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Lineament Analysis to Determine Geological

Structure Patterns and Lithology Based on Alos


Palsar 2 Tokala Area Central Sulawesi

Adriasnyah Wuriadin Lantapi1, Asri Jaya2, Adi Tonggiroh2

1 Masters in Geological Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hasanuddin University


(Email: adrianlantapi@gmail.com)
2 Department of Geological Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hasanuddin University
(Email: asri_jaya@geologist.com, atonggiroh@gmail.com)

Abstract geological processes require accurate identification, which is a


The principle of remote sensing (imagery) is any object combination of image interpretation and field condition.
and natural phenomenon in the earth surface can be detected from Along with the development of technology in remote
satellite imagery. The ability of satellite imagery to detect objects sensing, the benefits of remote sensing are also getting bigger and
and natural phenomena that occur depends on the resolution, both more people are utilizing remote sensing in geological studies,
spatial, spectral, radiometric, and temporal. In tropical countries especially geological structures. In tropical countries including the
including the Indonesian Country, there are obstacles to visible Indonesian Country, there are obstacles to visible object caused by
object caused by cloud cover, land cover and morphology. cloud cover, land cover and morphology.
PALSAR is a high-resolution radar sensor (greater than 10 m) on The application of optical remote sensing data for
the Japanese ALOS satellite launched on 24 January 2004. geological mapping is difficult in tropical environments, this is due
Research methods include analysis of ALOS PALSAR 2, to continuously cloud cover, dominance of vegetation in landscapes
lineament analysis, lithology analysis and drainage pattern analysis. and limited bedrock exposure are constraints on tropical climates
Based on the results of processing data on ALOS PALSAR 2 with (Pour and Hasyim, 2014). This causes weakness in the quality of
polarization H:H, the imagery of ALOS PALSAR is useful for optical satellite images wich still face several limitations in the form
analyzing the structure using the filtering band method (edges) or of cloud cover, smoke, and data with striping quality or poor
tracing with the 'edge' method for linemanet interpretation. When banding that can interrupt the process of identifying and monitoring
recording image maps there is a high enough noise (33.94 to 1.4), elements of geological structure.
the texture is still rough. Image maps after filtering produce low PALSAR is a high resolution radar sensor (greater than
noise values (26.09 to 5.58) and pixels in the image become more 10 m) on the Japanese ALOS satellite which was launched on
homogeneous and smoother textures so that the boundaries between January 24, 2004. The advantages of PALSAR technology include
objects become clearer. The distribution of lithology in the research extensive and repetitive coverage, high accuracy and relatively low
area among others are ultramafic rock has the most widespread in cost, and provides the possibility to improve accuracy and
North-South and East-West of the research area. The metamorphic efficiency in the provision of geological data and information.
rock has a spread in the West of the research area and locally in the
south of the research area. The sedimentary rocs in the research area
is divided into clastic sedimentary rock and carbonate sedimentary II. GEOLOGI SETTING
rock. The clastic sedimentary rock are spread in the Northwestern - A. Geomorphology
South of the research area while the carbonate sedimentary rock is Regionally it can be divided into three units, namely
located in the West-Southeast of the research area. The lineament mountain and karst, hill, and lowland. The direction of the ridge is
pattern in the research area is the irregular trending lineament. almost east-west and partly northwest-southeast. The highest peak
Keywords: remote sensing, ALOS PALSAR 2, lineament, reaches 2255 m above sea level. Mountain morphology is
lithology, drainage pattern. characterized by rough, steep slopes. Karst in the form of dolina,
caves and underground rivers more than 1,000 m above sea level.
I. INTRODUCTION The rocks that make up the mountain morphology are ultramafic
Remote Sensing is a science, art and technique for rock, mafic rock, and limestone in the karst region. Form of river
obtaining information on an object, area, and / or phenomenon valley in this area is V. The drainage pattern is dendritic and almost
through analysis of data obtained with a tool without direct contact parallel (Surono et al., 1993).
with the object, region, or phenomena studied (Lillesand & Kiefer,
1994: 1; Bates & Jackson, 1987: 434). The principle of remote B. Stratigraphy
sensing (imagery) is any object and natural phenomenon in the Regionally the research area was included in the East
earth surface can be detected from satellite imagery. The ability of Sulawesi Terrane, Banggai-Sula, and West Sulawesi. East Sulawesi
satellite imagery to detect objects and natural phenomena that occur Terrane consists of mafic, ultramafic, and pelagic deposits which
depends on the resolution, both spatial, spectral, radiometric, and contain chert. The Banggai-Sula Terrane consists of coarse clastic
temporal. Natural phenomena as endogenous and exogenous and meta sedimentary rock which suspected were deposited on the
periphery of the micro continent Banggai-Sula (Figure 1).
Figure 2 Location of the research area in the Geological Map of
Figure 1 Distribution of Geology Terrane of Sulawesi Island and Sulawesi and surrounding area (simplified from Silver et al., 1983
the surrounding area (Sukamto, 1975 modified by Surono, 1998). and Rehahult et al., 1991 by Surono, 2010).

