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Computer Integrated Manufacturing Lab Report


Submitted by: 2015-IM-102015-IM-

Submitted To: Dr. Syed Farhan Rizvi
Table of Contents:
1.1 Title: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4
1.3 Outcome: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4
1.4 Apparatus: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4
1.6 Theory: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5
1.6.1 Introduction of RV-2AJ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------5
1.6.2 Movement of robotic Arm ----------------------------------------------------------------------5
1.6.3 Workspace: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5
1.6.4 Robot kinematics: ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------6
1.6.5 Types of kinematics: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------6
1.6.6 Specifications: ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8
1.6.7 Programmable logic controller: ------------------------------------------------------------- 10
1.6.8 Purpose of PLC Programming: --------------------------------------------------------------- 10
1.6.9 Components of PLC System:------------------------------------------------------------------ 10
i. Scan cycle:----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 10
ii. Program scan: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 11
iii. Housekeeping: ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 11
iv. Input Scan: ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 11
v. Logic Execution:---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 11
vi. Output Scan: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 11
2.1 Title: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 13
2.2 Objective: ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 13
2.3 Outcome: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 13
2.4 Apparatus: ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 13
2.5 Theory: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 14
2.5.1 Introduction: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 14
2.5.2 What Is a Lightweight Robot?---------------------------------------------------------------- 14
2.5.3 Structural and Control Considerations ---------------------------------------------------- 14

2.5.4 Bionic Handling Assistant --------------------------------------------------------------------- 15
Safe human-machine interaction ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------15

2.5.5 Mechatronic development platform ------------------------------------------------------- 16

2.5.6 Robot Sensors: ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 16
2.5.7 General Sensor Classification: --------------------------------------------------------------- 17
2.5.8 Types of sensors in FESTO Robotic Work cell: ------------------------------------------- 19
2.5.9 Overall Types of Robots’ Sensors: ----------------------------------------------------------- 21

Experiment 1
1.1 Title: To study the degrees of freedom of RV-2AJ Mitsubishi robotic arm.
1.2 Objective:
 To understand the robotic arm movement.
 To analyze the work space of robotic arm.
 To learn about kinematics related to robotic arm.
1.3 Outcome:
Students will be able to understand the robotic arm movement and angular &
linear workspace and also the safety assessment related to work space of robotic
1.4 Apparatus:

Figure 1 RV-2AJ side view

Figure 2 RV-2AJ Front view

1.6 Theory:
1.6.1 Introduction of RV-2AJ
RV-2AJ has five degrees of freedom and each degree is controlled by motor that can be controlled
electrically or pneumatically. Degrees of freedom are important to determine the workspace of
robotic arm. It has a base motor at the bottom and end effector which is basically manipulator
that can be easily detachable. Teach pendant is used to control robotic arm. PLC programming is
used to operate the robotic arm which works on matrices.
1.6.2 Movement of robotic Arm
 The movement of robot is control by two buttons that are pushed, i.e., the button under the
teach pendant and the button “STEP/MOVE”. A low beeping sound from the PWM can be
heard and the LED “SVO ON” goes green. Stay out of the work space when the servos are on.
The robot can be now moved in joint-space or Cartesian-space (XYZ). For Cartesian space
operation press the XYZ button once. The buttons labeled –X, +X, -Y, +Y, -Z, +Z can now be
used to move the robot.
 Automatic operation is used to run programs that are stored in the robot controller memory.
The program will cycle, i.e. run continuously once started.

Figure 2

1.6.3 Workspace:
In this arm, angular workspace depends upon base motor of arm and 60° is not access able by
robotic arm, hence angular workspace of robotic arm is 300°. While the linear workspace
depends upon the length of end effector therefore the maximum workspace of arm is 410mm
and minimum is 220mm radius with respect to base motor.

Figure 3

1.6.4 Robot kinematics:

Kinematics studies the motion of bodies without consideration of the forces or moments that
cause the motion. Robot kinematics refers the analytical study of the motion of a robot
manipulator. Formulate the suitable kinematics models for a robot mechanism is very crucial for
analyzing the behavior of industrial manipulators. There are mainly two different spaces used in
kinematics modelling of manipulators namely, Cartesian space and Quaternion space. The
transformation between two Cartesian coordinate systems can be decomposed into a rotation
and a translation. Robot kinematics applies geometry to the study of the movement of multi-
degree of freedom kinematic chains that form the structure of robotic systems. [1]

Figure 4

1.6.5 Types of kinematics:

Figure 5

 Forward kinematics:
In this type, joint angles determines the reach of robotic arm.

