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Getting to Grips with ETOPS:

Certification and Approval

Getting to Grips with


ETOPS
Volume I: CERTIFICATION AND APPROVAL
Flight Operations Support
& Line Assistance

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Getting to Grips with ETOPS:
Certification and Approval

Left Intentionally Blank

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Getting to Grips with ETOPS: Table of Content
Certification and Approval

Table of Content
Table of contents
TABLE OF CONTENT ......................................................................................................................................3

1 FOREWORD ...........................................................................................................................................5

2 INTRODUCTION .....................................................................................................................................6

2.1 BACKGROUND INFORMATION ........................................................................................... 6

2.2 HISTORY ............................................................................................................................... 7


2.2.1 ORIGINAL REGULATIONS .................................................................................... 7
2.2.2 RELIABILITY OF FIRST GENERATION OF JET ENGINES ............................... 10
2.2.3 HIGH-BYPASS ENGINES, AND WIDE-BODY TWIN AIRCRAFT ....................... 10
2.2.4 INITIAL 120-MINUTE ETOPS OPERATIONS ..................................................... 11
2.2.5 MODIFICATION OF EXISTING AIRCRAFT ........................................................ 13
2.2.6 EVOLUTIONS OF THE REGULATIONS ............................................................. 13
2.2.7 DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN ETOPS AIRCRAFT ........................................... 14

3 ETOPS REGULATIONS .......................................................................................................................15

3.1 OBJECTIVES AND CONCEPT ........................................................................................... 15


3.1.1 OBJECTIVES ....................................................................................................... 15
3.1.2 CONCEPT ............................................................................................................ 17
3.1.3 ETOPS SIGNIFICANT SYSTEMS ....................................................................... 17

3.2 ETOPS TYPE DESIGN & RELIABILITY APPROVAL ......................................................... 18


3.2.1 APPLICABILITY.................................................................................................... 18
3.2.2 PROCESS ............................................................................................................ 19
3.2.3 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS .................................................................................. 20
3.2.3.1 Human Factors and Safety Analyses ................................................................. 20
3.2.3.2 Air Conditioning (ATA 21) .................................................................................. 20
3.2.3.3 Communications (ATA 23) ................................................................................. 20
3.2.3.4 Electrical Generation (ATA 24) .......................................................................... 20
3.2.3.5 Fire Protection (ATA 26) .................................................................................... 21
3.2.3.6 Fuel (ATA 28) ..................................................................................................... 22
3.2.3.7 Hydraulic (ATA 29) ............................................................................................. 24
3.2.3.8 Ice and Rain Protection (ATA 30) ...................................................................... 28
3.2.3.9 Pneumatic (ATA 36) ........................................................................................... 28
3.2.3.10 Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) (ATA 49) .............................................................. 28
3.2.3.11 Power Plant (ATA 70) ...................................................................................... 29
3.2.4 CERTIFICATION RESULTS ................................................................................ 29

3.3 ETOPS OPERATIONAL APPROVAL .................................................................................. 29


3.3.1 APPLICABILITY.................................................................................................... 29
3.3.2 PROCESS ............................................................................................................ 30
3.3.3 THE IN-SERVICE PLAN ...................................................................................... 31
3.3.4 THE ACCELERATED PLAN ................................................................................ 32
3.3.5 APPROVAL .......................................................................................................... 33

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Getting to Grips with ETOPS: Table of Content
Certification and Approval

4 ETOPS RELIABILITY TRACKING BOARD.........................................................................................35

4.1 INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................. 35

4.2 MONITORED ITEMS ........................................................................................................... 35


4.2.1 ENGINES .............................................................................................................. 35
4.2.2 ETOPS SIGNIFICANT SYSTEMS ....................................................................... 36
4.2.3 TROUBLESHOOTING PROCEDURES ............................................................... 36

4.3 OUTCOME ........................................................................................................................... 36

5 ETOPS DOCUMENTS ..........................................................................................................................37

5.1 CONFIGURATION, MAINTENANCE AND PROCEDURES DOCUMENT ......................... 37


5.1.1 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................. 37
5.1.2 CMP COMPONENTS ........................................................................................... 39
5.1.3 CMP CREATION, AND REVISION PROCESS ................................................... 45
5.1.4 CMP PUBLICATION ............................................................................................. 45

5.2 OTHER ETOPS DOCUMENTS ........................................................................................... 45


5.2.1 ETOPS SIGNIFICANT SYSTEMS LIST ............................................................... 45
5.2.2 PARTS LIST ......................................................................................................... 47
5.2.3 ETOPS COMPLIANCE DOCUMENT ................................................................... 47

6 ETOPS AND AIRBUS...........................................................................................................................48

6.1 MILESTONES ...................................................................................................................... 48

6.2 CERTIFICATION STATUS .................................................................................................. 48


6.2.1 A300 AND A310 FAMILY AIRCRAFT .................................................................. 49
6.2.2 A318, A319, A320 AND A321 FAMILY AIRCRAFT ............................................. 50
6.2.3 A330 AIRCRAFT .................................................................................................. 51

6.3 HOW CAN AIRBUS ASSIST YOU?..................................................................................... 51


6.3.1 TRAINING COURSES .......................................................................................... 52
6.3.2 CONSULTING SERVICES ................................................................................... 52
6.3.3 TECHNICAL QUESTIONS ................................................................................... 52

6.4 AIRBUS ETOPS ORGANIZATION ...................................................................................... 53

6.5 ETOPS TECHNICAL DOCUMENTATION ON AIRBUSWORLD ........................................ 53

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Getting to Grips with ETOPS: Foreword
Certification and Approval

1 FOREWORD
This “Getting to Grips with ETOPS” is divided into three volumes:

• Volume I: Certification and Approval, this very volume. Its main objective is to provide
recommendations that satisfy the Extended Twin OPerationS (ETOPS) operational, and
reliability requirements, in order for an airline to obtain the necessary approvals from the
presiding National Airworthiness Authorities.

• Volume II: The Flight Operations View. This volume expands on the specificities of
ETOPS flight operations, and describes the preparation, dispatch, and execution of an
ETOPS flight. Volume I provides an introduction to these specificities.

• Volume III: The Maintenance View. This last volume expands on the maintenance
aspects associated with ETOPS. Volume I provides an introduction to these specificities.

The purpose of this publication is to provide Operators with the Airbus interpretation of the
applicable ETOPS regulations, and of the associated guidelines, and recommendations.

If any deviation appears between the information provided in this brochure and that published
in the applicable reference documents (Configuration, Maintenance, and Procedures (CMP),
Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM), and Master Minimum Equipment List (MMEL)), the information
provided in CMP, AFM, and MMEL shall prevail at all times, unless otherwise stated by Airbus
ETOPS/EDTO group, and an agreement is obtained from the local regulatory authorities.

All recommendations comply with the current regulatory requirements, and are intended to
assist the Operators in maximizing the safety, and cost effectiveness of their ETOPS
operations.

All brochure holders and users are encouraged to forward their questions and suggestions to
the AIRBUS contacts of the “6.3 HOW CAN AIRBUS ASSIST YOU?” section.

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Getting to Grips with ETOPS: Introduction
Certification and Approval

2 INTRODUCTION
2.1 BACKGROUND INFORMATION

ETOPS is an acronym that was created by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).
It was first used to describe the operation of a twin-engine aircraft over a route that contains a
point beyond a defined threshold from an adequate airport.
• This threshold is defined by the Operator’s National Airworthiness Authorities (NAA), and
is usually set to one hour (60 min) flying time, at the approved one-engine inoperative
cruise speed. A maximum diversion time is also introduced: It defines an area of
operation, along the intended route.
• An adequate airport is an airport, expected to be available, where the landing
performance requirements at the forecasted landing weight can be met. The airport also
has the necessary facilities and services like air traffic services, lighting, communications,
meteorological services, navigation aids, rescue and fire-fighting services, and at least
one appropriate instrument approach procedure usable by the aircraft.

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Getting to Grips with ETOPS: Introduction
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ETOPS regulations are applicable to routes over not only water, but also remote l, and areas
like Siberia or Africa at night.
Modern twin-jet aircraft are much more capable and reliable than aircraft from previous
generations. Their development has required the rewriting of some of the rules governing the
aviation world to take into account these new capabilities. The civil aviation regulatory
authorities have responded favorably to these technological and safety advances, and have
worked with the industry to create new sets of rules. The purpose of ETOPS is very clear: It is
to provide a very high level of safety while facilitating the use of twin-jet aircraft on routes that
were previously restricted to three and four-engine aircraft.
To operate an aircraft under ETOPS regulations, an airline must comply with all of the
following requirements:
• The aircraft model is approved for ETOPS by the NAA of the manufacturer, and this
approval has been validated by the NAA of the airline
• The aircraft used on that route are configured, maintained, and operated as per ETOPS
requirements
• The NAA of the airline has granted it an ETOPS operational approval.
ETOPS regulations and requirements are detailed in the following chapters.

2.2 HISTORY

Ever since aviation was born, Humans have tried to fly further and further away from their
departure points. The hundreds of yards of the Wright brothers have evolved, with time, into
thousands of nautical miles.
There is an extensive history in the evolution of the rules that led to ETOPS operations. These
operations are not as recent as one would think: The first one took place in 1919 when two
Britons, Captain J. ALCOCK, and Lieutenant A. W. BROWN, crossed the Atlantic, eastward, in
a twin-engine Vickers Vimy, eventually “landing ” in an Irish peat bog after a sixteen-hour flight.

Alcock, Brown, and the Vimy at Clifden, Irel, and

2.2.1 Original Regulations


But we had to wait until 1936 to see Pan Am operate the first transoceanic passenger flight,
across the Pacific Ocean, with a Martin M130. At the same time, the U.S. Civil Aviation
Administration (CAA), ancestor to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), created the
requirements that are still incorporated in the current section 121.161 of the Federal Aviation
Regulation (FAR).

A Martin M130 from Pan Am

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Getting to Grips with ETOPS: Introduction
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Notice how large these aircraft were: They were so huge that no runways existed at the time to
accommodate them, hence the need for seaplanes. But these behemoths would barely survive
WWII, and disappear soon after…

The Laté 631 was one of the last survivors. She had a wingspan of approximately 57 m, was
powered by 6 Wright R2600 (1 500 hp each), had an average Takeoff Weight (TOW) of 71 T,
and a range of 3 750 nm for a maximum of 46 passengers, and a crew of 5.

An Air France Laté 631

The seaplanes were replaced by slightly smaller, but more capable aircraft (Both in terms of
range, and payload), like the Douglas DC-4.

.
A Douglas DC-4 from American Airlines System

The initial "60-minute rule" was established in 1953. This rule applied to all types of aircraft,
regardless of their number of engines: All operations were restricted to an en-route area-of-
operation that was within 100 nm of an adequate airport. In those days, for many aircraft, 100
nm roughly corresponded to a 60-minute flying time with one engine inoperative. The rule
focused on the poor reliability of the piston engines that were available at the time. Its purpose
was to limit the required flying time to reach an alternate airport, and hence reduce the risk of a
catastrophe by lowering, to an acceptable level, the probability that all engines would fail. In
other words, the low reliability level of piston engines required that aircraft remain within 60
minutes of an adequate airport to ensure that, if one engine failed at any point along the route,
the aircraft could land before the remaining engine failed. But the rule was flexible: It
authorized operations beyond these 60 minutes, if a special approval was granted by the
administrator. This special approval was based on the Operator’s experience, the type of
terrain, the type of operations, and the performance of the aircraft to be used. There was no
regulatory upper limit to this special approval. This rule was also applied to three-engine
aircraft, until 1964.
Also in 1953, the ICAO Standing Committee on aircraft performance reviewed piston-engine
reliability data. The following chart, extracted from the committee report, provides the
probability of failure for piston engines vs. power at a constant engine speed of 1 000 rpm:

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Getting to Grips with ETOPS: Introduction
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FAILURE PROBABILITY
INCREASES WITH POWER

Failure Probability vs. Engine Horsepower at 1 000 rpm (1953)

The chart indicates that the probability of failure increased with power: For an aircraft that
required 6 000 horsepower to complete a mission, a twin-engine aircraft had an engine failure
probability of 13.68 (2 x 6.84), while a four-engine aircraft had a failure probability of 8.12 (4 x
2.03).