C. Geological Structure
Based on the Geological Map of Sulawesi and I. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
surrounding (Surono, 2013), the geological structure of the research A. Location and Accessibility
area is: Administratively, the research area is located in the
1. Uekuli Normal Fault. Tokala Region which is included in three administrative regions:
This fault (Figure 2) is the boundary between the East Sulawesi North Morowali District, Morowali District, Tojo Una - Una
Ophiolite Complex and the Central Sulawesi Metamorphic Rock District, Banggai District, Central Sulawesi and East Luwu District,
Complex. South Sulawesi. Geographically located between 1 ° 11'12 '’- 3 °
2. Batui Thrust Fault. 0'48" South Latitude (LS) and between 121 ° 5'45 "- 122 ° 22'60"
Batui thrust fault is the surface appearance of the collision zone East Longitude (BT).
between the pieces of Banggai-Sula Continent and East Sulawesi The research area can be reached by road, sea and air
Ophiolite Complex in Neogen (Simandjuntak, 1993). travel. Road travel, starting from the city of Makassar to
3. Matano Fault. Kolonodale, Central Sulawesi with traveling time + 24 hours with
The matano fault was first introduced by Waheed (1975). On land, mileage + 1.418 km using two or four-wheeled vehicle, from
Matano fault characterized by valley straightness, which stretches Kolonodale heading to the Tokala research area with traveling time
from the coastal of the Southeast arm of Sulawesi, intersect the + 9 hours by using the sea travel. Whereas through air travel,
Poso thrust fault in Central Sulawesi and finally joins the Palu-Koro
starting from Makassar City, South Sulawesi to Morowali, Central
Fault (Figure 2).
Sulawesi uses traveling time + 1 hour with mileage + 1.418 km by
airplane.

B. Data Collection
ALOS PALSAR 2 data was obtained from the recording
process by JAXA, with data acquisition in 2015-2016 with an
observation mode (ultra fine). ALOS PALSAR 2 products are high
resolution methods with polarization H: H.
Lineament and lithology data were obtained from the
results of analysis with definition and terminology and visual
interpretation method on ALOS PALSAR 2. Ground checks were
carried out to observe geological objects in the form of lithology.

