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Training Report on Drilling of Petroleum Oil Hydrocarbons

Performed at OIL India Limited, Duliajan (Assam)


(in partial fulfillment of academic requirements
for the course of Industrial Training ME6179)

Prepared by
Render (DE/10/ME/002)
Manash Protim Dutta (DE/09/ME/102)
Santosh Dash (DE/ME/ME/106)

June 2011

North Eastern Regional Institute of Science and Technology


Nirjuli, Arunachal Pradesh - 791109
Abstract

The dissertation highlights the fundamentals of the drilling operations involved in extraction of
petroleum hydrocarbons as carried out by the Drilling department of OIL India Limited,
Duliajan. It is loosely an overview of rotary drilling operations and the associated tasks. The
different elements of the drill-string and other important drilling tools, which are actively
maintained within the department premises, have been introduced as observed during the
programme. The Rig-Building section of the Drilling department maintain the different types of
rigs which, as per work order,are used to make the accomplishments of creating oil wells and
work-over any interruption in the production of crude-oil, natural gas and other by-products.
The different components of drilling rig, being extremely bulky, are transported in parts and
assembled at the site, while a work-over rig is smaller and may be truck-mounted consisting of
all the systems except the circulating system and auxiliary system which must be separately
arranged. Drilling operations possess tremendous risk. Hence, safety of the working crew must
be sincerely taken care of at all costs.
Acknowledgements
We extend our sincere thanks to Ms. DeepanjaliBorborah, Sr. Manager, Training and
Development Department, for considering the interest of training at OIL India Limited, Duliajan
(Assam). Our thanks also goes to the Administration of Drilling Department especially Mr. A.
Dasgupta, Chief Engineer Drilling/Adminsitration for his due consideration in all regards. We are
indebted to Mr. S.Basumatary, SE Drilling/Equipment, Mr. S. K. Deori, Dy. C. E. Drilling/Rig
Building and Mr. D. Raj Kumar, SED Drilling/WorkOver for their immense encouragement and
guidance throughout the programme. A special thanks to Mr. P. Gogoi for helping us with his
time and knowledge in acknowledging all queries regarding WorkOver during the visit to
Kathaloni Well No. – 19, LOC, HMW. We would also like to express our gratitude to a few other
people who took their time in making us familiar to the different aspects of drilling and drilling
equipments.

We are indebted to the Course Coordinator Dr. S. S. Gautam, Asst. Prof and T & P I/C,
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dr. Asis Giri, HOD, Department of Mechanical
Engineering and T & P Cell I/C, NERIST for their valuable consent and support throughout the
programme.
Contents
1.0 OIL India Limited

1.1 Company Profile……………………………………………………………………………… 1

1.2 Current Status………………………………………………………………………………….. 1

1.3 Management Training and Development Centre……………………………… 3

1.4 Drilling Department………………………………………………………………………….. 3

2.0 Drilling

2.1 Drilling History………………………………………………………………………………….. 4

2.2 Drilling Characteristics……………………………………………………………………… 4

2.3 Drilling Operations……………………………………………………………………………. 5

2.4 Drilling Targets………………………………………………………………………………….. 5

2.5 Rotary Drilling System……………………………………………………………………….. 6

2.6 Drilling Mechanism……………………………………………………………………………. 6

2.7 Drilling Equipments………………………………………………………………………...... 8

2.8 Drill String…………………………………………………………………………………………. 10

3.0 Work Over

3.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………… 13

3.2 Steps in Work Over…………………………………………………………………………….. 13

3.3 Main Equipments used in Work Over Operations……………………………… 14

3.4 General Layout Of Work Over Rig………………………………………………………. 15

3.5 Work over Rig…………………………………………………………………………………….. 16

3.6 Safety Requirements…………………………………………………………………………. 16

4.0 Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 18
OIL India Limited, Duliajan – 786602, Assam 1
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1.0 OIL India Limited