Figure 6

 Inverse kinematics:
In this type, position is given to robotic arm and we can determine the joint angles to reach the

Figure 7

1.6.6 Specifications: [2]

Model Uni RV-2AJ

Degree of freedom of motion 5

Structure Vertical, multiple-joint

Drive system AC servo motor

Type Absolute encoder

er shift
Arm length mm
Upper arm 250

Fore arm 160

Elbow shift 0

Wrist 72
J1 300 (-150 to +150)
J2 180 (-60 to +120)
J3 230 (-110 to +120)
Motion range J4 Degree -
J5 180 (-90 to +90)
J6 400 (-200 to +200)
J1 180
J2 90
J3 135
Speed of motion J4 Degree/s -
J5 180
J6 210
Maximum resultant velocity mm Approx. 2100
Maximum 2
Load capacity kg
Rating 1.5
Position repeatability mm ±0.02
Ambient temperature ºC 0 to 40
Mass kg Approx. 17
J4 -
Allowab J5 2.16
moment J6 1.10
J4 -
Allowable J5 kg 3.24 × 10-2
inertia J6 m2 8.43 × 10-3
Arm reachable radius
mm 410
(front p-axis center
Four input signals (Hand
Four output signals (Base
Tool wiring
Motorized hand output
(Hand section)
Supply pressure MP 0.5 ±10%
Table 1: Specifications of RV-2AJ

1.6.7 Programmable logic controller:
A programmable logic controller (PLC) is a digital computer applied for automation of
electromechanical processes. Almost any production line, machine function, or process
can be greatly enhanced using this type of control system. It continuously monitors the
state of input devices and makes decisions based upon a custom program to control the
state of output devices. PLCs are demanded to work flawlessly for years in industrial
environments that are hazardous to the electronic components that modern PLCs are
made from. PLCs must be robust and designed for immunity to electrical noise,
resistance to vibration, impact, extended temperature ranges and moisture.
1.6.8 Purpose of PLC Programming:
The purpose of a PLC was to directly replace electromechanical parts as logic elements,
substituting it by a solid-state digital computer with a saved program, able to imitate the
interconnection of many relays to perform several logical tasks. In the 1960s and the
1970s, with the discovery of the microprocessor, the device that was first used as a relay
replacement device only, evolved into the advanced PLC of today.
1.6.9 Components of PLC System:

Figure 8

i. Scan cycle:
When PLC is set in run mode, it executes an initialization step. If there are no problems,
then the PLC repeatedly executes scan cycle sequence. Scan cycle usually takes a few
milliseconds. Scan cycle consists of four main steps.

Figure 9

ii. Program scan:

Data in input image memory area is applied to the user program. The user program is
performed, and output image memory area is updated.
iii. Housekeeping:
There are also other steps like systems checks and updating the current internal counter
and timer values.
iv. Input Scan:
A simple way of looking at this is the PLC takes a snapshot of the inputs and solves the
logic. The PLC looks at each input card to determine if it is ON or OFF and saves this
information in a data table for use in the next step. This makes the process faster and
avoids cases where an input changes from the start to the end of the program.
v. Logic Execution:
The PLC executes a program one instruction at a time using only the memory copy of
the inputs the ladder logic program. For example, the program has the first input as ON.
Since the PLC knows which inputs are ON/OFF from the previous step, it will be able to
decide whether the first output should be turned ON.
vi. Output Scan:
When the ladder scan completes, the outputs are updated using the temporary values
in memory. The PLC updates the status of the outputs based on which inputs were ON
during the first step and the results of executing a program during the second step. The
PLC now restarts the process by starting a self-check for faults.

Figure 10

It is used for automation of typically industrial electromechanical processes, such as
control of machinery on factory assembly lines, amusement rides, or light
fixtures. PLCs are used in many machines, in many industries. Most common used
PLC in process industries are Siemens. Most of American process industries used Allen
Bradley controllers. It’s same in American manufacturing industries. In Asian countries,
Mitsubishi, Toshiba, Fuji and Omron are used in manufacturing industries.
 (1)https;//, retrieved 15th
February 2019.
 (2),retrieved 15th February

Experiment 2
2.1 Title: To study the operation of a FESTO Robotic Work cell.
2.2 Objective:
 To understand the working of robotic work cell.
 To know about sensors and gauging method of work cell.
2.3 Outcome:
After this experiment, student will come to know about the working of robotic cell,
role of infrared and capacitive sensor, gauging techniques used by work cell and
applications of robotic work cell.
2.4 Apparatus:

