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10 Technology & Livelihood Education Agricultural Crop Production Learner’s Material GOVERNMENT PROPERTY NOT FOR
10 Technology & Livelihood Education Agricultural Crop Production Learner’s Material
10
Technology & Livelihood Education
Agricultural Crop Production
Learner’s Material

GOVERNMENT PROPERTY NOT FOR SALE ALLOTTED TO

District/ School:

Division First Year of Use:

Source of Fund (Year included):

Technology & Livelihood Education Grade 10 Agricultural Crop Production Learner’s Material First Edition, 2014 ISBN:

Republic Act 8293, section 176 states that: No copyright shall subsist in any work of the Government of the Philippines. However, prior approval of the government agency or office wherein the work is created shall be necessary for exploitation of such work for profit. Such agency or office may, among other things, impose as a condition the payment of royalties.

Borrowed materials (i.e., songs, stories, poems, pictures, photos, brand names, trademarks, etc.) included in this book are owned by their respective copyright holders. Every effort has been exerted to locate and seek permission to use these materials from their respective copyright owners. The publisher and authors do not represent nor claim ownership over them.

Published by the Department of Education Secretary: Br. Armin A. Luistro FSC Undersecretary: Yolanda S. Quijano, PhD Assistant Secretary: Elena R. Ruiz, PhD

Development Team of the Teaching Guide

Consultant: PEDRITO S. NITURAL , PhD

Central Luzon State University Science City of Munos, Nueva Ecija Subject Specialist & Management:

Authors:

EMMANUEL S. VALDEZ,

ALBERT B. ERNI

JESUS B. NAZARENO, MDM

Principal III,

Division of Pangasinan II, Region I

RODOLFO C. SAJORDA, MSAE

Principal, Queen of Heart Academy Da smarinas City, Cavite

Bersamin Agro-Industrial High School

Validated By: Dr. Dennis M. Lucas, Sr

EPP/TLE Div. Coordinator Division Of Puerto Princessa City

Andres Z. Taguiam, PhD

Technological University of the Philippines Dasmarinas City Campus

Editors: Lourdes Lualhati, Rogelio Limsan Reviewers: Dr. Cristina Celarta, Restituta Paragas Illustrator: James M. Gaje

Printed in the Philippines by Department of Education-Instructional MaterialsCouncil Secretariat (DepEd IMCS)

Office Address:

2 nd Floor Dorm G, Philsports Complex, Meralco Avenue,

Telefax:

Pasig City, Philippines 1600 (02) 634-1054, 634-1072

E-mail Address:

imcsetd@yahoo.com

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE

PAGE

Quarter I MODULE 1 - ENTREPRENEURSHIP

WHAT IS THIS MODULE ALL ABOUT WHAT WILL YOU LEARN

PRE TEST

LESSON I

Personal Entrepreneurial Competencies (PECS)

WHAT IS THIS LESSON ALL ABOUT WHAT WILL YOU LEARN WHAT WILL YOU KNOW WHAT TO PROCESS WHAT TO REFLECT AND UNDERSTAND WHAT TO TRANSFER POST TEST DEFINITION OF TERMS REFERENCES

LESSON II

M arket and Environment

WHAT IS THIS LESSON ALL ABOUT WHAT WILL YOU LEARN WHAT WILL YOU KNOW WHAT TO PROCESS WHAT TO REFLECT AND UNDERSTAND WHAT TO TRANSFER POST TEST DEFINITION OF TERMS REFERENCES

MODULE II - Agricultural Crop

W ork (Rice Production)

WHAT IS THIS MODULE ALL ABOUT

1

WHAT WILL YOU LEARN PRETEST

Quarter II

LESSON I

Preparation of materials, tools, and equipment for rice production work

WHAT IS THIS LESSON ALL ABOUT WHAT WILL YOU LEARN WHAT WILL YOU KNOW WHAT TO PROCESS WHAT TO REFLECT AND UNDERSTAND WHAT TO TRANSFER POST TEST DEFINITION OF TERMS

LESSON II

Site Selection and Soil analysis

WHAT IS THIS LESSON ALL ABOUT WHAT WILL YOU LEARN WHAT WILL YOU KNOW WHAT TO PROCESS WHAT TO REFLECT AND UNDERSTAND WHAT TO TRANSFER POST TEST DEFINITION OF TERMS

LESSON III

Land preparation (Irrigated/rainfed)

WHAT IS THIS LESSON ALL ABOUT WHAT WILL YOU LEARN WHAT WILL YOU KNOW WHAT TO PROCESS WHAT TO REFLECT AND UNDERSTAND WHAT TO TRANSFER

POST TEST DEFINITION OF TERMS

2

LESSON IV

Seed Selection

WHAT IS THIS LESSON ALL ABOUT WHAT WILL YOU LEARN WHAT WILL YOU KNOW WHAT TO PROCESS WHAT TO REFLECT AND UNDERSTAND WHAT TO TRANSFER. POST TEST DEFINITION OF TERMS

QUARTER III

LESSON V

Seedling production

WHAT IS THIS LESSON ALL ABOUT WHAT WILL YOU LEARN WHAT WILL YOU KNOW WHAT TO PROCESS WHAT TO REFLECT AND UNDERSTAND WHAT TO TRANSFER. POST TEST DEFINITION OF TERMS

LESSON VI

Planting/Transplanting

WHAT IS THIS LESSON ALL ABOUT WHAT WILL YOU LEARN WHAT WILL YOU KNOW WHAT TO PROCESS WHAT TO REFLECT AND UNDERSTAND WHAT TO TRANSFER POST TEST DEFINITION OF TERMS

LESSON VII

Nutrient M anagement

WHAT IS THIS LESSON ALL ABOUT

WHAT WILL YOU LEARN PRE TEST WHAT WILL YOU KNOW WHAT TO PROCESS WHAT TO REFLECT AND UNDERSTAND WHAT TO TRANSFER. POST TEST DEFINITION OF TERMS

LESSON VIII

W ater M anagement

WHAT IS THIS LESSON ALL ABOUT WHAT WILL YOU LEARN PRE TEST WHAT WILL YOU KNOW WHAT TO PROCESS. WHAT TO REFLECT AND UNDERSTAND WHAT TO TRANSFER POST TEST DEFINITION OF TERMS

QUARTER IV

LESSON IX

Pest M anagement

WHAT IS THIS LESSON ALL ABOUT WHAT WILL YOU LEARN PRE TEST WHAT WILL YOU KNOW WHAT TO PROCESS. WHAT TO REFLECT AND UNDERSTAND WHAT TO TRANSFER POST TEST DEFINITION OF TERMS

LESSON X

Harvesting , Threshing , Drying, Storing and M illing

WHAT IS THIS LESSON ALL ABOUT WHAT WILL YOU LEARN PRE TEST

4

WHAT WILL YOU KNOW WHAT TO PROCESS. WHAT TO REFLECT AND UNDERSTAND WHAT TO TRANSFER POST TEST DEFINITION OF TERMS

LESSON XI

M arketing, and Keeping Farm Records and Accounts

WHAT IS THIS LESSON ALL ABOUT WHAT WILL YOU LEARN PRE TEST WHAT WILL YOU KNOW WHAT TO PROCESS. WHAT TO REFLECT AND UNDERSTAND WHAT TO TRANSFER POST TEST DEFINITION OF TERMS

REFERENCES

5

QUARTER 1 Learning M aterial No. I

PERSONAL ENTREPRENEURIAL COMPETENCIES (PEC’S) ACROSS MARKET AND ENVIRONMENT

Personal Entrepreneurial Competencies (PECs)

Content Standards

 

Performance Standards

The

learner

demonstrates

The learner independently creates a plan of action that strengthens/ further develops his/her PECs in Agricultural- Crop Production.

understanding

of

one’s

PECs

in

Agricultural-Crop Production

of one’s PECs in Agricultural-Crop Production Quarter I Time Allotment 4 hours Module 1 Personal

Quarter I

Time Allotment 4 hours

Module 1 Personal Entrepreneurial Competencies

Introduction

In this module you will learn more about entrepreneurship and the entrepreneurial competencies related to Agricultural-Crop Production. You will

have

crop

producer/agri-entrepreneur within your province. There are some activities below that will help you align your competencies with the competencies of successful practitioners. Moreover, this module is designed to stimulate your mind to think about entrepreneurship, its role in the business community in particular and to the economic and social development in general.

assessment

a

first-hand

of

experience

in

educational

activities

of

leading

a

to

personal

your

entrepreneurial

competencies

successful

Now, to

start with this module, let us first learn what is the difference

between entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurs are people with skills and capabilities to build, organize and evaluate business opportunities. They are individuals who can strategically identify products or services needed by the community and deliver these at the right time and the right place. Entrepreneurs are agents of economic change; they organize, manage and assume risks of a business. Some of the good qualities of an entrepreneur are opportunity seeker, risk taker, goal setter, excellent planner, confident problem solver, hardworking, persistent and committed worker.

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Entrepreneurship on the other hand is not just a simple business activity. It is a strategic process of innovation and new venture creation. Basically, entrepreneurship is both an art and a science of converting business ideas into marketable products or services to improve the quality of living. Now that you have a little background knowledge about entrepreneur and

entrepreneurship,

can

you

now

walk

through

in

assessing

your

Personal

Entrepreneurial

Competencies

(PECs)?

Always

remember

that

Successful

entrepreneurs continuously develop and improve their PECs.

To begin with, let us first try to find out the competencies you will master after finishing this module.

OBJECTIVES

At the end of this module, you are expected to:

- identify areas for improvement, development and growth;

- align your PECs according to your business/career choice; and

- create a plan of action that ensures success in your business/career choice

Now that you have an idea about the enabling knowledge and skill that you will develop/achieve and master, try to take the first challenge in this module the pre-assessment.

take the first challenge in this module the pre-assessment. Pre-assessment your knowledge on the topic. To
Pre-assessment
Pre-assessment

your

knowledge on the topic. To diagnose/assess what you already know about

personal entrepreneurial competencies. Answer the tasks below.

As

part

of

your

initial

activity,

you will

be

challenged

to

test

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Task 1: Matching Type

Direction: Match the entrepreneurial competencies in column A with their meaning in column B. Write the letter of the correct answers in your test notebook /test paper.

A

1. Creative

2. Profit Oriented

3. Discipline

4. Decision Making

5. People Skill

6. Planner

7. Self-confidence

B decision towards the

a. makes a wise

attainment

of the set objectives

b. strategic

c.

d. adaptable to change

e. innovative, have edge over other competitors

f.

g. skillful in record keeping

thinking and setting of goals

trusts in one’s ability

solid dedication

8. Hardworking

h.

always sticks to the plan

9. Ability to accept change

i.

works diligently

10.

Committed

j

effective and efficient communication and relationship with people

skills

Task 2: Guide Questions

k. always looks for income

Direction: The following are guide questions which encapsulate the entire module. Write your answers on your assignment notebook, then share these in class.

A. Explain why entrepreneurial activities are important to social development and progress of the economy.

B. What entrepreneurial activities do you know and are capable of doing which are related to agri-business?

C. Given the opportunity to own a business that relates with agricultural crop-production, are you confident to manage it? Explain your answer.

D. What do you think are the most important competencies you must possess in order to become successful in your chosen business?

