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| BS 5871 :

BRITISH STANDARD |
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Specification for |
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Installation of gas fires, |
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convector heaters, fire/back |
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boilers and decorative fuel |
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effect gas appliances |
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Part 1. Gas fires, convector heaters and |
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fire/back boilers (1st, 2nd and 3rd family |
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ICS 97.100.20; 91.140.10 |
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NO COPYING WITHOUT BSI PERMISSION EXCEPT AS PERMITTED BY COPYRIGHT LAW
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BS 5871 : Part 1 : 1991 Issue 2, May 1999

Committees responsible for this


British Standard
The preparation of this British Standard was entrusted by the Gas Standards Policy
Committee (GSE/-) to Technical Committee GSE/30, upon which the following
bodies were represented:

British Flue and Chimney Manufacturers' Association


British Gas plc
Confederation for the Registration of Gas Installers
Consumer Policy Committee of BSI
Department of the Environment
Department of Trade and Industry (Consumer Safety Unit, CA Division)
Health and Safety Executive
Institute of Domestic Heating and Environmental Engineers
Institution of Gas Engineers
Liquefied Petroleum Gas Industry Technical Association (UK)
Society of British Gas Industries
Trades Union Congress

The following bodies were also represented in the drafting of the standard, through
subcommittees and panels:

Decorative Gas Fire Manufacturers' Association


Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers

This British Standard, having


been prepared under the
direction of the Gas Standards
Policy Committee, was published
under the authority of the
Standards Board and comes into
effect on 30 September 1991

 BSI 05-1999
Amendments issued since publication
First published July 1980
Second edition September 1991 Amd. No. Date Text affected

10454 May 1999 Indicated by a sideline

The following BSI references


relate to the work on this
standard:
Committee reference GSE/30
Draft for comment 88/70243 DC

ISBN 0 580 19811 1


Issue 1, May 1999 BS 5871-1:1999

Summary of pages
The following table identifies the current issue of each page. Issue 1 indicates that a page has been introduced
for the first time by amendment. Subsequent issue numbers indicate an updated page. Vertical sidelining on
replacement pages indicates the most recent changes (amendment, addition, deletion).

Page Issue Page Issue

Front cover 2 5 original


Inside front cover 2 6 original
a 1 7 original
b blank 8 2
1 and 2 original 9 to 28 original
3 2 Inside back cover original
4 original Back cover 2

 BSI 05-1999 a
b blank
BS 5871 : Part 1 : 1991

Contents

Page
Committees responsible Inside front cover
Foreword 3
Specification
Section 1. General
1 Scope 4
2 Definitions 4
3 Exchange of information and planning 5
Section 2. Selection of appliances
4 Appliances 6
5 Materials and components 8
6 Location 8
7 Appliance sizing 8
Section 3. Installation
8 Ventilation 9
9 Flueing 9
10 Appliance fixing 13
11 Fire precautions 22
12 Gas connections 24
13 Electricity supplies and wiring 24
14 Water connections 24
Section 4. Commissioning, instructions and use of fireguards, and
user information
15 Commissioning 26
16 Instructions and use of fireguards 26
17 User information 26
Appendix
A Calculation of required heat output of an appliance 27

1
BS 5871 : Part 1 : 1991

Page
Tables
1 Temperatures and ventilation rates 8
2 Minimum void volumes and depths below gas fire flue spigots 14
3 Fabric and ventilation heat losses for example A 28
4 Fabric and ventilation heat losses for example B 28
Figures
1 Types of fuel effect appliances covered by BS 5871 7
2 Method of installing a gas fire in conjunction with a flue box and flue pipe 11
3 Methods of using a flexible flue liner in a masonry chimney installation 12
4 Installation of side exit fanned draught flue system 13
5 Method of installing a gas fire on an existing solid fuel hearth 15
6 Method of wall mounting a gas fire on an existing chimney breast 16
7 Method of installing a gas fire on the hearth of a precast block chimney 17
8 Method of installing a gas fire on a proprietary fire surround 18
9 Method of installing an open-flued convector with integral draught diverter
on an existing solid fuel hearth 19
10 Installation where a chimney breast is extended to form a duct for
pipework and wiring 21
11 Installation using a back boiler enclosure box and chimney or flue pipe 22
12 Typical unconcealed gas supply system to a gas fire 25

2
Issue 2, May 1999 BS 5871 : Part 1 : 1991

Foreword

This Part of BS 5871 has been prepared under the direction of the Gas Standards
Policy Committee and is a revision of BS 5871 : 1980 which is withdrawn.
This revision is based on the 1980 edition but now covers 1st and 3rd family gases in
addition to 2nd family gases and gives requirements for installation..
The revision and restructuring of BS 5871 has been undertaken to reflect appliance
developments which have taken place since BS 5871 was published in 1980. These
include the wider application of fanned draught flueing, the introduction of condensing
appliances, and an increase in the range of fuel effect appliances which burn gas so as
to simulate a solid fuel fire. In the case of fuel effect appliances, the outward similarity
in appearance between appliances, coupled with the diversity of terms used to
describe them, has sometimes led to problems in identifying the relevant installation
criteria. Against this background, BS 5871 has been split into Parts so as to include all
fuel effect appliances in a single series of British Standards as follows.

BS 5871 : Part 1 Gas fires, convector heaters and fire/back boilers (1st, 2nd and
3rd family gases)
BS 5871 : Part 2 Inset live fuel effect gas fires of heat input not exceeding
15 kW (2nd and 3rd family gases)
BS 5871 : Part 31) Decorative fuel effect gas appliances of heat input not
exceeding 15 kW (2nd and 3rd family gases)

To identify which Part of BS 5871 to use when fitting an appliance which simulates a
solid fuel fire, reference should be made to figure 1 which serves to illustrate appliance
types and link them to the appropriate Part of BS 5871. It should be noted that the only
fuel effect appliances covered by this Part of BS 5871 are gas fires detailed in (h) of the
commentary and recommendations on 4.1 of this standard.
The manufacturer's instructions supplied with fanned draught appliances in which the
fan is either integral with the appliance or with the flue system will make reference to
the appropriate Part of BS 5871.
NOTE. In the preparation of this standard the opportunity has been taken to present it in the format of a
practice specification as defined in PD 6501 : Part 1. This format allows the requirements of the
specification to be supported by recommendations. To comply with this specification the user has to
comply with all its requirements. He may depart from recommendations but this would be his own
responsibility and he would be expected to have good reasons for doing so.

Compliance with a British Standard does not of itself confer immunity


from legal obligations. In particular, attention is drawn to the following statutory
regulations:
(a) The Gas Safety (Installation and Use) Regulations (S.I. 1998 No. 2451).
(b) The Gas Appliances (Safety) Regulations 1995 (S.I. 1629).
(c) The Building Regulations 1991 (S.I. 1991 No. 2768 [as amended by S.I. 1994
No. 1850]).
(d) The Building Standards (Scotland) Regulations 1990 (S.I. 2179) (as amended).
(e) Building Regulations (Northern Ireland) (Statutory Rules of Northern Ireland
1994 No. 243).
(f) The Gas Safety (Application) order 1996 (Isle of Man).
A British Standard does not purport to include all the necessary provisions of a
contract. Users of British Standards are responsible for their correct application.

1) Revision of BS 6714 : 1986.