1.1 Company profile

OIL INDIA LIMITED, a Navaratna Public Sector Undertaking is engaged in exploration, production
and transportation of crude oil, natural gas and manufacture of LPG with its field Headquarters
at Duliajan in the district of Dibrugarh, Assam. OIL has accumulated over a hundred years of
experience in oil and gas production since the discovery of Digboi oilfield in 1989. From well
completion to wellbore servicing, installation, operation and maintenance of modern surface
handling facilities, OIL has the expertise to manage the entire range of operations required for
onshore oil and gas production. In particular, it has perfected the techniques to produce and
condition the waxy (paraffinic and asphaltenic) crude oil of Assam and other regions of the
country. Oil possesses expertise in designing, installing and troubleshooting continuous and
intermittent gas-lift systems and the related works. About 50% of crude oil production comes
from depleting oilfields. Artificial lifting and EOR techniques adopted since late 1960s have
played an important role in augmenting and enhancing the ultimate recovery from these
oilfields.

OIL produces around 5 MMSCUMD of natural gas and has a dedicated pipeline network for
collection and supply of gas as fuel and feedstock to nearby industries such as refineries,
fertilizer and petrochemical plants, power generation plants and 200 tea gardens. Over 90% of
the internal energy requirement of varied oilfield plants and equipment is met by natural gas.

1.2 Current status

As per annual company reports, the company had 20.76 % increase in Profit After Tax (PAT) of Rs
2610.52 crore compared to the previous year. The net worth of the company is estimated to be
Rs. 13,763.79 crore with highest ever production of crude oil and natural gas at 3.572 MMT and
2415 MMSCM respectively.

 Crude oil production


OIL has been maintaining an increasing trend in indigenous crude oil production in the
recent past. A number of measures in Assam and Arunachal Pradesh are underway to
increase productivity. A few of them are listed below:
i. Dehydration Plant, Moran CTF
ii. OCS Bhogpara
iii. Additional EPS at Barekuri and at Makum

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iv. Pipeline-8 inch x 42 km (crude oil)


v. State-of-art OCS at Barekuri
vi. Storage capacity augmentation ITF at Tengakhat

 Natural gas production


Oil is presently producing on an average around 6.0 MMSCMD of natural gas from its
Upper Assam & AP fields to meet its internal requirements and market commitment of
approx. 5.0 MMSCMD. It is planned to enhance production potential from the present
level to nearly 10.0 MMSCMD in the north-east mainly from non-associated gas source
by additional drilling and work over to meet the future requirement of natural gas. In
order to meet the demand the Company has initiated various time bound actions for
development of Non-Associated Gas fields and distribution network infrastructure. A
few of them are listed below:
i. Gas Infrastructure Development: Drilling of development gas wells, conversion
of wells to gas wells through work over, de-bottlenecking pipeline network
system and augmentation of compressor capacity for optimum utilization of
available gas thereby reducing gas flaring to a minimum.
ii. Construction of Gas Gathering Station at Madhuban (well 50), Duliajan
iii. Development of gas network for supply of natural gas to BCPL
iv. Pipeline (Natural gas) – 16 inch x 37 km Baghjan to well 50, Duliajan.
v. Pipeline (natural gas) -16 inch x 20 km Chabua to Madhuban (well 50), Duliajan.
vi. Pipeline – 6 inch x 60 km from Kunchai to Dumduma.

 Liquefaction of Natural Gas


Since the discoveries made in recent past are located in remote areas, though the crude
oil production can be transported by browsers to the proximate processing facilities, the
utilization of associated gas is not possible due to the non-availability of local consumers
in those remote areas and evacuation through long distance pipeline is not a viable
solution due to the small volumes. In order to utilize and monetize the associated gas
and obviate flaring and ensure abatement of harmful effects of greenhouse gas
emissions, it is envisaged to establish a commercially viable and proven small scale
Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) plant as a pilot project at Mechaki-II including establishment
of associated facilities like LNG storage, LNG Transportation, Transportation of
intermediate fraction produced during the liquefaction process along with re-
gasification plant.