E. Name successful entrepreneurs from your province whose business is related to agricultural-crop production. Be able to share with the class their PECs that made them successful.

After all the guide questions have been answered to the best of your knowledge and skills, share these with your classmates. You, too, may compare your insights, personal knowledge, and relevant experiences on the topic to make it more exciting and engaging.

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LEARNING GOALS AND TARGET

After reading and understanding the objectives of this module and having gone through pre-assessment and answering the guide questions, you will be asked to set your own personal goals. These goals will inspire you to further achieve the ultimate objecti ve of this module . In the end, these goals would motivate you to learn more about PECs.

Goals and Targets
Goals and
Targets
Learning Activities
Learning
Activities
Ultimate Goal
Ultimate
Goal

Figure 1: Strategic process to achieve the objectives of this module.

READING RESOURCES AND INSTRUCTIONAL ACTIVITIES

After setting your own personal goals and targets to achieve the objectives

Try to answer the

of this module, check first your inherent knowledge of PECs. following guide questions with the help of your classmates.

Task 3: Group Activity

Direction: Answer the following guide questions on a separate sheet of paper. Share your answer with the class.

1. Explain the importance of assessing one’s PECs before engaging in a particular entrepreneurial activity.

2. Are there other strategies or approaches where you can assess your PECs? Explain how these would become more useful in selecting a viable business venture.

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3.

What are the desirable personal characteristics, attributes, lifestyles, skills, and traits of a prospective entrepreneur? Why do you think these are important?

4. Why is there a need to assess one’s PECs in terms of characteristics, attributes, lifestyles, skills, and traits before starting a particular business?

5. What is the significance of evaluating PECs of a successful entrepreneur? What helpful insights can you draw from this activity?

How was your experience in answering the guide questions together with your classmates? Were you able to benefit from them? What insights have you realized? This time you’re going to study the lessons that will enrich your knowledge about PECs. Read carefully all the important details about the succeeding topic.

all the important details about the succeeding topic. Know Assessment of Personal Entrepreneurial Competencies
Know
Know

Assessment of Personal Entrepreneurial Competencies (PECs) and skills vis-à-vis a practicing entrepreneur/employee in a province.

Here is an example of how a successful practitioner behaves. You can evaluate her attitude towards agricultural crop production and the business opportunity that lies ahead.

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REBECCA C. TUBONGBANUA: WOMAN FARMER-SCIENTIST September 26, 2010 filipino achievers Woman-Farmer-Scientist Rebecca
REBECCA C. TUBONGBANUA: WOMAN FARMER-SCIENTIST
September 26, 2010 filipino achievers
Woman-Farmer-Scientist
Rebecca Tubongbanua is a successful agri-entrepreneur from San
Isidro,Buenavista, Guimaras. She entered the world of business in 2003, with a
measly capital amounting seven thousand pesos.
She toiled for several years experimenting and perfecting her sulfite-free
and low-sugar technology in processing indigenous fruits, primarily the Guimaras
mangoes.
She put up an agri-business firm-the McNester, which caters to
consumers in the national and global market as well. Her processed commodities
include mango jam, mango-calamansi concentrate, dried mango, mango
chutney, calamansi juice, mango with calamansi juice, mango sauce, mango
ketchup-regular, pineapple ketchup-hot and spicy, Indian mango pickles, and
pineapple marmalade.
Tagbanua was elected as President of the Guimaras, Producers and
Processors Association. In 2007, she was chosen as Magsasakang Siyentista
(Farmers Scientist), and elected as Secretary General of the National Scientists
Association. In addition, she was nominated as Gawad Saka Awardee, and
because of her numerous achievements, she was cited
by former Agriculture
Secretary Arthur Yap in 2010 as one of the top 200 agri-entrepreneur of the
country.

The entrepreneurial competencies refer to the important characteristics that should be possessed by an individual in order to perform entrepreneurial functions effectively. In this module, you will learn some of the most important characteristics, attributes, lifestyle, skills, and traits of a successful entrepreneur in order to be successful in a chosen career.

Below are few important characteristics/traits/attributes of a good entrepreneur:

Hardworking: One of the important characteristics of a good entrepreneur is being a hard worker. This means habitually working diligently for hours. Hardworking people keep on improving their performance to produce good products and/or provide good services.

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Self-confident: Entrepreneurs have confidence in their own ability and judgment. They exhibit self-confidence which enables them to cope with all the risks in operating their own business.

Discipline: Successful entrepreneurs always stick to the plan and fight the temptation to do what is unimportant.

Committed: A good entrepreneur accepts full responsibility in all aspects of his/her business. He/she gives full commitment and solid dedication to make the business succeed.

Ability to accept change: Nothing is permanent but change. Change occurs frequently. When one owns a business, he/she should cope with and thrive on changes. He capitalizes on positive changes to make his business grow.

Creative: An entrepreneur should be creative and innovative to stay in business and in order to have an edge over other competitors.

Has the Initiative: An entrepreneur takes the initiative. He assumes responsibility in the failure or success of his business.

Profit-Oriented: A person enters the world of business to generate profit or additional income. Therefore, he must see to it that the business would prosper.

Listed below are the important skills of a successful entrepreneur.

Planner: Planning is a strategic thinking and setting of goals to achieve objectives and carefully maximizing all the available resources. A good entrepreneur develops and applies step-by-step plans to realize goals. He knows that planning is effective only when combined with diligent action.

People Skills: are skills which are very important in order to be successful in any kind of business. People skills refer to an effective and efficient communication and relationship with people working in and out of the business. In day-to-day business transactions , one needs to deal with people. Well- developed people skills can spell out the difference between success and failure of the business.

Decision Making: Successful entrepreneurs have the ability to think quickly and make a wise decision towards the pre-determined set of objectives. No one can deny that the ability to make decision is an

12

important skill that an entrepreneur should possess. Sound decision should spring out from given facts/information and should be directed towards the pre-determined objectives.

should be directed towards the pre-determined objectives. In order Process to firm up what you have

In

order

Process
Process

to

firm

up

what

you have

learned

and

to

have

a

better

appreciation of the different entrepreneurial competencies, try to read the PECs

checklist presented below, then answer the same.

Task 4: PECs Checklist

Directions: Using the PECs Checklist, assess yourself by indicating a check (/) mark in either strengths and/or development areas column. Interpret the results by counting the total number of check marks in each of the columns. After

share your insights and

accomplishing the checklist, form a group and

experiences why you have come up with that personal assessment.

Table 1: PECs Checklist

 

Personal Assessment in terms of:

Personal Entrepreneurial Competencies of an Entrepreneur

Strength

Development

Areas

Hardworking

     

-

Works diligently

 

Self-confident

     

-

Confidence in one’s ability

 

Discipline

     

-

Sticks to the plan

 

Committed

     

-

Solid dedication

 

Ability to accept change

     

-

Adaptable to change

 

Creative

     

-

Innovative

to

have

an

edge

over

other competitors

 

Profit-oriented

     

-

Always looks for income

 
 

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Planner

-

Strategically thinks and sets goals

People Skills

-

Has effective and efficient communication skills and relationship with people

Decision Making

-

Makes a wise decision towards the set objectives

 

TOTAL

Interpretation/Insights:

the set objectives   TOTAL Interpretation/Insights: Reflect and Understand How was your experience in
Reflect and Understand
Reflect and Understand

How was your experience in discovering your strengths and the areas to be developed? Did you gain valuable experience in exchanging insights with your classmates? To learn more and deepen your understanding of PECs, do Task 5 below.

Task 5: Interview

your

province whose type of business is related with agricultural-crop production. Focus your interview on PECs and other business-related attributes that help them become successful. Analyze the result of the interview and reflect on the similarities and/or differences. Write your answer on a separate sheet of paper.

Interview

successful

agri-business

owners

or

entrepreneurs

in

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Sample Interview Guide

Name of Proprietor/Practitioner:

Age:

Business Name:

Business Address:

Number of Years in Business:

1. What are your preparations before you engaged in this type of business/job?

2. What are your special skills/characteristics that are related to your business/job?

3. How did you solve business-related problems during the early years of your business operation?

4. Did you follow the tips from a successful businessman/practitioner before you engaged in your business?

5. What are your best business practices that you can share with aspiring students?

6. What are your salient characteristics, attributes, lifestyle, skills, and traits that made you successful in your business/job?

Note: Ask the needed information from the interview to supply answer/s to Row 1 in the table below. Meanwhile, fill out the second row with your PECs.

Personal

Entrepreneurial

Competencies

Characteristics

Attributes

Lifestyles

Skills

Traits

Successful Entrepreneur in the province

My PECs

Using the information from the table above, analyze, and reflect on the similarities and differences in your answers. Put your reflection on the

table below.

Write your conclusion on the space provided on the next

page.

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Personal

Entrepreneurial

Competencies

Similarities

Differences

Characteristics

Attributes

Lifestyles

Skills

Traits

Conclusion:

Attributes Lifestyles Skills Traits Conclusion: Transfer After performing the activities on the importance
Transfer
Transfer

After performing the activities on the importance of PECs, let us determine how much you have learned. Perform Task 6 to determine how well you have understood the lesson. Task 6: Preparation of a Plan of Action

Directions: Using the table below and the information generated from Task 5 (Interview), prepare an action plan that indicates how you would align your PECs to the PECs of the successful agri-business owners in your province.

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Objective

 

Area

Activities

Strategies

Time

Expected

Frame

Outcome

To

align

my

         

PECs with the

Characteristics

PECs

of

a

successful

entrepreneur in

agri-

buisness/agri-

crop

Skills

       

Attributes

       

Traits

       

Task 7: Essential Questions

Direction: Read and study the following questions below. You may use a separate sheet of paper or your notebook to write your answers.

1. Why is there a need to compare and align your PECs with the PECs of a successful entrepreneur?

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2. How does your action plan help sustain your strong PECs and/or address your development areas?

3. What plan of action would you do to address your development areas?

ENVIRONMENT AND MARKET (EM)

 

Content Standards

 

Performance Standards

The

learner

demonstrates

The learner independently creates a business vicinity map reflective of potential market in agri-business in a province.

understanding

of

environment

and

market

in

agricultural-crop

production in one’s province.

 
production in one’s province.   Quarter I Time Allotment: 4 hours Module 2 Environment and

Quarter I

Time Allotment: 4 hours

Module 2 Environment and Market

Introduction

People who aspire to start a business need to explore the economic, cultural and social conditions prevailing in the area. Needs and wants of the people around the vicinity that are not met may be considered as business opportunities. Identifying the needs of the community, its resources, available raw materials, skills, and appropriate technology can help a new entrepreneur in seizing a business opportunity.

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To be successful in any kind of business venture, potential entrepreneurs

should always look closely at the environment and market.

be watchful of the existing opportunities and constraints. The opportunities in the business environment are those factors that provide possibilities for a business to

expand and make more profits. Constraints, on the other hand, are those factors that limit the ability to grow, hence reducing the chance of generating profit. One of the best ways to evaluate the opportunities and constraints is to conduct SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) Analysis.

They should always

SWOT analysis is a managerial tool to assess the environment . It gathers important information, which in turn is used in crafting a strategic plan. Strengths and weaknesses are internal in an organization. Basically they relate to resources owned by the organization, things that one has control over, as- well as the extent of its marketing capability.

