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XI. Hearsay Rulec
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McCormick:
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c 6  cPcc  c  c c c   cc c  cc
c ^  cc c

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c irst witness:c c ccc c   ccc

ccc  "c*+-c c  cconsistscc
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cc c  c )ccc
c £econd witnessc '' c  "c
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contains the informationcc cc  c ccccc
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Oath
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cc c c   ccccccc


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‘ersonal ‘resence at the Trial
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cc cc c c c   cc  cc  c ccc
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c -c ccc  c c   cc  c 
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c & c c  cc 
cc ccc
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Cross-Examination
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‘rior statements of witnesses as substantive evidence
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Laurence Tribe͛s Triangulating Hearsay:
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c deprived of the opportunity to cross-examine the affiants"c
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statement was made or the tenor of such statement.
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B.c Î eptions
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ccfacts in issuec%0cccircumstantial evidence of the facts in issue)cc
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c "cc  "cccc c cc c
ccc  c      
  
  
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c £
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cc cc1‘    c
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Y.c Dying Delaration
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Rule 130, £ection 37.c    )c;c-c   ccc 
c "c c cc    cc c 
c "ccc
  cin any casec c c c cc #cc $ "cc  ccc c c 
c   cc c )cc
cc
Regalado:
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•c REQU £ TE£ OR THE ATE MORTEM ECLARAT O EXCE‘T O TO A‘‘LY:
)c c c   c
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c ccc cc cc c c cc c   cc cc
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c   c   )c1‘ c
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c cc c1‘ c
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c
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c 3c ccc ccc  ccc  c cc cc
c
c
c c c cñcc c
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c
c
McCormick:
•c c
c
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cc
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c %-£c^%-cI+.·3,cc c cc "c
c
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c c cc

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c  c  ccc   )c
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c   ccc  c&c0 c c^%-c
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cin doubt as to whether he would die or not)c-c
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c( "c c ccc cc  
c c cc
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‘  £"  0c c  =c2  ccc
c
   c ' 3c ccbelief in impending deathccc cc c
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c   c   )c
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cc cc 'c-c   ccc # c cc  Cc c c
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c =c"c c"cc  c   cc c  c c cc  =cc   c
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c  ccc  ccJ c& c£ c c  ccc

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c c c c c "c
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c c c cc c cc c c c c
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c "c c c 
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cc
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cc cc c cc c c  ccc
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c cc   cc c cccc
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c )c
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c c£D !c   c-c c c c c
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c )cc   )c- "cc  c  cc   cc
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c c
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c c
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c
2. Delaration  gainst Interest
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c
c
c c c ccc c
c c
c
Rule 130, £ection 38.c     
 
)c;c-c   c ccc c  c%0c cc "c.D.3^£-cc3^--0-£-ccc
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c c.^c
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Regalado:
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c c 


  
 
c.^c   
  
 
cc
AM ££ O£ AGA £T TERE£T ECLARAT O£ AGA £T TERE£T
6 cccccc 
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    c c
c c c cccc ccc cc
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  cc
+ c c
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c cc     c c + c c
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9)c  c c c cc c c  c c   ccc cc
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cc3c  c c  cc  c
c
McCormick:
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c   c ccccc
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ccc
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c -c  c cc  ccc cc cc
c 63^%0cI+.·33 .-3%^c c  c c ccc cccc
•c 0  cc
c &c
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c c ccc 

cc c ccmc
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#  
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c P  c  cc
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AM ££ O£ AGA £T TERE£T ECLARAT O£ AGA £T TERE£T
^c cc cc
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cc    =ccc'
cc '
c
& c  
c c  c%0c c  c cc  cc cc cc
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c^%-c$  c & c 
c$  c
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c - cc;cc c( ccc cc c c =c c c c(c c   c c  cc c
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c ^ cc cc
c  c
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cc
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K c   ccccc cc  cc  )c  )c-c c c
ccK c c cdead, mentally
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c   c )cP cmere absence from the jurisdiction
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c^%c
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3. Pedigree
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cc c c cc cc cc 
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c c c     c c
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)c .F  c c  c%0c cc cc
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c
rc 0 c c c$ c c  c 
cc   "c cc-3DP-cc c cF   c c   cc
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9)c .F   cc c    c ))c ccc cc
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c % c  c
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c £ cc ccc
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c ccc 
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c -cc c c ccc  cc  ccc
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3  c-!c  c c-!c0 c
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Rule 130, £ection 40.c          )c;c-c   cc   c( 
c cc c  ccc "c
cccc
cc c cc c"ccc  c c  c3cc  c 
c c ccccc c
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c%0c )c-  c c c ccc c cc"c

c c
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cc  cc  cc
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c c c c†cc c
c c
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ccc