 BSI 05-1999 3
BS 5871 : Part 1 : 1991 Section 1

Section 1. General

1 Scope 2.6 closure plate


This Part of BS 5871 specifies the installation A non-combustible plate for closing off substantially a
requirements for flued and flueless fixed space heating fireplace opening when installing a gas fire.
appliances burning 1st, 2nd and 3rd family gases for 2.7 condensing appliance
the purpose of heating rooms or spaces in domestic or
commercial premises. These types of appliance are An appliance designed to make use of the latent heat
known as radiant gas fires, radiant convector gas fires in the combustion products water vapour by
and convector heaters. Convector heaters in the form condensing the water vapour within the appliance.
of greenhouse heaters are only covered in respect of 2.8 convector heater
single appliance installations. Combined appliances of A heater that discharges heated air only into the space
the type where a gas fire is used in conjunction with a in which it is installed.
boiler or circulator are also covered in so far as the
installation of the combined appliance is concerned. 2.9 cooler device
This standard covers the selection of a suitable A device fitted at the spigot outlet of a gas fire to
appliance, the flueing and/or ventilation requirements, prevent localized overheating of a precast flue-block
and other measures necessary to ensure a safe chimney.
installation.
2.10 dress-guard
The central heating and/or hot water system connected
A guard complying with BS 1945 and fitted to the front
to a combined appliance is not within the scope of this
of and forming part of a gas fire.
standard and reference should be made to BS 5449 and
BS 5546 for this part of such an installation. 2.11 fanned draught flue system
NOTE 1. Attention is drawn to the foreword concerning fuel effect A flue system in which the draught is produced by a
appliances which burn gas so as to simulate a solid fuel fire. The fan.
only types of such appliance covered by this Part of BS 5871 are
those detailed in (h) of the commentary and recommendations 2.12 fireplace opening
on 4.1 of this standard. Further guidance in this respect is given in
figure 1. The aperture formed in the face of the builder's
NOTE 2. The titles of the publications referred to in this standard opening, the fireplace recess, flue box or fire surround,
are listed on the inside back cover. if fitted.
2.13 fireplace recess
2 Definitions The recess formed by the inclusion of fireplace
For the purposes of this Part of BS 5871 the following components in the builder's opening.
definitions apply.
2.14 fire surround
2.1 air vent A purpose-designed setting for a gas fire, fitted against
A non-adjustable purpose made grille allowing the a wall at the base of a flue and usually incorporating a
passage of air. hearth.
2.2 back boiler 2.15 flue box
A water heating appliance designed to fit into a A non-combustible enclosure that provides a substitute
fireplace recess or builder's opening to provide builder's opening or fireplace recess.
domestic hot water and/or central heating.
2.16 flue spigot restrictor
2.3 back circulator A plate designed to be fitted to a flue spigot of a gas
An appliance with a rated input not exceeding 8 kW, fire to reduce the effect of flue pull on the appliance.
designed to fit into a fireplace recess or a builder's
2.17 gas fire
opening, primarily for the supply of domestic hot
water. A flued appliance for heating one room and
incorporating a radiating surface, either in the form of
2.4 balanced-flued appliance a radiant or an imitation fuel.
A room-sealed appliance which draws its combustion
2.18 greenhouse heater
air from a point adjacent to the point at which the
combustion products are discharged, the inlet and A flueless convector heater of not more than 4 kW
outlet being so disposed that wind effects are specially designed to be able to tolerate a partially
substantially balanced. vitiated environment and, when not required to be
firmly secured, to be self-extinguishing if knocked over.
2.5 builder's opening
The enclosure constructed by the builder to
accomodate fireplace components.

4
Section 1 BS 5871 : Part 1 : 1991

2.19 hearth 3 Exchange of information and planning


A floor-level slab of fire-resisting material to prevent NOTE. Collaboration is essential between those concerned with
overheating of the floor beneath a heating appliance. the design and installation, both at the planning stage and during
the execution of the work.
2.20 imitation fuel Particular matters that shall be considered are:
A component designed to simulate solid fuel and be in (a) availability of gas supplies;
contact with gas flames.
(b) type of building, form of construction and level
2.21 infill panel of thermal insulation;
A panel of fire-resisting material having an opening to (c) location, orientation and exposure of building;
accommodate a standard closure plate, used in a (d) size, layout and purpose of rooms;
fireplace opening which is too large for the closure
plate alone. (e) assessment of heat requirements (see clause 7
and appendix A);
2.22 internal space (f) size, height, type and route of flue together with
An interior space which is not a room, such as a hall, materials of construction;
passageway, etc. (g) provision of adequate ventilation;
2.23 open flue system (h) dimensions of fireplace openings and hearths
A flue system that is open to a room or internal space together with materials of construction;
at each appliance position. (i) position of heating appliances in relation to
NOTE. A flue system which does not incorporate a draught probable position of fixtures, furniture and curtains;
diverter or other flue break is sometimes referred to as a
closed-flued system. (j) electrical and water supplies (where applicable).
COMMENTARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON CLAUSE 3.
2.24 open-flued appliance Some appliances require preliminary structural work
An appliance designed to be connected to an open flue to be completed at the building carcass stage. Suitable
system, its combustion air being drawn from the room apertures or openings should be made for connection
or space in which it is installed. to a built-in flue or for terminating a balanced-flued
2.25 radiant heater. Hearths for appliances should be provided
where necessary.
A component forming part of a gas appliance and
designed to become incandescent when heated by a
gas flame.
2.26 radiant convector gas fire
A gas fire designed to emit heat by both radiation and
convection.
2.27 radiant gas fire
A gas fire designed to emit heat mainly by radiation.
2.28 room-sealed appliance
An appliance which, when in operation, has the
combustion system isolated from the room in which
the appliance is installed.
2.29 ventilation
The process of supplying fresh air to, and removing
vitiated air from, a room or internal space.

5
BS 5871 : Part 1 : 1991 Section 2

Section 2. Selection of appliances

4 Appliances (f) In some situations it may be desirable to


provide two appliances in the same room or
The appliance selected shall comply, where applicable,
internal space rather than one, in order to obtain
with the relevant Part of BS 5258, and shall be suitable
an even temperature distribution, e.g. in a long
for the gas with which it is to be supplied and the
room. A fire/back boiler unit, together with a
intended location (see clause 6).
radiator supplied by the associated central heating
Where no standard exists, the appliance shall be circuit, provides an alternative arrangement for
designed and constructed such that it can be used heating such a room or space. Some appliances
without constituting a danger to persons. incorporate fans to improve the circulation of
COMMENTARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON CLAUSE 4. convected air.
Consideration should be given to the following. (g) Gas fires, convectors heaters, fire/back boilers
(a) Where no published British Standard exists (e.g. and fire/back circulators are available with rated
in the case of a novel appliance), the appliance heat inputs in the following approximate ranges.
should be selected only if it has been certified by a Gas fires:
recognized testing authority. Such certification will
Radiant 5 kW to 6 kW (see BS 5258 : Part 5)
be indicated in the manufacturer's literature and/or
on the appliance data plate. Radiant/convector 4 kW to 8 kW (see BS 5258 :
Part 5)
(b) The output of the appliance should be borne in
mind during selection. In general, the appliances Convector heaters:
described in this standard heat the room in which Flued 2 kW to 15 kW (see BS 5258 : Part 13)
they are installed. A fire/back boiler normally Flueless (domestic) up to 4.75 kW (see BS 5258 :
provides central heating to the rest of the dwelling Parts 10 and 11)
and also domestic hot water. A fire/back circulator
provides domestic hot water and may also heat a Greenhouse heater up to 4 kW
small number of radiators. However, a high-rated Fire/back boilers:
convector heater can be used in a hall, for example, Fire 4 kW to 8 kW (see BS 5258 : Part 8)
to provide background central heating. Boiler up to 22 kW (see BS 5258 : Part 8)
(c) Gas fires are available in two types, radiant Fire/back circulators:
fires and radiant/convector fires. They may be
open-flued or room-sealed and may be available Fire 4 kW to 8 kW (see BS 5258 : Part 8)
with either natural draught or fanned draught Circulator up to 8 kW (see BS 5258 : Part 8)
flueing. They are always fitted at low level, either (h) Gas fires of the fuel effect type covered by this
floor-standing or wall-mounted. Part of BS 5871 are available as follows:
(d) Convector heaters may be room-sealed, (1) for installation to a chimney or flue box
open-flued, or flueless. The flued types may be using a closure plate (see figure 1(a) and 9.2, 9.3
available with natural draught or fanned draught and 9.4).
flueing. They are always fitted at low level, i.e.
(2) for use with a proprietary fanned draught
floor-standing or wall-mounted.
flue system (see 9.5).
Whenever practicable a room-sealed appliance
(3) supplied with a flueing system, the fan for
should be installed. It should be noted that flueless
the evacuation of combustion products being
heaters may give rise to problems of condensation
integral with the appliance.
in the room.
The appliances covered in (2) and (3) do not
Convector heaters in the form of greenhouse heaters
require a chimney or flue box for the evacuation of
are available in two forms, those which are
their combustion products. Appliances of the type
freestanding, and those which are intended to be
detailed in (3) may be of the condensing type,
fixed to a wall or floor.
see 9.6.
(e) Any appliance described in this standard can be
(i) For information purposes, figure 1 illustrates
used to heat a room or internal space, but the type
the types of fuel effect gas appliances covered by
chosen will depend on the user's personal
BS 5871 with respect to the flue size, location,
preference; it should be based on a knowledge of the
ventilation and the passage of combustion products
range of the appliances available, the use to which
to the flue serving the appliance.
the room will be put and the period of usage.