Opportunities and Threats exist in the external environment. Opportunities relate to the market, development of new technologies, and external factors such as government policies, climate, and trends. Threats relate to what the competition is doing as well as legal and other constraints.

Now that you have read some of the important things to consider to succeed in any business, you are now ready to explore more about the environment and market.

To begin with, let’s

first try to find out the competencies that you will

master after finishing this module.

OBJECTIVES At the end of this module, you are expected to:

- identify what is of “Value” to the customer;

- identify the customer to sell to;

- explain what makes a product unique and competitive;

- apply creativity and innovative techniques to develop marketable product; and

- employ a Unique Selling Proposition (USP) to the product/service.

Now that you have an idea about the things you will learn, try to take the first challenge in this module-- the pre-assessment.

19

Pre-assessment Task I: Multiple Choice Direction: Choose the letter of the best answer. Write your
Pre-assessment
Pre-assessment

Task I: Multiple Choice

Direction: Choose the letter of the best answer. Write your answer on a separate sheet of paper.

1. This is generated by examining what goods and services are sold outside the community.

A. Business

Creation

C. Business

Concept

B. Business

Pricing

D. Business Idea

2. A process of making a new product to be sold to the customers.

A. Product Analysis

B. Product Conceptualization

C. Product Development D. Product Implementation

3. These are luxuries, advantages, and desires that every individual considers beyond necessary.

A. Wants

B. Desires

C. Requirements D. Needs

4. This is the factor or consideration presented by a seller as the reason that

one product or service is better and different from that of the competitors.

A. Unique Selling Plan

B. Unique Selling Proposition

C. Unique Pricing Policy D. Finding Value-Added

5. In this stage , the needs of the target market are identified, review ed, and evaluated.

A. Concept Development

B. Economic Analysis

C. Project Development D. Refine Specification

6. This is the introduction of a new idea to make the product and services

more attractive and saleable to prospective customers.

A. New Idea

B. Creativity

C. Product Development D. Innovation

7. A managerial tool used to assess the environment in gathering important information used for strategic planning.

A. Environmental Scanning

B. SWOT Analysis

C. WOTS Analysis D. Survey Analysis

8. A marketing practice of creating name, symbol or design that identifies and differentiate a product from others.

A. Product Naming

C. Branding

B. Unique Selling Proposition

D. Tagline

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9. This is a meaningful and unforgettable statement that captures the essence of your brand.

A. Product Naming

C. Branding

B. Unique Selling Proposition

D. Tagline

10. These are the things that people cannot live without.

A. Wants

B. Desires

Task 2: Guide Questions:

C. Requirements D. Needs

Directions: Read and study the guide questions below. You may use a separate sheet of paper to write your responses to the guide questions.

1. How does one determine the product or service to be offered/delivered to the target customers?

2. How does one select an entrepreneurial activity?

3. When can one say that a certain product has a “value”?

4. Are innovation and creativity to your product/service important? Explain.

5. How can one effectively respond to the needs of the target customer?

6. What is the importance of scanning the environment and market in generating business idea?

7. What is your level of confidence in formulating a business idea after your self assessment? Explain.

After all the guide questions have been answered and skills have been mastered, share them with your classmates. Discuss your insights, personal knowledge of, and relevant experiences on the topic to make it more exciting and engaging.

LEARNING GOALS AND TARGET After reading and understanding the objectives of this module and having gone through pre-assessment and answering the guide questions, you will be asked to set your own personal goals. These goals will inspire you to further achieve the ultimate objective of this module . In the end, these goals would

21

motivate you to learn more about Environment and Market.

Goals and Learning Targets Activities
Goals and
Learning
Targets
Activities
Ultimate Goal
Ultimate
Goal

Figure 2: Strategic process to reach the objectives of this module

READING RESOURCES AND INSTRUCTIONAL ACTIVITIES

After setting your own personal goals and targets to achieve the objectives of this module, you will have the opportunity to read and learn more about environment and market. You, too, will also be given a chance to do practical exercises and activities to deepen your understanding of the topic.

and activities to deepen your understanding of the topic. Know Product Development When we talk of
Know
Know

Product Development

When we talk of product development, we are referring to a process of making a new product to be sold by a business or enterprise to its customers. Product development may involve modification of an existing product or its presentation, or formulation of an entirely new product that satisfies a newly defined customer’s needs and/or want and/or a market place.

The term development in this module refers collectively to the entire process of identifying a market opportunity, creating a product to appeal to the identified market, and finally, testing, modifying and refining the product until this

will be

consumers.

ready for production. This product can be any item to be sold to the

There are basic, yet vital questions that you can ask yourself. When you shall find acceptable answers to these, you can say that you are ready to develop a product and/or render service.

1. For whom are the product/service aimed?

2. What benefit will the customers expect from it?

3. How will the product differ from the existing brand? Or from their competitor?

Likewise, needs and wants of the people within the area should also be taken into consideration. Everyone has his or her own needs and wants.

22

However, people have different concepts of needs and wants. Needs in business are important things that every individual do without in a society. These include:

1. Basic commodities for consumption

2. Clothing and other personal belongings

3. Shelter, sanitation and health

4. Education

Basic needs are essential to every individual so he/she may be able to live

These needs can obviously

help you generate business ideas and subsequently to develop a marketable product.

Wants are desires, luxury, and extravagance that signify wealth and an expensive way of living. Wants or desires are considered above all the basic

necessities of life.

individual which are non- basic needs like fashion accessories, shoes, clothes, travelling around the world, eating in an exclusive restaurant, watching movies, concerts, plays, having luxurious cars, wearing expensive jewelry, perfume, living in impressive homes, and others.

Needs and wants of people are the basic indicators of the kind of business that you may engage into because they can serve as the measure of your success. Some other good points that you might consider in business undertakings are the people, their needs, wants, lifestyle, culture, and tradition, and social orientation. To summarize, product development entirely depends on the needs and wants of the customers. Another important issue to deal with are the key concept of developing a product. The succeeding topic shall enlighten you about the procedure in coming up with a product concept.

Some examples are the eagerness or the passion of every

with dignity and pride in the community of people.

Concepts of Developing a Product

Concept development is a very critical phase in developing of a product. From this stage, the needs of the target market are identified and competitive products are reviewed before the product specifications are defined. The product concept is selected along with an economic analysis to come up with an outline of how a product is being developed. Below is a figure that shows the stages of concept development of a product.

Identify Customer Needs
Identify
Customer
Needs
Establish Target Specifications
Establish
Target
Specifications
Generate Product Concepts
Generate
Product
Concepts
Select a Product Concept
Select a
Product
Concept
Refine Specifications
Refine
Specifications
Concepts Select a Product Concept Refine Specifications Analyze Competitive 23 Perform i E Plan Remaining Developmen

Analyze

Competitive

23

Perform

i

E

Plan

Remaining

Development

Figure 3: Concept Development

The process of product development follows these steps:

A. Identify Customer Needs - Using survey forms, interviews, researches, focused group discussions, and observations an entrepreneur can easily identify customers’ needs and wants. In this stage , the information that can possibly be gathered here are product specifications (performance, taste, size, color, shape, life span of the product, etc.). This stage is very important because this would determine the product to be produced or provided.

B. Establish Target Specifications - Based on customers' needs and reviews of competitive products, you may now establish target specifications of the prospective new product and/or service. Target specifications are essentially a wish-list.

C. Analyze

existing

competitive

product/service specifications. Other products may exhibit successful design attributes that should be emulated or improved upon in the new

product/service.

Competitive

products

Products

to

provide

-

It

is

imperative

to

analyze

on

important

information

establishing

D. Generate Product Concepts - After having gone through with the previous processes, you may now develop a number of product concepts to illustrate what types of product/service are both technically feasible and would best meet the requirements of the target consumers/market.

E. Select a Product Concept - Through the process of evaluation between

attributes, a final concept is selected. After the final selection, additional

market

customers.

research can be applied to obtain feedbacks from certain key

F. Refine Product Specifications - In this stage, product/service specifications are refined on the basis of input from the foregoing activities. Final specifications are the results of extensive study. Expected service life and projected selling price are being considered in this stage.

G. Perform Economic Analysis - Throughout the process of product development, it is very important to always review and estimate the economic implications regarding development expenses, manufacturing costs, and selling price of the product/service to be offered/provided.

H. Plan th e Remaining Development Project - In this final stage of concept development, you may prepare a detailed development plan which includes

24

a list of activities, the necessary resources and expenses, and a development schedule with milestones for tracking progress.

Finding Value

with milestones for tracking progress. Finding Value reason, there should be something in your product/service

reason, there should be something in your

product/service that would give consumers a good reason to go back and buy for more. There must be something that has to make you the best option for your target customers; otherwise they have no reason to buy what you are selling. This implies further, that you offer something to your customers which they will value or treasure.

People

buy

for

a

The value that you incorporate to your product is called value proposition. Value proposition is “a believable collection of the most persuasive reasons people should notice you and take the action you are asking for.” Value is created by fulfilling deep desires and solving deep problems. This is what gets the people moving, and keep them spending for your product/service.

Innovation

Innovation is the introduction of something new in your product/service. This may be a new idea, a new m ethod or a device. If you want to increase your sales and profit you must innovate. Some of the possible innovations in your products are change in packaging, improved taste, color, size, shape, and perhaps price. Some of the possible innovations in providing services are application of new improved methods, additional feature of product/ services, and possibly, freebies.

25

did with the Guimaras

mangoes aside from its known qualities. She made mango jam, mango calamansi concentrate, mango sauce, mango ketchup-regular to make a difference from other existing products in the market.

Let

us

go

back

to

what

Mrs.Tubongbanua

Unique Selling Proposition (USP)

Unique Selling Proposition is the factor or consideration presented by a seller as the reason that the product or service being offered is different from and better than that of other key players or competitors. Before you can begin to sell your product or service to your target customers, you have to sell yourself into it. This is especially important when your product or service is similar to those around you.

USP would require careful analysis of other businesses' ads and marketing messages. If you analyze what they say or what they sell, apart from the qualities of their product or service, you can learn a great deal about how companies distinguished themselves from competitors.

Here's how to discover your USP and use it to increase your sales and profit:

Use empathy: Put yourself in the shoes of your customers. Always focus on the needs of the target customers and forget falling in love with your own product or service. Always remember, you are making this product or providing for the target customers to eventually increase sales and earn high profit. You are not making this product or service for yourself. Essential questions such as what could make them come back again and again and ignore your competitors? Most possible answers will be focused on the quality, availability, convenience, cleanliness, reliability, and friendliness. Agriculture products are not that hard to sell because they form part of our basic needs of everyone.

Identify what motivates your customers . It is very important for you to understand and find out what drives and motivates your customers to buy your product/service. Make some efforts to find out, analyze, and utilize the information that motivates the customers in their decisions to purchase your product/service.

Discover the actual and genuine reasons why customers buy your product instead of that of your competitor's. Information is very

26

important in decision making. Competitive entrepreneur always endeavor to improve his/her products/services and constantly provide satisfaction and sustain patronage of customers. As your business grows, you should always consider the process of asking your customers some important information and feedback that you can use to improve your product/services.

feedback that you can use to improve your product/services. Process In order to firm up your
Process
Process

In order to firm up your understanding of the topic previously presented , you will be tasked to form a group and conduct an interview with a successful agri-entrepreneur/practitioner. You have to document this interview and present this to the whole class for reflection and appreciation.