Failure Probabilities For 6 000 hp Installed

Following this reliability review, the ICAO published a recommendation stating that a 90-minute
diversion time, at all engine operating speed, was acceptable for all aircraft. The more flexible
ICAO recommendation was selected by many non-US regulatory authorities, and many non-
US airlines started to operate their twin-engine aircraft under this rule. However, at that time,
four-engine aircraft were the queens of the sky, and twin-engine aircraft were mostly relegated
to short, and medium range operations.

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Getting to Grips with ETOPS: Introduction
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Therefore, for commercial operations, the twin-engine aircraft remained limited to the above-
mentioned 60-minute threshold. This era was also the beginning of the end of the big radials:
In the 1950s the first jet-powered commercial aircraft, like the de Havilland Comet, started
gracing the skies.

A de Havilland Comet from British Overseas Airways Corp.

2.2.2 Reliability of First Generation of Jet Engines


The introduction of jet engines, like the JT8D, into civil aircraft significantly enhanced the
reliability and safety of propulsion systems. This enhancement enabled manufacturers to
develop twin-engine jet aircraft that were bigger, and faster than four-engine piston aircraft.

Pratt & Whitney JT8D Jet Engine

The operational experience acquired with these jet engines of the first generation, over the last
50 years, has demonstrated that they can achieve very high levels of reliability. Statistics
indicate that jet engines are much more reliable than piston engines, and propulsion-related
accidents have been significantly reduced when compared to piston-engine aircraft.
2.2.3 High-bypass Engines, and Wide-body Twin Aircraft
By the early 1980s, great advances had been made in the aircraft operational environment,
design reliability, and integrity. These advances were based on the highly satisfactory
experience of the first generation of jet engines, and the knowledge gained from the
operational introduction of the Pratt & Whitney JT9D, the General Electric CF6, and the Rolls-
Royce RB211 large high-bypass engines.

General Electric CF6-80 Jet Engine

The Operators could see the advantage of operating their twin-jets in accordance with ICAO
rules, on routes where, by the old rules, they were forced to use three and four-engine aircraft.
One example of these new twin-jet aircraft was the A300B2/B4, that was also the first twin-aisle

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Getting to Grips with ETOPS: Introduction
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twin-jet aircraft, usable on routes up to 90-minute maximum diversion time, e.g. across the
Caribbean Sea or the Indian Ocean.
In addition, in these nearly 40 years, jet operations have demonstrated that, contrary to piston
engines, the failure probability of a jet engine is neither affected by the thrust nor by the size of
the engine. The failure rates of some of the large high-bypass engines are similar to the JT8D
failure rate, and are nearly ten times better than piston engines. Therefore, now, the probability
of an engine failure is higher on a quad-jet than on a twin-jet.

FAILURE PROBABILITY DOES NOT


INCREASE WITH POWER

Failure Rate per 1 000 hours vs. Jet-Engine Thrust

2.2.4 Initial 120-minute ETOPS Operations


The greatest initial interest in 120-minute rules ETOPS operations was over the North ATlantic
(NAT). The highly competitive nature of NAT operations made the use of wide-body twin-jets
very attractive. However, under the 60-minute rule, operations required indirect routings
(Usually referred to as random routes), and the use of en-route alternate airports that have
limited airport services, and facilities, and are subject to frequent weather limitations. NAT
operations under a 120-minute rule would enable Operators to use the minimum cost routings
(Organized Tracks System), and enable the use of alternates that are properly equipped to
support a diverting aircraft.
All of this slowly led the Authorities and the industry to realize that technical advances in
airframe, avionics, and propulsion had created the need, and the opportunity, to define a new
type of operation. All twin-jets could then be designed with performance, and safety
enhancements that allowed them to safely fly sectors that were historically restricted to three
and four-engine aircraft. The advent of the A300-600, A310, 757, and 767, as well as a new
generation of high-bypass engines provided twin-jets with the efficiency, safety, and
range/payload capabilities, that made the old 60-minute rule restriction inappropriate.

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Getting to Grips with ETOPS: Introduction
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An Airbus A310-324 from Singapore Airlines

Although a limited number of extended diversion-time operations had been conducted as


permitted by the old ICAO 90-minute guidelines, ETOPS, as it is today, began in the early
1980s:
The ICAO set an ETOPS Study Group that had the following objectives:
• To examine the feasibility of extended-range operations with these new twin-jets
• To define the special criteria that Operators and Manufacturers should apply to ensure
that these operations were conducted with a very high level of safety.
The ICAO Study Group recommended that a new ICAO rule be established to recognize the
capabilities of these new aircraft, and the limitations of the older ones. The end result was an
amendment to ICAO Annex 6, that, unless the aircraft could meet special ETOPS safety
criteria, recommended that all turbine-powered aircraft be restricted to 60-minute flying time, at
one-engine-inoperative speed, from an adequate airport.
At the same time, the FAA also began the initial work that resulted, in 1985, in Advisory
Circular (AC) 120-42. This AC established the criteria for approval of a deviation, in accordance
with FAR 121.161, to increase the ETOPS area of operation to 120-minute flying time, at one-
engine-inoperative speed, under standard conditions, and in still air.

In light color, the areas covered by the 120-minute rule

Several other civil aviation regulatory authorities also published ETOPS criteria including the
Civil Aviation Administration (CAA) - UK, Direction Générale de l’Aviation Civile (DGAC) -
France, Transport Canada, Department of Transport (DOT) - Australia, and CAA - New
Zealand, during the same time period. Many other countries relied on the guidance provided in
the ETOPS amendments to ICAO Annex 6.

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Getting to Grips with ETOPS: Introduction
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2.2.5 Modification of Existing Aircraft


Although there were several aircraft that could comply with ETOPS performance requirements,
and that had the range/payload capabilities to make ETOPS operations economically feasible,
there were no aircraft capable of meeting the aircraft system, and propulsion system
requirements at the time that the ETOPS rules were being developed. Therefore, the first
ETOPS aircraft were modified versions of aircraft originally intended for non-ETOPS
operations. These modifications were necessary to enhance the reliability of propulsion
systems, and to enhance the redundancy, and performance of electrical, hydraulic, and
avionics systems. As a matter of fact, an additional electrical generator was added to most of
these aircraft to provide four independent sources of alternative electrical power, to ensure that
all critical systems be continuously supplied with electrical power without a time limitation. On
Airbus aircraft, this additional generator is hydraulically driven.

2.2.6 Evolutions of the Regulations


In 1988, the success of 120-minute ETOPS operations led the authorities, and the industry to
consider the possibility of 180-minute ETOPS operations. Operators were very interested in
the implementation of 180-minute ETOPS, because it meant that almost all existing routes in
the world could be serviced by twin-jets, in particular routes across the Pacific Ocean. In
addition to the major design enhancements incorporated in ETOPS aircraft, enhancements in
high-bypass engine reliability made 180-minute operations possible.

In light color, the areas covered by the 180-minute rule

The FAA published AC 120-42 "A" on December 30, 1988, that provided the criteria for 75-
minute, 120-minute, and 180-minute operations. On January 18, 1989, the FAA approved the
first 180-minute ETOPS operation. Since then, ETOPS operations have continuously
increased on the North Atlantic routes where, actually, more twin-jets are flying than tris or
quads, as well as on most long range routes across, and between the five continents.
In 1993, the European Joint Airworthiness Authorities (JAA) developed their own criteria,
Information Letter (IL) 20/Advisory Material Joint (AMJ) 120-42, that combined the best points
from the individual European rules, and from the FAA criteria.

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Getting to Grips with ETOPS: Introduction
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In 2007, the FAA published a new ExTended OPerationS (ETOPS) regulation, based on the
previous ETOPS, but also applicable to tris, and quads. The Civil Aviation Safety Authority
(CASA) from Australia then published a new regulation named Extended Diversion Time
Operations (EDTO), also applicable to tris, and quads. The ICAO followed soon after, and
created a special operations task force to make new recommendations, also taking into
account tris, and quads.
In 2010, based on the latest evolutions of the industry and the demonstrated safety of 180-
minute ETOPS, the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA), that replaced the JAA,
published a new set of criteria, the Acceptable Means of Compliance (AMC) 20-6 Rev 2. This
AMC provides the criteria that Operators and Manufacturers should apply to get approvals for
diversion times exceeding 180 minutes (Also known as “Beyond 180 min”). AMC 20-6 Rev 2 is
applicable only to twin-jets, and is still applicable at the time this brochure is published.
These new ETOPS rules also clarify, and provide more formal definitions of exemptions like
the increase of the maximum diversion time to 207 min for NOrthern PACific (NOPAC)
operations.
2.2.7 Development of Modern ETOPS Aircraft
The success of ETOPS operations, the safety benefits associated with the ETOPS-led
designs, and the large economic benefits provided to ETOPS Operators have had a powerful
effect on the design of all modern twin-jets. Thanks to ETOPS operations, it is now
economically feasible to build very large twin-jets. These new aircraft, like the Airbus A330 and
the Airbus A350XWB, have even better safety features, and higher operating performances
than comparable tris, and quads. In addition, these new aircraft have a better range than
previous generations and can operate on Polar routes and routes in some remote areas of the
southern hemisphere. In fact, these new aircraft have been the driving force behind the new
“Beyond 180 min” rule.

The Airbus A350XWB, the latest generation

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Getting to Grips with ETOPS: The ETOPS Regulations
Certification and Approval

3 ETOPS REGULATIONS
3.1 OBJECTIVES AND CONCEPT

3.1.1 Objectives
The main objectives of the initial ETOPS rules, back in 1985, were:
• “Ensure an overall level of operational safety consistent with that of modern three-,
and four-engine aircraft”

The design of an ETOPS twin-jet must ensure that the operation of the said twin-jet is, at
least, as safe as a tri- or a quad-jet used on the same route. Let us use the engines as an
example.
Aircraft engines do not only produce thrust. They are also a source for the electrical,
hydraulic, and pneumatic systems of the aircraft. Here are two aircraft designed without
any ETOPS constraints:

In normal operations, with all engines operating,


the available electrical power is:
100% 100%

With one engine inoperative,


the available electrical power is:
50% 75%

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Getting to Grips with ETOPS: The ETOPS Regulations
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In order to comply with ETOPS requirements, the twin-jets are equipped with an
additional electrical generator to cope with the possible loss of an engine. This additional
generator can be the generator of the APU:

With one engine inoperative


the available electrical power is:
100% 75%

But ETOPS does not cover only the electrical system: Other aircraft systems are
designed to comply with ETOPS requirements. They are:
o The FIRE system (ATA 26)
o The FUEL system (ATA 28)
o The HYDRAULIC system (ATA 29)
o The ANTI-ICE system (ATA 30)
o The PNEUMATIC system (ATA 36), etc.
In addition, ETOPS-capable aircraft have more reliable, and/or redundant systems:
o The engines, and the APU are continuously monitored by maintenance teams,
in order to assess their reliability
o The fire system does not cover only the engines or the APU: The cargo holds
also have a dedicated fire protection that can control a fire for the entire
duration of the diversion, plus an additional 15 minutes
o These reliabilities and redundancies minimize the crew workload, even in the
case of a failure.
However, these redundancies have one drawback: The consequence of a simultaneous
maintenance error on parallel systems can affect safety.