Figure 11 FESTO Robotic work cell

Figure 12 Part feeder of FESTO robotic cell

2.5 Theory:

2.5.1 Introduction:
FESTO is a German company who is manufacturing robotic work cell. This robot is an
industrial robot. It performs drilling operation after that it measures the hole’s
diameter and depth with the help of go and not go gauges and differentiate the parts
w.r.t color of part with the help of capacitive and infrared sensors. Its control is

Among the tasks and processes, light- weight robotics are now employed for in many
manufacturing sectors:

 Feeding, screwing, and mounting small components

 Setting adhesive points
 Electronic testing: approach to contact points, resistance tests
 Flexible positioning of workpieces and components
 Logistics and storing operations
 Sample preparation, dispensing, transport, and distribution (medical diagnostics)

2.5.2 What Is a Lightweight Robot? (1)

 Lightweight robots are particularly designed for transportability – portable and easily
moved around - interaction with a priori unknown environments and humans. Robot
mobility com- bines the requirements of a lightweight design with high load-to-
weight ratio (close to the 1:1 ratio) and high motion velocity (tip velocity
of 6m/s). Moreover, collaborative robots that interact with humans and in unknown
environments require sensing and control capabilities to enable skillful, compliant

2.5.3 Structural and Control Considerations

 Lightweight metals or composite materials are used for the robot links. In fact, the
design of the entire system is optimized for weight reduc- tion in order to enable the
mobile application of the robotic system.

In order to increase performance and/ or safety of the arms, additional and sometimes
variable mechanical com- pliance is introduced into the joints of some lightweight
collaborative robots.

Within the lightweight robot con- cept, a strong emphasis is set on robust performance
as well as active safety for the human and the robot during their interaction.

Compared to standard industrial robot control, the following aspects are of particular

 Extensive use of sensor feedback from the environment, includ- ing vision, force-
torque sensing at the end-effector and in the joints, tactile sensing, and distance and
proximity sensors.
 The control implementation is not limited to position control, but also includes the
interaction forces in the constrained directions using methods such as impedance
control. In this way, instead of prescribing a position or a force, the dynamic relation
between the two is prescribed, while the actual force and position resulting dur- ing
interaction also depend on the environmental properties.
 Position control has to compen- sate for the effects of the inherent robot elasticity
(e.g., vibrations or the steady state position error) to ensure the performance of posi-
tioning and trajectory tracking. This problem also exists for industrial robots moving
at high velocities, albeit to a lesser degree.
 The robot needs control strategies that allow detection of unexpected collisions with
the environment and with humans and to be able to react in a safe manner. In some
lightweight robots, torque sensors in each joint play a key role for so-called soft
robotics control (i.e., impedance and force/torque control). These sensors allow
implementing most of the aspects described above with high accuracy and

2.5.4 Bionic Handling Assistant (2)

Safe human-machine interaction

At first glance, the Bionic Handling Assistant works like a flexible gripper arm, which is
modelled on an elephant’s trunk in terms of structure and overall function. The system
is also used by the Festo researchers as a development platform that combines a wide
range of technologies and components.

The Bionic Handling Assistant works in an easy, freely moving and flexible way. It is even
safe if there is direct contact between man and machine. In the event of a collision, the
bellows structure gives way immediately and, as a result, does not have to be carefully
protected from humans as conventional industrial robots have to be. This feature
resulted in the Assistant system being awarded the 2010 German Future Prize.
2.5.5 Mechatronic development platform

At the same time, the system also serves as a multi-technology platform for the
simultaneous development of mechanics, electronics and software for machines and
handling solutions. In 2012 the developers added an image and speech detection
function to the Assistant. This enables the system to grip objects on its own – without
the need for programming work or manual operation. At the same time, the adaptive
gripper fingers enable fragile and differently shaped items to be handled without being

FESTO thus provides new approaches to the question of how man can interact with
machines in the factory of tomorrow in a simple, efficient and above all safe manner.

2.5.6 Robot Sensors:

Robot sensors, generally;

 Constitute robot’s window to the environment. 

 A robot needs sensing to be an active participant in the environment.

 Each sensor is based on a transduction principle, i.e. a conversion of energy from

one form to another.

 Sensors measure a physical quantity, they do not provide state.

Classification of sensors

 Proprioceptive (“sense of self”, internal state).

 Measures values internally to the system (robot), e.g. battery level, wheel
position, joint angle etc.