Task 3: Interview

Directions:

Select a successful entrepreneur/practitioner. Conduct an interview by utilizing the sets of questions below. Document the interview and present this to the class.

1. How did you identify your customers?

2. What were your considerations in selecting your customers?

3. Explain how your product/service become unique from other product/s.

4. Did you consult somebody before you engage in this business? Cite sample insights that you gained from the consultation.

5. What were your preparations before you started the actual business?

6. What creative and innovative techniques did you adapt to your product/service? What was the effect of the innovative techniques on the sales and profits of your business?

7. What strategies did you consider to have a unique selling proposition for your product/service?

27

Task 4: Video Viewing Reflect and Understand In order to deepen your understanding of the

Task 4: Video Viewing

Reflect and Understand
Reflect and Understand

In order to deepen your understanding of the lesson, perform the following

tasks:

1. Browse the internet on topics related to:

a. customers’ needs and wants particularly on agricultural crops;

b. techniques in identifying customers’ needs and wants;

c. creativity/innovations in products and services in the market, agricultural crops in particular;

d. unique selling proposition; and

e. product development.

2. Prepare a short narrative report about the aforementioned topics. You may highlight the “aspect” that intensifies your knowledge of product development.

that intensifies your knowledge of product development. Transfer Task 5: Product Conceptualization Directions :
Transfer
Transfer

Task 5: Product Conceptualization

Directions:

product/services.

Using

the

figures

below

develop

28

your

own

concept

for

your

1. Identify Customers Need 7. Prepare a 2. Target - Development Specifications - - Plan
1. Identify
Customers
Need
7. Prepare a
2. Target
-
Development
Specifications
-
-
Plan
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6. Refine
3. Analyze a
Product
Competitive
Specification
Product
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5. Select a
Product
Concept
4. Generate
Product
Concept
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-

29

Know Generating Ideas for Business The process of developing/generating business idea is not a simple
Know
Know

Generating Ideas for Business

The process of developing/generating business idea is not a simple process. Some people come up with a bunch of business ideas, while some are without ideas. There are two problems that arise; first is the excessive generation of ideas that makes one remain in the dreaming stage, and second, when one fails to generate.

The most optimal way is to have a systematic approach in generating and selecting ideas that will be translated into a viable business. Here are some basic yet very important considerations that you may use to generate possible ideas for business:

1. Examine the existing goods and services. Are you satisfied with the product? What do other people who use the product say about it? How can it be improved? There are many ways of improving a product from the way it is crafted up to the time it is packed and sold. You can also improve the materials used in crafting the product. In addition, you introduce new ways of using the product, making it more useful and adaptable to the customers’ many needs. When you are improving the product or enhancing it, you are doing an innovation. You can also do an invention by introducing an entirely new product to replace the old one.

Business ideas may also be generated by examining what goods and services are sold outside the community. Very often, these products are sold in a form that can still be enhanced or improved.

2. Examine the present and future needs. Look and listen to what the customers, institution, and communities are missing in terms of goods and services. Sometimes, these needs are already obvious and felt at the moment. Other needs are not that obvious because they can only be felt in the future, in the event of certain developments in the community. For example, a province will have its electrification facility in the next six months.

30

Only by that time will the entrepreneur could think of agricultural products which are made using electrically-powered tools or equipment.

3. Examine how the needs are being satisfied. Needs for the products and services are referred to as market demand. To satisfy these needs is to supply the products and services that meet the demands of the market. The term market refers to whoever will use or buy the product or services, and these include people or institutions such as other businesses, establishments, organizations, or government agencies.

There is a very good business opportunity when there is absolute lack of supply of a pressing market demand.

Businesses or industries in the locality also have needs for goods and services. Their needs for raw materials, maintenance, and other services such as selling and distribution are good sources of ideas for business.

4. Examine the available resources around you. Observe what materials or skills are available in abundance in your area. A business can be started out of available raw materials by selling them in raw form and by processing and manufacturing them into finished products. For example, in a copra- producing town, there will be many coconut husks and shells available as “waste” products. These can be collected and made into coco rags/doormat and charcoal bricks; then sold profitably outside the community.

A group of people in your neighborhood may have some special skills that can be harnessed for business. For example, women in the Mountain Province possess loom weaving skills that have been passed on from one generation to the next. Some communities there set up weaving businesses to produce blankets, decorative items, and various souvenir items for sale to tourists and lowland communities.

Business ideas can come from your own skills.

The work and experience

you may have in agricultural arts, industrial arts, home economics, and ICT

classes will provide you with business opportunities to acquire the needed skills which will earn for you extra income, should you decide to engage in income -

generating activities.

your spare time. Many products were invented this way.

With your skills, you may also try on doing things during

5. Read magazines, news articles, and other publications on new products and techniques or advances in technology . You can pick up new business ideas from Newsweek, Reader’s Digest, Business Magazines, “Go Negosyo, KAB materials or Small-Industry Journal. The Internet serves as a library where you may browse and surf on possible businesses. It will also

31

guide you on how to put the right product in the right place, at the right price and at the right time.

Listings of possible businesses to set up in an area may also be available from banks or local non-government organizations.

Key Concepts of Selecting a Business Idea

Once you have embarked on identifying the business opportunities, you will eventually see that there are many possibilities available for you. It is very unlikely that you will have enough resources to pursue all of them at once. Which one will you choose?

You have to select the most promising one from among a hundred and

one ideas.

ideas to narrow them down to about five choices.

the five choices to two options.

decide which business idea is worth pursuing.

It will be good to do this in s tages.

In the first stage, screen your In the next stage, trim down

In the final stage, choose between the two and

In screening your ideas, examine each one in terms of the following factors:

1. How much capital is needed to put up the business?

2. How big is the demand for the product? Do many people need this product and will continue to need it for a long time?

3. How is the demand met? Who are processing the products to meet the need (competition or demand)? How much of the need is now being met (supply)?

4. Do you have the background and experience needed to run this particular business?

5. Will the business be legal, not going against any existing or foreseeable government regulation?

6. Is the business in line with your interest and expertise?

Your answers to these questions will be helpful in screening which ones from among your many ideas are worth examining further and worth pursuing.

32

Branding

Branding Branding is a marketing practice of creating name, symbol or design that identifies and differentiates

Branding is a marketing practice of creating name, symbol or design that identifies and differentiates product/service from that of the competitors . It is also a promise to your customers. It tells them what they can expec t from your product/ service and it differentiates your offerings from other competitors. Your brand is derived from who you are, who you want to be, and who people perceive you to be.

Branding is one of the most important aspects of any business. An effective brand strategy gives yo u a major edge in increasingly competitive markets.

The features of a good product brand are as follows:

- delivers the message clearly

- confirms your credibility

- connects your target prospects emotionally

- motivates the buyer

- concretizes user loyalty

Here are some simple tips to publicize your brand.

.

Develop a tagline. Write a meaningful, unforgettable, and easy-to- remember statement that captures the essence of your brand.

Design a great logo. Create a logo suitable to your business and consistent with your tagline and advertise it.

Write down your brand messaging. Select key messages you want to communicate about your brand.

Be true to your brand. Deliver your brand promise.

33

Be consistent. Be reliable and consistent every time.

 Be consistent. Be reliable and consistent every time. Process In generating a business idea, you
Process
Process

In generating a business idea, you should first identify what type of

business is suited to your business idea. You should analyze and scan the

potential environment, study the marketing practices and strategies of your

competitors, analyze the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and the

Threats in your environment to ensure that the products/goods and service you

are planning to offer will be patronized within the easy reach by your target

markets/consumers.

Bear in mind these simple rules for successful SWOT analysis.

Be realistic about the strengths and weaknesses of your business when conducting SWOT analysis.

SWOT analysis should distinguish between where your business is today, and where it could be in the future.

SWOT should always be specific. Avoid any grey areas.

Always apply SWOT in relation to your competition i.e. better than or worse than your competition.

Keep your SWOT short and simple. Avoid complexity and over analysis

SWOT is subjective.

Task 6: SWOT Analysis

Direction s : In generating a business idea, environment al scanning is very

important. Utilize the SWOT analysis table below to list all your observations.

34

Consider the strategies below to select the best business idea.

Strength (S)

Weaknesses (W)

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Opportunities (O)

Threats (T)

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Strategize:

SW Utilize the strengths to overcome the weakness

OS - Capitalize on the opportunities to eliminate the weakness

ST Maximize on your strengths to eliminate the external threats

OT Take advantage of the available opportunities to eliminate the external threats.

Strategies/Activities:

Analysis:

35

My Best Business Idea:

My Best Business Idea: Reflect and Understand In order to deepen your understanding of the topics
Reflect and Understand
Reflect and Understand

In order to deepen your understanding of the topics previously discussed, you will be asked to perform the following activities:

Task 7: Extra Readings and Video Viewing

Reading books and watching videos have been considered two of the most effective educational activities that help learners deepen their understanding of a certain topic. In this particular circumstance , you will be asked to conduct extra readings and video viewings on the following topics:

A. Steps in selecting a business idea

B. Criteria of a viable business idea

C. Benefits of a good brand

D. Ways of developing a product

After successfully performing the assigned task, make a narrative report about this and share it with the class.

36

Transfer Task 9: Making my own Logo Direction: Generate a clear appealing product brand with
Transfer
Transfer

Task 9: Making my own Logo

Direction: Generate a clear appealing product brand with logo and tagline.

Logo

Taglin

37

GRADE 10 LEARNING MATERIALS K TO 12 CURRICULUM AGRICULTURAL CROP PRODUCTION NC I (RICE)

Content Standard

Performance Standard

 

The learner demonstrates

The

learner

independently

understanding of concepts and principles underlying theories and actual application in

common

demonstrates competencies in

agricultural

crop

production

work

(Rice)

as

agricultural

crop production

prescribed

in

TESDA

Training

(Rice).

Regulation.

in TESDA Training (Rice). Regulation. Quarter II What is this lesson all about? Due to the

Quarter II

in TESDA Training (Rice). Regulation. Quarter II What is this lesson all about? Due to the
What is this lesson all about?
What is this lesson all about?

Due to the adverse effects of climate change, rice production here in the Philippines has been threatened tremendously. The food sufficiency target of the government for the year 2015 has been stalled. This module will equip you with the necessary knowledge and skills in rice production and make them agents of the new technologies to boost rice production. Through this module, your knowledge, skills, and attitudes will be enhanced in line with selecting good quality seeds of rice, preparing the land for planting (irrigated/rainfed) varieties, preparing seedbeds and sowing of seeds, demonstrating care and management of seedlings, pulling of seedlings, transplanting of

38

seedlings/direct seeding, fertilizer application, irrigation and drainage practices, controlling weeds, controlling pests and diseases, harvesting, threshing, drying and storage, marketing and keeping of farm records and accounts.

storage, marketing and keeping of farm records and accounts. What will ou learn? Rice is the
What will ou learn?
What will
ou learn?