With dual maintenance performed on two identical engine-mounted systems,


the potentially affected systems are:
Two out of two Two out of four

• “Ensure safe operations on routes distant from diversion airports”

ETOPS do not address only the design of aircraft systems. These regulations also take
the following operational considerations into account:
o The flight crew must always know the weather conditions at each alternate
airport along the route
o There must be sufficient fuel onboard, at departure, to reach an alternate
airport, even if the worst scenario unfolds.

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Getting to Grips with ETOPS: The ETOPS Regulations
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3.1.2 Concept
These objectives are still in force today. In order to satisfy them, the ETOPS concept,
implemented nearly 30 years ago, has not changed. It can be summarized by the following
words: Preclude, and protect the diversion.
• Preclude
In order to ensure the highest level of safety for operations, diversions have to be
precluded, as much as possible. To preclude diversions, aircraft manufacturers and
Operators must apply both of the following:
o First, the manufacturer must design a reliable aircraft. As already mentioned,
the design includes not only the airframe, but also the engines, and aircraft
systems. This reliable aircraft design must minimize the occurrence of failures.
This is demonstrated by the manufacturer, with the ETOPS Type Design &
Reliability Approval (Certification) of the aircraft.
o Second, the Operator must maintain this high level of reliability via the following
actions:
 The implementation of specific maintenance precautions, and of
conservative practices, like avoiding simultaneous maintenance actions
on parallel systems
 The demonstration of its readiness to operate under ETOPS regulations.
These actions are necessary to grant the ETOPS Operational Approval to the
Operator.
• Protect
If a diversion cannot be avoided, it must be performed in the safest way possible. This is
also achieved in two steps:
o First, the manufacturer must implement the systems and functions required to
ensure a safe diversion and a safe landing.
The manufacturer must ensure a high level of performance for these systems, in
both normal and degraded modes of operation, and demonstrate this
performance to obtain the ETOPS Type Design & Reliability Approval
(Certification) of the aircraft.
o Second, the Operator must be able to cope with adverse operating conditions,
by having operational plans in place, to protect the passengers and crew.
The Operator must demonstrate this ability, in order to obtain the ETOPS
Operational Approval.
Both ETOPS Type Design & Reliability, and ETOPS Operational approvals are necessary to
operate under ETOPS regulations.
3.1.3 ETOPS Significant Systems
For ETOPS, some aircraft systems are very important, in order to preclude and protect the
diversion. They are called ETOPS significant systems. ETOPS regulations define significant
systems, as follows:
• Systems for which a failure may affect the safety of an ETOPS flight (Preclude)
• Systems that must be operative to ensure a safe flight and a safe landing, in the case of a
diversion (Protect).

In fact, the same wording “ETOPS significant systems” is used to cover three different cases:
• Systems that require precautions to avoid multiple maintenance errors
• Systems that require a specific reliability monitoring for ETOPS
• Systems for which a failure must be reported to the Authorities, for safety reasons.

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Getting to Grips with ETOPS: The ETOPS Regulations
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The Airbus approach is to take into account these three different types of systems:
• Maintenance significant systems, are systems for which it is necessary to apply
specific precautions to avoid multiple human errors (e.g. on these systems, the same
mechanics should not perform a maintenance task on two channels at the same time,
unless a dual verification is performed). This list of maintenance significant system is also
taken into account in the frame of ETOPS Service Check or verification program definition
• ETOPS significant systems, are systems that require an ETOPS reliability monitoring
(Monitoring of the failure rate trend)
• ETOPS report items, are the occurrences related to ETOPS significant systems, for
which the Authorities want a periodic reporting and analysis (Event-oriented reporting of
in-service ETOPS occurrences).

ETOPS significant systems are further categorized into two groups, called Group 1, and Group
2. These groups were introduced both in the new EASA and FAA ETOPS regulations, in
association with the “ETOPS significant system” list.
• Group 1: The identification of ETOPS Group 1 systems is related to the assessment of
the consequence of an engine failure. Therefore, Group 1 systems are typically specific to
twin-engine aircraft compared to four-engine aircraft.
• Group 2: Group 2 systems are usually common to two, three, and four-engine aircraft.
They are not concerned by the additional requirements related to reliability
demonstration, because it is considered that the basic type certification exercise
adequately covers the need. Nevertheless, the consequence of the failure of a Group 2
system would still require to be addressed in the frame of the reliability (And maturity)
demonstration for ETOPS, and any required corrective action could be mandated further
to an assessment of the impact of the concerned system failure on the safety of the flight.

Note: Due to the fact that additional requirements apply to Group 1 systems, this classification is only necessary for
the aircraft manufacturer when conducting the ETOPS reliability demonstrations for an Early ETOPS approval
(See 3.2.2 - ETOPS TYPE DESIGN, AND RELIABILITY APPROVAL - Process, here-below). The objective of
these demonstrations is to validate the reliability of the aircraft at entry into service, in accordance with the early
ETOPS certification process. These reliability demonstrations are required only for ETOPS Group 1 systems.

3.2 ETOPS TYPE DESIGN & RELIABILITY APPROVAL


3.2.1 Applicability
The ETOPS Type Design & Reliability approval is the ETOPS certification of the aircraft. The
aircraft manufacturer is responsible for obtaining it. The Primary Certifying Authority of the
manufacturer is in charge of the issuance of this certification, i.e. the EASA for Airbus. This
authority can be seconded by other validating authorities, for example, the FAA.
But what ETOPS rules must aircraft manufacturers apply?
Aircraft manufacturers must apply the ETOPS rules that are valid at the time of application for
certification. For example:
• For aircraft certified by the EASA, and with applications submitted before 2011 (e.g.
A320, A330 180 min ETOPS, etc.), aircraft manufacturers should apply AMC 20-6 Rev 1.
From then on, AMC 20-6 Rev 2 is applicable.
Note: The A350 could have also been certified against AMC 20-6 Rev 1, but, as a “Beyond 180 min” maximum
diversion time was targeted, AMC 20-6 Rev 2 was selected instead.

• For aircraft certified by the FAA before 2007 (e.g. A320, A310, B737, B767, etc.), aircraft
manufacturers should apply AC120-42A. From February, 15, 2007, AC120-42A has been
replaced by the FAA PART 21, 25, and 33 certification rules.
• ICAO Airworthiness manual 9760, and ICAO Standard And Recommended Practices
(SARPs) Annex 8 include additional guidelines.

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Getting to Grips with ETOPS: The ETOPS Regulations
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In addition, ETOPS certifications granted before the publication of newer ETOPS operational
criteria remain valid. This is further detailed in the regulations themselves. For example, EASA
AMC 20-6 Rev 2, in chapter 1 - section 1, states:

Note: Once granted, the ETOPS Type Design & Reliability Approval can be revoked: An ETOPS Reliability Tracking Board
(ETOPS RTB) performs a continuous monitoring of the reliabilities of aircraft systems, APU and engines. If the
reliabilities do not reach the Airworthiness Authorities expectations, the maximum diversion time can be reduced, or the
ETOPS certification revoked. (Refer to chapter 4: ETOPS RELIABILITY TRACKING BOARD.)

Aircraft manufacturers must obtain the ETOPS Type Design & Reliability Approval before
Operators can apply for the ETOPS Operational Approval.
3.2.2 Process
The manufacturer must demonstrate the compliance of the candidate aircraft with of all the
design provisions, and reliability objectives of the applicable ETOPS rules.
• Design: The certifying Airworthiness Authorities conduct a design review of the aircraft,
based on the certification documents provided by the aircraft manufacturer. They publish
the result of their investigation in a document called Design Compliance Findings.
• Reliability: The ETOPS RTB is initiated during the flight tests of the candidate aircraft. Its
members come from the authorities and from the aircraft, and engine manufacturers. The
purpose of the ETOPS RTB is to review the service data of the aircraft, and amend the
ETOPS requirements of the aircraft, if necessary. The ETOPS RTB continues after the
certification of the aircraft is obtained.
An aircraft manufacturer can obtain the ETOPS certification in one of the following two ways:
• Via an in-service approval, that requires some engine-operation experience on the
candidate aircraft:
o For the EASA: Up to 100 000 engine hours
o For the FAA: Up to 250 000 engine hours.
• Via an early ETOPS approval:
o It enables the aircraft manufacturer to obtain an ETOPS certification with very
little or no previous experience
o It is a process-based approach, that requires extensive maturity, and reliability
demonstrations with the candidate aircraft, for example:
 Ground tests: Engines, and APU endurance bench tests (3 000 cycles)
 Specific flight tests, with the following scenarios:
• Maximum duration flights
• Maximum duration flights with One Engine Inoperative (OEI),
with simulated diversion scenarios
• Flights performed in degraded system configurations (e.g. single
electrical generator, single engine bleed, etc.)
• Operations and reliability demonstrations.
 Lessons learned analysis: The manufacturer demonstrates that the new
aircraft design takes into account previous program Airworthiness
Directives (ADs)
 Technical Transfer Analysis: The new aircraft design must take
advantage of technology transfers and experience gained from previous
programs, etc.
o This process involves a close monitoring, by the Authorities, of the reliability
demonstrations.

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The next chapter describes the above-mentioned design requirements and explains the EASA
and FAA differences.
3.2.3 Design Requirements
3.2.3.1 Human Factors and Safety Analyses
The manufacturer must demonstrate that the crew workload is minimized under failure
conditions, for the maximum diversion time/distance. Since the flight crew workload may
increase during a diversion, an assessment is made to ensure that the safety of the flight does
not require more than average piloting skills or crew coordination.
Flight test campaigns are then performed to validate this acceptable flight crew workload, and
the adequacy of the flight crew procedures (Normal, abnormal, and emergency procedures).
The following are examples of flight test scenarios, that combine flights with one engine
inoperative, and system failure simulations:
• Diversion in electrical emergency configuration
• Emergency descent to, and diversion at, Flight Level (FL) 100 or to the Minimum Safety
Altitude (MSA)
• Failure of the autopilot and autothrust, etc.
Safety analyses (Functional Hazard Analyses (FHAs) and System Safety Analyses (SSAs) are
reviewed to define the maximum permissible diversion time. The corresponding time limitation
of the Most Time Limited System (MTLS), other than the Cargo Fire Suppression System, is
then published in the Flight Manual.
The following rule provides the relationship between the maximum permissible diversion time,
and the time limitation of the MTLS:

MTLS time limitation ≥ ETOPS diversion time + 15 min


3.2.3.2 Air Conditioning (ATA 21)
The manufacturer must demonstrate that an appropriate cockpit and cabin environment is
preserved in the case of combined propulsion and electrical system failures, that are not
shown to be extremely improbable (e.g. in electrical emergency configuration).
The manufacturer must also demonstrate that an excessive temperature in the avionics
compartment is extremely improbable.
On Airbus twin-engine aircraft, cabin pressurization and equipment cooling are ensured by
either of the following systems:
• A single engine air-bleed system, or
• The APU air-bleed system, up to 22 000 ft.

3.2.3.3 Communications (ATA 23)


The manufacturer must demonstrate that an appropriate communication system is installed:
• One voice-based communication system is required for all ETOPS operations
• For the FAA: A SATCOM Voice is required for “Beyond 180 min” ETOPS operations
• In areas where SATCOM is not available (i.e. polar regions), or does not support voice
communication, a backup voice system is required (HF).