 Exteroceptive (external state).
 Observations of robot environment, objects in


 Active (emits energy, e.g. radar) vs. Passive (passively receives energy, e.g.,

2.5.7 General Sensor Classification:

Characterizing sensor performance
 Measurement in real world environment is error prone.

 Basic sensor response ratings:

Dynamic range: Ratio between lower and upper limits, 
 usually in decibels.

Range: Difference between min and max.

Resolution: Minimum difference between two values.

Linearity: Variation of output signal as function of the input signal.

Bandwidth or frequency: The speed with which a sensor can provide a stream of

In Situ sensor performance:

Characteristics that are especially relevant for real world environments

 Sensitivity: Ratio of output change to input change.

 Cross-Sensitivity: Sensitivity to environmental parameters that are orthogonal to

the target parameters.

 Error/Accuracy: Difference between the sensor’s output and the true value.

 Systematic/Deterministic Error: Caused by factors that can be modeled (in

theory), e.g., calibration of a laser sensor.

 Random Error: e.g., hue instability of camera, black level noise of camera.

 Reproducibility: Reproducibility of sensor results. 

2.5.8 Types of sensors in FESTO Robotic Work cell:

There are two types of sensors that are used in this cell:

1. Capacitive proximity sensors

2. Infra-Red Sensors

I. Capacitive proximity sensor:

Capacitive sensing is a noncontact technology suitable for detecting metals,
nonmetals, solids, and liquids, although it is best suited for nonmetallic targets
because of its characteristics and cost relative to inductive proximity sensors. In most
applications with metallic targets, inductive sensing is preferred because it is both a
reliable and a more affordable technology.

Figure 13 Working diagram of capacitive proximity sensor

The sensor consists of four basic components:

 A capacitive probe or plate
 An oscillator
 A signal level detector
 A solid-state output switching device
 An adjustment potentiometer
Capacitive proximity sensors are similar in size, shape, and concept to inductive
proximity sensors. However, unlike inductive sensors which use induced magnetic
fields to sense objects, capacitive proximity generates an electrostatic field and reacts
to changes in capacitance caused when a target enters the electrostatic field. When
the target is outside the electrostatic field, the oscillator is inactive. As the target
approaches, a capacitive coupling develops between the target and the capacitive
probe. When the capacitance reaches a specified threshold, the oscillator is activated,
triggering the output circuit to switch states between ON and OFF.
The ability of the sensor to detect the target is determined by the target’s size,
dielectric constant and distance from the sensor. The larger the target’s size, the
stronger the capacitive coupling between the probe and the target. Materials with
higher dielectric constants are easier to detect than those with lower values. The
shorter the distance between target and probe, the stronger the capacitive coupling
between the probe and the target.
II. Infra-red sensor:
An infrared sensor is an electronic instrument which is used to sense certain
characteristics of its surroundings by either emitting and/or detecting infrared
radiation. Infrared sensors are also capable of measuring the heat being emitted by
an object and detecting motion.
1. Thermal infrared sensor.
2. Quantum infrared
Principle of IR Sensor:
IR Sensors work by using a specific light sensor to detect a select light wavelength in
the Infra- Red (IR) spectrum. By using an LED which produces light at the same
wavelength as what the sensor is looking for, you can look at the intensity of the
received light. When an object is close to the sensor, the light from the LED bounces
off the object and into the light sensor. This results in a large jump in the intensity,
which we already know can be detected using a threshold.

Figure 14 Infrared sensor

2.5.9 Overall Types of Robots’ Sensors: (4)

1. Proximity sensors:
This is a type of sensor which can detect the presence of a nearby object within a given
distance, without any physical contact.
Working Principle of proximity sensors:
The working principle of a Proximity sensor is simple. A transmitter transmits an
electromagnetic radiation or creates an electrostatic field and a receiver receives and
analyzes the return signal for interruptions. There are different types of Proximity
sensors and we will discuss only a few of them which are generally used in robots.
i. Photocells.
ii. Capacitance sensors
iii. Inductive sensors.
i. Photocells
 Emitters LEDs, receiver’s phototransistors.
 Diffuse mode photo sensor.
 Retro-Reflective Photo sensors. 

 Thru-beam detectors.
 Photoresistor is a light sensor; but, it can still be used as a proximity sensor. When
an object comes in close proximity to the sensor, the amount of light changes
which in turn changes the resistance of the Photoresistor. This change can be
detected and processed.
 There are many different kinds of proximity sensors and only a few of them are
generally preferred for robots. For example, Capacitive Proximity sensors are
available which detects change in capacitance around it. Inductive proximity
sensor detects objects and distance through the use of induced magnetic field.