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c  c  cc6 "cc   ccc=c 'c-ccdoes not require that the entries in the said booklet
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Rule 130, £ection 41.c   )c;c  c   c( 
c  ccc "c
c78ccc  cc
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cc c6cc c%0c78c
ccc 
c%0cc"ccc
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cc
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c *c   c 
c cc   c
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c c  ccc  cc c c   )cc
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c  c c
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5.c Întries in the Course of Business
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Rule 130, £ection 42.c
 
 


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c c   ccc 

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Rule 130, £ection 44.c
   
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c
  
 
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mc-c cc  c cccccc c c  c c #  cccc c=cc
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c
c
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ccc cc  cc 
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cc c"c"c$  ccc
c  c #  cc=cc
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c c     )c%cc   cc· c 
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c  =cc· cc1  c $  cc c cc
c  c   c
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presumes they will discharge their several trust with accuracy   c ccc cc  c c
c c c
and fidelity=c c"cccc c c 
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cc
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c
Rule 130, £ection 45. c
  

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c
£ · 
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c  cc c =c2 c      c ^c ccc   cc^.-*c c ccc
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c c=c
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c   =c ccc c   c c
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cc cc      c c cc.  c cc
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c cc   cc   c c   cc c
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cc c cc ccc &  ccc& )cc

c ccccc c
*  c£c  c   cc    c
    cc
c cc
 c c cc
   cc c  c cc c c  cc
cc c  c ccc cc c
 cc#  c  c c#  c  )cc
c
o evidence of the rate of exchangec cA c
   c  c c&   c  ccc c c
   c cc
c c  ccc c c
 cccc   ccc c   c)cc

c
Y . Learned Treatises
c
Rule 130, £ection 46. c   

)c;c-(c)c
c
c
YY. Prior Testimony
c
c
c
c c c cYôcc c
c c
c
Rule 130, £ection 47. c‘
 )c;c-(c)c
c
$  c &   cc cc c
1?<@c
 ¬ "   cc c
1?56c
c
c
XII. Opinion Rule
cc
c .)c 0 c6"c£  c95':6c
c
Rule 130, £ec. 48. c   ¬ )c;c-c  ccc  c c   "c-> -&-cc  c cc
c  )c
c
Rule 130, £ec. 49. c    

)c;c-c  ccc  c ccc$ 


c c 
"c "c(  c%0c
c
 cc c cc"ccc  c c  )c
c
Rule 130, £ec. 50. c     

)c;c-c  ccc  cc cc c c


 "ccc  c c  c

c;cc
c 1cc -c   ccc c cccc $ c 
cc
c 1c -c  
c c ccc    c   c
c 1c -c c ccc c ccc c    c$   cc
c
-c  ccc c c c   ccc  "c "c c%0c   ccc )cc
c
c *)cc c
c
 ' 6   £ c  c   cc' =cc c   ccAc.
ccc c
c cc
1?9?c  c c cc c c  c1))
c
 c "c *  cc&  c cc
c   ccc   cc
 ccc "c  c
c c ccc "cc c c
cc

c c 
c  c c
 cc 
cc
c   "c  c c "c  
c cc =c cc
  c    cc
  ccc cc cc cc c c 5cc
 cc cc c cccccc ccmc
 c cc c   =c ccc cccc
å£$   6  =cccc c c   c cccc 'cc c
c c ccc  cc c   c
1?69=c6"cA)c c cc ' cc ccc
)c6  c  ccc c  cccc   cc c
  c 
 c"c ccc  c c     cc c ()c
c
c   cc#  cc)c c  c 'c-c c 
c ccccccc  c c