6
Section 2 BS 5871 : Part 1 : 1991

(a) BS 5871 : Part 1


Gas fire (e.g. to BS 5258 : Part 5)

Flue size: Minimum of 125 mm across axis of flue normally


required.

Location: Normally in front of closure plate which is fitted


to fireplace opening.

Ventilation: Purpose provided ventilation not normally


required up to 7 kW input.

NOTE. For this type of appliance the radiating surface can be in the
form of either a radiant(s) or imitation fuel, the latter giving a live fuel
effect.

(b) BS 5871 : Part 2


Inset live fuel effect gas fire (e.g. to BS 5258 : Part 16)

Flue size: Minimum of 175 mm across axis of flue normally


required.

Location: Either fully or partially inset into builder's


opening or fireplace recess. (For a recess, the chairbrick
may have to be removed depending upon appliance
design.)

Ventilation: Purpose provided ventilation not normally


required up to 7 kW input.

(c) BS 5871 : Part 3


Decorative fuel effect gas appliance
(e.g. to BS 5258 : Part 12)

Flue size: Minimum of 175 mm across axis of flue normally


required.

Location: Within builder's opening or fireplace recess or


flue box, or under an associated independent canopy. (For
a recess, the chairbrick may have to be removed depending
upon appliance design.)

Ventilation: Purpose provided ventilation of at least 100 cm2


normally required up to 15 kW input.

Figure 1. Types of fuel effect appliances covered by BS 5871

7
BS 5871 : Part 1 : 1991 Issue 2, May 1999 Section 2

5 Materials and components 7 Appliance sizing


All materials and components used in the installation The heat output of the appliance shall be at least equal
shall comply with the requirements of applicable to the heating requirements agreed between the
British Standards. Materials containing asbestos shall supplier and the purchaser (see 3 (e) and appendix A).
not be used. COMMENTARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON CLAUSE 7.
COMMENTARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON CLAUSE 5. Temperature requirements, ventilation rates and
Where no British Standard exists, materials and appropriate U values are given in detail in BS 5449.
equipment should be of suitable quality and Recommended temperature requirements and typical
workmanship to fulfil their intended purpose. ventilation rates are given in table 1.

6 Location Table 1. Temperatures and ventilation rates


Room Room Ventilation rate
6.1 Appliances installed in a room or internal space temperature
containing a bath or shower shall be room sealed.
8C air changes/h
6.2 A gas appliance of greater than 14 kW heat input
Living room 21 1.5
installed in a room used or intended to be used as
sleeping accommodation shall be room sealed. Dining room 21 1.5
6.3 A gas appliance of not greater than 14 kW heat Bedsitting room 21 1.5
input installed in a room used or intended to be used Bedroom 18 1.0
as sleeping accommodation shall be room sealed or Hall and landing 18 1.5
shall incorporate a safety control designed to shut
down the appliance before there is a build up of a Kitchen 18 2.0
dangerous quantity of the products of combustion in Bathroom 22 2.0
the room concerned.
Toilet 18 2.0
COMMENTARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON 6.1, 6.2 AND
6.3. Great care is required in the location of an The steady-state heat losses from a room or internal
appliance in any premises where concentrations of space will depend upon the values of the following
flammable vapour could accumulate, e.g. commercial four basic factors:
garages and associated workshops.
(a) the size of the room or internal space;
NOTE. There is no restriction on the type or location of
appliances that can be installed in a private garage. (b) the insulation value of the building fabric;
For ventilation requirements for flueless space heaters (c) the inside/outside temperature difference;
see clause 8. (d) the ventilation rate.
Room-sealed appliances may be installed in any room It should be appreciated that since the heater will be
or space provided that the installation complies with sized to cope, under steady-state conditions, with an
the requirements of BS 5440 : Parts 1 and 2. external temperature of 21 8C, under average external
6.4 Fixed flueless space heating appliances shall not temperature conditions it will be oversized.
be installed in a bedroom, bedsitting room, or in a If the heater's normal usage is likely to be for short
room containing a bath or shower. periods only, then the steady-state requirement figure
In other locations where a fixed flueless heater is can be increased to achieve rapid warm up.
installed, the rated input shall be limited to 50 W/m3 in Examples of how to calculate the required heat output
a room, or 100 W/m3 in an internal space other than a of an appliance are given in appendix A.
room, e.g. hall, passageway or private garage.
COMMENTARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON 6.4. It should
be noted that mobile and portable appliances to
BS 5258 : Parts 10 and 11, are not covered by this
standard. For ventilation requirements for flueless
heaters, see clause 8.
6.5 An appliance for use with 3rd family gases shall
not be installed in a room or internal space below
ground level, e.g. in a basement or a cellar.
COMMENTARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON 6.5. This does
not preclude the installation of such appliances into
rooms which are basements with respect to one side of
the building but open to ground level on the opposite
side.