C. Data Analysis
1. Analyze ALOS PALSAR 2
Before lineament analysis, processing ALOS PALSAR 2
data first. Data processing needs to be done because the image data
has not been geographically projected. Data processing consist of:
a. Radiometric Correction
The aim of radiometric image correction, sometimes image, which is, among others, based on the appearance of the same
called image recovery, is to correct the image data recorded for color hue, the same texture, the same pattern or shape, or based on
various radiometric distortions (Gupta, 2018). Atmospheric the relationship between the association of color hues, the texture
correction as a radiometric image correction. In the sun's reflection and shape of the geological object in the image and the lineament
area, the emission path caused by atmospheric scattering, especially boundary.
Raleigh scattering, is a major concern.
b. Speckle Filtering 4. Analysis of Drainage Pattern
Speckle, appears on the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) in Drainage is one of the most important geotechnical
fine-grained forms (Lee, 1994), caused by wave interference elements for interpretation of geological photographs (Gupta,
reflected by many elementary spreaders. The SAR image will 2018). Geotechnical elements are important information about
complicate the problem of image interpretation by reducing the lithology, structure, the process of forming minerals and geological
effectiveness of image segmentation and classification. sources originating from subsurface.
c. Geometric Correction Analysis of drainage pattern is done by definition and
The image used in data processing is usually not terminology and visual interpretation method (Gupta, 2018). The
geometrically corrected, so geometric correction needs to be done stage of delineation the river using the filtering band is based on
first. Geometric correction aim to image has the same coordinates color associations, textures, shapes, patterns and associations.
as the map with the datum of the World Geodetic System 1984
(WGS ‘84) and the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) II. DISCUSION
coordinate system.
d. Compas Edge Detector
A. ALOS PALSAR 2
The image used in data processing is usually not Interpretation of remote sensing ALOS PALSAR 2 in the
geometrically corrected, so geometric correction needs to be done research area was done by limiting the area of research,
first. Geometric correction aim to image has the same coordinates 1759008,112 Ha and the area of polarization data H:H in the 2015
as the map with the datum of the World Geodetic System 1984 to 2016 acquisition. The process before filtering showed a high
(WGS ‘84) and the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) noise value (33.94 to 1.4 ), the texture is still rough and the hue of
coordinate system. At this stage is used to find fault which are the object is still diverse (Figure 3). Because of the difference in
important information relating to geology (geology / mining and phase fluctuations in the electromagnetic signal that is attached to
others). the radar image there is noise that affects the texture, so the filter
e. SAR Mosaic criteria are used.
Mosaic is a process of combining several images together
to form a single unit (1 sheet) of a cohesive map or image (the
contrast is consistent, organized, solid, and the coordinates are
interconnected) (Jaya, 2007).
f. Filtered Band
Spatial filters are a general application that is applied to
images for sharpening to facilitate visual interpretation. Spatial
filters are also referred to as local operations in image processing,
because spatial filters change the price of each pixel in the dataset
according to the prices of pixels around it.
g. Export to GeoTiff
Data is an inseparable part of the Geographic Information
System. GIS data can be the form of spatial data and attribute data.
Spatial data consists of two types, namely raster data and vector
data. The process of exporting mosaic results to raster data. Raster
data that stores geographic system information (latitude, longitude, Figure 3 Display the ALOS PALSAR 2 image map before the
map projection etc.) into TIFF files so that they can be used by filtered process.
various GIS software. TIFF files that have geographic information
(or cartography) data embedded as part of a TIFF file. Initially noise appeared when shooting by PALSAR
satellite formed recording reflectors and produced responses in
2. Lineament analysis visual cells. Display of noise in the form of spot, occupying the
Geological alignment (lineament) is a reflection of the space that ranges confuse visual objects. Noise that appears before
morphology observed on the surface of the earth as a result of the filtering is called noise speckle, that is a fluctuations or statistical
geological activity of the earth. uncertainties related to the brightness of each pixel on the image
The filtered analysis phase is widely used to find delays radar because of lighting effect of and coherent illumination
in the form of line objects such as rivers, structure and lithology processes (Turkar, 2009).
boundaries. The straightness data from the results of the image The filtering process produces noise values (26.09 to
analysis then analyzed in the rosset diagram for the direction 5.58) and the pixel in the image become more homogeneous with
pattern. smoother textures so that the boundaries between objects become
clearer (Figure 4).
3. Litology analysis
Identification of objects and parameters of rock types B. GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE
(rock group) and photomorphic distribution of rock units in imagery The interpretation of the geological structure begin by
means relying on what appears in the image, using the basic identifying of rock discontinuity plane by observing the
elements of image interpretation, namely hue of color, texture, characteristics, dispositions and spatial relation. The discontinuity
shape, pattern, size, and association (Noor, 2012). plane is also controlled by the dimension and sensor resolution
Delineation of the distribution lithology or rock units in (observation scale). Variations of discontinuity plane can be in the
the image can be done by basing the properties of the photomorphic form of bedding, foliation, fault, shear zones, joints, and others.
Interpretation of the geological structure from imagery can be landform types. The result of the analysis on the map display show
assisted by delineating of lineament. as many as 600 irregular lineaments, the resulting lineament
consists of: (1). 165 linemanet related to drainage; (2). 183
lineament related to lithology; (3). 44 lineament related to
geological structure (Figure 7).
Based on the results of analysis tracing filtered band –
edge and rosset diagram in the research area divided into several
directions, the Batui lineament area is dominated by the north-
northwest direction - south-southeast (NNW - SSE), northeast -
Southwest (NE - SW) which consists of lineament, thrust fault and
strike-slip fault. In the Uekuli lineament area trending north-
northeast (NNE) – south-southwest (SSW) which consists of
lineament, thrust fault and strike-slip fault, the lineament direction
is bordered by metamorphic rock in the western of the research
area. In the Kolonodale lineament area, it is generally north-
Figure 4 The noise value obtained after the filtration process northeast (NNE) - south-southwest (SSW). In the Bungku
produce in a smoother surface texture. lineament area it has a general direction southwest (SW) - northeast
(NE) and northwest (NW) - southeast (SE), which consists of
lineament, strike-slip fault and thrust fault. The lineament trending
northwest - southeast in the Bungku area is parallel with the
1. Lineament
regional strike-slip fault of the Matano Fault (Figure 8).
Lineament has a relationship with rock types and drainage
patterns. Lineamanet in rock types has two aspects, namely the
distribution of rock boundaries according to alignment and
straightness validation that can be detected based on the scale of
mapping and noise. Lineament analysis requires scale changes and
noise (Gupta, 2018). To fulfill the lineament characteristic in the
research area, a map scale scale was changed, 1: 80,000 to 1:
60,000 with the highest noise value of 250.94 to 119.79.54 and the
results of lineament filtering obtained the lowest noise value (2.69
to 1.41) (Figure 5). It can also be done automatically by using a
filter band - edge which can automatically display color tracing
(Figure 6).

