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858 Chapter 10 Feedback

network while its port 1 is short-circuited (because it is connected in shunt). Finally, observe
that since the feedback network senses I o , it is fed by a current I o ; and since it delivers a
current I f that is mixed in shunt at the input, its port 1 is short-circuited and β is found as
I f ⁄ I o , where I f is the current that flows through the short circuit.
The open-loop resistances R i and R o are determined from the A circuit as indicated.
Observe that R o is found by breaking the output loop at say YY ′ and measuring the resis-
tance between Y and Y′ . Resistances R i and R o are then used in Eqs. (10.60) and (10.61),
respectively, to determine R if and R of . Finally, the resistances R in and R out that character-
ized the feedback amplifier are obtained from R if and R of by reference to Fig. 10.29, as
follows:

1 1
R in = 1 ⎛ ------ – -----⎞ (10.62)
⎝ R if R s⎠

R out = R of – R L (10.63)

Example 10.8

Figure 10.31 shows a feedback current amplifier formed by cascading an inverting voltage amplifier
μ with a MOSFET Q. The output current I o is the drain current of Q. The feedback network, con-
sisting of resistors R 1 and R 2 , senses an exactly equal current, namely, the source current of Q, and
provides a feedback current signal that is mixed with I s at the input node. Note that the bias arrange-
ment is not shown.

Io

Rout  Rof

 m Q

Io

R2

Is Rs R1

Rif Rin

(a)

Figure 10.31 Circuit for Example 10.8.


10.7 The Feedback Current Amplifier (Shunt–Series) 859

If R2

1 R1 2 Io

(b)

R
IoIs 12 
R1

 m Q
Vi  0 R
IoIs 12 
R1
Rs
Ii  0
If  Is R2
Is R2

Is R2
Is R1 
R1

(c)

Io
Ro

Ii
ro1 0
Q ro2
 1/gm
R2 Io

Rs Rid Vi mVi 
R1
R2 R1


Ri (d)

Figure 10.31 continued


860 Chapter 10 Feedback

Example 10.8 continued

The amplifier μ can be implemented in a variety of ways, including by means of an op amp, a dif-
ferential amplifier, or a single-ended inverting amplifier. The simplest approach is to implement μ
with a CS MOSFET amplifier. However, in such a case the loop gain will be very limited. Assume
that the amplifier μ has an input resistance R id , an open-circuit voltage gain μ , and an output
resistance r o1 .
(a) If the loop gain is large, find an approximate expression for the closed-loop gain A f ≡ I o ⁄ I s .
(b) Find the A circuit and derive expressions for A, R i , and R o .
(c) Give expressions for A β , A f , R if , R in , R of , and R out .
(d) Find numerical values for A, β , A β , A f , R i , R if , R in , R o , R of , and R out for the following case:
μ = 1000 V/V, R s = ∞, R id = ∞, r o1 = 1 kΩ , R 1 = 10 kΩ , R 2 = 90 kΩ , and for Q: gm = 5 mA/
V and r o = 20 kΩ.

Solution
(a) When the loop gain A β 1, A f  1 ⁄ β . To determine β refer to Fig. 10.31(b),
If 1 R
β ≡ ---- = – -----------------
- (10.64)
Io R1 + R2

Thus,

1 R
A f  --- = – ⎛ 1 + -----2⎞ (10.65)
β ⎝ R 1⎠
To see what happens in this case more clearly, refer to Fig. 10.31(c). Here we have assumed the loop gain
to be large, so that I i  0 and thus I f  I s . Also note that because I i  0 , V i will be close to zero.
Thus, we can easily determine the voltage at the source of Q as – I f R 2  – I s R 2 . The current through R 1
will then be I s R 2 ⁄ R 1. The source current of Q will be – ( I s + I s R 2 ⁄ R 1 ) , which means that the output cur-
rent I o will be
R
I o = – I s ⎛ 1 + -----2⎞
⎝ R 1⎠
which confirms the expression for A f obtained above (Eq. 10.65).
(b) To obtain the A circuit we load the input side of the basic amplifier with R s and R 11 . The latter
in this case is simply R 1 + R 2 (because port 2 of the feedback network is opened). We also load the
output of the basic amplifier with R 22 , which in this case is R 1 || R 2 (because port 1 of the feedback
network is shorted). The resulting A circuit is shown in Fig., 10.31(d), where we have replaced the
amplifier μ with its equivalent circuit. Analysis of the A circuit is straightforward and proceeds as
follows:
R i = R s || R id || ( R 1 + R 2 ) (10.66)
Vi = Ii Ri (10.67)
1 r o2
I o = – μ V i ------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------
- (10.68)
1 ⁄ g m + ( R 1 || R 2 || r o2 ) r o2 + ( R 1 || R 2 )