Rice is the staple food of all the Filipinos hence, rice production is an important industry in the Philippines. It is the backbone of Philippine economy for it does not only give benefit to rice growers but also to other industries like rice threshing, warehousing, milling, seed production, and many others, that offer a lot of job opportunities. Being the prime commodity, rice leads the growth of the agricultural sector. It is indispensable to sustainable development. Rice accounts for the majority of the total value of production in agriculture. This is primarily because rice is the most preferred commodity of the population. Furthermore, majority of the people depend on farm labor and rice- related businesses for their livelihood.

At the end of this module, you must be able to:

1. select the ideal site for planting rice;

2. prepare the land for planting rice (irrigated/rainfed);

3. select good quality seeds;

4. prepare seedbed, sow seeds, and demonstrate care and management of seedlings;

5. pull and transplant seedlings/practice direct seeding;

6. fertilize the rice plant;

7. perform irrigation and drainage practices;

8. identify weeds and their control methods;

9. control pests and diseases;

10. harvest, thresh, dry, and store rice seeds;

11. market rice seeds and prepare and keep farm records and accounts.

12. perform routine check-up of tools and equipment;

13. demonstrate manual handling procedures;

14. use personal protective equipment and personal health and safety requirements;

15. familiarize with common OHS hazards risks and its control.

WHAT DO YOU ALREADY KNOW?

39

Pre-assessment Let us find out how much you already know about rice production. Read and
Pre-assessment
Pre-assessment

Let us find out how much you already know about rice production. Read and understand the questions below. Choose the letter of the best answer and write it on your answer sheet.

1. Which of the following is a digging tool?

A. Bolo

B. Crowbar

C. Shovel

D. Pruning shear

2. Which tool is used for cleaning the levees?

A. Bolo

B. Crowbar

C. Mattock

D. Shovel

3. What tool does NOT belong to the group?

A. Bolo

B. Crowbar

C. Mattock

D. Shovel

4. Farm tools are needed in rice production operations because they

A. make work easier.

B. make work faster.

C. save time and effort.

D. make work faster, easier and economical.

5. What PPE should a student wear when he/she is exposed to dust? He/She should wear

A. eye and respiratory protection.

B. hard cap.

C. hearing protection.

D. safety footwear.

6. The environmental impact of improper disposal of waste and agricultural chemicals are the following EXCEPT:

40

A. air pollution

B. dirty and ugly surroundings

C. friendly and healthy surroundings

D. water contamination

7. What equipment in rice production is used to draw water from a source?

A. Sprayer

B. Sprinkler

C. Water pail

D. Water pump

8.Why do we need to conduct pre-operative check up of tools, Implements, and equipment before starting to work?

A. To check if the tools are serviceable

B. To determine the functionality of tools and implements

C. To repair defective tools

D. All of the above

9. Which of the following PPE is use d to protect hands from injury?

A. Boots

B. Goggles

C. Gloves

D. Mask

10.Which of the following does not affect rice yield?

A. Climate

B. Location

C. Transportation

D. Soil

11.Water supply is an important factor in rice production because it directly affects the

A. frequency of planting.

B. photosynthesis activity.

C. physical characteristics of the plant.

D. population of common pests and diseases.

12.The following are attributes of an ideal rice field except A. good drainage

B. pH range of 6.2 7.0.

C. high clay soil

D. high organic matter

13.The best implement to level the field is A. harrow.

41

B. harvester.

C. rotary tiller.

D. wood plow.

14.To prepare the land for planting upland rice, plowing and harrowing should be done

A. 1 2 times.

B. 2 - 3 times.

C. 3 - 4 times.

D. 4 5 times.

15.Which of the following is not a characteristic of a well- prepared land for planting?

A. Dilapidated dikes

B. Dikes are clean and narrow

C. Well puddled and soft

D. Weeds and stalks are thoroughly incorporated with the soil

16.When is the best time to fix levees?

A. After the first harrowing

B. After the first plowing

C. Before the first plowing

D. Before the second harrowing

17.Which among the following is the recommended time of soaking rice seeds before sowing?

A. 24 hrs.

B. 29 hrs.

C. 34 hrs.

D. 39 hrs.

18. The ultimate purpose of raising dapog seedlings is to

A. economize .

B. delay transplanting.

C. produce healthy seedlings.

D. raise seedlings even in a restricted area.

19. Which of the following is one of the advantages of using the straight row planting system?

A. It is the cause of overcrowding of plants.

B. It makes hand weeding difficult.

C. It makes mechanical weeding easy.

D. It provides uneven spaces for growing plants.

42

20.

What is the average seeding rate per hectare using the dapog method?

A. 22 kg

B. 33 kg

C. 44 kg

D. 66 kg

21. To speed up the germination of the incubated seeds we need to

A. allow the seeds to dry up.

B. moisten the seeds occasionally by sprinkling.

C. sprinkle the seeds with warm water.

D. re-soak the seeds after 2 days.

22. Which of the following is the recommended seedling rate per hill for growing rice?

A. 2-3

B. 3-4

C. 4-5

D. 6-7

23. Replanting of missing hills should be done

days after

planting to complete the required plant population in a given area.

A. 3-5

B. 5-7

C. 7-9

D. 10-12

24. Which one is the function of nitrogen in plant?

A. Encourages root growth

B. Makes stalks bigger

C. Helps in the production of seeds

D. Stimulates growth of the leaves and stems

25. To reduce application of chemical fertilizer that contains nitrogen, green manuring could be done. Green manures are

A. organic materials that come from animals.

B. leguminous plants that are plowed under.

C. concentrated form of plant food.

D. organic materials that are thoroughly decomposed.

26. What is panicle initiation in rice?

A. The beginning of the reproductive phase

B. Its appearance of the first tiller

C. The caryopsis becoming milky

D. Its appearance of the panicle from the flag leaf sheet

43

27.

Below are ways by which irrigation water is lost except one:

A. evaporation

B. percolation

C. seepage

D. absorption

28. Which is an example of a broadleaf weed?

A. Mutha

B. Kangkong

C. Ubod-ubod

D. Bayakibok

29. When mixing liquid herbicide, remember to

A. pour herbicide before the water.

B. pour herbicide and water at the same time.

C. pour water ahead of herbicide.

D. never pour herbicide ahead of the water.

30. This is the most destructive rice pest which attacks the plant from seedling stage to maturity .

A. rice stem borer

B. plant hopper

C. rice bug

D. maggot

31. This method of insect control utilizes the natural enemies of insects

to

control the pest. A. Biological

B. Cultural

C. Chemical

D. Physical

32. Which among the following is not needed in cleaning rice grains?

A. 1.5 mm fish net and stirrer

B. Canvas and winnowing basket

C. Blower and shifter

D. Sickle and reaper

33. What is the most popular method of drying rice grains?

A. Solar dryer

B. Mechanical dryer

C. Batch dryer

D. Air dryer

34. Which is not a guide in storing rice seeds?

44

A. Store grains after drying

B. Store fertilizer near pile of rice grains

C. Separate the old from the new harvest when piling

D. Observe good housekeeping before storing in the bodega.

35. When a farmer relies on good management practices to prevent the occurrence of insect pests and diseases in his farm, he is using the?

A. Genetic control

B. Chemical control

C. Biological control

D. Cultural control

45

LESSON 1

Farm Tools and Equipment

LESSON 1 Farm Tools and Equipment I. INTRODUCTION The different farm tools and equipment in agronomic

I.

INTRODUCTION

LESSON 1 Farm Tools and Equipment I. INTRODUCTION The different farm tools and equipment in agronomic

The different farm tools and equipment in agronomic crop work have been profoundly taken up in your lessons last year. Their proper operations and maintenance were discussed, too. But for you to be able to perform properly the different rice production activities, the important tools and equipment to be used will be discussed in this lesson with emphasis on their correct operation and maintenance as well as safety precautions in using them and the protective gears to be used.

maintenance as well as safety precautions in using them and the protective gears to be used.
Wh t i thi l n b t?
Wh
t i
thi
l
n
b
t?

46

The lesson is all about the farm tools and equipment used in rice production. You will learn this within 12 days.

used in rice production. You will learn this within 12 days. What will ou learn? At
What will ou learn?
What will
ou learn?

At the end of the lesson, you should be able to:

1. identify the different tools and equipment in rice production;

2. describe the specific uses of each tool and equipment;

3. perform the proper care and maintenance of each tool and equipment;

4. observe safety precautions in the use of farm tools and equipment.

safety precautions in the use of farm tools and equipment. HAND TOOLS Know Hand tools are

HAND TOOLS

Know
Know

Hand tools are usually light and are used without the help of animals or machines. They are being used in performing farm activities which involve small yet important jobs to be done. Below are some of the examples:

1.

Bolo .There are different kinds of bolo used for different purposes. In crop production it is used for cutting of weeds particularly tall shrubs and grasses .

used for different purposes. In crop production it is used for cutting of weeds particularly tall

47

2. Shovel is used in removing trash, digging loose soil, moving soil from one place

2. Shovel is used in removing trash, digging loose soil, moving soil from one place to another, and for mixing soil media and fertilizers. It is also used in the repair and construction of levees and in irrigation management.

3. Rake is used for cleaning the ground and leveling the topsoil during seedbed preparation particularly in the dry method of seedling production.

particularly in the dry method of seedling production. FARM IMPLEMENTS These are accessories which are being

FARM IMPLEMENTS

These are accessories which are being pulled by working animals or mounted to machineries (hand tractor, tractor) which are usual ly used in the preparation of large tract of land. These are usually made of a special kind of metal.

Examples :

1. Plows. These are farm implements used in rice production operations either pulled by a working animal or a tractor. The plow is specifically used for tilling large areas, making furrows and ditches to facilitate irrigation and drainage. Plows pulled by working animals are made of either a combination of metal or wood or pure metal . Due to intensive farm mechanization it is becoming extinct in some regions. They are used to till areas with a shallower depth than that of the disc plows which are pulled by tractors.

48

Carabao drawn plow Disc plow drawn by a tractor 2. Harrow. The native wooden harrow

Carabao drawn plow

Disc plow drawn by a tractor

2. Harrow. The native wooden harrow is made of wood with a metal tooth and pulled by a carabao while the disc harrow is a metal mounted to a tractor. Harrows are used for tilling and pulverizing the soil in upland rice production where the soil is tilled dry while waiting for the rain or water supply.

is tilled dry while waiting for the rain or water supply. Harrow 3. Rotavator. The rotavator

Harrow

3. Rotavator. The rotavator is an implement attached to a tractor used for land preparation. It could be used for wet and dry land preparation. One passing of rotavator is equivalent to the combined effect of one plowing and harrowing in land preparation.

49

EQUIPMENT These are machineries used in farm operations especially in rice production. They are used

EQUIPMENT

These are machineries used in farm operations especially in rice production. They are used in land preparation and in transporting farm inputs and produce. Using these equipment requires a highly skilled operator .

1. Hand tractor. It is the most useful and convenient equipment of the farmers. It is used to pull a plow and harrow in preparing a wide area of land. It is also used to transport other materials from the house to the farm and a very important equipment in the mobility of most farmers.

2. Four wheel tractor. It is used to pull disc plow disc harrow and rotavator in preparing much wider area of land. It is also used to draw a trailer to transport bulk of materials, equipment, farm inputs, and harvest. It is very useful during harvest and other post harvest activities.