Besides the many mentioned above, OIL has interested exploration projects encompassing other
national and international (Libya, Gabon, Nigeria, Yemen, Timor – Leste, Egypt) regions as part of
continuous efforts on organic and inorganic growth.

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1.3 Management Training and Development Centre

As a part of development of Human Resources, two in-house institutes viz. The Management
Training and Development Centre (MTDC) for Executives (established in 1996) and the Oil
Training Institute (OTI) for the Non-executives (established in 1997), have been set up to cater to
company’s operational requirements. The institutes not only offer services to the Company
(currently having strength of 8800 employees) but also to other industries in the Northeast India
for development of contemporary management practices and application, workmen training and
skill upgradation. MTDC also provides summer training to students from different Engineering
Colleges and other Institutes/Universities.

The main thrust of training requirements is focused on:

 Basic /advanced functional courses in Upstream Exploration and Production


technologies and practices, Computer Science, etc. by in-house, in-country and
international facilities.
 Basic/advanced management courses in General Management, Finance, Materials
Management, Industrial Relations, General Administration, etc.
 Statutory training on Mines Regulation, Safety, First-Aid, GTC, Explosive Handling
courses and Fire-fighting courses.

1.4 Drilling Department, OIL India Limited (Duliajan)

The plant of OIL India Limited, Duliajan (Assam) is divided into a number of departments viz.
Geological Department, Drilling Department, Transportation Department, Production
Department, and others. The Company is also actively involved in pioneering work carried out by
the Department of Research and Development.

The Drilling department is primarily concerned with setting up and maintenance of rigs and
creation and work-over of oil-wells. The department responsibilities have been taken over by
various sections such as Equipment Section, Drilling Operation Section, Workover Section, Rig
Building Section, and Cementing Section.

OIL currently owns and operates 13 drilling rigs and 14 work-over rigs, besides charter hiring
drilling rigs based on operational requirement. OIL’s all round excellence in performance is
attributed in part to efficient well drilling and proper maintenance of equipment at the
company’s well-equipped workshops, which has achieved a peak performance level of over
20,000 m/rig year.

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2.0 Drilling

2.1 Drilling history

In India there used to be a method of boring wells with ordinary crow bars. A log 2.4 to 3 metre
in length and 15 to 20 cm in diameter is taken, and a hole 10 to 12.5 cm in diameter is drilled in
the centre of entire length of the log. This hollow log of wood is used as a guide pipe for the
bore. The remaining depth of bore is kept unlined. If the bore hole tends to cave in, another
similar drilled log of wood is lowered in continuation of the first one which serves to line the
bore further down. The crow bar called ‘sang’ is lowered with an ordinary rope and is worked up
and down the bore. It is found that this old ‘sang’ method 10 cm diameter bore holes can very
rapidly be drilled to about 30 metre below ground level.

As more and more deeper wells began to be drilled, efforts were made to improve the drilling
equipment. Steam engines began to be used, walking beams replaced the spring pole, steel
cables replace the manila ropes and other improvements followed.

2.2 Drilling characteristics

The study of geological structure is of great importance in prospecting. Folded structures in the
shape of domes, anticlines favour the formation of oil, gases, rock salt and sulphur. In rock
drilling, tectonic features also assume special significance. Each of the many types of igneous,
sedimentary and metamorphic rocks has its own particular drilling characteristics produced by
its mineral composition and grain size. A coarse grained structure is easier to drill and causes less
wear than a fine grained structure.

Well depth measurements are of necessity made along the course of the well which is not
always in a vertical direction. Such measurements are commonly used in geologic studies as
representing the vertical depth of various given points below the surface. In either a crooked
hole or a deflected hole, failure to consider deviation from the vertical may result in
misinterpretation regarding the geologic structure and improper correlation between adjacent
wells. Incorrect estimates of the thickness of formations are obtained if the various wells in a
field go through the beds of varying angles due to deviation from the vertical. It is possible to
overcome these geological difficulties by surveying the well and correcting the well depth
measurements to allow for the deviation observed as well as locating the bottom of the well on
a horizontal plane.