8  BSI 05-1999
Section 3 BS 5871 : Part 1 : 1991

Section 3. Installation

8 Ventilation 8.4.2 Independent greenhouses


Where the rated heat input to a greenhouse heater
8.1 General
exceeds 3 kW, two air vents, one at low level and one
The appliance shall have an air supply for combustion at high level, shall be fitted. The minimum effective
and ventilation in accordance with BS 5440 : Part 2. area of each air vent shall be 35 cm2 for every 1 kW of
An air vent shall not communicate directly with a the total rated heat input in excess of 3 kW.
builder's opening or fireplace recess. COMMENTARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON 8.4.2. The
COMMENTARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON 8.1. Attention term `independent greenhouse' covers those types of
is drawn to the following. greenhouse which are completely independent of a
(a) A room-sealed appliance does not require an air dwelling. Air vents are not required where the heat
vent in the room or internal space in which it is input to the greenhouse heater does not exceed 3 kW.
installed.
(b) An open-flued appliance with a rated heat input 9 Flueing
not exceeding 7 kW does not normally require an
air vent in the room or internal space in which it 9.1 General
is installed. With the exception of flueless heaters, all the
(c) A room or internal space in which a flueless appliances covered by this standard discharge their
appliance is to be installed will normally require an products of combustion to external air and shall be
openable window and an air vent communicating flued in accordance with BS 5440 : Part 1.
directly with outside air. Before installing any open-flued appliance covered by
8.2 Multi-appliance installations this standard, the correct operation of the flue shall be
verified by carrying out a test in accordance with
Where an appliance is to be installed in a room or clause 4 of BS 5440 : Part 1 : 1990.
space which already contains one or more fuel burning
appliances, the ventilation requirements shall be those Appliances shall be connected only to the types of flue
specified in BS 5440 : Part 2 for multi-appliance system as specified in the appliance manufacturer's
installations. instructions.
COMMENTARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON 8.2. Where a COMMENTARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON 9.1. For
decorative fuel effect gas appliance is already appliances covered by this Part of BS 5871, 9.1 to 9.5
installed, reference should be made to BS 5871 : Part 3 either draw particular attention to the requirements
for the ventilation requirements. in BS 5440 : Part 1 or give additional guidance or
information.
If permanent ventilation is required for a
multi-appliance installation, this should, wherever 9.2 Masonry chimneys
practicable, be sited between the appliances. Any chimney previously used for an appliance burning
Where an interconnecting wall has been removed a fuel other than gas shall be swept thoroughly before
between two rooms and the resultant room contains installing any gas appliance (see 4.1.9 of
two similar chimneys, each fitted with a gas fire or BS 5440 : Part 1 : 1990).
inset live fuel effect gas fire (see figure 1), an air vent Where an appliance is to be fitted to an existing
is not normally required if the total rated heat input chimney, any damper or restrictor plate in the chimney
of the appliances does not exceed 14 kW. shall be removed except that, where it is not
8.3 Combined appliances reasonably practicable to remove a sliding damper, it
The ventilation requirements for a fire/back boiler or shall be permanently fixed in the fully open position
fire/back circulator combination shall be calculated (see 4.1.9 of BS 5440 : Part 1 : 1990).
from the total of the maximum rated heat inputs. Before installing an appliance it shall be ensured that
the base of the flue is clear of debris.
8.4 Greenhouse installations
COMMENTARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON 9.2. A
8.4.1 Integral greenhouses masonry chimney may be oversized for some of the
An integral greenhouse containing a greenhouse heater appliances covered by this specification and therefore
shall be fitted with an air vent and an openable some means may be advisable to control the total rate
window (or equivalent). The air vent area requirements of flow through it. If a method of control is advisable
shall be as specified in BS 5440 : Part 2 for fixed it will be detailed in the appliance manufacturer's
flueless space heaters in an internal space. instructions (for example, the use of a flue spigot
COMMENTARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON 8.4.1. The restrictor).
term `integral greenhouse' covers those types of When a gas fire or fire/back circulator is connected to
greenhouse which form part of a dwelling and are a chimney designed for use with solid fuel, it is not
connected to it by means of a door. The rated heat normally necessary to fit a flue terminal to the
input to a greenhouse heater is limited to 100 W/m3 existing chimney outlet.
of heated space.

9
BS 5871 : Part 1 : 1991 Section 3

9.3 Precast flue block chimneys (c) Proprietary fanned draught flue systems for
For any gas fire, fire/back boiler or fire/back circulator fires are available in both side and rear exit forms.
installation, an opening which complies with the Figure 4 illustrates a side exit type.
appliance manufacturer's instructions shall be provided (d) Prior to installation, it will be necessary to
at the base of the flue. ensure that the system is suitable for its proposed
For open-flued convector heaters, a correctly sized location, and that the distance between the gas fire
connecting opening shall be provided at the base of and the outer face of the wall on which the flue is to
the flue. be terminated is as recommended by the flue
system manufacturer.
Where a fire is fitted to a precast flue block chimney,
any special instructions in the fire manufacturer's (e) The flue terminal should be positioned to allow
instructions shall be complied with. the free passage of air across its external face as
well as complying with the flue system
COMMENTARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON 9.3. Various
manufacturer's specifications concerning the
types of precast flue block chimney are available, e.g.
minimum acceptable distance from the terminal to
to BS 1289 or BS 6461. The manufacturer's
ground level, obstructions and ventilation openings.
instructions should be consulted regarding the
suitability of an appliance for use with a precast flue (f) It should be noted that all fanned draught flue
block chimney. Where this is permitted, openings in systems are required by the Gas Safety (Installation
which appliances are to be fitted may be made from and Use) Regulations 1984 to shut down the
purpose designed precast recess panel blocks or appliance in the event of failure of the draught.
formed of brickwork or masonry. It should be noted 9.6 Condensing appliances
that the manufacturer's instructions may include
special requirements for the installation of gas fires An appliance designed to operate in a condensing
fitted to precast flue block chimneys. Where a cooler mode shall be installed in accordance with the
device is required for use with a precast flue block manufacturer's instructions which will detail provisions
chimney, it should be specified, or supplied by, the for condensate disposal and any requirements on the
appliance manufacturer. size and length of flue.
COMMENTARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON 9.6.
9.4 Sheet metal flue systems Appliances of this type normally incorporate a fanned
Sheet metal flue systems shall comply, as appropriate, draught flue system, thus enabling small-bore flue
with BS 4543 or BS 715. piping, which may be non-metallic, to be used both
COMMENTARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON 9.4. Methods for evacuating the products of combustion and for the
of installation using a flue box, flue pipe and flexible drainage of any condensate. With such flue systems,
flue liner are shown in figures 2 and 3. special jointing techniques may apply and any
instructions should be followed.
9.5 Proprietary fanned draught flue systems The maximum length of flue pipe, including bends,
Before an appliance is installed for use with a etc., together with permitted flue materials, will be
proprietary fanned draught flue system, the appliance specified in the manufacturer's instructions.
manufacturer's instructions shall be checked to Unless otherwise specified in the manufacturer's
confirm that it is an acceptable combination. instructions, there should be a continuous drop in the
The installation shall be in accordance with the height of the flue pipe from the appliance to the point
instructions supplied by the manufacturer(s) of both of termination of 1:40. The flue pipe should project a
the appliance and of the flue system. minimum of 75 mm from the point of exit on an
Where a replacement fire is to be fitted to an existing external wall to avoid condensate dripping back onto
fanned draught flue system, the manufacturer's fixing the wall.
kit shall be used and all requirements of this standard Further details on the installation of condensing
satisfied. appliances is given in BS 5440 : Part 1.
COMMENTARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON 9.5.
Consideration should be given to the following.
(a) Proprietary fanned draught flue systems
capable of being installed in accordance with
BS 5440 : Part 1 are available.
(b) This clause is not intended to cover appliances
which have an integral fan to evacuate their
products of combustion.

10
Section 3 BS 5871 : Part 1 : 1991

Figure 2. Method of installing a gas fire in conjunction with a flue box and flue pipe

11
BS 5871 : Part 1 : 1991 Section 3

(a) Flue liner connected to a soffit plate above a builder's opening

(b) Flue liner connected to a flue box

Figure 3. Methods of using a flue liner in a masonry chimney installation

12
Section 3 BS 5871 : Part 1 : 1991

Figure 4. Installation of a side exit fanned-draught flue system

10 Appliance fixing 10.3.2 Gas fires


10.1 General 10.3.2.1 Unless otherwise specified in the
manufacturer's instructions, a gas fire shall always be
Appliances shall be installed in accordance with the
fitted using a closure plate regardless of the type of
Gas Safety (Installation and Use) Regulations 1984 and
flue system to which it is connected. To eliminate the
with due regard to the manufacturer's instructions.
entry of excess air into the flue, the closure plate shall
10.2 Siting be sealed to the fireplace wall or fire surround using
The appliance shall be stood on a hearth or floor, or an adhesive tape or other sealing material which is
secured to a wall in accordance with the suitable for the type of surface to which it is to be
manufacturer's instructions. affixed (see figures 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9) and shall be
capable of maintaining its seal throughout the range of
Where it is evident that the appliance is not sufficiently temperature to which it will be subjected. Any
stable when installed and connected to the gas supply, modification to a closure plate shall be in accordance
additional fixing shall be used to secure it. with the manufacturer's instructions.
COMMENTARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON 10.2.
COMMENTARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON 10.3.2.1. A gas
Guidance on installations using 3rd family gases is fire is normally supplied with a closure plate of
given in BS 5482 : Parts 1 and 2. dimensions 660 mm 3 460 mm incorporating an
Particular care should be taken to ensure that any opening for the insertion of the flue spigot and, where
extra fixing does not impair the ease of servicing of necessary, a ventilation or air relief opening. Any
the appliance. ventilation or air relief opening in a closure plate will
10.3 Open-flued appliances be located and sized by the manufacturer to allow the
correct flue flow rate when the appliance is in
10.3.1 General operation.
Before fixing any open-flued appliance covered by this Only tape or other sealing material capable of
standard, correct operation of the flue shall be verified maintaining its seal (e.g. adhesive strength) up to a
in accordance with clause 9. temperature of 100 8C should be used. When necessary,
it should have sufficient flexibility to seal along
uneven surfaces such as rough stone fireplaces.
When a closure plate is removed for inspection or
servicing, the tape or other sealing material should be
renewed.