3.2.3.4 Electrical Generation (ATA 24)


The manufacturer must demonstrate that the electrical generation system complies with the
following design requirements:
• An ETOPS aircraft must be equipped with at least three reliable independent generators
• In the case of an engine failure, the remaining electrical power must be sufficient to
ensure a safe flight and a safe landing, i.e. each generator must be capable of supplying

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Getting to Grips with ETOPS: The ETOPS Regulations
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sufficient electrical power, in order to ensure the safety of the flight and landing, even
under adverse operating conditions
• In the case of “Beyond 180 min” ETOPS operations:
o For the EASA: A fourth generator is required, unless the aircraft manufacturer
can demonstrate that the loss of the three independent sources is extremely
improbable
o For the FAA: A fourth generator is required to power one cross-feed valve, and
one fuel boost pump in each tank.
On Airbus twin-engine aircraft, the electrical generation is ensured by:
• On A300/A310, A318/A319/A320/A321, and A330 family aircraft:
o Two engine-driven Integrated Drive Generators (IDGs)
o One APU-driven generator (APU GEN)
o One hydraulically-driven Constant Speed Motor/Generator (CSM/G) (Also called
Emer Gen or St, and-by Gen) supplied by the main hydraulic circuit (Green or
blue depending on the aircraft family)
• On the A350:
o Four engine-driven Variable Frequency Generators (VFGs) (That represent the
three independent electrical sources)
o One APU GEN.
The four generators are independent versus any single cause event (local fire,
mechanical damage, uncontained engine failure, etc.) In addition, thanks to the four
independent sources:
o There is no need to start the APU in ETOPS area,
o The dispatch with the APU inoperative may be permitted (MMEL) .

3.2.3.5 Fire Protection (ATA 26)


The manufacturer must demonstrate that the aircraft has an appropriate cargo fire suppression
system (Both in terms of capability & reliability):
• The cargo fire protection system must cover the maximum approved diversion time with
an additional 15 minutes for holding, and/or approach, and landing : e.g. the necessary
minimum protection times for 120-minute ETOPS, and 180-minute ETOPS are,
respectively, 135 minutes, and 195 minutes
• These protection times are demonstrated by flight tests. They are considered as a time
limitation, and inserted in the AFM, FCOM, and ETOPS CMP Document.
On Airbus twin-engine aircraft, the capability of the cargo fire protection system depends on
the aircraft families:
• On the A330, the cargo hold is protected for up to 260 minutes. This is appropriate for
ETOPS 180 min, and for “Beyond 180 min” ETOPS operations (However limited to a
245-minute diversion time)
• On A320 family aircraft, two options are available for the cargo fire suppression system:
135-minute, and 195-minute protection times. These are appropriate for, respectively,
ETOPS 120-minute, and 180-minute operations.
However, for all Airbus aircraft, the reliability of the fire protection system is such that, even in
electrical emergency configuration (Aircraft electrically powered by the CSM/G only):
• The fire detection and extinguishing capabilities are still ensured for the engines and the
APU
• The smoke detection, ventilation control, and heating control are still available for the
cargo holds
• The smoke detection is still operational for the avionics compartment.

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3.2.3.6 Fuel (ATA 28)


The manufacturer must demonstrate that the fuel system complies with the following design
requirements:
• In the case of one engine inoperative, the fuel cross-feed to the remaining operating
engine must be protected against additional single malfunctions:
o On the A320, the fuel cross-feed valve is designed so that a test before
departure is sufficient to satisfy this requirement,
o On the A330, the fuel cross-feed is available via the normal cross-feed gallery
or, in the case of a failure, via the refueling gallery.

“Normal” A330 Fuel Cross-Feed

Alternate A330 Fuel Cross-Feed

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• The effect of turbulences, and negative load factors on engine operation must be
evaluated if:
o The fuel boost-pumps are not powered (e.g. limitation in CSM/G configuration),
or
o The loss of all fuel boost-pumps is not classified as “extremely improbable”.
A320 family aircraft are the only Airbus twin-engine aircraft for which a loss of all
fuel boost-pumps is not classified as “extremely improbable”. Flight tests were
performed in order to demonstrate the gravity feeding capabilities of the A320
family aircraft.

In addition, for “Beyond 180 min” ETOPS operations, the FAA requires that:
• An alert appears to inform the flight crew when the available fuel quantity to the engines
goes below the required fuel quantity to fly to the destination. The alert must be triggered
when there is sufficient remaining fuel to safely complete a diversion. It must also
account for abnormal fuel management or transfer between tanks, and possible loss of
fuel.
On the Airbus twins that are qualified for “Beyond 180 min” ETOPS operations, the
following alerts satisfy the above-mentioned FAA requirements:
o A “FUEL FU/FOB DISCREPANCY” ECAM alert. This alert is triggered if there is
a difference between the initial Fuel On-Board (FOB) and the sum of the current
FOB, and Fuel Used (FU). It indicates a possible fuel leak.
o An FMS low fuel alert. This alert is triggered when the Estimated Fuel On-Board
(EFOB) at destination (DEST EFOB) is strictly below the minimum fuel required
to reach the destination (MIN DEST FOB).
By default, MIN DEST FOB is equal to the sum of the alternate (ALTN) and
FINAL fuel quantities (MIN DEST FOB = ALTN + FINAL).

A normal A330 FUEL PRED page that displays the MIN DEST FOB

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Getting to Grips with ETOPS: The ETOPS Regulations
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An abnormal A330 FUEL PRED page that displays the


EFOB at destination < MIN DEST FOB

The EXTRA fuel quantity is equal to the difference between the DEST EFOB,
and MIN DEST FOB fuel quantities (EXTRA = DEST EFOB - MIN DEST FOB).
Therefore, the alarm is triggered when the EXTRA fuel quantity is negative.
Note: When the alarm is triggered, the remaining fuel quantity is sufficient to complete a diversion.

3.2.3.7 Hydraulic (ATA 29)


The manufacturer must demonstrate that, in the case of an engine failure, the remaining
hydraulic power is sufficient to safely fly and land the aircraft.
The following are two examples of hydraulic system architectures, found on Airbus twin-engine
aircraft, that comply with the above-mentioned requirements:

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Getting to Grips with ETOPS: The ETOPS Regulations
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• On the A330:

A330 Hydraulic System

The aircraft is equipped with three independent hydraulic circuits: The GREEN, BLUE
and YELLOW circuits. In normal operations, each engine pressurizes two circuits:
o Engine 1 pressurizes the GREEN and BLUE circuits
o Engine 2 pressurizes the GREEN and YELLOW circuits.

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Getting to Grips with ETOPS: The ETOPS Regulations
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If one engine fails, only one circuit is lost: e.g. in the case of Engine 1, the BLUE circuit is
lost. The following diagram indicates what are the systems affected by the loss of the
BLUE hydraulic circuit.

Engine 1 is INOP: The BLUE circuit is lost

Due to the fact that all critical items have a minimum of two hydraulic power sources, only
a few items are lost:
o Flight control system: Only one pair of spoilers (2 and 3) is lost on each wing. All
the other flight controls have multiple power sources
o Brake system: The alternate braking and the parking brake are lost
o Engines: Engine 1 thrust reverser is lost (Only for Rolls Royce and Pratt &
Whitney engines).
This means that the failure of one engine does not cause any loss of critical
items.

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Getting to Grips with ETOPS: The ETOPS Regulations
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• On the A350:

A350 Hydraulic System

The aircraft is equipped with two independent hydraulic circuits: The GREEN, and
YELLOW circuits. In normal operations, each engine pressurizes both circuits.
If one engine fails, no circuit is lost, as each circuit is pressurized by two Engine-Driven
Pumps (EDPs), one per engine.

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Getting to Grips with ETOPS: The ETOPS Regulations
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3.2.3.8 Ice and Rain Protection (ATA 30)


The manufacturer must demonstrate that the ice and rain protection system complies with the
following design requirements:
• The aircraft must be able to safely perform a diversion in icing conditions, including the
landing.
• In addition, if the aircraft is in electrical emergency configuration (i.e. supplied only by the
CSM/G), the following functions must remain available:
o The engine air-intake anti-ice
o The wing anti-ice
o At least one alpha-probe anti-ice
o At least one pitot-probe anti-ice.

Notes: 1) The EASA, and the FAA state that a weather radar is necessary, if icing conditions can be encountered.
This weather radar is not required to be available if the aircraft is powered by its CSM/G.
2) The effects of ice accretion on unprotected surfaces must be accounted for (Fuel, performances, etc.)

3.2.3.9 Pneumatic (ATA 36)


The pneumatic system supplies:
• The air conditioning, and pressurization system (ATA 21)
• The pressurization of the hydraulic reservoirs (ATA 29)
• The wing anti-ice function (ATA 30)
• The engine start function (ATA 70).
Note: Engine-nacelle anti-ice & wing leading-edge ventilation are separately supplied
(Respectively from the engine High Pressure Compressor (HPC), and from a wing NACA ram-air inlet).

The manufacturer must demonstrate that the pneumatic system complies with the following
design requirement.
If the aircraft is in electrical emergency configuration, during a diversion with one engine
inoperative, the bleed system must remain operative:
• The cross-bleed valve, and one Bleed Monitoring Computer (BMC) are kept powered
• All detectors (pressure, temperature, overheat, leak, etc.) and valve positions are
maintained
• The pneumatic valve closure behavior remains unchanged.
Note: Parts of this requirement are derived from ATA 21, and ATA 30 requirements. For additional information, please refer to
the above-mentioned ATA chapters.

3.2.3.10 Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) (ATA 49)


The manufacturer must demonstrate that the APU complies with the following design
requirements:
• The APU installation must comply with normal certification requirements.
• The APU must comply with additional ETOPS requirements related to its intended
function (e.g. the third electrical generator):
o The APU must demonstrate an in-flight start capability of at least 95 %, up to
the maximum operating altitude (For aircraft that do not normally require APU
operation in ETOPS sectors)
o The APU must be sufficiently reliable for ETOPS operations: It must
demonstrate a maximum failure rate of 10 E-3 per APU operating hour (Equal to
a Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) of minimum 1 000 hr)
o The manufacturer must demonstrate the compliance with the above-mentioned
requirements, via an Early ETOPS demonstration (in the case of ETOPS at
EIS), and in-service experience.

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Getting to Grips with ETOPS: The ETOPS Regulations
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3.2.3.11 Power Plant (ATA 70)


There are no specific ETOPS design requirements related to the power plant, however, the
manufacturer must ensure all of the following:
• ETOPS engines must be equipped with an oil tank filler cap.
• An engine failure, contained or not, must not adversely affect the remaining systems or
equipment: i.e. In the case of single engine operations, the system redundancies must be
adequate.
• The engines must comply with ETOPS reliability objectives, i.e. the In-Flight Shut-Down
(IFSD) target rates. The compliance with these reliability objectives must be
demonstrated via:
o In-service experience, or
o An Early ETOPS exercise in the case of ETOPS at EIS.

Notes: 1) The IFSD target rates depend on the maximum authorized diversion time:
• 0.05/1 000 engine hours for ETOPS 120 min
• 0.02/1 000 engine hours for ETOPS 180 min
• 0.01/1 000 engine hours for “Beyond 180 min” ETOPS.
2) The IFSD target rates are computed, based on world-fleet data, on a 12-month rolling average.

