi (Merr.) Merr. Ludekia bernardoi (Merr.) Ridsd.


Nephelium eriopetalum Miq. Nephelium cuspidatum Blume
Nephelium mutabile Blume Nephelium ramboutan-ake (Labil!.) Leenh.

Phoebe declinata (Blume) Nees Persea declinata (Blume) Kosterm.


Phoebe macrophylla (Blume) Blume Phoebe elliptica Blume
Pithecellobium bubalinum (Jack) Benth. Archidendron bubalinum (Jack) I.C.Nielsen
Pithecellobium splendens (Miq.) Comer Albizia splendens Miq.
Pithecellobium jiringa (Jack) Prain Archidendron jiringa (Jack) I.C.Nielsen
Planchonella glabra (Rid!.) H.J.Lam Pouteria glabra (Rid!.) I.M.Tumer
Planchonella maingayi (C.B.Clarke) P.Royen Pouteria maingayi (C.B.Clarke) Baehni
Planchonella obovata (R.Br.) Pierre Pouteria obovata (R.Br.) Baehni
Platymitra siamensis Craib Platymitra macrocarpa Boer!'
Podocarpus imbricatus Blume Dacrycarpus imbricatus (Blume) de Laub.
Podocarpus motleyi (Pari) Dummer Nageia motleyi (Par!.) de Laub.
Podocarpus wallichianus Pres!' Nageia wallichiana (Presl) Kuntze
Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre Millettia pinnata (L.) Panigrahi
Pternandrajackiana Rid!. Pternandra coerulescens Jack
Pterocymbium javanicum R.Br. Pterocymbium tinctorium (Blanco) Merr.
Pterospermum stapfianum Rid!. Pterospermum subpeltatum Merr.

Randia anisophylla (Jack ex Roxb.) Hookf Porterandia anisophylla (Jack ex Roxb.) Rid!.
Randia racemosa Fem.-Vill. Aidia racemosa (Cav.) Tirveng.
Randia schoemannii (Teijsm. & Binn.) Bakhf Rothmannia schoemannii (Teijsm. & Binn.) Tirveng.
Randia scortechinii King & Gamble Porterandia anisophylla (Jack ex Roxb.) Rid!.

Sandoricum emarginatum Hiem Sandoricum beccarianum Bail!.


Sandoricum maingayi Hiem Sandoricum koetjape (Burmf) Merr.
Sapium indicum Willd. Excoecaria indica (Willd.) Mull.Arg.
Shorea cristata Brandis Shorea parvistipulata Heim. var. parvistipulata
Brandis
Shorea dolichocarpa Slooten Shorea balanocarpoides Symington
Shorea glaucescens Meijer Shoreafalciferoides Foxw. subsp. glaucescens
(Meijer) P.S.Ashton
Shorea nebulosa Meijer Shorea parvistipulata Heim. subsp. nebulosa (Meijer)
P.S.Ashton
Shorea oleosa Meijer Shorea fallax Meijer
Sterculia kunstleri King Sterculia oblongata R.Br.
Strombosia lucida Teijsm. & Binn. ex Valeton Strombosia ceylanica Gardner
Strombosia maingayi (Mast.) Whitmore Strombosia ceylanica Gardner
Swintonia penangiana King Swintonia floribunda Griff. var. penangiana (King)
Kochummen
Symingtonia populnea (R.Br. ex Griff.) Steenis Exbucklandia populnea (R.Br. ex Griff.) R.W.Br.

Talauma betongensis Craib Magnolia candollii (Blume) H.Keng var. obovata


(Korth.) Noot.
Tristania merguensis Griff. Tristaniopsis merguensis (Griff.) Peter G. Wilson &
J.T.Waterh.
Tristania obovata Benn. Tristaniopsis obovata (Benn.) Peter G. Wilson &
J.T.Waterh.
Tristania whiteana Griff. Tristaniopsis whiteana (Griff.) Peter G.Wilson &
J.T.Waterh.

200
Synonym Correct name

Vatica bancana Scheff. Vatica venulosa Blume subsp. venulosa


Vatica papuana Dyer Vatica rassak (Korth.) Blume
Vatica wallichii Dyer Vatica pauciflora (Korth.) Blume

Xanthophyllum scortechinii King Xanthophyllum obscurum A.W.Benn.


Xerospermum intermedium Radlk. Xerospermum norohianum (Blume) Blume
Xerospermum wallichii King Xerospermum norohianum (Blume) Blume
Xylocarpus gangeticus (Prain) C.E.Parkinson Xylocarpus moluccensis (Lam.) M.Roem.

201
View publication stats