13
BS 5871 : Part 1 : 1991 Section 3

10.3.2.2 Where a gas fire is brought forward from the 10.3.2.6 Where a proprietary fire surround is to be
fireplace opening, e.g. due to the low forward fitted, it shall be compatible with the intended
projection of a mantleshelf above a fireplace, a flue appliance. Any superimposed surround and hearth
spigot extension shall be used. shall be effectively sealed to the wall and floor to
NOTE. The length of a spigot may be increased by use of a spigot prevent air entrainment which could adversely affect
extension up to either 150 mm from the back of the appliance or the performance of the flue.
such other length as may be specified in the manufacturer's
instructions. COMMENTARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON 10.3.2.6.
Consideration should be given to the following points.
The flue spigot or spigot extension shall pass through
the closure plate and extend through it for at least (a) The compatibility between the surround and the
15 mm (see figures 5, 6 and 8). There shall be a fire should be confirmed at the planning stage.
minimum clearance of 50 mm (see figures 5, 6 and 8) at (b) Proprietary fire surrounds are available which
the end of the flue spigot or flue products outlet. have been tested and found satisfactory for use with
gas fires.
10.3.2.3 Where a closure plate is inadequate to fill the
fireplace opening completely, or where required for (c) The methods of securing and sealing a surround
aesthetic reasons, an infill panel or surround shall be and hearth to a floor and wall will be given in the
used with an opening to which a closure plate may be fire surround manufacturer's instructions.
secured. 10.3.2.7 To assist the correct operation of the gas fire,
10.3.2.4 The gas fire shall be fitted so that there is a the fireplace recess or builder's opening shall have
void below the base of the spigot for the collection of only two openings, an entrance or entrances through
debris. The volume of the void and its depth below the the closure plate and an exit via the flue.
fire spigot shall be as given in table 2. The finished All other openings, in particular, gaps/cracks inside the
opening into the void shall be large enough to permit builder's opening (including in or around any
the clearance of any debris when the gas fire and the chairbrick), those between any surround and the
closure plate is removed. builder's opening, those which may exist in respect of
an existing underfloor air supply, and those made for
10.3.2.5 Where a flue pipe is used, for example in the the passage of gas and flue pipes and electric cables,
case where no purpose-made chimney is available, the shall be sealed.
gas fire shall be fitted to a flue box which is capable of
accepting a closure plate (see figure 2). COMMENTARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON 10.3.2.7. The
reason for sealing these other openings is that they
The fire shall be fitted so that there is a minimum reduce the flue suction on the fire and can allow
depth of 75 mm below the flue spigot. combustion products into the room. An acceptable
COMMENTARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON 10.3.2.5. The way of sealing these openings would be by use of, for
flue box should be made of precast concrete, insulated example, cement or fireclay.
metal or other non-combustible material and be Where a masonry chimney is fitted with a flue liner
suitable for connection to a 125 mm diameter flue and flue box assembly (see figure 3), the annular
pipe. space between the liner and the chimney should be
Proprietary sheet metal flue boxes complying with sealed at the base with a material such as mineral
BS 715 are available. wool.

Table 2. Minimum void volumes and depths below gas fire flue spigots
Debris catchment Masonry chimneys Block chimneys
Minimum void Unlined Lined (clay or cement) New or unused1) Previously used2)
Volume
New or unused1) Previously used2)

dm3
2 Ø Ø
12 Ø Ø Ø
Depth
mm
75 Ø Ø
250 Ø Ø Ø
1)
A new or unused chimney, or one previously used only with a gas appliance.
2)
Previously used with a solid fuel or oil burning appliance.
NOTE. A `Ø' in the table indicates a requirement.

14
Section 3 BS 5871 : Part 1 : 1991

(a) General installation

(b) Sectional view


All dimensions are in millimetres.

Figure 5. Method of installing a gas fire on an existing solid fuel hearth

15
BS 5871 : Part 1 : 1991 Section 3

(a) General installation

(b) Sectional view


All dimensions are in millimetres.
Figure 6. Method of wall mounting a gas fire on an existing chimney breast

16
Section 3 BS 5871 : Part 1 : 1991

Figure 7. Method of installing a gas fire on the hearth of a precast block chimney

17
BS 5871 : Part 1 : 1991 Section 3

(a) General installation

(b) Sectional view


All dimensions are in millimetres.

Figure 8. Method of installing a gas fire on a proprietary fire surround

18
Section 3 BS 5871 : Part 1 : 1991

(a) General installation

(b) Sectional view


All dimensions are in millimetres.

Figure 9. Method of installing an open-flued convector with integral draught diverter on an