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2.3 Drilling operations

Drilling operations as they are performed today can be divided into three broad types.
Exploration drilling in the traditional sense is primarily concerned with the quest for quality and
quantity data of a geological deposit. A second type of drilling operation deals with geotechnical
data of a deposit or a construction site. The driller assists here by delivering core samples that
identify the performance and behavior aspects of geological body, rather than its genetic
aspects. A third type of drilling for geotechnical data has been termed here ‘special purpose’
drilling. It is suggested that far too little drilling is done for the safe emplacement of foundations
for industrial buildings, as well as for private dwellings.

Fig. 1. Drilling Operations

2.4 Drilling targets

The geological setting of an area to be explored usually determines the type of drilling targets.
The selection and definition of such targets are now often aided by various geophysical
investigations. It is an integral part of exploration programmes. Geophysical investigations will

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bring almost a more exact definition of drilling targets and could also reduce the number of
“special purpose” holes.

Drilling targets should also encompass the structural and lithological setting of area drilled. The
discovery of igneous bodies, faults, washouts, palaeo-channels and shear zones for example in
the underground operation lead too often to expensive geological ‘surprises’ which can be
avoided by defining the target better and weighed in its geological context.

2.5 Rotary Drilling system

The conventional rotary drilling method is becoming most effective and widely practiced
procedure from all available drilling systems, having been introduce by the mining industries and
later adopted by the petroleum industry as the standard drilling system. The distinguishing
characteristic of drilling by the conventional rotary method may be generally described as the
process of forcing drilling fluid, by means of a suitable pump, down through the inside of the drill
pipe and out through the bit openings. The drilling fluid being under pressure from above, flows
back to the surface by way of the annulus formed between the outside of the drill pipe and hole
wall or casing. With the bit at the bottom, the drill stem is rotated.

Drilling fluid: The drilling fluid is important to the success of the drilling, logging, testing and
completion of a well. Mud properties affect the drilling rate in clearance of cuttings and applying
pressure to the rock. Mud must be specially treated to prevent hole enlargements from
washouts and caving, or from dissolving soluble salts. Mud cools the bit and lubricates the drill
string. Drilling is faster and bit life longer with gaseous as compared to liquid drilling fluids. But
the use of gas is limited by the problem of controlling the influx of formation fluids. Various
types of organic or inorganic materials can be added to a high yield bentonite that cause
changes to occur within the mud system. The term mud is applied to a suspension of solids in
liquids and water. Oil-based drilling fluids may contain oil-soluble substances, emulsified water,
and oil insoluble materials in suspension.

Reverse Circulation Rotary Drilling: Reverse circulation rotary drilling is done with a flow of
drilling fluid reversed as compared with the system used in the conventional rotary method. The
suction end of the rig pump – rather than the discharge end – is connected through the swivel to
the Kelly and the drill pipe. The drilling fluid and its load of cuttings move upward inside the drill
pipe and are discharged by the pump in to the settling pit. The fluid returns to the bore hole by
gravity flow. It moves down the annular space around the drill pipe to the bottom of the hole,
picks up cuttings and re-enters the drill pipe through ports in the drill bit.

2.6 Drilling mechanism

An oil well is a general term for any boring through the earth’s surface that is designed to find
and acquire petroleum oil hydrocarbons. The creation and life of a well can be divided into five
segments:

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a. Planning
b. Drilling
c. Completion
d. Production
e. Abandonment

The drilling operation may be carried out in stages of three, four or five. Based on target depth
(determined by seismic survey), the type of drilling is carried out. Average depth of oil well is
3700 m achieved usually by 3-stage drilling. 4-stage or 5-stage drilling is applied for greater
target depths (higher than 5000 m). The oil drilling is based on the difference of hydrostatic
pressure between the pressure of the drilling fluid (mud) and the formation pressure. The
applied fluid pressure is calculated to be higher than the formation pressure during drilling.