Figure 7 Lineament distribution map in the research area.

Figure 5 Appearance of linemanet after filtering

Figure 8 Map of the lineament direction distribution pattern in the


research area.

2. Fault
The geological structure of the research area is much
influenced by the main geological structure of the island of
Sulawesi. On the east there is Batui Thrust Fault, on the west there
is Uekuli Normal Fault and on the south there is Matano Fault
(Figure 9).
Figure 6 Appearance of tracing on ALOS PALSAR with the 'edge' This lineament is then adjusted by processing data on
method for linemanet interpretation in the research area. tracing filtered band – edge and rosset diagram on ALOS PALSAR
2. The geological structure of the research area has been deformed
Lineament observation is not only for geological several times and formed a geological structure, the identified
structures but can help determine lithology boundaries, drainage geological structure in the research area is thrust fault and strike-
pattern and morphology / topographic patterns to determine slip fault. The thrust fault is predominantly in the North-South
direction (Figure 10), while strike-slip fault is dominated in the
northwest-southeast direction which is relatively moving to the left
(sinistral) (Figure 11).

Figure 12 Appearance of imagery by showing the texture of clastic


sedimentary rocks.

Figure 9 Appearance of Regional Geological Structure Map in the


research area.

Figure 13 Appearance of imagery by showing the texture of


carbonate sedimentary rocks.

Figure 10 Appearance of Structural in the form of a thrust fault in


the research area dominated by North-South direction based on the
filtering band (edges) method.

Figure 14 Appearance of morphology which shows the initials of


the sloping plane in one direction (hogback), very contrast to the
surrounding texture and shape, interpreted as the limestone of the
Tokala Formation. b) Appearance of imagery showing steep
bedding plane, indicated by linear lines, probably as a carbonate
sedimentary rock interbedding with clastic rock.

Figure 11 Appearance of structural in the form of a strike-slip fault


in the research area dominated by the Northwest - Southeast
direction based on the filtering band (edges) method.

C. LITHOLOGY
ALOS that is used is single polarization (HH) because it is more
focused on rock reflection and lineament analysis, then lithology
identification in the research area is divided into sedimentary rock,
igneous rock and metamorphic rock. In ALOS PALSAR 2,
appearance of sedimentary rock generally has light gray color,
while igneous and metamorphic rock have a dark gray color. Figure 15 Image appearance with a relatively rounded hill surface,
is a karst topography characterizing carbonate rocks.
1. Sedimentary rock
a. Clastic Sedimentary Rock
Based on the interpretation and analysis of ALOS PALSAR 2
clastic sedimentary rock have speckled texture; hue and whitish
gray color (Figure 12).
a b
b. Carbonate Sediment Stone
Based on the interpretation and analysis of ALOS PALSAR 2
carbonate sedimentary rock have a coarse texture; hue and show
blackish gray color which shows rough on the surface (Figure 13).
Carbonate rock look similar to sandstones in the tropics, but if Figure 16 a) Image appearance with uneven surface (uneven), some
intercalation with mudstone, shale or other sedimentary rock can lineament or linear lines characterize intercalation and structural
show good bedding. This case is recognized in the limestone of the control. b) Appearance of topography with a relatively smooth
Matano Formation and the Lower Tokala Formation (Figures 14- surface and a more flat shape. a and b are both karst topographs as
16). carbonate rock markers.
2. Frozen rocks Figure 19 a) Appearance of the image by showing the texture of
In general igneous rocks are characterized by the absence metamorphic rocks in the research area
of layers or foliation. The distribution of intrusive igneous rocks is
generally quite extensive and with closed lithological boundaries, D. RIVER PATTERN
isotropic and homogeneous. In general, alkaline and ultrasound Drainage pattern is a drainage system that can generally
(gabro and peridotite) rocks range from weathering processes, provide terrain and landform characteristics. Drainage patterns can
especially under humid / humid conditions, usually resulting in interpret the shape of landscapes that are controlled by geological,
laterite sediment residues and soil montmorillonitic, this sometimes slope and lithological structures (Jaya, 2018).
has an appearance similar to sedimentary rocks. Based on the a. Dendritic flow patterns located in the north and southeast of the
interpretation and analysis of ALOS PALSAR 2 igneous rocks have research area. This flow pattern resembles a tree-like pattern with
medium texture; hue and color indicate dark gray (Figure 17). irregular and angular river branches. This flow pattern is controlled
by homogeneous lithology and structure (Figure 20).
b. In the western part of the research area paralell drainage patterns
were found. This flow pattern shows the flow of the river regularly
and parallel to the tributary and forms a sharp angle. Composed by
lithologies that are resistant and controlled by structures (Figure
41).
c. Rectangular drainage patterns are found north of the research
area. This flow pattern shows the river network that is
perpendicular to the tributary. Composed by lithology that is
resistant and controlled by geological structures, such as fracture
structures and faults (Figure 22).
Figure 17 Image appearance by showing the texture of ultramafic
rocks in the research area.