existing solid fuel hearth

19
BS 5871 : Part 1 : 1991 Section 3

10.3.3 Convector heaters 10.3.4.2 Existing lined chimneys


An open-flued convector heater incorporating its own Where a chimney has been lined during construction,
draught diverter shall be connected to a lined or e.g. with a clay lining, a short length of either rigid or
unlined brick chimney, a precast flue block chimney, or flexible flue pipe of a size appropriate for the back
to a flue pipe. boiler flue outlet shall be used to connect the
Where a convector heater is fitted to a chimney or a appliance to the chimney liner such that the flue pipe
precast flue block chimney, the appropriate void projects at least 150 mm into the liner.
requirement for the collection of debris specified The annular space between the short length of flue
in 10.3.2.4 shall be complied with. pipe and chimney liner shall be sealed using a material
Where a closure plate is fitted, this shall be sealed to in such a way that it does not restrict the flue pipe exit
the fireplace wall or fireplace opening in accordance and will not fall out into the back boiler enclosure.
with 10.3.2, as appropriate. Where a back circulator is to be installed, any special
COMMENTARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON 10.3.3. Where flueing arrangements contained in the appliance
a convector heater is fitted to a 225 mm 3 225 mm manufacturer's instructions shall be complied with.
brick chimney (see figure 9), a void below the spigot COMMENTARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON 10.3.4.2.
not less than 12 dm3 should be available. It should be Consideration should be given to the following points.
noted that not all convectors heaters are suitable for a (a) Generally, chimneys built later than 1965 will
precast block chimney, see the appliance incorporate a liner of a minimum diameter of
manufacturer's instructions. 175 mm.
10.3.4 Fire/back boilers and fire/back circulators (b) The builder's opening at the base of the chimney
will form the back boiler enclosure.
10.3.4.1 Existing unlined chimneys
(c) A typical way of sealing the annular space
Where a back circulator is to be fitted to an unlined between the chimney and liner would be by the use
chimney, the flue products outlet connection shall be of mineral wool.
such as to:
(d) Generally, back circulators are designed for
(a) prevent the entry of falling debris into the fitting to both unlined and lined chimneys. As
appliance flue spigot or flue connection piece (see such, the flue outlet will normally comply with
(d) of commentary and recommendations 10.3.4.1 (a) and (b) and there will be no provision
on 10.3.4.2); and for connecting the flue outlet to any flue lining.
(b) provide a void of a minimum volume of 12 dm3
below the lowest point of the flue products outlet 10.3.4.3 Extensions to chimney breasts
(see (d) of commentary and recommendations If an extension to an existing chimney breast is
on 10.3.4.2). constructed to form a duct for pipework, cables, etc.,
Where a back boiler is to be fitted, the chimney shall the builder's opening shall be sealed from such a duct
be lined, e.g. by the use of a flexible flue liner. The in accordance with 10.3.4.4 and as shown in figure 10.
lining shall be connected directly to the outlet of the 10.3.4.4 Sealing of extraneous openings to back
draught diverter of the back boiler, in accordance with boiler/circulator enclosures
the manufacturer's instructions. The liner shall be
continuous from the appliance to the terminal. To assist the correct operation of the fire/back boiler
or fire/back circulator, the enclosure shall have only
Any annular space between the flue liner and the two openings, an entrance through and round the back
chimney shall be sealed at the base and at the top of of the fire and an exit via the flue. All other openings,
the chimney. At the base this shall be done in such a in particular, gap/cracks inside the builder's opening
way that the sealant will not fall out into the back (including in or around any chairbrick), those between
boiler enclosure. The flue liner shall be supported at any surround and the builder's opening, those which
the top of the chimney. exist in respect of an existing underfloor air supply,
COMMENTARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON 10.3.4.1. and those made for the passage of gas, water, flue
Consideration should be given to the following points. pipes and electric cables, shall be sealed.
(a) Where a back circulator is installed, it should COMMENTARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON 10.3.4.4. The
not be necessary to line the chimney provided the reason for sealing these other openings is that they
flue length does not exceed 10 m (external wall) or provide a passage for combustion products to
12 m (internal wall) (see BS 5440 : Part 1). produce a flue effect which, apart from
(b) If a flexible flue liner is fitted, the support at the transmitting the combustion products, can also
top of the chimney can be made by means of a cause excessive air movement under the fire
sealing plate or other suitable means.
(c) A typical way of sealing the annular space
between the chimney and the flexible flue liner at
the base would be by use of mineral wool.

20
Section 3 BS 5871 : Part 1 : 1991

Figure 10. Installation where a chimney breast is extended to form a duct for pipework and
wiring

leading to flame distortion. An acceptable way of 10.3.4.6 Precast flue block chimney or a flue pipe
sealing those openings would be by the use of, for Where there is no solid fuel appliance chimney, a
example, cement or fireclay. purpose-made non-combustible box shall be provided
10.3.4.5 Flue termination to take the place of the builder's opening and provide
the back boiler or back circulator enclosure. The back
Where a chimney has been lined with a flue pipe or
boiler enclosure shall stand on, or shall incorporate, a
flexible flue liner, a terminal that complies with the
hearth which can support the weight of the enclosure
performance test requirements given in BS 715 and/or
and fire/back boiler (see figure 11). Adventitious
BS 1289 shall be fitted. The terminal shall be of the
openings to back boiler/circulator enclosures shall be
same nominal size as the flue pipe or liner to which it
sealed in accordance with 10.3.4.4.
is connected. The flue pipe or liner shall not protrude
into the terminal so as to restrict the products outlet. The associated precast flue block chimney, or flue
pipe, shall be properly connected to the back boiler
COMMENTARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON 10.3.4.5. The
enclosure box and the joint sealed with, for example,
terminal will generally be fitted in place of the
fireclay. A terminal shall be installed at the top of the
existing chimney pot. In cases where this would leave
chimney in accordance with 10.3.4.5.
the terminal openings obstructed, e.g. by adjacent
chimney pots, it is possible to fit the terminal on top COMMENTARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON 10.3.4.6.
of the existing chimney pot to enable free dispersal of Fire/back boilers were originally designed to be
flue products at all times. installed in houses having chimneys and fireplaces
constructed for solid fuel appliances, but they are
For an unlined chimney (see 10.3.4.1) it is not equally suitable for houses without such chimneys
normally necessary to fit a flue terminal in place of, where a suitable back boiler enclosure, hearth, flue
or to, the existing chimney outlet. and terminal are provided.

21
BS 5871 : Part 1 : 1991 Section 3

Figure 11. Installation using a back boiler enclosure box and chimney or flue pipe

The back boiler enclosure may be a proprietary item 10.5 Flueless appliances
made of precast concrete, insulated metal or other A flueless convector (domestic) and a greenhouse
non-combustible material or it may be constructed in heater (not being of the type that is self-extinguishing
situ of suitable material. The appliance if knocked over) shall be firmly secured to a wall or
manufacturer's instructions should detail the floor and fitted to a gas connection in accordance with
minimum dimensions; the typical internal clause 12.
dimensions are as follows:
Height 900 mm
11 Fire precautions
Width 585 mm
Depth 375 mm 11.1 Floor protection/hearths and bases

10.4 Room-sealed appliances 11.1.1 Gas fires


Room-sealed appliances shall be installed in A hearth complying with 11.1.2 to 11.1.5 shall be
accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. provided for a fire unless the fire complies with the
requirements of BS 5258 : Part 5 for installation without
For installations using 3rd family gases the appliance a hearth. If the fire is intended for wall mounting it
shall be sited such that the terminal is at least 1 m shall be installed such that any flame or incandescent
(measured horizontally) from any gas supply materials are at least 225 mm above the carpet or any
cylinder(s). floor covering.
COMMENTARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON 10.4. The COMMENTARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON 11.1.1. Certain
manufacturer's instructions will detail the types and gas fires may be installed without a hearth; in such
thicknesses of wall upon which the appliance may be cases the appliance manufacturer's instructions will
installed, together with any special instructions provide details. Where the floor is of the type that is
regarding the flue termination. Further information likely to be covered, any flame or incandescent
on the installation of room-sealed flue systems is materials should be at least 300 mm above the floor in
given in BS 5440 : Part 1, and in British Gas plc order to make allowance for floor coverings beneath
publication DM2 `Guide for gas installations in the appliance.
timber framed housing'.