After each stage of drilling a casing (each smaller in diameter than the previous stage) is inserted
into the hole and the annular is cemented. Cementing serves the following two purposes:

i. To fill the annular and block communication between the external bore hole and the
inside of the casing.
ii. To hold the casing in place

The generated rock “cuttings” are swept up by the drilling fluid as it circulates back to surface
outside the drill pipe. The fluid then goes through ‘shale shaker’, ‘de-sander’ and ‘de-silter’
which strain the cuttings from the good fluid before it returning to the pit. Watching for
abnormalities in the returning cuttings and monitoring pit volume or rate of returning fluid are
imperative to catch ‘kicks’ early. A ‘kick’ is when the formation pressure at the depth of the bit is
more than the hydrostatic head of the mud above, which if not controlled temporarily by closing
the ‘blowout preventer’ and ultimately increasing the density of the drilling fluid would allow
formation fluids and mud to come up through the drill pipe uncontrollably.

The pipe or ‘drill string’ to which the bit is attached is gradually lengthened as the well gets
deeper by screwing more sections (only drill-pipes after a certain depth is reached) under the
‘kelly’ or top-drive at the surface. The process is called making a connection.

This process is all facilitated by a drilling rig which contains all necessary equipment to circulate
the drilling fluid, hoist and turn the pipe. Control downhole, remove cuttings from the drilling
fluid, and generate on-site power for these operations.

After drilling and casing the well, it must be ‘complete’. Completion is the process in which the
well is enabled to produce oil or gas. The production stage is the most important stage of a
well’s life, when the oil and gas are produced. By this time , the oil rigs and workover rigs used to
drill and complete the well have moved off the wellbore, and the top is usually outfitted with a
collection of valves called a ‘X-mas tree’. These valves regulate pressures, control flows, and
allow access to the wellbore in case futher completion work is needed.

Workovers are often necessary in older wells, which may need smaller diameter tubing, scale or
paraffin removal, acid matrix jobs, or completing new zones of interest in a shallower reservoir.

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2.7 Drilling equipments (courtesy Equipment Section)

A. Handling tools
1. Elevators
a. Drill pipe (5”)
b. Drill collar (6.5”, 8”, 9.5”)
c. Tubing elevator (2 7/8 “)
2. Hand sleeve
a. Drill pipe
b. Drill collar
c. Tubing
d. Casing
3. Pipe wrench
4. Chain tongs
5. Drill collar safety clamp
6. 5 lbs hammer
B. Spudding materials
1. Kelly bushing & Wrench (1.5”)
2. Bushing lifter
3. Change shaft
4. Hook bari
5. Bit breaker
6. Drill collar safety clamp
C. Casing gears
1. Heavy duty spider slip and elevator
2. Side door elevator
3. Single joint elevator
4. Casing hand sleeve
5. Base plate
6. Bell guide
7. Circulating head
8. Casing bushing with split bowl
D. Materials for casing line reeving
1. Dead end wrench
2. Dead end studs
3. Wire line grip
4. Brass plate
5. Cover plate
6. Dead-end safety clamp
E. Well head equipment
1. Casing head housing
2. Adapter spool
3. Drilling spool

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4. Spacer spool
5. RAM BOP
6. Annular BOP
7. HCR (Hydraulically Controlled Remote) valve
F. Fishing tools
1. Over shot
2. Junk basket
3. Reverse circulating shaft
4. Magnet
5. Cable catcher
6. Spear
G. Deviation tools
1. Mud motor
2. Bend sub (1.5O)
3. Single Shot (SS) reading
4. Stabilizer
5. Bottom Hole Oriented (BHO) sub
H. Well-control equipment
1. Blow out preventer (BOP)
2. BOP control unit
3. BOP control remoter panel
4. Choke manifold
5. Remote Control Choke Panel
I. Solid-control equipment
1. Shale shaker (removes greater than 74 microns)
2. De-sander (removes greater than 45 microns)
3. De-silter (removes silt of size 20-45 microns)
4. De-gaser