3. W ater pump. This equipment is very important to draw irrigation water from a source such as deep well, rivers and lakes. In some areas where water is scarce, second cropping of rice could be done using a water pump.

4. Combine harvester .This equipment performs the harvesting and threshing a t the same time. The grains are deposited in its compartment and could be easily transported to the nearest road when hauling the harvests.

be easily transported to the nearest road when hauling the harvests. Hand Tractor Small Tractor Big
be easily transported to the nearest road when hauling the harvests. Hand Tractor Small Tractor Big

Hand Tractor

Small Tractor

Big Four wheel Tractor

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Combine Harvester Rice Thresher Photos Courtesy of Mr. Efrelito Jay M. Guittap, Faculty, College of

Combine Harvester

Combine Harvester Rice Thresher Photos Courtesy of Mr. Efrelito Jay M. Guittap, Faculty, College of Agriculture

Rice Thresher

Photos Courtesy of Mr. Efrelito Jay M. Guittap, Faculty, College of Agriculture ,CLSU

LET US REM EMBER

Using the right tools and equipment for the specific farm operation makes it easier and more economical.

After knowing the farm tools and equipment, continue the lesson in doing pre -operative check-up of equipment.

Activity#1

Give at least five reasons why it is very important to do pre -operational check-up of equipment?

Nowadays due to intensive farm mechanization, many types of farm machineries are being introduced to the Filipino farmers. Before operating these machines, one n eed s to read and familiarize the operations manual to be able to operate them efficiently and attain their maximum usage. For safety reasons, whenever using the se farm machineries, always do the following:

Always Remember to Check Equipment Before Operating

A pre -operational check of all the equipment to be used will assure the user that it is in a safe operating condition. Check the tires for proper inflation and defects, windows for visibility, seat position, seat belts, brakes for adjustment, steering response, rear view mirrors, slow-moving vehicle emblem, reflectors, and running lights for day or night time operation.

Safety Check: Walk around the tractor, hand tractor, thresher, reaper and any attached implement checking the are a for obstacles that may be under or near the tractor which include stones, boards, children's toys etc. Make sure there are no bystanders; remember this is a working area. Check whether the wheels are free, or stuck in the ground. Check for any loose

51

parts or objects on the tractor such as tools on the platforms or around brakes and other controls.

Inspect around: Walk around the tractor, hand tractor a second time to check the equipment itself. This time look at the tires for wear and inflation, the power take-off shaft for shielding and guarding (rotate the shield to make sure it moves freely), the hitch for proper hitch pin and safety clip. Pay particular attention to the ground under the tractor for any signs of liquid leaks such as oil, coolant or fue l.

Check the oil of all engines attached to machineries to be used : Remove the dipstick, wipe it clean, and check the oil level. If oil is required, remember to wipe off the filler cap before you remove it to avoid dirt falling into the engine. Use a clean funnel and clean the top of the oil can to prevent rust or other foreign objects going in with the oil.

Check the radiator: Slowly remove the red cap and check the liquid level.

Check the air pre-cleaner and air cleaner. Remove and shake out any dirt.

Always check the fuel gauge. Fill if necessary, through it should have been filled at the end of the last day the tractor was used.

Have a fire extinguisher. Your tractor should have a fire extinguisher in case of fire during operation or refueling and in area of storage and milling . Make sure it is charged and easily accessible.

Remember:

Smooth operations of all machines are ensured if periodic maintenance is done. These can affect performance and your safety!

Hazardous activities

During the maintenance of agricultural machinery, there are many activities which are potentially hazardous. Always observe the safety procedures in doing the maintenance of the equipment and tools.

Hazardous activities

Things to be done to ensure safet y

Lubricating

If you need to remove the guard to

lubricate the machine, never lubricate

while the machine is in motion.

Checking hydraulic systems

Remember that hydraulic oil is under

52

 

high pressure. The external signs of oil injection may be slight, but the internal damage is not and may lead to surgery or amputation.

If checking for leaks, use something (eg. a piece of card run along the hose) to show where the leak is. Do not use your hands.

Release the pressure before working on the system

Sharpening

When working on, for example a forage harvester, only the actual sharpening should take place with the machine in motion. All activities before and after, like. guard removal, should be don e with the machine stationary, even if rundown takes a long time.

Beware of flying particles when sharpening machinery. Use protective equipment such as goggles.

Working under machines

When working under raised machines, jacks should be used and correctly located, and additional support (eg axle stands) provided.

When working on hydraulically-raised equipment (eg. trail ers) use props. Never rely on the hydraulics.

Hammering

Beware of flying particles. Always use the appropriate personal protective equipment. It offers protection not only against flying particles, but also from against many risks.

Cleaning

Be aware of the danger of falling off or

into a machinery, particularly

in

53

 

wet or muddy conditions. Make sure

you know how to access machines

safely, especially large machines such

as combines.

Don’t clean with machines running

and with guards removed.

Blockages

Many accidents happen while cleaning

machine blockages often because

operators attempt to clear a blockage

while the machine is still powered.

Again, the key question to ask is:

“Have I been trained to do this job

properly?” If the answer is “no”, do not

attempt it.

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (PPE)

Personal protective equipment, or PPE, is designed to protect workers from serious workplace injuries or illnesses resulting from contact with chemical, radiological, physical, electrical, mechanical, or other workplace hazards. Among them are face shields, safety googles, hard hats, and safety shoes. Protective equipment includes a variety of devices and garments such as goggles, coveralls, gloves, vests, earplugs, and respirators.

Protection from head injuries

Hard hats can protect workers from head impact, penetration injuries, and high impact injuries such as those caused by falling or flying objects, fixed objects, or contact with electrical conductors. It also prevents the long hair from getting caught in machine parts such as belts and chains. Ordinary hats shall be worn by a farmer whenever working in the farm to protect himself against ultraviolet rays of the sun.

Protection from leg and foot injury

In addition to foot guards and safety shoes, leggings ( e.g., leather or other appropriate material) can help prevent injuries by protecting workers from hazards such as falling or rolling objects, sharp objects, wet and slippery surfaces, molten metals, hot surfaces, and electrical hazards while working in the farm shop. Pants should be worn to protect the legs from itchy worms and snake bites when working in the farm.

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Protection from eyes and face injury

Besides spectacles and goggles, personal protective equipment such as special helmets or shields, spectacles with si de shields, and face shields can protect workers from the hazards of flying fragments, large chips, hot sparks, optical radiation, splashes from molten metals, as well as objects, particles, sand, dirt, mists, dusts, and glare. Sun glasses should be worn during harvesting and other post-harvest jobs to protect the eyes.

Protection from hearing injury

Wearing earplugs or earmuffs can help prevent damage to hearing. Exposure to high noise levels can cause irreversible hearing loss or impairment as well as physical and psychological stress. Earplugs made from foam, waxed cotton, or fiberglass wool are self-forming and usually fit well. A professional should fit your workers individually for molded or preformed earplugs. Clean earplugs regularly, and replace those that are no longer functional.

Protection from hand injury

Workers exposed to harmful substances causing skin absorption, severe cuts or lacerations, severe abrasions, chemical burns, thermal burns, and harmful extreme temperature will benefit from hand protection. Wear leather globes while operating some machine s; but when handling chemicals use rubber gloves.

Protection from body injury

In some cases, workers must shield most of their bodies against hazards in the workplace, such as exposure to heat and radiation, hot metals, scalding liquids, body fluids, hazardous materials or waste, and other s. In addition to fire-retardant wool and fire retardant cotton, materials used in whole-body personal protective equipment, include leather, synthetics, rubber, and plastic.

Respiratory Protection

Workers must use appropriate respirators to protect against adverse health effects caused by breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays, or vapors. Respirators generally cover the nose and mouth or the entire face or head and help prevent illness and injury. A proper fit is essential, for respirators to be effective.

face or head and help prevent illness and injury. A proper fit is essential, for respirators
Process
Process

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Activity #1

Conduct an interactive activity wit h the class by forming two

be

undertaken, and the other group will indicate what farm tools/equipment

to use together with the applicable PPE to wear and vice-versa. The group

groups , one

group will

enumerate

what

farm operation s will

with the highest score will be the winner.

Activity #2

Students will be asked to draw from the box containing the names of farm tools and equipment and explain how and when it will be used in accomplishing rice production activities.

Activity #3

Get your partner, list two farm equipment and make a research in the internet on the different parts that need to be maintained, and the procedure on how to do the maintenance.

Activity#4

Report to the class your output on Activity#3.

Activity#4 Report to the class your output on Activity#3. Activity #1 Reflect and Understand Group yourselves

Activity #1

Reflect and Understand
Reflect and Understand

Group yourselves into three, and go to a nearby farm. Observe how

a new farm equipment is used. Ma ke a step by step description of how

each e quipment is used, to know how to operate the se properly. Share it

with the class.

Activity #2

Using the rice reaper of the nearest farm in the locality, make a report

56

about the conditions of the parts needed to be maintained. Are they in the best condition? Why or why not? Share it with class.

in the best condition? Why or why not? Share it with class. Activity#1 Transfer You are

Activity#1

Transfer
Transfer

You are the farm manager of the San Pedro Apartado Multi-Purpose Cooperative and tasked to prepare the farm equipment conditions analysis. Make a list of the equipment; evaluate each equipment and identify the parts that need maintenance.

List of equipment Condition Parts that need maintenance
List of equipment
Condition
Parts that need
maintenance

Activity # 2

Divide the class into groups and with the supervision of the teacher or the farm technician or the owner of the combine harvester in the nearby farm in the locality, let each group will conduct pre -ope rational check-up of the combine harvester.

conduct pre -ope rational check-up of the combine harvester. Summative Test The students will be grouped
Summative Test
Summative Test

The students will be grouped and

asked to attach a rotavator to the

tractor. Each group will be rated using a rubric.

57

Glossary of Terms Hand tools – tools that are usually light and are used to
Glossary of Terms
Glossary of Terms

Hand tools tools that are usually light and are used to do minor operation in the farm.

Farm implements accessories pulled by animals or mounted to machines to make the farm operation easier.

Equipment powered tool machines used in farming operations.

Repair to restore to good condition and make it functional.

Prepare to gather all the needed materials ready for a specific work.

Combustible- any materials that will burn not just by a spark

Flammable- is a material that can easily catch fire under normal circumstances and with the help of minimal ignition source

Ignition- cause of burning by providing heat or spark

ROPS- Roll Over Protective Structure

MSDS- Material Safety Data Sheet

ATV-All Terrain Vehicle

PTO- Power Take Off

Safety- the physical or environmental conditions of work which comply with the prescribed Occupational Health Safety (OHS) standards and which allow the workers to perform his or her job without or within acceptable exposure to hazards.

Occupational safety- the practices related to the promotion of safety in production and work process

Health- a sound state of the body and mind of a worker that enables him or her to perform normal job.

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LESSON II

SITE SELECTION AND SOIL ANALYSIS

LESSON II SITE SELECTION AND SOIL ANALYSIS Photo Courtesy of Dr.Pedrito S. Nitural, Faculty, College of

Photo Courtesy of Dr.Pedrito S. Nitural, Faculty, College of Agriculture, CLSU

Introduction

Like any other plant, rice needs an appropriate kind of soil as well as good location to attain the highest possible yield.

well as good location to attain the highest possible yield. What is this lesson about? The
What is this lesson about?
What is this lesson about?