22
Section 3 BS 5871 : Part 1 : 1991

11.1.2 Materials 11.1.7 Convector heaters


Where a hearth is required, this shall be made from 11.1.7.1 Domestic
fire-resisting material.
A hearth complying with 11.1.2 to 11.1.4, or any other
COMMENTARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON 11.1.2. method of protection indicated in the appliance
Purpose-made proprietary hearths are available whose manufacturer's instructions, shall be provided for a
suitability for the particular application should be convector heater unless:
established from the hearth manufacturer.
(a) the convector heater complies with the
11.1.3 Thickness requirements of BS 5258 : Part 13 for installation
A hearth shall have a minimum thickness of 12 mm. onto a combustible floor;
(b) the convector heater is intended for wall
11.1.4 Dimensions
mounting in which case it shall be installed in
The hearth shall extend at least 300 mm forward from accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, or
the back plane of the gas fire, and at least 150 mm such that any flame or incandescent materials are at
beyond each edge of the naked flame or incandescent least 225 mm above any carpet or floor covering.
radiant source.
11.1.7.2 Greenhouse heaters
COMMENTARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON 11.1.4. These
dimensions are the minimum required as The appliance shall be positioned on a flat level
precautions against heat. It may be necessary or non-combustible surface, i.e. paving slabs or concrete
desirable to increase the hearth area, for example in base. Any fixing brackets or other method supplied or
order to ensure that the fire is stable on the hearth. recommended by the manufacturer shall be used.
11.1.5 Fire/back boilers and fire/back circulators 11.2 Protection at rear of appliance
Where a hearth is required for a fire/back boiler or Combustible material at the rear of an appliance shall
fire/back circulator installation, the hearth and its be protected against the effects of heat transmission.
supports shall be able to safely carry the mass of the Where the appliance instruction state that it is suitable
appliance. for mounting on or against combustible material then
any special instructions in this respect shall be
The height of the fire hearth above the finished floor
complied with.
level shall be appropriate to the type of installation. If
the fire associated with the back boiler or back When fitting a gas fire, convector heater, fire/back
circulator is to fit on a hearth, then the back boiler boiler or fire/back circulator to a fireplace opening,
base shall be at the same height as the fire hearth. The combustible material shall not be fitted inside this
dimensions of the fire hearth shall be in accordance opening.
with 11.1.3 and 11.1.4. If the fire is to be wall COMMENTARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON 11.2. The
mounted, the height of the back boiler base shall be instructions for the appliance will detail suitable
sufficient to enable the fire to meet the height surfaces upon which the gas fire may be mounted
requirement specified in 11.1.1. together with any special requirements such as the
COMMENTARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON 11.1.5. When a fitting of plates or plinths, etc. (see also 10.3.2.6).
fire/back boiler or fire/back circulator is installed at 11.3 Side wall protection
the base of a chimney, which will usually be
associated with an existing hearth, no additional 11.3.1 Gas fires
precautions are necessary to protect the surrounding A gas fire shall be installed such that no part of a
floor. combustible side wall, when measured laterally from
11.1.6 Bases the flame or incandescent radiant source, is less than
500 mm, or such figure as specified in the appliance
Where a base is required for a back boiler or back manufacturer's instructions, from that radiant source.
circulator unit it shall be of solid, non-combustible
material not less than 25 mm thick placed upon 11.3.2 Convector heaters (all types)
non-combustible supports of height not less than A convector heater shall be installed such that no part
25 mm. It shall extend not less than 150 mm from the of the combustible side wall is less than 150 mm, or
back and sides of the back boiler. If there is a wall other such figure as specified in the appliance
within 150 mm it shall extend to that wall. It shall also manufacturer's instructions, from the warm air outlet.
extend at least to the front of the builder's opening.

23
BS 5871 : Part 1 : 1991 Section 3

11.4 Shelf protection 12.6 A gas cock or other means of isolation shall be
An appliance shall only be fitted below a shelf or fitted on the inlet supply to the appliance. A means of
similar projection of combustible material where this is disconnection shall be fitted, if not integral with the
permitted by the appliance manufacturer's instructions. appliance, between the isolation device and the
appliance.
COMMENTARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON 11.4. Where
appropriate, the appliance manufacturer's COMMENTARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON 12.6 Where
instructions will detail any limitation on the height appliances are fixed in nurseries, old people's homes,
and depth of the shelf above the appliance or any etc. the isolation device may be of the type fitted with
protection necessary to prevent the shelf from reaching a removable key.
an excessive temperature.
11.5 Protection of adjacent combustible material 13 Electricity supplies and wiring
The protection of combustible material adjacent to flue 13.1 The electrical wiring installation to the appliance
pipes shall be in accordance with BS 5440 : Part 1. shall comply with the Institution of Electrical
COMMENTARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON 11.5 Engineers Regulations for Electrical Installations.
Particular attention is drawn to the appliance COMMENTARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON 13.1. For
manufacturer's instructions concerning the proximity room-sealed installations in bathrooms and shower
of curtains and other combustible materials in rooms, or rooms in which a bath or shower is
relation to the appliance or its flue pipe. positioned, attention is drawn to the special
requirements of the regulations concerning the
positioning of electrical switches associated with the
12 Gas connections appliance.
12.1 Gas connections to the appliance shall be in
13.2 Electricity supplies to the appliances and any
accordance with BS 6891 (2nd family gases) or
ancillary controls shall be installed in accordance with
BS 5482 : Parts 1 and 2 (3rd family gases).
the appliance manufacturer's instructions. All electrical
The pipe connections to the appliance shall be of components shall be designed for the electrical supply
malleable iron, mild steel, copper or stainless steel. voltage and of at least a rating to carry the electrical
Other fittings shall be of these materials or of brass. current required by the operation of the equipment.
12.2 Connections to the appliance shall not be subject 13.3 All fuses shall be rated in accordance with the
to strain. appliance manufacturer's instructions.
12.3 Where the final connection to the appliance is to 13.4 Any point of connection to the mains electricity
be concealed, any part of the gas supply pipe buried in shall be readily accessible and the method of
the structure or running within a chimney recess shall connection shall provide electrical isolation of the
be suitably sleeved or protected (for example, coated appliance and all ancillary electrical controls by either:
or wrapped with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tape).
(a) a fused, double pole switch or spur box; or
12.4 All connections, whether concealed or not, shall (b) a fused three pin plug and a shuttered
allow the fire to be removed for periodic inspection of socket-outlet.
the debris collection space.
12.5 Flexible connections shall be used for 14 Water connections
greenhouse heaters which are freestanding, which are
Water connections shall be in accordance with the
installed in independent greenhouses (see commentary
local Water Bye-laws, BS 5449 and BS 5546.
and recommendations on 8.4.2) and which incorporate
a device for self-extinguishing if the appliance is Where water pipes pass through a wall or run within a
knocked over. chimney recess, they shall be suitably protected (for
example, sleeved or coated or wrapped with PVC
Rigid connections shall be used for all other appliances
tape). All openings for the passage of water pipes in
covered by this standard.
builder's openings shall be sealed in accordance
COMMENTARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON 12.5. A typical with 10.3.4.4.
gas supply system to a gas fire is shown in figure 12.
In the case of 1st family gas installations, due regard
should be taken of BS 6891.

24
Section 3 BS 5871 : Part 1 : 1991

Figure 12. Typical unconcealed gas supply system to a gas fire

25
BS 5871 : Part 1 : 1991 Section 4

Section 4. Commissioning, instructions and use of


fireguards, and user information

15 Commissioning 16 Instructions and use of fireguards


15.1 All gas fittings forming part of the installation All instructions provided by the appliance
shall be tested for soundness, and purged (see either manufacturer shall be left with the owner or the
BS 6891 (2nd family gases) or BS 5482 : Parts 1 and 2 occupier of the premises in which the appliance is
(3rd family gases), as appropriate). installed.
COMMENTARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON CLAUSE 16. It
15.2 The gas rate shall be adjusted, where necessary, should be noted that under the Gas Safety
to the correct rate as specified in the appliance (Installation and Use) Regulations 1984, the installer
manufacturer's instructions, or as indicated on the is required to leave any instructions supplied with the
appliance data plate. appliance.
15.3 The appliance shall be checked for spillage in These instructions should include reference to
accordance with the appliance manufacturer's fireguards, in particular that fireguards, in
instructions. Where no such instructions exist, the accordance with BS 6539 or BS 6778, should be fitted
appliance shall be checked for spillage in accordance when the appliance is used in the presence of young
with BS 5440 : Part 1. children, the elderly or infirm.
Where any room of the premises is fitted with a fan Further guidance and information concerned with the
(e.g. an extract fan, or a fan incorporated within an effective guarding of fires and heating appliances is
appliance), operation of the fan(s) shall not adversely given in PD 6516.
affect the performance of the flue when the flue is
tested in accordance with BS 5440 : Part 1.
If the installation fails to comply with the spillage test
17 User information
given in the appliance manufacturer's instructions, and Information shall be provided to the user on the
the installation cannot be immediately corrected, the operation and the need for regular servicing for
appliance shall be disconnected and the customer continued safe and correct operation of the appliance.
notified. COMMENTARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON CLAUSE 17.
COMMENTARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON 15.3. In the Wherever possible, the installer should demonstrate the
case of gas fires, the manufacturer's recommended correct and safe operation of the appliance and advise
method for spillage testing is normally given on a the customer on the need for regular servicing.
badge attached to the appliance and is also detailed in
their instructions. Where spillage is detected, the fire
should be removed and both the appliance and the flue
examined; removal of any spigot restrictor may
improve the performance.
15.4 Correct and safe appliance operation shall be
checked in accordance with the appliance
manufacturer's commissioning instructions.

