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Waste to Energy and

Waste Management
Market in India -
Examining Opportunities, Economics,
Technologies, Market Trends, Challenges & Outlook

E-REP Business & Market Research Series May 2019

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Business Case into Waste Management Total W2E
potential of
India 2.54 GW
Sector in India ~ 2.22 GW
Existing W2E opportunity
By 2025, The waste management sector is in India
States such as Maharashtra,
projected to have the market size of ~ Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal,
Andhra Pradesh & Delhi
USD 14 Billion with annual increase of holds the major chunk
Close to 12% of the
total W2E
opportunity of the
around 7 percent existing potential
Potential in India
has been
harnessed as on
November 2018

Major Opportune Markets for Industrial and Municipal Waste

Management in India
GDP per capita ($) and Waste generated per capita (KG) for
different income levels globally
High income level
Uttar with waste
Rajasthan Pradesh generated per
2 Low income level with

Waste Generated Per Capita Per day (kg)

capita – 1.57 KG
waste generated per and waste
Madhya 1.8 capita - .043 KG and generated
waste generated
Pradesh 1.6
annually-93 MT Upper-Middle income
annually-683 MT

1.4 level with waste

generated per capita
1.2 – 0.69 KG and waste
generated annually-
West Bengal 1 655 MT
Gujarat Chattisgarh
0.6 Lower-Middle income level
with waste generated per
Andhra Pradesh capita – 0.61 KG and waste
0.2 generated annually-586 MT

Telangana 0
Maharashtra -10000 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000

Tamil Nadu GDP per capita (USD)

*Size of bubble in
panel b denotes total
Source : World Bank, enincon research waste generated in
Major Opportunity Zones for Major Opportunity Zones for
millions of tonnes annually
Municipal Waste Management Industrial Waste Management

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Why enincon’s report upon “ Waste to Energy and Waste
Management in India ”


The growing economies across the globe are observing increase in urban population, rise in per capita income
level and increasing consumption level. With India growing on a similar ground, increase in purchasing power
has led to more affordability and accessibility of the resources that increased the levels of municipal as well as
industrial wastes across the Indian states. Having said that close to 62 MT waste is generated on annual basis
which will increase by two times by 2030. The increase in municipal solid waste (MSW) and industrial waste has
led to rise in public health concerns and environmental impacts due to production of greenhouse gases. Of the
total generated municipal solid waste, close to 45% is actually treated with rest is thrown on the designated
landfills, sewage and water bodies.

More than 50% of the total solid waste generated remains untreated and dumped on the landfills due to the lack
of efficient waste management system in India. As municipal solid waste (MSW) holds close to 75% of the total
waste generated in India, there lies an investment opportunity for the private players to convert pile of garbage
into the income steams. Also, it is evident that few state municipal authorities like West Bengal, Karnataka,
Haryana are not working as desired due to the lack of proper planning or spending lower than desired. Thus
introducing the private players in the sector will prove to be a boon for the sector and it will reduce financial
burden on the respective state municipalities as well. Hence in coming 5 years, the opportunity worth USD 14
Billion lies in waste management sector which shows huge promises for the private players for investing in the
sector. This will bring in competition and expertise with introduction of private players specially deep pocketed
players into the waste management and Waste to Energy sector in India.

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Close to 366 million people reside in Indian urban cities and is expected to rise to 600 million by 2030. Going by
the high rate of urbanization rate in India along with increase in income levels, the multiplicative effect will be
witnessed on rise in Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) which is expected to rise by two times by 2030 of the current
levels. Thus offering the business case for private players of approximately USD 20 Billion in waste management
sector of India. Thus enincon consulting llp attempts to examine the business case for solid waste management
in India 2019. The report helps in examining the current and future outlook along with market trend and
challenges in waste management and waste to energy industry in India. Furthermore, the report also give deep
analysis on evaluating waste to energy potential along with state wise categorization of the potential. Some of
the key contents of the report are - Classification of MSW, Collection & Transportation Dynamics in India ,
Growth Enablers of Waste to Energy in India, Viability and Risks Associating Waste to Energy Project
Development , MSW in India & Opportunity Sizing till 2025 , Waste Management Service Opportunity in India . To
view in detail about the report content and coverage, please see the detailed “Table of Contents”.