Reviews of the propulsion-system data and of in-service experience should be conducted:


• By the certification team, before the first ETOPS Type Design & Reliability approval
(Initial certification of the aircraft), and
• By the dedicated ETOPS RTB, on a continuing basis thereafter. (Refer to chapter 4:
ETOPS RELIABILITY TRACKING BOARD.)
3.2.4 Certification Results
In order to assess the ETOPS capability of the aircraft, the Regulatory Authority analyses the
IFSD rate of the propulsion system, and other in-service events (Both in-flight, and on the
ground), related to the engine, its associated equipment and other aircraft systems.
The maximum authorized ETOPS diversion time for the candidate aircraft model/engine
combination is then granted, based on the Airworthiness Authorities' engineering judgment,
that quantifies the proposed reliability solution, and the predicted reliability level.

3.3 ETOPS OPERATIONAL APPROVAL

3.3.1 Applicability
The Operator is responsible for obtaining the ETOPS Operational Approval, that is granted by
the Operator’s local NAA. The ETOPS criteria of this local NAA may be different from the
EASA or FAA ones. In order to obtain the ETOPS Operational Approval, the Operator has to
demonstrate its compliance with these requirements. This impacts the entire Operator’s
organization (i.e. flight operations, and maintenance).
But what ETOPS requirements should Operators apply?
Operators should apply the ETOPS requirements that are valid at the time of application for
approval, i.e. as of September 2014:
• For EU-OPS Operators (EASA): AMC 20-6 Rev 2, Chapter III “OPERATIONAL
APPROVAL CONSIDERATIONS”
• For FAR 121 Operators (FAA): AC 120-42B, Chapters 4 & 5
• For CAA Operators: CAP 513
• For DGAC Operators: CTC 20
• For TC Operators: TP6327, etc.

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Getting to Grips with ETOPS: The ETOPS Regulations
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However, contrary to the ETOPS Type Design & Reliability Approval, the Operator must take
into account, and apply, any update of the original regulation that may appear after the
approval is granted.
Here, again, this approval is subject to a continuous review by the local authority. This ensures
that the Operator achieves and maintains the desired quality levels.
3.3.2 Process
In order to obtain an ETOPS Operational Approval, the Operator must demonstrate that it
correctly manages the required ETOPS processes, i.e. in the fields of flight operations, and
maintenance.
The Operator must prepare the various documents required for the approval:
• The desired Maximum Diversion Time (MDT) that cannot be greater than the certified
maximum authorized ETOPS diversion time of the aircraft model/engine combination
• For the flight operations, an ETOPS manual that contains:
o The necessary ETOPS procedures
o The intended ETOPS area of operation, including the selected ETOPS routes
o The selectable alternate airports
o The recovery plans, if necessary
o The flight planning specificities, like:
 The effects of some aircraft system failures on the available flight-time
(The Time Limited Systems (TLS))
 A weather study on the intended routes, and selectable alternate
airports, etc.
o The in-flight procedures, also included in the operating manuals, and related to
the following subjects:
 Communications,
 Flight monitoring,
 Decision-making process, to help the flight crew in the case of a
diversion, etc.
• For the maintenance:
o An ETOPS manual that contains:
 All ETOPS maintenance procedures
 The ETOPS maintenance plan, and the associated software
 The ETOPS tasks identification.
o A monitoring program, that takes into account the oil consumptions of the
engines and of the APU, the recording of the in-flight start capabilities of the
APU, and the associated software
o A reliability monitoring program, and the associated software
o An occurrence reporting program, also with the associated software.

The following key personnel from the Operator must be nominated, trained, and be able to
acquire ETOPS experience:
• The ETOPS coordinator
• The check airmen
• The flight crews
• The cabin attendants, if a recovery plan exists
• The dispatchers
• The line maintenance crews.
This full training program must also be documented, and presented to the NAA.
Note that all documents subject to legal approval are signed and stamped by the NAA.

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Getting to Grips with ETOPS: The ETOPS Regulations
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There are two methods to obtain the ETOPS Operational Approval: The in-service plan, and
the accelerated plan. The Operator selects one plan or the other, depending on its experience
and on the existing time constraints.
3.3.3 The In-Service Plan
This method was previously known as the “Conventional ETOPS”. In order to obtain the
ETOPS Operational Approval via this method, the Operator must have one to two years of in-
service experience with the specific aircraft model/engine combination. The in-service
experience limits the desired MDT, as follows:
• One year of non-ETOPS experience for up to 120 min approval
• One year of 120 min experience for up to 180/240 min approval
• Two years of 240 min experience for “Beyond 240 min” approval.

ETOPS
MDT
(Min)
BEYOND
240

180/240

150

120

90

60

NO ETOPS

0 1 2 3 4 EXPERIENCE
(Year)

The ETOPS in-service approval

The Operator must send an ETOPS application letter to its local NAA at least 3 months before
the planned date for the beginning of ETOPS operations. This letter shall include the following
Operator's ETOPS objectives:
• The intended routes
• The corresponding area of operations
• The desired Maximum Diversion Time
• The applicable fleet
• The planned date for the beginning of ETOPS operations, etc.

The judgment criteria to obtain the approval are simply based on the Operator's in-service
experience with the candidate aircraft model/engine combination. There are no special
strategies to prepare: An action plan will be needed only in case of non-compliance with one of
the NAA criteria.

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Getting to Grips with ETOPS: The ETOPS Regulations
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3.3.4 The Accelerated Plan


If the Operator does not have the required necessary experience for the in-service plan, the
Operator can compensate for this lack of experience by applying compensating factors. This
method is called the accelerated plan.
The compensating factors are the basis of accelerated plan. The following are examples of
compensating factors:
• A previous experience with other airframe or engines of a similar technology
• A previous ETOPS experience (e.g. another ETOPS program in the same company)
• A specific ETOPS training
• The recruitment or the temporary secondment of already ETOPS-experienced personnel,
and their associated phasing-out plan
• The simulations of ETOPS operations, that should include the following:
o Simulation of the flight preparation (ETOPS dispatch)
o Simulation of the in-flight procedures, including the flight follow-up, provided:
 The flights used for the simulation are of a sufficient duration,
 The aircraft is from the same family (Or from the same cockpit
technology) as the ETOPS candidate aircraft, e.g. use of an A340 flight
to simulate an A330 ETOPS one.
o Simulation of the maintenance dispatch:
 By application of the ETOPS service checks
 By checking the aircraft configuration against an ETOPS MEL.
• A combination of the above-mentioned compensating factors, etc.
The required amount of compensating factors depends on:
• The ETOPS objectives
• The organization, i.e. the current one vs. an ETOPS one
• The experience acquired on:
o ETOPS operations
o Long range operations
o The route(s) to be flown
o The technology of the candidate aircraft model/engine combination.
Note: The experience on ETOPS is transferable from any real or simulated ETOPS program, even from
another Operator (e.g. a partner with actual ETOPS experience).

ETOPS
MDT
(Min)
BEYOND
240

240

180 For twins:


• Up to 180 min ETOPS can be granted at EIS.
• At any time (t), after EIS, “Beyond 180 min” (EASA)
150 or up to 240 min (FAA) can be granted,
• But, for the FAA, the operator needs a 2-year
experience with 240 min ETOPS before accessing
120 “Beyond 240 min” ETOPS.
For tris, and quads (FAA only), “Beyond 240 min”
ETOPS can be granted at EIS.
90

75

60
0 t 1 2 t 3 4 EXPERIENCE
(EIS) +2 years
(Year)

The accelerated ETOPS approval

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Getting to Grips with ETOPS: The ETOPS Regulations
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Examples of compensating factors:


• In order to achieve 120-minute ETOPS at EIS, the Operator, with no prior experience,
must demonstrate its knowledge in:

ETOPS (Or simulations)


Long-range operations Product experience
Engine family (One year)
Aircraft family

Required knowledge for the Required knowledge for the


accelerated approval in-service approval

• In order to achieve 180-minute ETOPS at EIS, the Operator will have to perform
additional simulations, on top of what is needed for 120-minute ETOPS, to compensate
for the lack of required ETOPS experience for the in-service approval.

Simulations ETOPS experience


(One year)
ETOPS (Or simulations)
Long-range operations Product experience
Engine family (One year)
Aircraft family

Required knowledge for the Required knowledge for the


accelerated approval in-service approval

The Operator must send the ETOPS application letter to its NAA at least 6 months before the
planned date for the beginning of ETOPS operations. The accelerated plan requires a defined
strategy, because the Operator and its NAA must communicate, in order to specify the
compensating factors, and adapt the approval plan to the Operator's experience. The judgment
criteria to obtain the approval are based on facts, and engineering data provided by the
Operator. They are used to determine the ETOPS capability of the candidate aircraft
model/engine combination for the Operator.
3.3.5 Approval
The NAA creates an assessment team, in order to evaluate the Operator’s capability, for one
approval plan or the other. This team has inspectors and pilot-inspectors. These team
members are experts in the following fields:
• Flight Operations
• Maintenance
• Engineering
• Quality.

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Getting to Grips with ETOPS: The ETOPS Regulations
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The assessment team will review the data, and documents, called the ETOPS Operational
Compliance Documents, provided by the Operator. They contain:
• The required ETOPS manuals
• The experience records of both the maintenance and flight operations
• The implemented training programs
• The ETOPS simulation reports (If applicable)
• The self-audit reports (If applicable)
• The ETOPS proving-flight report (If applicable).

Based on the ETOPS Operational Compliance Documents and an audit report provided by the
assessment team, the NAA determines if the Operator complies with the ETOPS operational
requirements.

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Getting to Grips with ETOPS: The ETOPS Reliability Tracking Board
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4 ETOPS RELIABILITY TRACKING BOARD


4.1 INTRODUCTION

As already mentioned, a reliability review process is initiated during the ETOPS Type Design &
Reliability Approval of the aircraft. This process carefully monitors the flight, and system tests
of the candidate aircraft. The manufacturer must demonstrate that various systems of the
aircraft, like the engines or the APU, are at, or above, a required level of reliability. In addition,
after they obtain the ETOPS Type Design & Reliability approval, the manufacturer must
continuously maintain the reliability level of the certified aircraft, via ETOPS Continued
Airworthiness.
The purpose of ETOPS Continued Airworthiness is to monitor the in-service experience that
the aircraft type has acquired since its ETOPS certification, to determine the reliability of the
aircraft systems, APU and engines. The collected data is analyzed by the manufacturer, and
the NAA during ETOPS Reliability Tracking Board (RTB) meetings.
How often are these meetings held? The answer is based on the maturity of the aircraft type:
• For new aircraft types, the RTB meetings are held regularly, usually every 6 months
• For mature aircraft types (i.e. when the NAA states that the reliability indicators are
stable, and that sufficient experience has been accumulated), RTB meetings are
organized, on average, every two years. At the time of writing, the A300, and A310
family, the A320 family, and the A330 are considered as mature aircraft types. For these
aircraft, the RTB meetings are now held only when required (e.g. when a specific
reliability issue occurs, when a complex certification is faced, etc.), however, reliability
reports are produced on a regular basis.

4.2 MONITORED ITEMS

4.2.1 Engines
• In order to maintain the ETOPS type certification of an aircraft model/engine
combination, the manufacturer must demonstrate that the IFSD rate of the world-wide
fleet (ETOPS, and non-ETOPS aircraft) remains below a given threshold. The threshold
depends on the granted Maximum Diversion Time:
o 0.05 IFSD rate per 1 000 engine hours for 120 min operations
o 0.02 IFSD rate per 1 000 engine hours for 180 min operations
o 0.01 IFSD rate per 1 000 engine hours for “Beyond 180 min” operations.
Note: The threshold is also used for the initial ETOPS certification of the aircraft model/engine combination.