Blow Out Preventer (BOP): A blowout preventer is a large, specialized valve used to seal, control
and monitor oil and gas wells. Blowout preventers were developed to cope with extreme erratic
pressures and uncontrolled flow (formation kick) emanating from a well reservoir during drilling.
Kicks can lead to a potentially catastrophic event known as a blowout. In addition to controlling
the downhole (occurring in the drilled hole) pressure and the flow of oil and gas, blowout
preventers are intended to prevent tubing (e.g. drill pipe and well casing), tools and drilling
fluid from being blown out of the wellbore (also known as bore hole, the hole leading to the
reservoir) when a blowout threatens. Blowout preventers are critical to the safety of
crew, rig (the equipment system used to drill a wellbore) and environment, and to the
monitoring and maintenance of well integrity; thus blowout preventers are intended to be fail-
safe devices. Blow out preventer consist of two rams – blind ram and annular ram.

Casing: Casing is large diameter pipe that is assembled and inserted into a recently drilled
section of a borehole and typically held into place with cement. Casing that is cemented in place
aids the drilling process in several ways:

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 Prevent contamination of fresh water well zones.


 Prevent unstable upper formations from caving-in and sticking the drill string or forming
large caverns.
 Provides a strong upper foundation to use high-density drilling fluid to continue drilling
deeper.
 Isolates different zones that may have different pressure or fluids - known as zonal
isolation, in the drilled formations from one another.
 Seals off high pressure zones from the surface, avoiding potential for a blowout
 Prevents fluid loss into or contamination of production zones.
 Provides a smooth internal bore for installing production equipment.

Tubing (Production tubing): Production tubing is a tube used in a wellbore through


which production fluids are produced (travel). Production tubing is run into the drilled well after
the casing is run and cemented in place. Production tubing protects wellbore casing from wear,
tear, corrosion, and deposition of by-products, such as sand / silt, paraffins, and asphaltenes.
Along with other components that constitute the production string, it provides a continuous
bore from the production zone to the wellhead through which oil and gas can be produced. It is
usually between five and ten centimeters in diameter and is held inside the casing through the
use of expandable packing devices. Purpose and design of production tubing is to enable quick,
efficient, and safe installation, removal and re-installation.

2.8 Drill string

The whole drill string hangs from the swivel which is suspended from a travelling block in the
derrick. A heavy thrust bearing between the two parts of the swivel carries the entire weight
while allowing the drill pipe to rotate freely. The drill string consists of the following in the order:

Kelly -> Kelly Protector (KP)sub & Kelly Grip (KG) sub -> Drill Pipe -> Heavy Weight (HW) Drill
pipe -> Change sub -> Drill collar -> Bit sub -> Drill bit

The order has its significance due to the different load handling capacity of the different
elements. Drill collar takes only compressive load generated at the bottom, the drill pipe takes
tensile load generated due to the self-weight of the drill string and the HW Drill pipe balances
the compressive and the tensile loads in the middle. All the three tools are composed of
different materials.

Drill pipe: The drill pipe is a seamless tubing, usually in joints about 20 feet/6 metres long, with a
tool joining pin on one end and a tool joint box on the other. They are hollow to allow drilling
fluid to be pumped through them, down the hole, and back up the annulus. It is important to use
a drill pipe of adequate diameter because drilling demands a relatively high rate of circulation of
drilling fluid. A drill pipe of adequate size minimizes friction loss in the pipe and reduces the
power required for the pump. For a full depth drilling, the number of drill pipes in the drill-string
can run up to hundred or more.

