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!TL/-! 2 United Nations Industrial Development Organization Distr. LIMITED ID,IWG.480/7(SPEC.) 6 Aoril 1989 ORIGINAL:

!TL/-! 2

United Nations Industrial Development Organization

Distr.

LIMITED

ID,IWG.480/7(SPEC.)

6

Aoril

1989

ORIGINAL:

ENGLISH

Expert Group Meeting on Design,

Manufacture of Simple Food Processing and

Preserving Equipaent*

Development and

Lusaka, Zubia,

~13 January 1989

PRODUCTION OF EDIBLE SYRUP FR<Jt MOLASSES**

*

E.K.

Prepared by

Abusabah and A.A. Taha***

Organized by UNIDO in co-operation with th~ GoverD11eDt of Zallbia and the Village Industry Service

**

The views expres•ed in thi• paper are those of the author and do

not nece•aarily reflect the views of the Secretariat of UNIDO.

f i

United Nations Industrial Development (UNIDO).

edited.

Mention of

names and c<>1111ercial product• does not imply the endorsement of the

Thi• doeu11ent has not been

***

Profes•ors,

Gezira, Medani,

Sudan

Faculty of Science and Technology,

University of

.

V.Rl)-54295

-

ii

-

S U MMA R Y

Molasses produced by a

local sugar refinery was analysed for sucrose

and ash contents.

carried out using Flame Emission Spectophotometry (FES) and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS).

Investigation of various metals in the molasses was

Removal of the metallic

ions by column chromatography in a

preparative scale was carried out and yielded an encouraging result.

commercial

process for desugarizing molasses was suggested.

A

'

-

l

-

- l - Molasses is the by-product of processing sucrose in cane refineries. crystalline sucrose can

Molasses is

the by-product of processing sucrose in cane

refineries.

crystalline sucrose can be obtained by simple means (1).

11<>lasses froa the centrifugal plant

with a composition,

conditions.

It

is the final effluent and residual syrup fr<>11 which no

shown on Tab

(1),

The final

is a too heavy and too viscous syrup

that varies with soil and cli•atic

in

The estlllated quantity of 11<>lasses produced in the Sudan

1985-1986 was approxlllately 2.0 x 106 tons

(2)

Very little of this

quantity was utilized and the rest was discharged into the river.

Usually aolasses can be diversely utilized.

For exaaple,

it

can be

used as fertilizer, spirits, alcohols,

ani11al

feed,

and indirectly for the production of

vinegars,

acetic acids and baker yeast.

The Finsugar and Zuzucker processes

(3)

are two such well-known

methods of chemically and physically recovering sugar from molasses. It seems, however, that these processes for desugarization of mol.'lSses are •ore expensive than the usual methods of refining sugar cane and beet JUlCe. At present, sugar is a rare c<>11modity in Sudan. Althou~h Sudan produces and i11P<>rts sugar, the supply is still short of demand. Sugar

on the black market sells for prices ten times that of the usual ~ric~. Therefore, in places like the Sudan, it is worthwhile to tackle th~ •olasses to increase the availability of sugar.

The objective of this

research is to investigate ways

to utilize

molasses to obtain a syrup fit

for human consumption.

molasses to obtain a syrup fit for human consumption. fit for human consumption, some of its

fit

for human consumption,

some of its

To render the raw molasses constituents •ust be removed.

These unwanted

constituents are m& nly

inorganic ashes. metallic ions.

Table (1)

shows the nature and quantities of these

Although the sugar can be rPcovered chemically from molasses by

precipitation methods,

because they need further removal treatments of chemicals unpenaissible

these methods are not yet rec<>1111ended in industry

for hUllBD consumption like ea2+ (4).

This prGcess utilizes chromatography as a physical method for

the

purification of sugar in the molasR~s. chr011atography for separation.

'r.he process utilizes

ion-exchange

for separation. 'r.he process utilizes ion-exchange In this research the apparatus used for desugarization of

In this

research the apparatus used for desugarization of Sudanese

molasses was a simple glass coiUllD of the dimensions 750 1111 x 50.8 ID 0.

The column was packed with a cation-exchange resin charged in ca2+ form as shown in Figure (l}. A molasses solution of 5% w/v was prepared.

-

2

-

A suitable amount of active carbon was added to decolourize the

molasses solution.

the column.

Both penetrated downward through the resin bed under gravity.

resultant solution was collected and then analyzed for the presence and

quantities of metallic ions.

that

exchanger,

aetallic ions and colloids frOll the 11<>lasses.

The solution was then filtered and fed to the top of

followed by an eluent

(water).