Figure 15 Diffuse mode photo sensor

Figure 16 Retro Reflective Photo sensors

Figure 17 Thru-beam detector

ii. Inductive proximity sensors
 Detect Eddy current losses (vířivý proud).
 Usually on/off mode only.
 They typically oscillate in ranges: 3 KHz – 1MHz.

iii. Capacitance proximity sensors

 Generate an electrostatic field.
 Consists of probe, oscillator, feliciter filter, output circuit.
 In absence of a target, the oscillator is inactive.
 An approaching target raises capacitance, which triggers the oscillator.

Capacitive sensors, use example

 When properly calibrated, the sensor can detect any higher dielectric material
thru any lower dielectric material.
 Typical Application of Capacitive Sensor: Detecting Liquid (H2O) levels in bottles.

In the industrial and automation world, machines need sensors to provide them with the
required information to execute a proper operation. A lot of sensors can be added to
different robots to increase their adaptability. We see a lot of collaborative robots having
integrated force torque sensors and cameras in order to have a better perspective on
their operations and also to provide the safest workspace. This made us think it would
be a good thing to enumerate the different sensors that can be integrated into a robotic
iv. Infrared (IR) Transceivers:
An IR LED transmits a beam of IR light and if it finds an obstacle, the light is simply
reflected back which is captured by an IR receiver. Few IR transceivers can also be used
for distance measurement.

Figure 18

v. Ultrasonic Sensor:
These sensors generate high frequency sound waves; the received echo suggests an
object interruption. Ultrasonic Sensors can also be used for distance measurement.

Figure 19

3. Light sensors (5)
A Light sensor is used to detect light and create a voltage difference. The two main light
sensors generally used in robots are Photoresistor and Photovoltaic cells. Other kinds of
light sensors like Phototubes, Phototransistors, CCD’s etc. are rarely used.
Photoresistor is a type of resistor whose resistance varies with change in light
intensity; more light leads to less resistance and less light leads to more resistance. These
inexpensive sensors can be easily implemented in most light dependent robots.
Photovoltaic cells convert solar radiation into electrical energy. This is especially helpful
if you are planning to build a solar robot. Although photovoltaic cell is considered as an
energy source, an intelligent implementation combined with transistors and capacitors
can convert this into a sensor.

Figure 20

4. Sound Sensor
As the name suggests, this sensor (generally a microphone) detects sound and returns a
voltage proportional to the sound level.

A simple robot can be designed to navigate based on the sound it receives. Imagine a
robot which turns right for one clap and turns left for two claps. Complex robots can use
the same microphone for speech and voice recognition.
Implementing sound sensors is not as easy as light sensors because Sound sensors
generate a very small voltage difference which should be amplified to generate
measurable voltage change.
5. Temperature Sensor

Figure 21

What if your robot has to work in a desert and transmit ambient temperature? Simple
solution is to use a temperature sensor. Tiny temperature sensor ICs provide voltage
difference for a change in temperature. Few generally used temperature sensor IC’s are
LM34, LM35, TMP35, TMP36, and TMP37.
6. Contact Sensor
Contact sensors are those which require physical contact against other objects to trigger.
A push button switch, limit switch or tactile bumper switch are all examples of contact