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• The ETOPS regulations state that the Operators have to report their In-Flight Shut Down
(IFSD) rate on a regular basis. If this IFSD rate exceeds another defined threshold, the
NAA launch a technical review of the situation. This review may ultimately cause the
suspension of the Operator's ETOPS approval. This threshold also depends on the
Maximum Diversion Time granted:
o 0.05 IFSD rate per 1 000 engine hours for 120 min operations
o 0.03 IFSD rate per 1 000 engine hours for 180 min operations
o 0.02 IFSD rate per 1 000 engine hours for “Beyond 180 min” operations.
Note: If the fleet is too small to be statistically significant (i.e. less than 15 aircraft), the IFSD rate is only used as a
trending mechanism: This rate cannot be used as the only reason to suspend ETOPS operations. The
ETOPS operations are reviewed on an individual event basis.

4.2.2 ETOPS Significant Systems


A specific monitoring process tracks the Mean Time Between Unscheduled Removal
(MTBUR), and the Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) of the components identified as
ETOPS significant. The purpose of this tracking is to be able to compare, and to monitor the
MTBUR, and MTBF trends of an individual aircraft component in order to validate:
• That the troubleshooting is being performed correctly
• The health of the component in the airline vs. the health in the world fleet.
This ensures that the established maintenance program is valid.
4.2.3 Troubleshooting Procedures
Troubleshooting is validated by demonstrating that the MTBUR rate and the MTBF rate do not
differ by more than a factor 2 or 3. If this factor is exceeded, then troubleshooting procedures
should be reassessed and corrective actions initiated. ETOPS operations may be questioned if
a significant problem within the overall troubleshooting of the aircraft is found. However, in
most cases, the Airworthiness Authorities will ensure that the corrective action is taken, and is
effective before suspending an ETOPS ticket.
Notes: 1) The MTBUR/MTBF of the ETOPS significant systems are calculated taking into account both ETOPS, and NON-
ETOPS flights hours.
2) The IFSD rates are calculated by engine-type for all flights (ETOPS, and NON-ETOPS).

4.3 OUTCOME

Following an RTB meeting, the ETOPS Configuration, Maintenance, and Procedures (CMP)
document may be revised:
• To include new aircraft models or aircraft modifications that affect ETOPS operations
• To mandate corrective actions
• To update existing corrective actions, etc.
Similar activities are led with the FAA (e.g. in the frame of the FAA ETOPS certification
exercises).

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5 ETOPS DOCUMENTS
5.1 CONFIGURATION, MAINTENANCE AND PROCEDURES DOCUMENT

5.1.1 Introduction
The ETOPS approval is associated with the publication of an ETOPS Configuration,
Maintenance and Procedures (CMP) document. This CMP is certified by the Airworthiness
Authorities (EASA/FAA). For extended range operations, and in accordance with the
applicable operational rules, the CMP defines the following:
• The configuration of the airframe, engines and APU (Lists of Modifications and Service
Bulletins)
• The specific maintenance requirements
• The specific procedures
• The dispatch limitations.
Note: CMP data is also included in the following documentation:
• The MMEL (ETOPS dispatch restrictions)
• The AFM
• The FCOM (ETOPS procedures, single engine speed, ETOPS fuel scenario, etc.)
• The MPD (Specific check intervals for ETOPS)
• The IPC (P/N not approved for ETOPS).

The CMP is customized in accordance with the Operator's fleet.


To be compliant with ETOPS requirements, an aircraft must be configured, maintained and
operated in accordance with the corresponding CMP.

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Example of an Airbus CMP (A330 RR envelope CMP)

The following describes the main difference between an EASA CMP and an FAA CMP:
• For the FAA, the original version of the CMP is frozen. Any subsequent revision required
by the reliability monitoring process is addressed via the publication of Airworthiness
Directives (ADs)
• For the EASA, the original version of the CMP is not frozen. CMP revisions can be
initiated each time there is a safety problem or if an evolution is necessary, due to
technical evolutions of the aircraft, modifications of rules or of document references, etc.
This implies that the EASA CMP is always up-to-date. Remember that the ETOPS
approval is not granted forever: it is submitted to a continuous monitoring of the in-
service reliability by the Airworthiness Authorities. This reliability monitoring may result in
changes to the ETOPS standards of the airframe, and/or engines (Service Bulletins,
maintenance actions or operational procedures mandated to restore the reliability).
This Getting to Grips brochure focuses on the EASA CMP.

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5.1.2 CMP Components


The CMP has the following parts:
• The Approval Page
The approval by the NAA is indicated by the stamp or reference of approval placed on the
corresponding page.

Example of an Approval Page (A330 CMP)

• The Lists of Approved Models (Airframe, engines and APU combinations)


The CMP is applicable to a set of referenced aircraft, engines, and APUs. In this
document there are two chapters named “APPROVED AIRCRAFT MODEL/ENGINE
COMBINATIONS” and “APPROVED AIRCRAFT MODEL/APU COMBINATIONS”, that
include the approved engines and APUs.

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Example of a List of Approved Aircraft Model/Engine Combinations (A330 CMP)

• Summary of CMP Reference Revision


The Summary of CMP Reference Revision is the entire list of revision subjects that
affect the items from the envelope CMP document. This list is not customized, i.e. it
may contain items not included in a specific customized CMP document. The purpose
of this list is to provide a record of all revision subjects, regardless of the applicability of
these revision subjects to a specific customized CMP document.
For example, the Summary of CMP Reference Revision Table of a customized CMP
produced for an Operator of a specific aircraft model/engine combination may also list
the revised item numbers related to other aircraft model/engine combinations.

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Example of a Summary Of CMP Reference Revision (A330 envelope CMP)

The list of items included in a specific customized CMP document is provided in the
Table of Content of this customized CMP document.

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• The list of items contained in the CMP

Examples of items (A330 CMP)

Each item, or ETOPS requirement, is specified with the following form:

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Getting to Grips with ETOPS: The ETOPS Documents
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The form has the following fields:


o Standard
The ETOPS CMP document contains four standards of items:
 Configuration
 Maintenance
 Procedure
 Dispatch.
Operators may develop alternate configuration items, and/or procedures, in
compliance with applicable rules. These alternate configurations, and/or
operational equivalents shall be approved in compliance with applicable rules,
and are not included in the CMP. Incorporation of the provisions in this
document or approved equivalents shall follow a schedule agreed with the
authority.
o Number
This field identifies the item number. It uses the following format: aa-b-ccdd-
xxxx, where:
 “aa” is the ATA chapter (e g. 21, 24, 26, etc.)
 “b” is one of the following standards:
1 for Configuration items
2 for Maintenance items
3 for Procedures items
4 for Dispatch items.
Note: Only configuration items are listed in the ETOPS Compliance Document (ECD) – refer to
section 5.2.3.
 “cc” is the engine manufacturer code, for items related to the engines
and APU
Note: For items related to other aircraft systems, this code is set to 00.
 “dd” is the engine family code, for items related to the engines and APU
Note: For items related to other aircraft systems, this code is set to 00.
 “xxxx” is the item number, automatically attributed by the software used
to generate the ETOPS CMP document and the ECD.
An item number in yellow indicates that the item has been revised since the
previous applicable CMP publication.
o Area of operation
If required, this field identifies the items applicable only to specific type of
ETOPS related operations. NORMAL, in this field, means that the item is
applicable to any type of ETOPS.
o Diversion time range
This field identifies the ETOPS diversion time for that the item is required. The
following table provides the available possibilities:

Diversion Time Range Applicability

From 60 min to 120 min Operations up to 120 min diversion time

From 60 min to 180 min Operations up to 180 min diversion time

All ETOPS operations, up to the maximum certified


Greater than 60 min
diversion time (Or distance) of the aircraft

Greater than 180 min Operations “Beyond 180 min” diversion time only

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A specific item can have different applicabilities, depending on the available


diversion time range.
o Compliance schedule
The compliance schedule defines the applicability of the items as follows:
 For a Configuration item: This field contains the schedule for
embodiment of the item, and its priority status:
• Priority: The configuration items marked as Priority in the CMP
must be embodied before the beginning of ETOPS operations
• No later than DD/MMM/YYYY: The corresponding item must be
embodied before the indicated date (DD/MMM/YYYY).
Exceeding this limit is subject to a prior approval by their
authority. Operators that apply for ETOPS approval, after the
specified time limits for embodiment of items have expired,
should incorporate the items, before they start ETOPS
operations, unless otherwise approved by their authority.
• No Priority: The corresponding item is recommended for ETOPS,
but not mandatory.
 For a Maintenance item: This field contains either the related
maintenance task interval (e.g. At each A-Check, 18 months, 800 Flight
Cycles, 2 000 FH, etc.), or the end date for compliance in case of a
onetime maintenance (e.g. 12/SEPT/2017). If a maintenance task
interval in the CMP is more restrictive than the interval required in the
MRB report, the CMP interval overrules the one from the MRB report. If
the MRB task interval is more frequent than required by the CMP, the
MRB task interval remains valid until the Operator justifies the
escalation. In this case, the CMP interval is considered as an upper limit
to this escalation. Maintenance tasks that become obsolete due to an
authorized configuration change are not applicable. Maintenance check
intervals specified in the CMP document may be escalated in
accordance with practices approved by the Operator's maintenance
authority, except where a “Not to exceed” value is quoted. An escalation
of a “Not to exceed” value can only be approved by the appropriate type
certification authority.
 For a Procedure item: This field indicates the applicability of the
procedure depending on the diversion time range. When “See text
below” is indicated for a specific diversion time range, the related Flight
Crew procedure must be applied as required.
 For a Dispatch item: This field indicates the applicability of the dispatch
item depending on the diversion time range. When “See text below” is
indicated for a specific diversion time range, the related ETOPS dispatch
criteria must be applied as required.
As already mentioned in the paragraph dedicated to the diversion time range
field, some items may feature several diversion time ranges with different
applicabilities, depending on the diversion time. In this case, the diversion time
range, and the corresponding compliance schedule are listed on the same line.
o Cross reference
This field defines a link between this item, and other items that may appear in
the CMP document.
Typical cross references may be:
 Item Y cancels the need for item X: The item X is not needed, and it
shall not be performed if item Y has been applied.

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 Item Y not needed if item X is done: Item Y is not applicable if item X


has been applied.
o Solution
This field contains several solutions: Solution 1, Solution 2,... Solution N.
Compliance with any of these solutions ensures compliance with the item. A
Solution is a logical combination of document references like: Aircraft
Modifications (MODs), Service Bulletins (SBs), Vendor SBs (VSBs), Aircraft
Maintenance Manual (AMM) references, Maintenance Planning Document
(MPD) references, Flight Crew Operating Manual (FCOM) references,
Airworthiness Directive (AD) references, etc.
5.1.3 CMP Creation, and Revision Process
• Creation
The CMP is created during the initial ETOPS certification of the aircraft model/engine
combination, and is based on the following:
o Reviews, and revisions of the SSAs
o Reviews of the System Description Notes (SDNs)
o Reliability reviews: In-service experience of the aircraft type accumulated since
the aircraft type certification, if any
o Technical Transfer Analyses (Experience with other Airbus aircraft types)
o Certification tests: Bench tests (e.g. 3 000 engine cycles test), and flight tests.
• Revisions
Revisions of this document become effective, in accordance with national procedures, at the
date specified by the EASA, and replace previous revisions. Standard revisions are published,
based on the conclusions of the ETOPS RTB, in charge of the analysis of in-service
experience. Temporary revisions are published to address minor evolutions and requests from
the Operators.
"Airworthiness Directives", published by the EASA, are always fully applicable. If there are
differences between the CMP and an EASA "Airworthiness Directive", the "Airworthiness
Directive" prevails.
5.1.4 CMP Publication
When a revision is published, the Operators are informed by their Airbus representatives, who
have received the corresponding documents (The customized ETOPS CMP document, its
information letter, and the ETOPS Parts list).
In addition, the most recent revision of the CMP document, in its envelope format, is available
on the AirbusWorld website, with the associated information letter and parts list. Given the
frequency of a CMP revision issuance, it is suggested that the Operator visit the website once
or twice a year, to check, and confirm that they have the most recent applicable revision at any
moment. They can also contact the Airbus ETOPS department to ask any questions related to
the CMP document.
The CMP is usually available for publication approximately two months after its approval by the
NAA.