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Drill collars: Drill collars are manufactured to deliver superior performance and long tool life.
These tools are machined from bars of chromium molybdenum alloy steel corresponding to SAE
4140/4145 for small sizes and SAE 4340 for larger diameters.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 2.

Kelly: The Kelly constitutes the uppermost section of the column of the drill string. It engages in
the opening in the rotary table. The outer shape of the Kelly may be square, hexagonal or round
with lengthwise grooves or flutes cut into the outer-surface. The square, hexagonal or grooved
section of the Kelly works up and down through drive bushings properly in place around the
Kelly, the entire drill stem and bit are forced to turn with the rotary table. While rotating, the
Kelly slips down through the Kelly bushings to feed the bid downward as the hole is drilled. The
lower end of the Kelly is provided with a substitute joint for connecting the drill pipe. The sub
saves the tool joint on the Kelly from excessive wear which results from repeated screwing and
unscrewing every time a length of drill pipe is added, or removed from the string. The upper end
of the Kelly connects to the swivel with the left hand threaded joint.

Drill bit: The bit type selected for drilling plays an important role to determine the performance
of a drill with efficiency and capability. All the components that make up the rotary drilling
machine are designed to serve two functions simultaneously – operation of the bit and
continuous circulation of the drilling fluid. The bits are classified into three broad types: drag
bits, rolling cutter bits and diamond bits. Drag bits drill by scraping and shearing, roller cutter

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bits by combination of crushing and scraping and diamond bits by ploughing causing fractures of
the rock being cut.

In deep drilling, to reduce hole-making costs by increasing the footage/metreage per bit run,
diamond bits are used.

Fig. 4.

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3.0 Workover

3.1 Introduction

The term workover is used to refer to any kind of oil well intervention involving invasive
techniques. More specifically though, it refers to the process of pulling and replacing a
completion. The various operations performed in workover are listed below (courtesy Workover
section):

i. Re-perforation or extension of perforation


ii. Plug back and perforation higher up
iii. Isolation repair
iv. Acidization
v. Cleaning of production string
vi. Gravel pack
vii. Casing repair & reeving
viii. Milling bridge plug, drilling cement plug
ix. Fishing
x. Sand cleaning
xi. Well head repair or replacement
xii. Installation of artificial lift system, bottom hole heater, etc
xiii. Cleaning of perforation, scaling in casing and tubing
xiv. Conversion of low producing well to water injection for increasing reservoir pressure
xv. Conversion of dead well to water disposal well for pumping back formation water
produced along with oil

3.2 Steps in workover

(courtesy Workover section)

i. Well section
ii. Work-over policy preparation
iii. Site-preparation
iv. Security deployment
v. Static and outfit mobilization & placement
vi. Work-over fluid preparation/collection
vii. Well killing
viii. Operations as per well plan
ix. Rig-up mast
x. Well killing

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xi. Rid down of X-mas tree & rig up of BOP


xii. Circulation
xiii. Tripping of tubing
xiv. Specified jobs
xv. Final running of Tubing
xvi. Rig down of BOP
xvii. Rip up of X-mas tree
xviii. Enliven the well and handover to Production Department
xix. Rig down mast
xx. Mobilize the rig to new location as per plan

3.3 Main equipments used in Workover operation:

i. W/O rig including mast & substructure


ii. Rotary table & hoisting equipment
iii. Static including pumps, tanks, bunkhouses
iv. Precautions against blowout
v. BOP & controlling unit
vi. Well Control
vii. Fire fighting equipments
viii. Fencing & Well security

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3.4 General layout of Workover Rig

Fig. 5. General layout of Work Over rig.

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3.5 Workover rig

There are Drilling rigs and Workover rigs. A workover rig is mainly composed of lifting system,
rotating system, power system, transmission system, control system, circulating system, base
and auxiliary system, etc. A mobile (truck-mounted) rig integrates the lifting system, rotating
system, power system, transmission system and base into one carrier. The circulating system
and auxiliary system are separately arranged. That makes the rig adaptable for drilling and
moving.