Figure 20 Dendritic flow pattern in the research area located north


of the research area.

Figure 18 Image appearance with a dendritic drainage pattern, the


shape of a hill resembles a sickle-shaped. The shape and pattern of
the flow characterizes ultramafic rocks in the research area.

3. Metamorphic rocks
Metamorphic rocks are characterized by foliation and
some stratification. Foliation is manifested in the intensity of
relatively short parallel lines. Usually metamorphic rocks generally
Figure 21 Parallel flow pattern in the research area located west of
show deformations and fractures. Fracture controls the pattern of
the research area.
drainage and landform especially in conditions in the tropics. Based
on the interpretation and analysis of ALOS PALSAR 2
metamorphic rocks have a texture of rough texture; hue and color
show dark gray (Figure 19)

Figure 22 Rectangular flow patterns in the research area located


north of the research area.

In addition to the flow pattern that shows the characteristics of each


research area, other geological characteristics such as meandering
and distribution patterns were also found. Meandering is the most
common flow pattern. Rivers that have a tortuous shape, with
irregular distances in each turn. The river is relatively narrow and
there are floodplains. It is located to the east of the research area
(Figure 23). Distribution patterns are found in the northwest of the
research area. This pattern develops on a slope or at the mouth of a
river, spreading from a narrow place towards a more gentle valley
or coast forming a delta and alluvial fan (Figure 23).
Surono. 2010. Geologi Lengan Tenggara Sulawesi. Badan Geologi
Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral. Bandung.
Surono, Hartono, U. 2013. Geologi Sulawesi. Badan Geologi
Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral. Bandung.
Surono, Simandjuntak, T.O., Situmorang, R.L., Sukido. 1993.
Geologi Lembar Batui, Sulawesi. Bandung. Pusat Penelitian dan
Pengembangan Geologi Direktorat Pertambangan Umum
Departemen Pertambangan dan Energi.
Waheed, A. 1975. Geology Along The Matano Fault Zone, East
Sulawesi, Indonesia. Proceedings Regional Conference on the
Geology and Mineralogy Resources of Southeast Asia, 143–150.
Figure 23 a) Appearance in the Meandering image in the research
area located east of the research area. b) Appearance in the
distribution pattern image in the research area located northwest of
the research area.

V. CONCLUSION
Based on the results of the analysis and the results of the
discussion, it can be concluded that the use of ALOS PALSAR 2 is
useful for analyzing the structure using the filtering band (edges) or
tracing method on ALOS PALSAR 2 with the 'edge' method for
linemanet interpretation. When recording image maps there is a
fairly high noise (33.94 to 1.4), the texture is still rough and the hue
of the object is still diverse because of the fluctuations in the phase
of the electromagnetic signal attached to the radar image which
produces noise that affects the texture. The appearance of noise in
the form of spots that occupy the space in the range disrupts the
visual object. Image maps after filtering produce low noise values
(26.09 to 5.58) and pixels in the image become more homogeneous
and smoother textures so that the boundaries between objects
become clearer.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
We thank my colleagues from the geological magister
partners 2017 who provided insight and expertise that greatly
helped my research,
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