c cc c  c"cc c cc )c-c c  cc c  )c-c  c c
cc c c   ccc c1 cc c  c ccc c cccc   cc
c
 c c    ccc  )cc "c
cccccc  cc   "c
c  "c
ccc cc c cc"ccc
Evidence in issue:c   c c  ccc   "c)c  cccc c     c c  c c  c
3  cc cc&Bcc c ccc c )c
  "c cc c  "c cc c c
c 'c cc c c  c"cc ccc  c
 cc c  "cc cc  c c c  c$  cc   "c3  "cc( cc
 
ccc
c c  "c cccc  cc "c c  c"c c
cc "cc c c$  "c cc(ccc
 c  cc)c
'c3cccc  cc0 c&Bcc c
   c c c  c  ccc  )c
'c-(c  c c  c   c  ccc
 
c    "c
c c(  "c c$   cc
c  c)c-c cc#  "c"cc c
 cc  c c
c  cc c  =c
cccc
c"c cc c
cc cc
c
c c cc"ccc c c  c c
  c ccc cc    c ccc
 c  c 
cc )c
‘      6  =c .D+ccc55cc c- c c c:c .c
c c c c   cc
1???=c4  "cA)c c c
  c0  )c.
 c  c ccD  c c     c c c c c 
c
cc cc c  )c£
c   cc   cc 
c cc  c ccc  ccc   c
c cccc  )cc   cc c( !c   ccc  cc
c $   )c-cc ccpolygraph or lie detector testc
Evidence in issue:c% cc ccc- c  cc ccc cc c  c ccc 
c c
#
 cc    c cc ccc # c c  c cc    c c c
"c c cc
   "c c
ccc 
 c ccc   c cc
)c
c
c
c c c cYñcc c
c c
c

cc  cc
 c
cc cccc#  c P"c.  c ccuniformly reject the resultsc
c c)c c
cc c c c  ccc cc
 
cc
cc  cc c  ccc "c
cc  ccc   c c c    "c
cc ccpolygraph has not as yet attained scientific
acceptance as a reliable and accurate means of ascertaining
truth or deception)c
-c c c c  c c c#     )cc- "c c‘  
  "c
cc c c c c  c cc c
 cc c ccc c c c   )cc. "c c c
"cc c   c c cc c c  c c
cc )c
£    'c6  c cc cc c c c=c D0c.cc  cc c cccc c cc  c
1?:6=c·  "cA)c D!cc16 c   c cc  ccc !c c    )cc
 c c c cc  ccc ccc -> -&-3%^c  ccc  cc c c

 c "c 
c c  "cc c c "c    c c"c c "c  "c c 
ccc
 cc  $   "c c c ccc
c  c c   ccc
 c   ccc )cc
c
c c c c   )cc
'c  c  ccc cc c cc c
c c c c c c
c
££UE:c6  


   

  


     

 
 


      
   
c
,-£c
壣
 6  =c£ c  c0 c
ccc1  c "c 'c3 c 
c     cc  c c c c"c
1?@6=c-  "c  cA
c ))c( c  c
c c c+£c )c6 c c c
Bcc  ccc   c c
   c cc c c

 c c0 ccc cccc c#
c c  
cc 
cc  c
£ c ccFc)cc  c(c  )c
£ cc c cc c c )cPcc 'ccc  c c ccc$    cc cc c(c
  cc&NDccc ccc c ccc cc  c$   ccc   c cc ccc
 )cc c =c cc c "cc cc c  cc  "c
^  c   c  c c c  cc  c c ccc# cc  cc "c c c c"c
  cc c c  c1(c
 c c 
c ccc
 ccc  )c c cc c c
c c cc 
c c   c c c cccc   c cc ccc
cc&NDc)cc  cc( cc  =c ccc c c c
c c cc"c cc 
c c c  c
££UEc. c  c
 ccc   c 'c 
c  cA c cc    c  cc c
   c  cc c c£Cc  c  c cc c cc(  c c  c
  ccc    c ccc cc 
c c   cc  )c£c c c 
cB cc
c c  c cc cc c
 c cc    cccc  c cc
B "c c c
   c c c  c  c  c c
cc
cc c  
c(c  c   c
c cc'
B c    c  cc "cc
thing from which the deduction is madec cc    c
  ccc
  c
 c c cc  c
  c c c c
)c
'c^ c  c c cc c c ccc
  cc c c    c c )c-c  c c
 c cc c c c c )c. c c c
c ccc  
c  cc "c
c c
  "cc c# ccccc
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  )c
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c c
  c
ccweight"c^cc     ccc
    c  )c
'c  cc
c c(cccc 
cc c
 c cc  c    c $ )ccc
 " 6   ( 'cA c c c- c£ cc c   c c c 'c+ cc c0 "cc c#
c c  cc c
‘     c c )c-c c c c  c  c c  cc    c  cc  c   c c c c
1??=c*  "cA)c   cc "c