26
Appendix A BS 5871 : Part 1 : 1991

Appendix

Appendix A. Calculation of required heat A.4 Calculation method and examples


output of an appliance Calculate and add together the fabric and ventilation
heat losses from the room (or space) in which the
A.1 Sizing a room heater appliance is to be sited. This figure will represent the
Heat is lost from a room to the fabric of the building, design heat loss. The required heat output of the
i.e. through walls and floors, and as a result of appliance should be at least equal to the design heat
ventilation heat losses. The heat output of an appliance loss, i.e:
is usually sized to match these heat losses under
design conditions, i.e. the assumed internal and Required heat output $ Design heat loss (W/m3)
external temperatures of a room and the assumed
ventilation rate. Typical design values for temperature A demonstration of this method is given in example A.
and ventilation are given in table 1. It should be noted that the heat output calculated in
Experience has shown that for normal use a radiant the example relates solely to the construction specified
convector gas fire with either radiants or imitation fuel and should not be used as a guide to appliance sizing.
and with a heat output of approximately 5 kW will Example A. Living room
normally be adequate for single room heating and may, A radiator convector gas fire is installed in a living
after a heat up period at full rate, be used a turn down room in a house where no energy conservation
rate to maintain comfort conditions within the room. measures have been taken, no cavity insulation, no
Where a customer requires an appliance to provide double glazing and only linoleum floor covering. The
background heating only, possibly a room heater room has two external walls and dimensions of
installed in a hall, the installer should calculate the 4 m 3 4 m 3 2.4 m with a single window of
appliance size on a reduced heat service. A 1.5 m 3 1 m. The temperature of the adjacent hall and
temperature of 168C is considered suitable for kitchen, and upstairs bedroom, is 18 8C and the
background heating. ventilation rate is 1.5 air changes per hour.
A.2 Fabric heat losses For a temperature of 21 8C in the living room the data
To calculate the heat loss (in W) through the structure needed to obtain the minimum heat output required
of an element (e.g. a wall) the following formula is from the fire is given in table 3. From the data given
used: in table 3 the total or design heat loss is calculated to
be 1339 W. The heat output of the appliance therefore
heat loss = surface area (m2) 3 U value (W/m2⋅8C) should be at least 1.34 kW.
3 temperature difference (8C)
Example B. Hall
The heat loss is calculated for each wall, window and
floor in a room. In the case of an outside wall the A convector heater is installed in a hall having two
outside design temperature is normally taken to be external cavity walls, a single window 1.5 m 3 1 m and
21 8C. Heat loss coefficients for typical building dimensions of 3 m 3 1.5 m 3 6 m. The temperature
structures, called U values, are quoted in BS 5449 and required is 16 8C and the ventilation rate is 1.5 air
the CIBSE guide, volume A, Design data. changes per hour.
The data needed to obtain the minimum heat output
A.3 Ventilation heat losses required from the convector heater is given in table 4.
To calculate the heat loss (in W) from a room due to From the data given in table 4 the total or design heat
ventilation the following formula is used: loss is calculated to be 1654 W. The heat output of the
heat loss = air change rate/h 3 volume (m3) 3 appliance should therefore be at least 1.65 kW.
ventilation factor (W/m3⋅8C) 3 temperature
difference (8C)
The ventilation factor is normally taken to be
0.33 W/m3⋅8C.

27
BS 5871 : Part 1 : 1991 Appendix A

Table 3. Fabric and ventilation heat losses for example A


Fabric heat losses
Element Area U value Temperature Heat loss
difference
m2 W/m2⋅8C 8C W
Outside wall 4 3 2.4 0.92 22 195
Outside wall (4 3 2.4) 2 1.5 0.92 22 264
Party walls 4 3 2.4 (3 2) 1.90 3 110
Ground floor 434 0.59 22 208
Ceiling 434 1.62 3 78
Window 1.5 3 1 5.0 22 165
Ventilation heat losses
Ventilation rate Volume Ventilation factor Temperature Heat loss
difference
Air change rate/h m3 W/m3⋅8C 8C W
1.5 4 3 4 3 2.4 0.33 22 419

Table 4. Fabric and ventilation heat losses for example B


Fabric heat losses
Element Area U value Temperature Heat loss
difference
m2 W/m2⋅8C 8C W
Outside wall 336 0.92 17 282
(1.5 3 6) 2 1.5 0.92 17 118
336 1.90 17 582
Party wall 1.5 3 5 1.90 17 291
Roof 3 3 1.5 0.34 17 26
Window 1.5 3 1 5.0 17 128
Ventilation heat losses
Ventilation rate Volume Ventilation factor Temperature Heat loss
difference
Air change rate/h m3 W/m3⋅8C 8C W
1.5 3 3 1.5 3 6 0.33 17 227

28
BS 5871 : Part 1 : 1991

Publication(s) referred to

BS 715 Specification for metal flue pipes, fittings, terminals and accessories for gas-fired appliances with
a rated input not exceeding 60 kW
BS 1289 Flue blocks and masonry terminals for gas appliances
BS 1945 Specification for fireguards for heating appliances (gas, electric and oil-burning)
BS 4543 Factory-made insulated chimneys
BS 5258 Safety of domestic gas appliances
Part 5 Specification for gas fires
Part 8 Combined appliances gas fire/back boiler
Part 10 Flueless space heaters (excluding catalytic combustion heaters). (3rd family gases)
Part 11 Flueless catalytic combustion heaters (3rd family gases)
Part 12 Specification for decorative fuel effect gas appliances (2nd and 3rd family gases)
Part 13 Specification for convector heaters
Part 16 Specification for inset live fuel effect gas fires
BS 5440 Installation of flues and ventilation for gas appliances of rated input not exceeding 60 kW (1st,
2nd and 3rd family gases)
Part 1 Specification for installation of flues
Part 2 Specification for installation of ventilation for gas appliances
BS 5449 Specification for forced circulation hot water central heating systems for domestic premises
BS 5482 Code of practice for domestic butane- and propane-gas-burning installations
Part 1 Installations in permanent dwellings
Part 2 Installations in caravans and non-permanent dwellings
BS 5546 Specification for installation of gas hot water supplies for domestic purposes (1st, 2nd and 3rd
family gases)
BS 5871 Specification for installation of gas fires, convector heaters, fire/back boilers and decorative fuel
effect gas appliances
1)Part 2 Inset live fuel effect gas fires of heat input not exceeding 15 kW (2nd and 3rd family gases)
1)Part 3 Decorative fuel effect gas appliances of heat input not exceeding 15 kW (2nd and 3rd
family gases)
BS 6461 Installation of chimneys and flues for domestic appliances burning solid fuel (including wood and
peat)
BS 6539 Specification for fireguards for use with solid fuel appliances
BS 6778 Specification for fireguards for use with portable, free standing or wall-mounted heating
appliances
BS 6891 Specification for installation of low pressure gas pipework of up to 28 mm (R1) in domestic
premises (2nd family gas)
PD 6501 The preparation of British Standards for building and civil engineering
Part 1 Guide to the types of British Standard, their aims, relationship, content and application
PD 6516 Guide to guarding fires and heating appliances
British Gas plc publication DM2 Guide for gas installations in timber framed housing2)
Regulations for Electrical Installations3)
CIBSE guide, volume A. Design data4)

1) Referred to in the foreword only.


2) Available from British Gas plc. 326 High Holborn, London WC1V 7PT.
3) Available from the Institution of Electrical Engineers, PO Box 8, Hitchin, Herts SG5 IRS.
4) Available from CIBSE, Delta House, 222 Balham High Road, London SW12 9BS.
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