Figure 22

These sensors are mostly used for obstacle avoidance robots. When these switches hit
an obstacle, it triggers the robot to do a task, which can be reversing, turning, switching
on a LED, Stopping etc. There are also capacitive contact sensors which react only to
human touch (Not sure if they react to animal’s touch). Touch screen Smart phones
available these days use capacitive touch sensors (Not to be confused with older stylus
based models). Contact Sensors can be easily implemented, but the drawback is that
they require physical contact. In other words, your robot will not turn until it hits an
object. A better alternative is to use a proximity sensor.
7. Distance Sensor
Most proximity sensors can also be used as distance sensors, or commonly known as
Range Sensors; IR transceivers and Ultrasonic Sensors are best suited for distance
i. Ultrasonic Distance Sensors:
The sensor emits an ultrasonic pulse and is captured by a receiver. Since the speed of
sound is almost constant in air, which is 344m/s, the time between send and receive is
calculated to give the distance between your robot and the obstacle. Ultrasonic distance
sensors are especially useful for underwater robots.
ii. Infrared Distance sensor:
IR circuits are designed on triangulation principle for distance measurement. A
transmitter sends a pulse of IR signals which is detected by the receiver if there is an
obstacle and based on the angle the signal is received, distance is calculated. SHARP has
a family of IR transceivers which are very useful for distance measurement. A simple
transmit and receive using a couple of transmitters and receivers will still do the job of
distance measurement, but if you require precision, then prefer the triangulation
iii. Laser range Sensor:
Laser light is transmitted and the reflected light is captured and analyzed. Distance is
measured by calculating the speed of light and time taken for the light to reflect back to
the receiver. These sensors are very useful for longer distances.
iv. Encoders:
These sensors (not actually sensors, but a combination of different components) convert
angular position of a shaft or wheel into an analog or digital code. The most popular
encoder is an optical encoder which includes a rotational disk, light source and a light
detector (generally an IR transmitter and IR receiver). The rotational disk has transparent
and opaque pattern (or just black and white pattern) painted or printed over it. When
the disk rotates along with the wheel the emitted light is interrupted generating a signal
output. The number of times the interruption happens and the diameter of the wheel
can together give the distance travelled by the robot.
v. Stereo Camera:
Two cameras placed adjacent to each other can provide depth information using its
stereo vision. Processing the data received from a camera is difficult for a robot with
minimal processing power and memory. If opted for, they make a valuable addition to
your robot.
There are other stretch and bend sensors which are also capable of measuring distance.
But, their range is so limited that they are almost useless for mobile robots.
8. Pressure Sensors
As the name suggests, pressure sensor measures pressure. Tactile pressure sensors are
useful in robotics as they are sensitive to touch, force and pressure. If you design a robot
hand and need to measure the amount of grip and pressure required to hold an object,
then this is what you would want to use.
9. Tilt Sensors
Tilt sensors measure tilt of an object. In a typical analog tilt sensor, a small amount of
mercury is suspended in a glass bulb. When mercury flows towards one end, it closes a
switch which suggests a tilt.
10.Navigation / Positioning Sensors
The name says it all. Positioning sensors are used to approximate the position of a robot,
some for indoor positioning and few others for outdoor positioning.
i. GPS (Global Positioning System):
The most commonly used positioning sensor is a GPS. Satellites orbiting our earth
transmit signals and a receiver on a robot acquires these signals and processes it. The
processed information can be used to determine the approximate position and velocity
of a robot. These GPS systems are extremely helpful for outdoor robots, but fail indoors.
They are also bit expensive at the moment and if their prices fall, very soon you would
see most robots with a GPS module attached.
ii. Digital Magnetic Compass:
Similar to a handheld magnetic compass, Digital Magnetic compass provides directional
measurements using the earth’s magnetic field which guides your robot in the right
direction to reach its destination. These sensors are cheap compared to GPS modules,
but a compass works best along with a GPS module if you require both positional
feedback and navigation. Philips KMZ51 is sensitive enough to detect earth’s magnetic
iii. Localization:
Localization refers to the task of automatically determining the location of a robot in
complex environment. Localization is based on external elements called landmarks
which can be either artificially placed landmarks, or natural landmark. In the first
approach, artificial landmarks or beacons are placed around the robot, and a robot’s
sensor captures these signals to determine its exact location. Natural landmarks can be
doors, windows, walls, etc. which are sensed by a robots sensor /vision system (Camera).
Localization can be achieved using beacons which generate Wi-Fi, Bluetooth,
Ultrasound, Infrared, Radio transmissions, Visible Light, or any similar signal.
11.Acceleration Sensor
An accelerometer is a device which measures acceleration and tilt. There are two kinds
of forces which can affect an accelerometer: Static force and Dynamic Force
• Static Force:
Static force is the frictional force between any two objects. For example earth’s
gravitational force is static which pulls an object towards it. Measuring this gravitational
force can tell you how much your robot is tilting. This measurement is exceptionally
useful in a balancing robot, or to tell you if your robot is driving uphill or on a flat surface.
• Dynamic force:
Dynamic force is the amount of acceleration required to move an object. Measuring this
dynamic force using an accelerometer tells you the velocity/speed at which your robot
is moving. We can also measure vibration of a robot using an accelerometer, if in any
case you need to.
Accelerometer comes in different flavors. Always select the one which is most
appropriate for your robot. Some of the factors which you need to consider before
selecting an accelerometer are:
1 Output Type: Analog or Digital
2 Number of Axis: 1,2 or 3
3 Accelerometer Swing: ±1.5g, ±2g, ±4g, ±8g, ±16g
4 Sensitivity: Higher or Lower (Higher the better)
5 Bandwidth
12. Gyroscope
A gyroscope or simply Gyro is a device which measures and helps maintain orientation
using the principle of angular momentum. In other words, a Gyro is used to measure the
rate of rotation around a particular axis. Gyroscope is especially useful when you want
your robot to not depend on earth’s gravity for maintaining Orientation. (Unlike
13. Inertial Measurement Units (IMU):
Inertial Measurement Units combine properties of two or more sensors such as
Accelerometer, Gyro, Magnetometer, etc, to measure orientation, velocity and
gravitational forces. In simple words, IMU’s are capable of providing feedback by
detecting changes in an objects orientation (pitch, roll and yaw), velocity and
gravitational forces. Few IMUs go a step further and combine a GPS device providing
positional feedback.
14.Voltage Sensors
Voltage sensors typically convert lower voltages to higher voltages, or vice versa. One
example is a general Operational-Amplifier (Op-Amp) which accepts a low voltage,
amplifies it, and generates a higher voltage output. Few voltage sensors are used to find
the potential difference between two ends (Voltage Comparator). Even a simple LED can
act as a voltage sensor which can detect a voltage difference and light up. (not
considering current requirements here)
15.Current Sensors:
Current sensors are electronic circuits which monitor the current flow in a circuit and
output either a proportional voltage or a current. Most current sensors output an analog
voltage between 0V to 5V which can be processed further using a microcontroller.
16. 2D Vision (3)