Combining Eqs. (10.67) and (10.68) results in A:


I Ri r o2
A ≡ ---o- = – μ -----------------------------------------------------
- ----------------------------------
- (10.69)
Ii 1 ⁄ g m + ( R 1 R 2 r o2 ) r o2 + ( R 1 || R 2 )
|| ||
10.7 The Feedback Current Amplifier (Shunt–Series) 861

For the case 1 ⁄ g m Ⰶ ( R 1 || R 2 || r o2 ) ,


Ri r o2
A  – μ ----------------------------
- ----------------------------------
-
R 1 || R 2 || r o2 r o2 + ( R 1 || R 2 )
Which reduces to
Ri
A = – μ ----------------
- (10.70)
R 1 || R 2

Noting that R o is the output resistance of Q, which has a resistance ( R 1 || R 2 ) in its source lead, we
can write

R o = r o2 + ( R 1 || R 2 ) + ( g m r o2 ) ( R 1 || R 2 )

 g m r o2 ( R 1 || R 2 ) (10.71)

(c) The loop gain is obtained by combining Eqs. (10.64) and (10.69),
Ri r o2 R1
A β = μ ---------------------------------------------- - -----------------
- ---------------------------------- - (10.72)
1- R || R || ||
r o2 + ( R 1 R 2 ) R 1 + R 2
----- +( 1 2 r o2 )
gm
For the case 1 ⁄ g m Ⰶ ( R 1 || R 2 || r o2 ),
Ri R1 R
A β  μ ---------------- - = μ -----i
- ----------------- (10.73)
R 1 || R 2 R 1 + R 2 R2

The input resistance R if is found as

R if = R i ⁄ ( 1 + A β )
1-
----- 1
= ----- + A
β
-------
R if R i R i
We can substitute for A β from the full expression in Eq. (10.72). For the approximate case, we use A β
from Eq. (10.73):
1-
----- 1 μ
= ----- + -----
R if Ri R2
That is,
R
R if = R i || -----2
μ
Substituting for R i from Eq. (10.66), we write
R
R if = R s || R id || ( R 1 + R 2 ) || -----2
μ
Since by definition,

R if = R s || R in

we can easily find R in as


R
R in = R id || ( R 1 + R 2 ) || -----2 (10.74)
μ
862 Chapter 10 Feedback

Example 10.8 continued

Usually the third component on the right-hand side is the smallest; thus,
R
R in  -----2 (10.75)
μ
For the output resistance, we have

R of = R o ( 1 + A β )  A β R o

Substituting for R o for Eq. (10.71) and for A β from the approximate expression in Eq. (10.73), we
have
R
R of  μ ⎛ -----i ⎞ ( g m r o2 ) ( R 1 || R 2 )
⎝ R2 ⎠
Ri
R of = μ -----------------
- ( g r )R (10.76)
R 1 + R 2 m o2 1

Finally, we note that


Ri
R out = R of = μ -----------------
-g r R (10.77)
R 1 + R 2 m o2 1

(d) For the numerical values given,

R i = ∞ || ∞ || ( 10 + 90 ) = 100 kΩ

Since 1 ⁄ g m = 0.2 kΩ  ( 10 || 90 || 20 ) ,
Ri
A  – μ ----------------
-
R 1 || R 2

100 3 A/A
= – 1000 ----------------- = – 11.11 × 10
10 || 90
R1 10 -
β = – -----------------
- = – ----------------- = – 0.1 A/A
R1 + R2 10 + 90
A β = 1111
3
11.11 × 10
A f = – ---------------------------- = – 9.99 A/A
1 + 1111

which is very close to the ideal value of


R 90
A f  – ⎛ 1 + -----2⎞ = – ⎛ 1 + ------ ⎞ = – 10 A/A
⎝ R 1⎠ ⎝ 10 ⎠
R 90 kΩ
R in = -----2 = --------------- = 90 Ω
μ 1000
R o = g m r o2 ( R 1 || R 2 )

= 5 × 20 ( 10 || 90 ) = 900 kΩ

R out = ( 1 + A β )R o = 1112 × 900 = 1000 MΩ