The lesson is all about the factors to consider in site selection for planting rice and doing soil analysis. You will learn this within twelve days.

doing soil analysis. You will learn this within twelve days. What will ou learn? At the
What will ou learn?
What will
ou learn?

At the end of the lesson, you should be able to

59

1. identify the factors to consider in site selection;

2. select a site appropriate for rice production;

3. collect soil sample and analyze ; and

4. appreciate the value of selecting a good site for rice production

the value of selecting a good site for rice production Know If given a chance to
Know
Know

If given a chance to select a good site for rice production , here are the important factors to consider to ensure optimum growth and development. These are soil, climate, and location.

The following are the different factors to be considered in selecting a good site for rice production, as stated in the Competency-Based Learning Module (CBLM) for Rice Production:

1. Soil. A rice field should possess the following attributes:

a. high clay content

b. a 2:1 ratio of top clay mineral montmorillionite

c. medium amount of organic matter

d. good drainage

e. top soil 18 20 cm deep

f. soil pH range of 6.2 -7.0

2. Climate. Climate change is one of the factors posing challenge to

rice production nowadays. These factors include rainfall, sunlight, wind velocity, and temperature.

a. Rainfall. In rainfed areas, the start of the rainy season determines the planting time. This is because the source of water supply for non-irrigated rice field comes directly from rainfall. On the other hand too much rainfall causes floods that submerged the plants. Water directly affects the photosynthetic activity of the rice plant.

b. Sunlight. It is the foremost source of energy of all plant life. When water supply is not limited, sunshine is the most important climatic factor that influences rice yield. Therefore, site should be free of any barrier to sunlight

60

c.

Temperature. It is a limiting factor in rice production. However, in the Philippines, temperature is almost constant, hence, it is not a critical problem.

d. Wind velocity. Gentle wind is beneficial to rice plant because new air blown around the plant causes replenishment of carbon dioxide. Strong wind such as heavy wind during typhoon may cause lodging and shattering of rice grain, reduction of photosynthetic activities and may enhance growth of bacterial leaf diseases.

3. Location. Farm location greatly affects the profitability of rice production. The following are some factors to consider:

a. the

farm should be near the

transport.

road to facilitate ease of

b. there should be available laborers in the different stages of rice production.

c. good irrigation and drainage.

d. proximity to drying pavement and other post-harvest facilities.

to drying pavement and other post-harvest facilities. A good site should have access to farm service

A good site should have access to farm service roa d

Soil Sampling and Soil Analysis

The success of rice production starts with knowing the kind of soil where you are going to plant. The rice plant is nutrient sensitive; its ability to produce good harvest depends on the nutrients present in the soil. Soil sampling and analysis are important to determine the pH level and the nutrients present in the soil. The result of the soil analysis will be the basis of fertilizer application.

Procedures to Follow in Soil Sampling

1. Make a sketch of the area showing sampling areas (SA).Divide the farm into sampling areas. Each SA should be more or less uniform in cropping history, past lime and fertilizer treatments, slope, degree of erosion and soil texture and color.

61

2. In each SA dig from 5 -10 pits and collect samples corresponding to the size of the sampling area. Spot sample is taken in the following manner:

clear the soil surface area

using a shovel or spade dig a pit to a depth of 20-30 centimeters

from one vertical side of the pit take a slice of soil 2-3 cm thick with a single downward thrust of the spade. Using a knife or trowel trim the slice of soil on both sides to a bar of 3-4 cm width.

place the thin bar of soil in a pail or any suitable clean container.

if the subsoil sample is needed, take a bar of soil from the succeeding 20 to 30 cm soil depth. The subsoil and surface soil should be placed in separate containers.

Take composite soil samples. After collecting the samples from the different sampling areas, they will be pulverized and mixed thoroughly in the container. Place the composite soil sample of about ½ kilogram, in a clean plastic bag. After which, it is now ready for chemical analysis, using a simple Soil Testing Kit (STK) for qualitative analysis of soil pH, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium or by running a complete chemical analysis in a soil laboratory. Results of both test will serve as the basis for the farmers in making recommendation on the amount of fertilizer materials to be applied to satisfy the nutrient requirement of the crop.

be applied to satisfy the nutrient requirement of the crop. Photo Courtesy of Dr. Pedrito S.

Photo Courtesy of Dr. Pedrito S. Nitural, Faculty, College of Agriculture, CLSU

Pedrito S. Nitural, Faculty, College of Agriculture, CLSU Important things to remember  Selecting the appropriate
Important things to remember
Important things to remember

Selecting the appropriate site plays a vital role in the success of rice production.

Factors to consider in selecting the site

62

a. accessibility of the farm to the road

b. availability of good labor supply

c. good irrigation and drainage

d. proximity of threshing and drying pavement

Factors that affect growth and development of the crop

1. kinds of soil

2. climate

3. location

of the crop 1. kinds of soil 2. climate 3. location  Soil pH for rice

Soil pH for rice is from 6.2 to 7.0

Process
Process

Activity#1

Select at least four cooperating farmers in the community and conduct an on-site inspection of their farm. Based on your observation identify the ideal site. Use the table below and check the spaces if the factors are met.

Score card in selecting the site

Name of Farmer:

Location:

Directions: Of the four sites visited, write the appropriate rating based on

the scale listed below, the site.

considering the adaptability of factors in selecting

Factors to consider in selecting the site

 

Site

 

A

B

C

D

1. Accessibility

       

2. Availability of water supply

       

3. Exposure to sunlight

       

4. Soil condition

       

Rating scale: Description

 

5

very good

4

good

3

fair

2

poor

63

Activity#1 Reflect and Understand Select four cooperating farmers in the locality, get the data on

Activity#1

Reflect and Understand
Reflect and Understand

Select four cooperating farmers in the locality, get the data on their average harvest (number of cavans) for the past three years. Compare and analyze to see if the differences were affected by the farm location.

Activity#2

Search the internet for videos/film showing pictures of different farm locations in the country. Compare the data on harvest, if available and arrive at a conclusion if there are differences or none. Share your findings with the class.

are differences or none. Share your findings with the class. Transfer Each student will identify a
Transfer
Transfer

Each student will identify a farmer/partner. Proceed to his farm location and together get a soil sample, strictly following the procedure. Perform the soil analysis to determine the pH value of the soil.

the soil analysis to determine the pH value of the soil. Post-assessment A. Answer the following
Post-assessment
Post-assessment

A. Answer the following questions in your quiz notebook. Write only the letter of the correct answer.

64

1.

There are three important factors that affect rice yield. Which of the following is not among the factors?

A. Climate

B. Kind of soil

C. Location

D. Topography

2. Water supply is an important factor in rice production because it directly affects the

A. frequency of planting.

B. photosynthetic activity of the rice plant.

C. physical characteristics of the rice plant.

D. population of common pests and diseases.

3. An ideal rice field possesses all of the following attributes except:

A. Good drainage

B. High clay content

C. High organic matter

D. pH range of 6.2 7.0

4. Rainfall, sunlight, and temperature are referred to as

A. climate.

B. season.

C. weather.

D. all of the above

5. What is the ideal soil pH for rice production?

A.

6.2 7.0

B.

6.5 8.0

D.

7.0 8.0

D.

7.5 8.0

B. Describe the appropriate site for planting rice crop.

8.0 B. Describe the appropriate site for planting rice crop. Glossary of Terms Soil - is
Glossary of Terms
Glossary of Terms

Soil - is a loose and friable material of the earth surface where plants grow and develop.

65

Climate - is the weather condition of a locality,

Temperature - is the degree of hotness and coldness of the environment.

pH - is a value used to express the relative acidity or alkalinity of the soil.

66

LESSON III

PREPARE THE LAND FOR PLANTING RICE (IRRIGATED/RAINFED)

III PREPARE THE LAND FOR PLANTING RICE (IRRIGATED/RAINFED) Photo Courtesy Dr. Pedrito S. Nitural, Faculty, College
III PREPARE THE LAND FOR PLANTING RICE (IRRIGATED/RAINFED) Photo Courtesy Dr. Pedrito S. Nitural, Faculty, College

Photo Courtesy Dr. Pedrito S. Nitural, Faculty, College of Agriculture, CLSU

INTRODUCTION

Thorough land preparation is necessary either for rainfed or irrigated rice production method in order to have bountiful harvest.

rice production method in order to have bountiful harvest. What is this lesson about? This lesson
What is this lesson about?
What is this lesson about?

This lesson provides the learner with the appropriate land preparation techniques and strategies. It includes the tools and equipment needed and the steps in undertaking these activities. You will learn this within thirteen days.

needed and the steps in undertaking these activities. You will learn this within thirteen days. What
What will ou learn?
What will
ou learn?

67

At the end of the lesson, you should be able to:

1. use the appropriate tools and equipment in preparing the land for planting of rice

2. demonstrate the proper way of plowing and harrowing;

3. prepare and level the land thoroughly; and

4. observe safety precautions in using tools, implements, and equipment.

precautions in using tools, implements, and equipment. Know Prepare the Land for Planting High yield in
Know
Know

Prepare the Land for Planting

High yield in rice production could be traced back to land preparation. Many problems in cultural management practices could be prevented with well-puddled and well-leveled rice paddies. Aside

from making the soil soft for easy transplanting, a well leveled soil

early weeds. It also facilitates mixing of

organic matter such as rice straw, weeds and stubbles with the soil which promotes decomposition. Proper soil preparation serves to level the field for uniform distribution of irrigation water, fertilizers and pesticides. It also aids in the efficient control of some pests like the golden snail. During dry season planting, it also prevents or

minimizes water seepage from the field thereby resulting to efficient water management. If land preparation is not uniform, growth of plant is uneven causing variations of plant development and stage maturity resulting in possible decrease in harvest. Land preparation should be started at least four weeks before transplanting.

prevents the emergence of

68

Photo Courtesy of Bersamin Agro-Industrial High Sch ool Plowing is the process of breaking up

Photo Courtesy of Bersamin Agro-Industrial High Sch ool

Plowing is the process of breaking up the soil usually 15 cm. deep to incorporate and cover inorganic matter. It can be accomplished with

a power tiller or moldboard plow hitched to a carabao. To prepare the field for plowing follow these steps:

1. remove from the field anything that may cause injury to the plowmen and farm animals or damage to the implements.

2. Cut tall grasses and remove stubbles that may interfere with plowing.

3. In irrigated fields, flood the field 2 7 days before plowing to soften the soil. Keep the surface of the soil covered with water to prevent the soil from sticking to the plow. Keep the soil flooded with about one cm depth of water for one week to soften the clods and allow weeds and stubbles to decompose before harrowing is done. In rainfed areas, the field is better plowed while it is dry.

`

Plow under the weeds and stubbles 10 to 15 cm deep, three to four weeks before transplanting or direct seeding to allow decomposition and to recycle plant nutrients. If organic materials are

69

not fully decomposed, soil tends to become acidic and some nutrients become less available. Draining removes toxic substances, allowing organic matter to decompose and help the plant produce deeper and stronger roots. Decomposition is faster in moist soil.

and stronger roots. Decomposition is faster in moist soil. Photo Courtesy of Dr. Pedrito S. Nitural,

Photo Courtesy of Dr. Pedrito S. Nitural, Faculty, College of Agriculture, CLSU

Harrowing . Leveling can best be accomplished by leaving just enough water in the field, about 2-5 cm to expose the high and low areas. Harrowing is done 2-3 times depending on the soil condition.