ccc c c c c  "c c )c
  cccCc
  cc*  "cc   c 'cD c c c cc c   ccc
  c  c 
c  cc  )c0  c      cc    c  c cc c0 cc
 cc cc c c c  c
 )c -  "c cc0 cc-  c10 c@6c c
ccc
'c£ c#
 =c.  cc)c·cc ccc  c#
cc cc  
cc c(Cc  cc
 c  ccc  c c*  c c  c c c cc c   c c c ccc cc
)c^c c c c*  cccc  c
 c  )c&  c  c c c    c c  c
1 ))"cc  ccc 
c  c c )c  c cc  )c
P c    c6 c cc*  c 
ccc 'c£    c cmccc
c  c
c
 cc
 cc c c cccc  cc   cc
c  c c )c 'c0 ccccc c
c
c
c c c cYcc c
c c
c
'c&   !c c
c5c(cc cc )c£    c 
c'c  c cc    c c  "c
*  c c c c )c* c c c1c c  ccc  c cc
  c cJ 
)Jc
 c c c1 c c cc cc c c )c. cc ccc
*  c c  =c
c ccc )cA
!c c    c c c c  c cc
 c  cc*  cc  ccc  ccc'c- c  cc  c ccc
    c cc  ccc 
c cccc c
cc 
c 
cc  c c
  c  cc c c =c cc  c     c c cccc
cc
c  c   c  
c1  c  c  
cc cc  cccc c  )Jc- c
 )c   c c c  c cc
cc
'c .c  cccc1 c*&c   cc£  c  c "cc c cc c # cc    c
c(c  c'c- $ c cc
 c c c cc   c c    c#  "ccccc
c c cc c    c )c  c cc $ "c c c
 c "c
c
c c
)c3c c cmethodology and principles"c cc
££UE:c
  
   

       c    c
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     ¬ c^%c
å  £   6  =cP!c.
ccP c c c ccc -c£ c  c(  ccJc
cC
 c Cc
1??=c* "c  c    cccccc c

c% )c6)c* !c $  c  ccc c ccC c Cccc
A
 c cc( c cc c c c c c  c0 c c cC
 ccc(
cc
c     cc ccc Bc c c cOccc    c ccJ  Jc  )Cc-cJ Jc
   )cc
 c c  "cJ cc c  c
c  cc c0 cc-  "c  c cc  c c
-  c c  c^.cc  c )Jc
c
c
XIII. Burden of Proof and Presumptions
c c
c .)c 0 c"c£  c'9)c
c
Rule 131, £ection 1. cV  ‘ )c;cºBurden of proof͟c cc ccccc c  c ccc c  c cc c c
 cc  ccc c$  cc)c
c
c
Regalado:
•c *+0-^c%c&0%%cc%^+£c&0%*.^3c cc
  c  c  cccc
cc(  ccc ccc
   cc c  cc  cc ccccc$  c$   cc  )cc
•c I   cc  cc
c  cc;c  cc  c
c   cc
Œc 3  cc cccc&3c;cc cc
Œc  
cc c   c;cc c
Œc £  cc    c;c  cc
c c c  cc
c 
cc  c
 c#
c;cc c  
c  c
9c D cccc#
c;c c c  c
:c .   cc)
)c.
  cc;c   c  c
•c c cc   cccc
c  c;ccc  cc  c c c  cc
 c c c c
c   c;cc cc   cc
•c *   ccc)c   cc  cc
c
BURE O ‘ROO BURE O E ECE
c c cc c c
 cc c ccc  cc £ cccc"c 
c  cc(
  cccc cc
c c  c  ccc c
D c   ccc
cccc D c   ccc  ccc c%0ccc   c
cc   ccc c c cc cccc
 
c  c ccc
 c ))c   "c#  c  c
 c    c
c *%-Pc 32c.^c 036c· c ccccc c  c

  c cc F  c
 c   cccc c  c
  c cc  c


c ccc "c  c   =c  ccc
c  c
  c

c(  cc#  
c%0c(
c
   "c c cc 

c   )c
c
•c ^
 c
  c c^%-cccc "c
c -> -&-cc c 
 c
  cc  cccc cc  cc  c cc  cc%0cc  c
  ccc
 c cc  ccc  c)c
c
c
c c c cYcc c
c c
c
c -)
)c3 c cc   c   ccccc  ' ccc  ccc$  c"c
c c cc 
 c