Figure 23

2D is vision is basically a video camera that can perform a lot of different things. From
detecting movement to localization of a part on a conveyor. 2D vision has been on the
market for a long time and is here to stay. Many smart cameras out there can detect
parts and coordinate the part position for the robot so that it can then adapt its actions
to the information it receives.
17.3D Vision
3D vision is much more recent phenomenon as compared to 2D vision. A tri-dimensional
vision system has to have 2 cameras at different angles or use laser scanners. This way,
the third dimension of the object can be detected. Once again many applications use 3D
vision. Bin picking, for example, can use 3D vision to detect objects in a bin and recreate
the part in 3D, analyze it and pick it the best way possible.

18. Force Torque Sensor:

While vision gives eyes to the robot, force torque sensors give touch to the robot wrist.
Here the robot uses a force torque sensor (FT sensor) to know the force that the robot
is applying with its end of arm tooling. Most of the time, the FT sensor is located between
the robot and the tool. This way, all the forces that are applied on the tool are

19.Collision Detection Sensor
This kind of sensor can have different forms. As the main applications of these sensors
is to provide a safe working environment for human workers, the collaborative robots
are most likely to use them. Some sensors can be some kind of tactile recognition
systems, where if a pressure is sensed on a soft surface, a signal will be sent to the robot
to limit or stop its motions.
You can also see this kind of sensor directly built into the robot. Some companies use
accelerometers, some use current feedback. In either case, when an abnormal force is
sensed by the robot the emergency stop is released. This provides a safer environment.
Although, before the robot stops you will still be kicked by it, right? The safest
environment is an environment with no risk of collision. This is what the next sensor is
all about.

20. Safety Sensors

With the introduction of industrial robots in collaborative mode, industry has to react
with a way to protect its workers. These sensors can really appear in a lot of different
shapes. From cameras to lasers, a safety sensor is designed to tell the robot that there
is a presence around it. Some safety systems are configured to slow down the robot once
the worker is in a certain area/space and to stop it once the worker is too close.
A simple example of safety sensors would be the laser on your garage door. If the laser
detects an obstacle, the door immediately stops and goes backwards to avoid a collision.
This can be a good comparison to what safety sensors are like in the robotic industry.

Of course, there are a lot of other sensors that can be fitted to your robotic cell that are
very specific to your application. Sensors that are capable to do seam tracking in welding
operations are a good example where a specific sensor is necessary.
Tactile sensors are also becoming more popular these days. This kind of sensor is, most
of the time, fitted on a gripper to detect and feel what is in it. Sensors are usually able
to detect forces and draw an array of vectors with the force distribution. This shows the
exact position of an object and allows you to control the position and the grasping force
of the end effector. Some tactile sensors can also detect heat variation.
Finally, sensors are key components to leveraging software intelligence. Without such
sensors, advanced operations wouldn't be possible. They bring a lot of complexity to the
operation, but they also insure good control during the process.

Applications of Sensors:
Pressure Sensor Applications:
There many applications for pressure sensor like pressure sensing, altitude sensing, flow
sensing, line or depth sensing.