5.2 OTHER ETOPS DOCUMENTS

5.2.1 ETOPS Significant Systems List


Airbus provides customers with a list of systems/functions that are considered as ETOPS
significant. This list is defined by engineering judgment based on results from SSAs or design
requirements.

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Getting to Grips with ETOPS: The ETOPS Documents
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This ETOPS Significant System List is an Airbus recommendation: It is designed to help the
ETOPS Operators to create their own ETOPS Significant Systems list. For example, an
Operator may add other equipment that are deemed important for its ETOPS operations
(Either it is for safety, or for economical reasons). Conversely, an Operator may find the list too
conservative for some ATA chapters: In accordance with its own experience and internal
policies, this Operator can decide to slightly alleviate the content of the Airbus proposed list of
ETOPS Significant Systems.

Example of an ETOPS Significant Systems List (A330)

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5.2.2 Parts List


The CMP document defines the ETOPS configuration in terms of Modification, and/or Service
bulletin references. It does not address the corresponding Part Numbers (P/Ns). In order to
assist the Operator in the identification of these P/Ns, Airbus developed the Parts List. The
P/Ns included in this document are:
• The P/Ns that are not approved for ETOPS (i.e. P/Ns not to be installed on ETOPS
aircraft), or,
• The P/Ns that define the minimum required standard for an appropriate ETOPS
configuration.
The ETOPS Parts List is based on the most recent revision of the ETOPS CMP document.
But, contrary to the ETOPS CMP document, the ETOPS Parts List is not customized: It is valid
for all models and the associated configurations of a specific aircraft family, and all existing
CMP revisions (At the time of publication of the Parts List). Therefore, some items in the Parts
List may not be applicable to a specific Operator. In case of doubt, the CMP should always be
used as the reference regarding the required ETOPS configuration.
The Parts List is not an approved document, and should only be considered as a tool to assist
the Operator in the identification of the P/Ns that are not approved for ETOPS.
5.2.3 ETOPS Compliance Document
An ETOPS Compliance Document (ECD) is published for the initial delivery of all Airbus
ETOPS aircraft. This document provides a status of compliance of the aircraft design
definition, versus the applicable configuration requirements as stated in the corresponding
ETOPS CMP Document. It clarifies the areas of compliance and non-compliance by listing
both of the following:
• The items that have been incorporated
• The items that will have to be retrofitted.
Note: At delivery, the conformity status of an individual aircraft versus the design definition is provided in the aircraft Inspection
Report, and in the APU, and engines logbooks.

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6 ETOPS AND AIRBUS


6.1 MILESTONES

Airbus started working on extended range operations in the mid-seventies with several airlines.
These companies operated A300B2s, and B4s, under the 90-minute ICAO rule, over the North
Atlantic, the Bay of Bengal, and the Indian Ocean.
The first “real” Airbus ETOPS operations started in June 1985: Singapore Airlines started
operating the A310-200 in Asia. In April 1986, PanAm was the first Airbus customer to
inaugurate transatlantic revenue service with A310-200, and A310-300 aircraft. In less than
five years, more than 20 Operators joined the two pioneers in Airbus ETOPS operations.
In March 1990, the A310-324 (PW4000 engines) was the first FADEC engine powered aircraft
to receive ETOPS approval by the FAA. At the same time, the A300B4-605R was the first
Airbus aircraft to get ETOPS approval for 180 minutes diversion time.
By the end of 1991, all A310, and A300-600 were approved for 180 minutes diversion time by
the French DGAC.
In September 1991, the A320 was the first fly-by-wire aircraft to be approved for ETOPS
operations with 120 minutes diversion time.
In April 1994, the A330-301 (CF6-80E1A2 engines) obtained the ETOPS Type Design
Approval from the JAA with 120-minute diversion time. This was the first new aircraft to receive
early ETOPS approval worldwide. In May 1994, Aer Lingus was the first Operator to
inaugurate ETOPS operations over the North Atlantic with this aircraft.
At the same time, the A300-600, equipped with CF6-80C2A5F engines (featuring FADEC),
obtained the ETOPS Type Design Approval (180-minute diversion time) from the JAA at entry
into service.
In 1996, the A330 obtained the ETOPS 180-minute Type Design Approval. At the same time,
the A319, and A321 joined the A320 with their ETOPS 120-minute approvals.
In 2009, the A330 became the first Airbus to be certified for “Beyond 180 min” ETOPS, that
approximately corresponds to 240 minutes.
In 2014, the A350XWB became the first Airbus to be certified for “Beyond 180 min” ETOPS at
EIS, that approximately corresponds to 370 minutes.

6.2 CERTIFICATION STATUS

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Most Airbus twin-engine aircraft are currently approved for ETOPS. The following tables
provide the Maximum Diversion Time (MDT) for each certified aircraft model/engine
combination, for both the EASA and FAA. In these tables, 180 means that the combination is
certified for up to 180-min diversion time, and >180 means that the combination is certified for
“Beyond 180 min” diversion time.
6.2.1 A300 and A310 Family Aircraft
MDT MDT
Model Basic Intermix
EASA FAA
A300B4-620 JT9D-7R4 H1 - 180 -
A300C4-620 JT9D-7R4 H1 - 180 -
A300-600
A300B4-622 PW4158 - 180 -
PW
A300B4-622R PW4158 - 180 -
A300F4-622R PW4158 - 180 180
A300B4-601 CF6-80C2A1 - 180 -
A300B4-603 CF6-80C2A3 - 180 -
A300B4-605R CF6-80C2A5 - 180 180
A300-600
A300B4-605R CF6-80C2A5F - 180 -
GE
A300C4-605R/F CF6-80C2A5 - 180 -
A300F4-605R CF6-80C2A5F - 180 180
A300F4-608ST CF6-80C2A8 - 180 -

JT9D-7R4 E1 500
A310-221 JT9D-7R4 D1 180 180
JT9D-7R4 E1 600

JT9D-7R4 D1
A310-222 JT9D-7R4 E1 500 180 180
JT9D-7R4 E1 600

A310 JT9D-7R4 D1
A310-222/VAR100 JT9D-7R4 E1 500 180 -
PW JT9D-7R4 E1 600

JT9D-7R4 D1
A310-322 JT9D-7R4 E1 500 180 -
JT9D-7R4 E1 600

A310-324 PW4152 - 180 120


A310-325 PW4156A - 180 -
A310-203 CF6-80A3 - 180 -
A310-203C CF6-80A3 - 180 -
A310
A310-204/VAR100 CF6-80C2A2 - 180 -
GE
A310-304 CF6-80C2A4 - 180 -
A310-308 CF6-80C2A8 CF6-80C2A4 180 -

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6.2.2 A318, A319, A320 and A321 Family Aircraft


MDT MDT
Model Basic Intermix
EASA FAA

A318 A318-111 CFM56-5B8 - 180 -


CFM A318-112 CFM56-5B9 - 180 -

A318 A318-121 PW6122A - 180 -


PW A318-122 PW6124A - 180 -

A319-111 CFM56-5B5 - 180 180

A319-112 CFM56-5B6 - 180 180


A319
A319-113 CFM56-5A4 - 180 180
CFM
A319-114 CFM56-5A5 - 180 180

A319-115 CFM56-5B7 - 180 180

A319-131 V2522-A5 - 180 180


A319
A319-132 V2524-A5 - 180 180
IAE
A319-133 V2527M-A5 - 180 180

A320-111 CFM56-5A1 - 180 180

A320-211 CFM56-5A1 - 180 180

A320 A320-212 CFM56-5A3 - 180 180


CFM A320-214 CFM56-5B4 - 180 180

A320-215 CFM56-5B5 - 180 -

A320-216 CFM56-5B6 - 180 -

A320-231 V2500-A1 - 180 180


A320
A320-232 V2527-A5 - 180 180
IAE
A320-233 V2527E-A5 - 180 180

A321-111 CFM56-5B1 - 180 180

A321-112 CFM56-5B2 - 180 180


A321
A321-211 CFM56-5B3 - 180 180
CFM
A321-212 CFM56-5B1 - 180 180

A321-213 CFM56-5B2 - 180 180

A321-131 V2530-A5 - 180 180


A321
A321-231 V2533-A5 - 180 180
IAE
A321-232 V2530-A5 - 180 180

Notes: 1) There are two ETOPS options on A318/A319/A320/A321 aircraft: 120-min, and 180-min ETOPS capabilities.
2) A318, A319, A320, and A321 aircraft are delivered in compliance with the 120-min or 180-min ETOPS configuration
standards, as applicable at time of delivery, only if the related option is selected by the Operator.

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6.2.3 A330 Aircraft


MDT MDT
Model Basic Intermix
EASA FAA
A330-201 CF6-80E1A2 - >180 180

CF6-80E1A4
A330-202 CF6-80E1A2 >180 180
CF6-80E1A4/B

A330 A330-203 CF6-80E1A3 - >180 180


GE A330-301 CF6-80E1A2 - >180 180

CF6-80E1A4
A330-302 - >180 180
CF6-80E1A4/B

A330-303 CF6-80E1A3 - >180 180

PW4168A (–1D incl)


A330-223 PW4168A (–1D incl) >180 180
PW4170

PW4170
A330-223F - 180 -
PW4168A-1D

A330 PW4164
A330-321 - >180 180
PW PW4164-1D

PW4168
A330-322 - >180 180
PW4168-1D

PW4168A (–1D incl)


A330-323 PW4168A (–1D incl) >180 180
PW4170

Trent 772B-60
A330-243 - >180 180
Trent 772C-60

Trent 772B-60
A330-243F - 180 -
Trent 772C-60
A330
RR A330-341 Trent 768-60 - >180 180

A330-342 Trent 772-60 - >180 180

Trent 772B-60
A330-343 Trent 772-60 >180 180
Trent 772C-60

Notes: 1) All A330 aircraft are delivered in compliance with the 180-min ETOPS configuration standards (Basic aircraft
specification, as applicable at the time of delivery)
2) “Beyond 180 min” ETOPS capability is available as an option

6.3 HOW CAN AIRBUS ASSIST YOU?

Airbus has created a number of services, in order to assist its customers. These services
range from the usual training courses to consulting services. The following section describes
some examples of these services. Please contact your Airbus representative for additional
information about these services.