  )c
c 3 c  c"c c c 
 c
  c c c  cccc cc  cc  "c c 
 c
  c%-£c^%-cccc
 "c c c c ccc cc  
cc(  ccc   c c  ccc cc  ccc c)cc
•c D-^-0.·c0+·-c3c  c
c c  c cc 
 c
  c%0c 
 c c c c  c ccc "cc
   ccc   cc
cc
)cc
•c -> -&-3%^ccc 
 ccc  cdoes not permit of direct proof"c%0cccccc  c  cc

ccc  "cc c cc c )cc
•c -)
)c cc
c ccc c cc  "cc   ccccccc  c ccc c c  c  c c

c c c cccc c    c1‘6    )cc
c
McCormickc1 c<"c£  c:'9cc
•c &c cc c cc    cc   c  ccc  )cc
•c *   ccc ccc   cccc
c *   cc 
cc  "c ccc#
"ccc  c  c
c *   cc 
cc ccccc
 cc c cc
c
BURE O ‘ROO 1&-0£+.£3%^c BURE O E ECE 1&0%+ -3%^=cD%3^Dc%0.0
·   c ccc c cc ccc c. -+.··,c c  )c&c ·   cc c c 
c1
 cc
cc  c c c
  c  c cc
c c c$ "ccc  cc  
c   c cc  cc c c  cc
 c  cccc cccc c c)cc
c c ccccc 
cc cc c£36&·,c*- .+£-c + cc c  ccccc  cc(  ccc"c
c  c cc c  c c c ccc    c *+-c cc ccc c cc cc 
 c c  c
cccc
*c  c c cc cc   c c   cc 
c   c c c# c cc ccc#
cc  ccc
  c c c cccc  cc c   )cc   c# c    c ccc cc  cc   cc
c
•c 3 cc"ccccc   cc
ccc ccc   cc 
c  c c 
cc# cc c
(  cc)c
Q  c c c c
cccc
c c c
cc  cccc c cc )cc
•c .··% .-3%^c%c*+0-^£c;c   ccc c ccc   cc
)cc
pc ^
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  cccc c
 cc c  c c  c cc 
ccc"ccc
cc   cc
cc  )c-)
)c "c 
c c  c c  cc
pc 0  cc  ccccc c  cccc  cccc  c cc  )c-)
)c  c
   c( "c !c  ccc cc c
  cc
•c *   cc 
c  c cc   c c
 cc c
 c  ccc
 c cccc)c+ "c
c c
 c c c cc ccc 
  c ccc   ccc
 c cc ccc
c
)cc
•c P"c  c  ccc   cc 
c  cc ccc )c-c 
c  ccc   cc c
c cccc   c c
 cccc  cc  c c cc )cc
•c £  "c
c   cc   c c
 c c R c c c ccc    Rc   ccc  ccc
   "c c  cc
ccccc  c c  c c   cc )cc
•c ^c c  c

cc   ccc   cc)c.  c c  c  cc
cc c
 cc c cc
ccccc
c ^ c  cccc   c ccc  
c
c
c £ c c    c ccc 
c c  cc
c    c
9c   c
:c A  c cc   cc
c
£AT £Y G BURE O ‘ER£UA£ O:
)c 6 cc   c c  cc
 c
•c &ccc  cc  c;c c c cc  
ccc c cc
c  cc
)c 0$  ccc c  
ccc
)c &c cc c  c
c
c *)c c
c c c
1.c Civil Cases
c c c c
‘  ·$  c cc· cc( c  cccc   c 'c.cc 
cc
c
  cc ccc cprove
1?5<=c& "cA) c c c cccD B =c£ c c-cc$  c his claim by competent evidence)c.c  c c c cc
cc
  c c .c:?)c& c
ccc c c
  c cc )cPc cc cc
 