 It is used in real-time also, car alarms, and traffic cameras use pressure sensors to
know whether someone is speeding.
 Pressure sensors are also used in touch screen displays to determine the point of
application of pressure and give appropriate directions to the processor.
 They are also used in digital blood pressure monitors and ventilators.
 Industrial application of pressure sensors involves monitoring gases and their partial
 They are also used in aero planes to provide balance between the atmospheric
pressure and the control system.
 They are also used to determine the depth of oceans in case of marine operations to
determine suitable operating conditions for the electronic systems.
Real Time Application of Sensors
 The example we are talking about here is the Autopilot System in aircrafts. Almost
all civilian and military aircrafts have the feature of Automatic Flight Control system
or sometimes called as Autopilot.

Figure 24

 An Automatic Flight Control System consists of several sensors for various tasks like
speed control, height, position, doors, obstacle, fuel, maneuvering and many more.
A Computer takes data from all these sensors and processes them by comparing
them with pre-designed values.
 The computer then provides control signal to different parts like engines, flaps,
rudders etc. that help in a smooth flight. The combination of Sensors, Computers
and Mechanics makes it possible to run the plane in Autopilot Mode.
 All the parameters i.e. the Sensors (which give inputs to the Computers), the
Computers (the brains of the system) and the mechanics (the outputs of the system
like engines and motors) are equally important in building a successful automated
Application of Speed Sensor
 PIC microcontroller based project for speed synchronization of multiple motors in
industries using wireless technology is a typical application of the speed sensor. One
of the multiple motors in the industry is considered as a main motor which act
as transmitter and remaining motors acting as receivers, will follow the speed of the
main motor. The main motor and receiver motors used in this project are BLDC
motors that are controlled using PWM control with the radio frequency wireless

communication mode.

Figure 25 Application of Speed Sensor by

 Reference RPM is given to each motor shaft which has an IR sensor mounted and a
closed loop is obtained by feeding this output to controller in the circuit. Full speed
will be displayed on display unit and required speed of all motors can be obtained
by entering the desired percentage using the keypad. This entered percentage is
matched with running RPM by maintaining appropriate DC power to motor with
automatic adjustment of pulse width output of microcontroller.
 Thus, by varying speed of transmitting motor, we can change the speed of all
motors using this technology.
a) Working Procedure of Robotic Cell:
 Firstly, Work piece is fed from part feeder to rotatory table.
 Then, Drilling is performed at this point.
 After that, go and not go gauge check the diameter and depth of hole.
 Then, RV-2AJ picks the part from that place to capacitive proximity sensor which detects
whether the work piece is metal or non-metal on the behalf of capacitance.
 Then, from capacitive sensor work piece is placed in front of infrared sensor where color of work
piece is detected and IR sensor on for a specific time period and gets off after that time.
 And finally, work piece is stored in specific storage area for a particular part.
Sr. no Elements Details

1 Maximum working stroke Y axis is 1900mm and z axis is 50mm

2 Max. speed 5 m/s

3 Max. acceleration 50 m2/s

4 Repetition accuracy +/-0.1mm

5 Absolute accuracy +/-0.5mm

6 Contour accuracy +/-0.5

7 Rated load for max. dynamic 4 kg

8 Motor Stepper motor
Table 1 Specifications of work cell

This session was really informative as it gives a lot of information related to robotic work cell,
working of work cell and also the applications of sensors such as capacitive sensor, infrared sensor.
And also the use of robotic arm in material handling was also studied. Although this equipment was
not workable due to some technical problems but overall session was informative.
Industrial robots are automated, programmable and capable of movement on three or
more axis. Today, typically robots are being used in welding, painting, assembly, pick
and place for printed circuit boards, packaging and labeling, palletizing, product
inspection, and testing; all accomplished with high endurance, speed, and precision.
They can assist in material handling. The most commonly used robot configurations
are articulated robots, SCARA robots, delta robots and Cartesian Coordinate system
(gantry robots or x-y-z robots).
 In the context of general robotics, most types of robots would fall into the
category of robotic arms (inherent in the use of the word manipulator in ISO
standard 1738). Robots exhibit varying degrees of autonomy:

 Some robots are programmed to faithfully carry out specific actions over and over
again (repetitive actions) without variation and with a high degree of accuracy.
These actions are determined by programmed routines that specify the direction,

acceleration, velocity, deceleration, and distance of a series of coordinated
 Other robots are much more flexible as to the orientation of the object on which
they are operating or even the task that has to be performed on the object itself,
which the robot may even need to identify. For example, for more precise
guidance, robots often contain machine vision sub-systems acting as their visual
sensors, linked to powerful computers or controllers. Artificial intelligence, or what
passes for it, is becoming an increasingly important factor in the modern industrial
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