The

Afterwards the molasses was

The theory behind the separation process is

the chr<>11atographic colUIUl with an ion-exchange resin acts as an ion

an ion-exclusion and a gel-permeation to selectively separate

ion-exclusion and a gel-permeation to selectively separate The analysis of Sudanese 1tOlasses before and after elution

The analysis of Sudanese 1tOlasses before and after elution through the colU1111 was perforaed by Fla11e Eaission Spectophotometry (FES) and At<>11ic Absorption Spectrophot<>11etry (AAS). FES was used for the detenaination for g+, Na+ and ca2+, while AAS was useci for Mt2+, Fe3+,

Hg2+ and Pb2+.

The result

is tabulated in (2).

From the figures shown,

it is clear that a notable and sometimes complete elimination for

monovalent

Less deionization resulted in the case of trivalent ions like Fe3+.

ions

like K+ ana for

the ions

like ca2+ and Mg2+ took place.

The overall performance of the column is adequate for its purpose;

however,

app!ication.

diluted and that

the scale of the process needs to be modifieci for commercial

It was observed that the final product is excessively

it needs further concentration.

final product is excessively it needs further concentration. Figure (2) shows a suggested sketch of a

Figure (2)

shows a suggested sketch of a process that

is designed to

desugarize molasses based on the findings of the column chrl., atography

used in this work. The dimensions of the units of the suggested process depend on the amoWlt of 11<>lasses produced by the refinery.

the amoWlt of 11<>lasses produced by the refinery. The process proposes to solve a present sugar

The process proposes to solve a present sugar cr1s1s

in the Sudan.

The product of the process can serve as a thick sugar syrup in beverages

and confectioneries,

thus saving the C::"}'stalline sugar for other needs.

saving the C::"}'stalline sugar for other needs. l. FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin (39), pp. 6, 12,

l.

FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin (39), pp. 6, 12, 41, 43, 1980.

2.

AnnW\l Report "Secretary-General - Arab Sugar Fed.,ration".

3.

Abu•abah E.K., Ph.U. Thesis, University of Aston in Binaingham, 1983.

4.

Hongisto, et. al., Int. Sug. J., 97, pp. 90-94, 1977.

CAN l'l>L

-

3

-

TABLE

I

\SSES

C(Hl()SITION

• CAN l'l>L - 3 - TABLE I \SSES C(Hl()SITION Wa~er Sugar Organic ashes (nitrogenous) 20

Wa~er

Sugar

Organic ashes

(nitrogenous)

C(Hl()SITION Wa~er Sugar Organic ashes (nitrogenous) 20 62 10 Si02 0.5 K20 3.5 CaO 1.5 Mg()

20

62

10

Si02

0.5

K20

3.5

CaO

1.5

Mg()

0.1

P205

0.24

Na20

F~03

Silica

Chlorides

1.6

0.4

100.00

!~m~

Na+

K+

ca2+

Mg2+

Pb2+

Hg2+

Fe2+/Fe3+

-

-

TABLE 2

M«>UNT OF METALLIC IONS IN SUDANESE

t«>LASSES BEFORE AND AFTER ELUTION

Amount before

~!~!!Q!Lf~™l

Amount after

~!~!!Q!!_f~™l

708

7.0

550

0.0

495

29.0

445

1.6

2.6

1.4

6.27

5.67

37.0

2.59

??ubher hunr

raass

COlUJIU'l

nil'lension~

750

mm

x

50.8

,

-

s -

raass COlUJIU'l nil'lension~ 750 mm x 50.8 , - s - • 1 . - ~

1

.

-

~81!1T1le a

F.luent

-.J

d

nil'lension~ 750 mm x 50.8 , - s - • 1 . - ~ 81!1T1 le

I

Packinr. resin

mm ~

L

To samnle collector

nil'lension~ 750 mm x 50.8 , - s - • 1 . - ~ 81!1T1 le
Figure 2: A l\T,OCK DTA'1RA"1 OF A i:;11r.r.F.~'T'f.D nE~1Jr.AqJ7,A'T'!O!j UNIT --' .,

Figure 2: A l\T,OCK DTA'1RA"1 OF A i:;11r.r.F.~'T'f.D nE~1Jr.AqJ7,A'T'!O!j UNIT

--' ., ------- ·, ~ ·--~Charcoal Resin ··ter I 'Pumns
--'
.,
-------
·,
~
·--~Charcoal
Resin
··ter
I
'Pumns

'P.vanorator.

·, ~ ·--~Charcoal Resin ··ter I 'Pumns 'P.vanorator. !'roduct 4 Mola!!ses • tank ., "'

!'roduct 4

Mola!!ses

tank

.,

"'