c66c$cc£ cAc cc c ccc cc 
cc c  c c c cc cccc c
c cc c cccccD B )c   )c
c
c
c c c cYwcc c
c c
c
c 'c .c cc cc  ccc(  cc£ cAc cc
c c& "cccccc c c£ cACc c
 c c c c   "c c cc  cc
 c    =c ccc c c
ccc( cc
c
 c Cc
cc )c* "c   c
c c  c c   cc  c
ccc
0 c&
c.    c c
 cccccc
   cc c 
  )cD 
cccD B c c c
   cc$ cc cc c   c"c cc
c c c cc   ccc cc
cc
 c  cc
  cc c )c
%$ " .  ccc  c cc&^=c- c
cc
c 'c£cccc cc
c c  c
1?@@=c6 "cA) c   cc· c6c c(  c&^cNcc

c cc  c c.959c ccc !c  c
 c  )c· c  c&^cNc
 cccc3 )c- c 1  c "c "c)c c ccc
 c cc3 c c   cc3 c   cc  c  cc  cc  c  cc)cc
c  )c- c 
c c  c   c  c 'c-c cc3 c c"c c cc cc c c
c
 c cc c  c c c cc  cc· c c  cc cc c
cc ccc
 )c3 c  c  cc c  c c  c  c ccc  
cc  "c c c c
 c)c- c  cc3 c c )cc knowledgeccc  c cc $  c 
ccc
c   )cP"c3 c c c 
ccc  c c c
££UE^ 

        
   
c- cc cc c
cc ccc
 c^%c  c ccc  
cc  )c'c.  cc3 c
c   c c cc cccc c cc&^ccc
^
 c
  c c^%-cccc "c   cc  c c$   c c c ccc  cc c
-> -&-cc c 
 c
  cc  ccc  c  )c-cc  c
c c  cc  c- c
c cc  cc  c cc  cc%0cc  c cc ccc c cc c )cc

  ccc c cc  ccc  c)cc 'c* cc
  cc3 cc c cºO KOWLEGE O
c THE ACC ET͟c ccnegative allegationc cneeds no evidence
c to support it"c c
c c  cccc ccc

c c cc cc  c c  )c
'c3c cc- cccc   ccdisprovingcc
 cc   cccc c 
ccc  c
 c c cccc  c cccc c
 cc c ccc  cc  )c0  c
  c c )c
c
cc c )cc Criminal Cases
c
‘  ‘#   6  c c 
c  =c  c&)c  c c-
c 'c n a criminal case for illegal possession of firearms, the
c1?@@=c    "cA) c  cc
)cP  c
c )c-cc c c c prosecution has to prove the absence of license therefor.

c  )ccc 'c3c c cc‘  
c c‘  
¬ 
c  cc
c   cc cc cc c c   c  cc c
c 
 c c 
c  ccc "cccc
'c3c cc   ccc cc ccc  c c c   cc ccc  cccc "c cc"c
  c
  ccc cc 
c  ccc cc   c  cc cc   cc£  c
 )c-c   c  c
 c c c   c c "c0 cccc0 cc  c "c cc c  c
^)c::5cccc c  c
 ccc c c ccburden of proofccccoffense chargedc c cc
J  cc ccJcc)9:c c c    c    c ccc 
 cc
 ccc
 )c- c cccc cccprosecution's duty    c ccproven if ºit is an essential ingredient of
not merely to allege that negative fact but to prove it)cc the offense charged""cc   cccc cc
'c 
c  
 c-c  cc
 c c
c    c c cccccc c  cc
  c   c cccc 
ccc c  c  c c 
cc c
 cc cc
cc$     c$  cccc)c3ccc c    )c
cc 
 ccc cc$     cccccc 'c-ccccc cccccontrol of the
 c  c ccc c
 c c  cc c better means of proof of the fact alleged"c  c c c
cc   )cc cc
cc ccc   cc
c )c- c
'c 
c‘  
  c.  cc
 c c 
c c"c cccc
ccc cc  cc
 cc  c cc c 
 "c c c c$  cc 
c"c cc  c c
  cc c c  cc c  cc c
 c )cc
cc  c c   "c  c
c 'c  c  cc c ccccc c  cc
  c  ccc  cc
  cc 
c ccc
c cc  "c c"cccc $ c
c* cc6 c-( "cc  c c£  c@@6cc   cc  )cPc  cc   ccc ccc
c.   c  "c c  c cc cc #cc   c c c c$  c c 
ccccc
c 
 c c "cc  "cccc
c 'c.
"c
cccc(  cc  '(  c
  cc$     c  ccc c c  c c c  c "c cc  "cc  ccc