Leveling the field can be done by scraping the mud from high spots moving it to the low areas. A bamboo pole maybe attached to the base of the harrow teeth to help in leveling.

To prevent the field from drying and hardening , use enough water. If possible, wait for 7 to 10 days between two successive harrowings to allow more weed seeds to germinate before these are turned under the soil giving more time for plowed fresh organic matter to decompose.

Harrow the field at least twice with one week interval for irrigated field and at least one day for rainfed field due to limited

70

supply of water. The first harrowing is done a week after plowing to break the soil clods and to incorporate the stubbles. This will allow dropped rice seeds during the previous cropping and weed seeds to germinate. The second harrowing which is also the first levelling should be done across the direction of the first harrowing. This further incorporates the volunteer plants and allowing the remaining dropped seeds and weed seeds to germinate. These practices help reduce the initial pest host population and maintain the hardpan which minimizes water seepage.

and maintain the hardpan which minimizes water seepage. Photo Courtesy of Bersamin Agro-Industrial High School. A

Photo Courtesy of Bersamin Agro-Industrial High School.

A rotavator drawn by a tractor for easier, faster and safer land preparation both for wet or dry method.

Rotavating - This method of land preparation is employed with

the use of a rotary tiller or rotavator drawn by a tractor.

tiller may take the place of a plow and harrow because it changes the soil into fine tilth having sufficient depth. One or two rounds of rotavation followed by one harrowing is enough to have a preferably level field. Prepared land can be planted after 2- 3 days. Chopped rice straw and weeds may be fully decomposed but are already in the process of decomposition. Decomposition produces too much heat and carbon dioxide (CO2) which may cause the newly transplanted seedlings to exhibit slow growth.

A rotary

71

Final leveling of the field using a carabao drawn leveler. Photo Courtesy of Dr. Pedrito

Final leveling of the field using a carabao drawn leveler.

Photo Courtesy of Dr. Pedrito S. Nitural, Faculty, College of Agriculture, CLSU

LET US REM EMBER

After the last leveling there should be no higher or lower levels of the rice paddies.

Cleaning and Repairing Levees of Rice Paddies

Just after plowing, the levees must be repaired to prevent seepage from the paddy. Look for rat holes, cracks or breaks, and plaster with mud. Levees that are properly repaired and plastered with mud are unfavorable to rat infestation, growth of weeds and host plants or insects. During dry season rice production, a canal at the middle of the paddies should be constructed to facilitate irrigation.

the paddies should be constructed to facilitate irrigation. Photo Courtesy of Efrelito Jay M. Guittap, Faculty,

Photo Courtesy of Efrelito Jay M. Guittap, Faculty, College of Agriculture, CLSU

The best time to fix the levee is after the first plowing because the upturned soil near the levees can be used for plastering in the work. The following are the steps in repairing levees.

72

1.

Clean the levees. Trim the thick portions of both sides of the levees using a bolo. Patch all rat holes, breaks, and soft spots.

2. Repair the levees by using soil which has been broken up during the first plowing for patching soft spots and cracks. Break up and rebuild the portion of the levees containing rat holes.

3. Patch-up/cover/fill the levee with mud making sure that all cracks are sealed properly.

4. Dikes must be cleaned to remove pest, compact to prevent seepage, and maintain at 15 cm high x 20 cm wide to prevent rat burrowing. Ditches will ensure even water distribution and drainage.

Fields used solely for year-round rice production must be allowed to rest or fallow for at least 30 days or more before plowing for the next cropping season. This will break the life cycle of majority of the insects. Rainfed rice fields are often prepared during April and May. Plow field after the first rain then harrow. Leave it for 7 or more days to allow weed seeds to germinate, afterwhich the field will be plowed and harrowed again to kill the emerging weeds. Plowing and harrowing may be done 2-3 times until the field is ready for transplanting.

IMPORTANT THINGS TO REM EMBER

Lowland rice requires well puddled and well prepared soil. This ensures a soil surface that is weed-free, soft and leveled to make transplanting of seedlings/planting of seeds easier. It also facilitates mixing of organic matter such as rice straw, weeds, and stubbles with the soil to hasten decomposition. Proper land preparation is undertaken to level the field, for uniform distribution of irrigation water, fertilizer, and pesticides. It also prevents or minimizes water seepage from the field.

In upland rice culture, plowing should be done across the slope.

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Observe safety measures in using tools and equipment.

 Observe safety measures in using tools and equipment . Process Activity #1 Each student will
Process
Process

Activity #1

Each student will be asked to visit a certain farm to evaluate if thorough land preparation has been done. Use the checklist below.

   

RATING

 
 

ACTIVITIES

 

V Good

Good

Fair

Poor

91100

8190

7580

70-74

1.

Cleared

the

area

before

       

plowing

2.

Followed correct procedure in

       

plowing

 

3 Harrowed the field well

         

4.Repaired the levees

         

5.Observed

proper

use

of

       

tools/equipment

6.

Used PPE

       
6. Used PPE         Activity #2 Reflect and Understand Students will be grouped

Activity #2

Reflect and Understand
Reflect and Understand

Students will be grouped into five and be assigned to do land preparation in specific areas. After the job has been done, let each group evaluate the work of the other group. Take note of the lapses of each group, and present observations to the class.

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Transfer Activity#3 Pretend to be an outstanding farmer who will demonstrate the proper way of
Transfer
Transfer

Activity#3

Pretend to be an outstanding farmer who will demonstrate the proper way of harrowing and leveling rice paddies before planting using either a carabao drawn harrow or hand tractor. Explain why paddies should be well-leveled.

or hand tractor. Explain why paddies should be well-leveled. Post-assessment A. Write AGREE if the statement
Post-assessment
Post-assessment

A. Write AGREE if the statement is correct and DISAGREE if the statement is wrong. Write your answers on your quiz notebook.

1. Well-puddled and well-prepared soil for lowland rice varieties ensures a soil surface that is free from weeds, soft and leveled to make planting easy.

2. Uneven growth of plants is caused by poor land preparation.

3. Harrowing can be best accomplished by leaving just enough water in the field to expose the high and low spots.

4. Levees should be covered with mud to render them unfavorable for rats and insect pests.

5. The land should be plowed and harrowed 4-5 times alternately.

B. Answer briefly.

1. Describe the steps in preparing the land for irrigated and rain fed rice planting.

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RESOURCES

1. Bolo

2. Moldboard plow

3. Harrow

4. Draft carabao

5. Shovel

6. Pick mattock

7. Hand tractor

8. Tractor

carabao 5. Shovel 6. Pick mattock 7. Hand tractor 8. Tractor Glossary of Terms Tools –
Glossary of Terms
Glossary of Terms

Tools simple devices used in the farm such as bolo, digging bar, and shovel Equipment machineries used in the farm such as tractor Farm implements devices such as plow and harrow Levee dike or bund that surrounds a paddy PPE Personal Protective Equipment Puddled soil a soil surface which was plowed and harrowed several times, leveled and ready for planting. Seepage sideward loss of water

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LESSON IV

SEED SELECTION

LESSON IV SEED SELECTION Photo Courtesy of Efrelito Jay M. Guittap, Faculty, College of Agriculture, CLSU

Photo Courtesy of Efrelito Jay M. Guittap, Faculty, College of Agriculture, CLSU

Jay M. Guittap, Faculty, College of Agriculture, CLSU What is this lesson about? This lesson deals
What is this lesson about?
What is this lesson about?

This lesson deals with the principle of selecting good quality seeds to grow. It includes the characteristics of good seeds, sources of good seeds, seed testing, and computing the percentage of germination. You will learn these in thirteen days.

of germination. You will learn these in thirteen days. Wh t ill l rn? After studying
Wh t ill l rn?
Wh
t
ill
l
rn?

After studying the lesson, you must be able to

1. identify and select good seeds for planting;

2. test the viability of seeds using ragdoll method;

3. compute for the percentage germination; and

77

4.

appreciate the importance of testing seeds before planting;

appreciate the importance of testing seeds before planting; Know Using high quality seeds of a recommended
Know
Know

Using high quality seeds of a recommended rice variety will result in a considerable increase in the yield. The characteristics of certified seeds are the following:

1. pure

2. clean

3. with the same size and shape

4. 85% or higher percentage of germination

5. free from seed borne diseases

Seeds of improved variety should be certified by the National Seed Quality Control Services (NSQCS). It could be proven through a blue card attached to the sack. Good quality seeds could be availed from agencies such as the PhilRice and other accre dited seed producers enumerated below.

Sources of Good Seeds

1. PhilRice

2. Bureau of Plant Industry (BPI)

3. Agricultural Productivity Commission (APC)

4. Institute of Plant Breeding (IPB)

5. Seed Grower cooperators in your locality

6. Reliable dealers of farm supplies

How to avail good seeds

1. Buy seeds from accredited seed growers stated above.

2. If there are no accredited seed growers in the locality, then buy seeds from reliable sources (i.e. farmers whose fields have uniform crop growth) or produce your own high quality seeds . However, make sure to perform a seed germination test to ensure quality. There should be at least 85% germination.

3. If the variety has not yet been tested in the area, make initial selection based on recommended environment and

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cropping season. Then, conduct at least two seasons of trial in the locality.

4. During wet season, consider the prevalent pests in the area and the shattering and lodging characteristics of a variety. In the dry season, consider planting hybrid varieties because these varieties tend to perform better during dry season.

5. In rainfed areas, farmers tend to use varieties for irrigated lowland areas owing probably to lack of access to rainfed varieties. It is recommended to first choose varieties intended for rainfed environment. Consider also traditional or regionally preferred varieties for rainfed environment knowing that crops can develop adaptability in an area.

6. Farmers also often prefer new varieties, believing that they yield better. However, a variety may be released based on reasons other than yield (e.g. better grain quality and resistance to pests). Thus, it is important to know the characteristics of the varieties but, more importantly, to conduct adaptability trials.

Your choice of an appropriate variety is determined by specific conditions in the farm. The following are the desirable characteristics of high yielding rice varieties:

1. Early maturing and non-seasonal (100 130 days from seeding to maturity)

2. Resistant to pest, diseases, drought and lodging

3. Nitrogen-responsive (this means that when you apply nitrogen to the rice plant, the yield increases)

4. High grain weight (6 7 mg)

5. High grain milling quality (whole )

6. High milling recovery (66% -70%)

The following are some rice varieties recommended for irrigated and rainfed regions of the Philippines:

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Irrigated Varieties

Variety

Agronomic Characteristics

Disease & Insect Pest Reactions

 
 

Ave.

Max

               

Yield

(Tons)

Yield

(Tons)

Maturity

days

Height

(cm)

Blast

BLB

Tungro

BPH

GLH

Borer

10

Rc230H

6.7

10.6

108

103

I

S

S

(S)

I

MR

 

NSIC 2010

         

S

S

(S)

MS

   

Rc232H

7

10.7

110

110

I

I

NSIC 2010

           

S

(S)

 

MS