Mast adopts the structure composed of double section (upper and lower), crown block, bearing
facility of the upper and lower sections, hydraulic cat-head, tongs, balancing device, all kings of
guy wires, worktable and the support of the hook.

Substructure is the principle working platform to a workover rig. Its platform is used for the
installation of the rotary table and the storage of the stands and tools. It provides the working
space for the operations too. The space under the floor is used for the installation of the blow
out preventer, drill pipe slideway, ladder, escape slideway, grading chaincase and the detachable
boat shaped base, etc.

Drawworks transmits power to finish the lifting operation of the travelling system and the
auxiliary operation of the bailing drum. The drawworks system is composed of the main drum
assembly, main drum brake system, bailing drum assembly, bailing drum brake system,
hydromatic brake system, crown block bumping prevention system, the brake-hub cooling water
circulation system, drawworks frame and cover assembly and the chain box, etc. The power out
of the unit power plant is transmitted to the bailing drum and the main drum via the hydromatic
brake via the clutch and the chain.

The crown block bump preventing device is an emergency device to stop the drawworks. It is the
driller who controls the brake on instruction. Emergency brake control valve is set on the
Driller’s console. Whenever the driller considers the emergency necessary, the main drum can
be stopped.

3.6 Safety requirements

The following are generally followed in consideration to safety of the crew:

i. An area withing 30 of the well is marked as danger zone. All electrical equipments
should be de-energized in case of emergency.
ii. Adequate arrangements for fire fighting should be provided & portable fire extinguishers
should be made available at different places. Crew must well conversant with the
use of fire extinguishers/fire pump.
iii. Standard railings should guard every open sided Derrick floor & Derrick board. Rig
should be provided with ladder arrangements.

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Training report on Drilling

iv. Emergency escape device & fall prevention device should be incorporated.
v. Personal protection equipment (PPE) must be used by every crew personnel.
vi. The well head should be well protected against falling objects.
vii. The Derrick floor should be reasonably clean of oil, mud, so as to prevent from slipping.
viii. Floor saver and crown saver must be checked everyday.
ix. Friction brake and hydromatic brake system should be in working condition always.
x. Casing line inspection must be carried out.

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OIL India Limited, Duliajan – 786602, Assam 18
Training report on Drilling

4.0 Conclusion

The Summer Training Programme has been beneficial in becoming familiar to the various drilling
operations involved in extraction of petroleum hydrocarbons, besides giving an opportunity to
comprehend the basics of drilling machinery. The programme has also been an immense help in
understanding the importance of conservation of fuel and the environment as a whole. The
opportunity, as the programme presented, has let to witness the technology and human skill
required in the field work of the company. The illustration of the endeavour of the company in
reaching higher goals can be experienced in all aspects.

NERIST ME6179 June


2011
Appendix - A

Details of oil-well visited

Kathaloni Well No. – 19 (LOC, HMW)

Deviated

Drilled as a replacement well of Kathaloni well No. 9

Basic data:

i. Derrick floor elevation 112.30 m asl


ii. Ground floor elevation 108.00 m asl
iii. 9.5/8” casing shoe 2412 m
iv. Deviation correction 63.94 m
v. 2.7/8” OD EUE N-80 tubing with 3486 m
hydraulic packer and GLVs landed at
vi. Perforations in the range 3580-3584 m (open)
(3580 –m Lk+Th sand)
vii. 5.1/2” Float collar at 3619.00 m
viii. 5.1/2” Casing shoe at 3631.51 m
ix. Cumulative oil production till 30992 kls
December 2004 (Well KLN019 KLN 001
Block) 63231 kls
x. Cumulative oil production till
December 2004 (KLN 001 Block) Well
KLN019D
References

1. C. P. Chugh, Manual of Drilling Technology


2. www.oil-india.com