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Anticipated Municipal Solid Waste Generation in India by Size of Cities – Evaluating Opportunity
Till 2020 and 2030

Class IA Cities Class IB Cities

45 20
Waste Generation

Waste Generation

Some Major City Clusters

Ahmedabad Nagpur
35 Please Note : Size of the bubble
Mumbai 15 depicts the opportunity tune. Larger
Pune the bubble size greater the opportunity
Chennai Kolkata
Hyderabad Ghaziabad
25 10
2020 Vishakhap 2030 2020 2030

Class II* Cities

Class IC Cities
Solapur 6
20 Dibrugarh Udipi
Chandigarh Chandausi • Class IA – Cities having population above 5
Waste Generation
Waste Generation

Gwalior Coimbatore • Class IB – Cities having population b/w 1 Million
Ranchi Rewari

to 5 Million

Mohali • Class IC – Cities having population b/w 0.1

15 4 Million to 1 Million
Jalpaiguri • Class II – Cities having population b/w 0.05
Jodhpur Million to 0.1 Million (*cities with population upto
Madurai Motihari 0.12 Million considered in Class II)
Vijayawada Palwal
10 2
2020 2030 2020 2030

Source: enincon research

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• NTPC to set up about 100 waste-to-energy pollution free plants across the country
• India has a potential to generate approximately 3 GW of electricity from waste by 2050
• The government allows 100% FDI under the automatic route for urban infrastructure areas including waste
management subject to relevant rules and regulations
• Central government has been implementing Swachh Bharat Abhiyan , emphasizing waste management at different
stages of generation, collection and disposal
• Municipal solid waste management sector in India is projected to see capital and O&M requirement of close to USD 65
Billion by 2030
• India has a potential to generate approximately 90 Million Tonnes/ Year of waste by 2030-2032
• High population growth an changing lifestyles to increase the waste volumes in India


• Pocket opportunity identification in India till 2025 under industrial solid waste management
• Examining the opportunity outlook of plastic recycling in India till 2025
• Identifying the waste management service opportunity in India
• Region wise parametric evaluation for filtering best states offering potential business case to value chain players
• Examining the opportunity outlook for metal recycling in India till 2025
• Unleashing the business opportunity for managing construction waste in India till 2025
• Examining business opportunity for managing food waste in India till 2025
• Examining business opportunity for managing manufacturing waste/ scrap in India till 2025


• Evaluating the waste to energy potential in India from urban and industrial waste
• Tracking the on/off grid development of waste to energy in India
• Examining the quantity & characteristics implications on effective waste management
• In depth study of region wise growth enablers for waste to energy in India
• Examining the decision support matrix for waste to energy plants factoring risks & intermittent challenges
• Evaluating the sources of revenue generation by waste to energy projects in India
• Analyzing the opportunity sizing for value chain players till 2025 under municipal solid waste management

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NTPC has invited national and international players to set up 100 waste –to-energy pollution free plants across the country
under Swachh Bharat Mission
Energy Economic Times

The solid waste generated from cities /towns in India has a potential to generate approximately 500 MW, which can be
enhanced to 1075 MW by 2031 and further to 2780 MW by 2050
Economic Times

The waste heaps that dot the edges of India’s cities are set to double in size by 2025.


• What would be the growth enablers of waste to energy and waste management in India ?
• What would be the waste to energy potential & capacity indexation in India ?
• What would be the attractive index of waste produce and management market in India ?
• What would be the opportunity mix for value chain players into India’s waste management industry ?
• What would be the waste management and production outlook till 2025 ?
• What would be the opportunity for value chain players into municipal solid waste management in India till 2025 ?
• What would be the opportunity for value chain players into industrial waste management in India till 2025 ?
• What would be the material recovery market outlook in India till 2025 ?
• What would be the category wise sizing & capacity outlook for waste to energy in India till 2025 ?

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Contact – Head Office Contact – NCR Office
Address : 4th Floor, Worldmark 2, Address : 712, 7th Floor, I-Thum
Aerocity, Near IGI Airport, Towers, Noida, NCR Region,
New Delhi, India Uttar Pradesh, India

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work but from the afterglow of satisfaction
that comes after the achievement of a
difficult task that demanded our best
- Theodore Isaac Rubin

© enincon consulting llp, December 2019