  ccc c
 "cc   ccc   "c c "c "c   c  ccc
   cc
cc"c
c c ccc   cc 

cc ccc  cccc
  )c

cc 
 c
  "cc   "c c c ^ "cccsubject matter of the averment is one which
c
c
c c c cY†cc c
c c
c
   "c  c c c   cccc lies peculiarly within the control or knowledge of the
c  c )cc accused
 evidence thereof on the part of the
3 ccccc*c c cc£  cD c prosecution shall suffice to cast the onus upon him)c

ccccnot even a
 casec  c cc
 c c
ccc 
c  ccc )c
å£ "  0cc c   c =c c c c  c 'c-c  c c$   cc c  c    cc
1?@:=c6- "c cA
c    cc c c c  c1 Bc c c  cc# c$   c ccc( c   ccc
  cc
c c  )c& c c 
ccccc  )cc
  c cc c  ccc c)cc 'c-c c c
 c  ccc   c c
 c ccc#
 cc$ c cc
 ccc  c   Cc(c c  c c(c
   c c  ccccccc  c c   c   cc c )cc
c
c c c cc c  "c cc  c 'c-c(c  c c c   c cc
c   )c    =c c
c c   cccc# cc
 "c c ccc  c c  cccc
c    cc  
c(c  )c
‘   )  6  =c3 c c"c6 cc  cc2Bc cc 'c% c c  cc   cc 
ccc  c
"c
c1?@@=c.  "cA) c  ccc!c )c.cc 
c   "c c   c c c cc cc(  cc c
2Bc
 cc c cc  ccc    c cc#  cc 
cccc c
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ccccc c ccc2B)cP"c 'c-cestablish his exculpation, or the justificationccc"cc
c2B!c('#  c   "cc ccccc  cc c  c
  ccclear, satisfactory and
 cc6)c6 c cc  c   cc c )c convincing evidence)cPc cc cc
cc c c
Pc  c'  c1
ccc c  c c c   c c c cc ccccc   c

!c =c cc c)cc c c ccc "c c  c cc   ccc
  c c c   cc 
) 3c c  cc c
 ccc  cc c2B)c
‘   (*  6  =c& cccc c c
 c c ' £ 
cc   ccccc   ccc 

c
1?@@=c "cA) c c c ccc(')cPc
 c ccc c    c  c  c c^c cc c
cc('c c cc )cPc  cc c c &c  ccc+)£)c      )c
 cc(c  c   c1$   cc 'c£ c  c  c c^cc 
 c cc
 
)cc cc c cc£c cc c cc  "c c
c    ccseparate issuec c cc   c c$  c
££UEcc^,!c  ccc   cc
cc cccburden of persuasion)c
 

c   ccc  c   c c 'cc c  cc ccc     c  "c
   c c cc- c  c cc  c  c  "ccc£c cdisprovec cc
(  c  ccc cc  cccc  c  ccc   
c c cc  c
  c c  c  "c c"cc c"cc  c ccc   cc c  )c-   "c
   cc
cc"ccccc  c ccc$  cc ccc c c
 c''c  "cJc)c)c)c   cc#     "c( c 
 cc =cc c 
cc Cc
c   Jc''c c cc   c c
 cccc  cc cccc
c 
 c )ccc c c  cc c
McCormickc  c  cc^,c c c c c   c c  cc
ccc c&c  c

  c c
cc  c cc c 
c cc c "c $ cc   ccc cc c  c
 c c  "ccc    c  c c cccelements included in the definition of the offensecc
 )c-c ccc  cc 
c c c  cc   c c
 )cc
ccc  cc  ccc c c c 'c&ccc  (  ccc  c  cc c
c   cc(c  c   cc  c     c$  =c cc c c cc
'c       ccc  ccc   ccccc   c cc c c cc cc ccc c
  c  ccc=c ccc c  c  cc  c)c
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