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6.3.1 Training Courses


Airbus has developed a complete family of courses related to ETOPS:
• Dispatcher courses, for all Airbus twins. The main objectives are to:
o Familiarize the trainees to the use of the Airbus operational documents like the
Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM), the Flight Crew Operating Manual (FCOM), the
Master Minimum Equipment List (MMEL) and the Aircraft Characteristics for
Airport Planning (ACAP)
o Describe some of the Airbus Performance programs like the Computerized
Flight Planning and the Runway Analysis programs
o Study the aircraft systems at a description level
o Provide a specific training for airlines that operate in ETOPS conditions.
• ETOPS flight crew courses, for all Airbus twins. These courses are designed to train
the flight crew for the specificities of ETOPS requirements and rules, dispatch criteria,
and the operational guidelines to effectively operate in the ETOPS environment.
• ETOPS maintenance courses. These courses raise the maintenance personnel’s
awareness of all technical requirements and procedures necessary to operate and
dispatch an aircraft under ETOPS regulations.
• …
6.3.2 Consulting Services
Airbus can help its customers obtain an ETOPS Operational Agreement and maintain it, with
the following consulting services:
• ETOPS assistance program. The Airbus ETOPS assistance program is designed to
help airlines create a viable ETOPS program. The program includes:
o A general introduction to ETOPS (ETOPS Briefing)
o One or two visits from Airbus ETOPS experts. They advise the Operator on
ETOPS regulations and policy matters, and how to adjust to them
o The access to a set of “ready-to-customize” ETOPS documents
o The assessment of the Operator's schedule
o The assessment of the Operator's organization and available means
o The proposal of an approval program by the National Airworthiness Authority
based on these reviews.
• Study of specific routes: Airbus can determine the constraints and procedures
associated with specific ETOPS routes to be flown, and specific to each aircraft model.
• ETOPS compliance status update. For each new ETOPS aircraft delivery, Airbus
provides the Operator with an ETOPS Compliance Document (Refer to 5.2.3: ETOPS
COMPLIANCE DOCUMENT). When the aircraft is delivered to a second-hand Operator,
this document may need to be updated to reflect the configuration requirements of the
applicable ETOPS CMP document at the current valid revision, and the actual
configuration (technical status) of the aircraft. The amount of work required to perform
this ETOPS compliance status update depends on:
o The availability of an ETOPS Compliance status at initial delivery
o The new country of registration,
o The availability and the quality of the technical records (SB/Mod status, etc.)

6.3.3 Technical Questions


For any additional information or technical questions related to Airbus ETOPS, please, send an
e-mail to:

etops-edto.support@airbus.com

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6.4 AIRBUS ETOPS ORGANIZATION

Airbus has created a dedicated ETOPS department. This department is responsible for:
• Acting as a source of expertise on all ETOPS matters, and advising, and/or providing
Operators or Authorities with training courses on ETOPS regulations, organization,
procedures, technical, flight operations and maintenance aspects
• Managing the ETOPS Type Design assessment process under the applicable rules (e.g.
EASA, FAA, etc.)
• Managing the ETOPS continued reliability assessment process
• Preparing the ETOPS Manuals for approval, validation, and publication (ETOPS CMP
document, ETOPS Compliance document, ETOPS Parts List, etc.)
• Preparing or validating Airbus communication, and training material on ETOPS
• Preparing, and implementing assistance programs for ETOPS (Candidate ) Operators to
obtain or restore their operational approval
• Acting on behalf of Airbus (or European industries) in ETOPS rulemaking processes of
all countries or international organizations (Particularly with the EASA, FAA and ICAO).

6.5 ETOPS TECHNICAL DOCUMENTATION ON AIRBUSWORLD

Information and ETOPS technical documents (Envelope CMPs, Parts Lists, etc.) are available
on AirbusWorld, via the following path:

“Maintenance & Engineering Community”

 “Prepare Maintenance Program”

 “Consult Airbus Maintenance Requirements”

 “Consult ETOPS/LROPS Requirements”

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Getting to Grips with ETOPS:
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Getting to grips with


ETOPS
Volume II: THE FLIGHT OPERATIONS VIEW
Flight Operations Support
& Line Assistance

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The Flight Operations View

Left Intentionally Blank

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Getting to grips with ETOPS: Table Of Content
The Flight Operations View

Table of Content
Table of contents
Table of Content........................................................................................................................... 3

1 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................. 5

1.1 WHAT DOES ETOPS MEAN? ............................................................................................... 5

1.2 THE ADVANTAGES OF ETOPS ........................................................................................... 6

2 AREA OF OPERATIONS ..................................................................................................... 7

2.1 IS ETOPS NECESSARY? ..................................................................................................... 7


2.1.1 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................... 7
2.1.2 WHAT IS AN ADEQUATE AIRPORT? ................................................................... 8
2.1.3 WHAT IS THE APPROVED OEI DIVERSION SPEED? ........................................ 9
2.1.4 WHAT ARE THE REFERENCE GROSS WEIGHT AND DIVERSION FL? ......... 11

2.2 WHAT IS THE REQUIRED MAXIMUM DIVERSION TIME? ............................................... 14


2.2.1 EEP/EXP AND ETOPS SECTOR ........................................................................ 14
2.2.2 COVERING THE ETOPS SECTOR ..................................................................... 15
2.2.3 SUMMARY ........................................................................................................... 17

3 FLIGHT DISPATCH ............................................................................................................ 18

3.1 ETOPS ALTERNATE AIRPORTS ....................................................................................... 18


3.1.1 ETP AND TIME WINDOW .................................................................................... 18
3.1.2 DISPATCH WEATHER MINIMA .......................................................................... 23
3.1.3 SURFACE CONDITIONS ..................................................................................... 25
3.1.4 ETOPS ALTERNATE AIRPORT SELECTION FORM ......................................... 28

3.2 OBSTACLE CLEARANCE ................................................................................................... 29

3.3 FUEL CONSIDERATIONS................................................................................................... 29


3.3.1 REQUIREMENTS AND SCENARII ...................................................................... 30
3.3.2 FUEL RESERVES ................................................................................................ 33

3.4 TIME-LIMITED SYSTEMS ................................................................................................... 35

3.5 PLOTTING CHART .............................................................................................................. 36

3.6 DISPATCH CHECKLIST EXAMPLE .................................................................................... 37

3.7 ETOPS BEYOND 180 MINUTES SPECIFICITIES .............................................................. 38

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4 THE ETOPS FLIGHT.......................................................................................................... 39

4.1 THE FLIGHT PREPARATION ............................................................................................. 39

4.2 ETOPS ELEMENTS OF THE CFP ...................................................................................... 40

4.3 COCKPIT PREPARATION .................................................................................................. 42


4.3.1 PREFLIGHT CHECKS.......................................................................................... 42
4.3.2 DATA LOADING ................................................................................................... 43

4.4 BEFORE REACHING THE EEP .......................................................................................... 45

4.5 FLYING THE ETOPS SECTOR ........................................................................................... 45

4.6 DIVERSION.......................................................................................................................... 46

4
Getting to grips with ETOPS: Introduction
The Flight Operations View

1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 WHAT DOES ETOPS MEAN?

Due to the poor reliability of piston engines in the early 1950s, the ICAO recommended that no
aircraft be operated beyond 90 min with all engines operative, from a diversion airport, except
if the route could be flown with two engines inoperative. The FAA was even more restrictive,
because they limited the use of tris, for a short while, and twins, to areas where they were less
than 60 min away, at any time, from an en-route diversion airport. With the change from piston
engines to much more reliable jet engines, it became clear that this limitation would have to be
revised. This resulted in the creation of a new regulation: ETOPS.
At the beginning, ETOPS stood for Extended Twins OPerationS. It was made of sets of
certification and operational requirements. These requirements were to be fulfilled in order to
operate beyond the above-mentioned thresholds. The requirements are fully described in
Volume 1 of this publication.
Since its creation, ETOPS has evolved, mainly to enable operations of twins beyond 180 min
diversion time:
• Today, the ETOPS acronym has different meanings:
o For the EASA, it still stands for Extended Twins OPerationS
o For the FAA, however, it now stands for ExTended OPerationS, in order to take
into account the application of this US regulation to passenger-carrying aircraft
with more than two engines (i.e. that exclude freighters with more than two
engines).
• The ICAO has changed the name of its revised ETOPS regulation to EDTO, that stands
for Extended Diversion Time Operations. EDTO is, as the FAA ETOPS, applicable to
twins, and to aircraft with more than two engines (Including freighters with more than two
engines).
• The EASA has been working on a new regulation, LROPS, or Long Range OPerationS,
that is the adaptation of ETOPS requirements to aircraft with more than two engines. The
decision to publish this LROPS rule depends on the conclusion of the EASA review of the
new ICAO EDTO rule.

In this brochure, we will use the generic term “ETOPS” and pinpoint the differences of the
various regulations when necessary.

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1.2 THE ADVANTAGES OF ETOPS

One of the main advantages from ETOPS is to enable twins to fly routes that used to be
restricted to aircraft with more than two engines. For example: A charter airline flies regularly
between Milano (MXP) and Caracas (CCS). The travel distance is approximately 4350 nm.

Milano to Caracas: 4350 nm.

In order to fly this route with a non ETOPS-certified twin, the crew would have to remain close to
the diversion airports, leading to a 30 % increase in flight distance.

Complying with the 60 min threshold: 5700 nm.

With ETOPS 180 min, the route can be the shortest one, because a larger area of operations
requires less en-route alternates, and therefore, provides a much greater operational flexibility.

The shortest route, with 180 min ETOPS.

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2 AREA OF OPERATIONS

2.1 IS ETOPS NECESSARY?

2.1.1 Introduction
An Operator wants to open a new route, or to change the type of aircraft used to fly an existing
route. Does this Operator need to apply for an ETOPS operational approval?
ETOPS regulations apply when commercial air-operations are conducted on a route that
contains a segment where the aircraft flies beyond a defined flight-time distance from all
adequate airports. For a twin-engine aircraft, this threshold is set to 60 min flight-time, in still air
and ISA conditions, at an approved one-engine-inoperative (OEI) speed schedule. For tri- and
quad-engine aircraft, this threshold has to be set by the National Authority. ICAO regulations
recommend that this threshold be set to a 180 min flight-time, in still air and ISA conditions, at
an approved all-engine-operative speed.
Note: Operators can take advantage of an ISA deviation (Increased True Air Speed (TAS)) is possible if the deviation is
constant during the entire year for the considered route.

Is ETOPS necessary? The answer may be obvious for some routes, for example, the routes
that cross the Atlantic Ocean. But perhaps a little less obvious if the route is flown over areas
where only few adequate airports are available. To correctly determine if ETOPS is necessary
for a specific route, the Operator should apply the following steps:
1.Determination of the intended route to be flown
2.Determination of the possible diversion airports, also called adequate airport(s) (Refer to
section 2.1.2 of this volume)
3.Determination of the maximum diversion distance with a diversion time of 60 min, also called
the ETOPS Threshold Distance (Refer to section 2.1.4 of this volume)
4.Drawing of circles, with a radius equal to the ETOPS Threshold Distance, centered on each
adequate airport
5.If the route goes outside these circles, ETOPS operations are required on the section(s) of
route that are outside these 60 min circles.
This chapter and the following use an example to illustrate the steps that Operators should
apply, in order to determine the need for ETOPS, on a specific route. The example is a case
study of an Operator that wants to open a new route from Madrid (Spain), to Buenos Aires
(Argentina), with an A330 aircraft.

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2.1.2 What is an adequate airport?


An adequate airport is an airport that the aircraft can safely divert to, in the case of an
emergency, i.e.:
• It satisfies the aircraft performance requirements applicable at the expected landing
weight
• It is available at the expected time of use
• Overflying and landing authorizations are granted
• It has ground operational services like:
o ATC
o Meteorological and air information offices
o Lighting capabilities
• It has, at least, one let-down navaid available to conduct an instrument approach, like:
o An ILS
o A VOR
o An NDB, etc.
• The Rescue and Fire Fighting category of the airport is at least a level 4 (ICAO SARP
Annex 14 (Paragraph 9.2, Table 9-1)). If the diversion time is beyond 180 minutes, the
FAA requests that the Rescue and Fire Fighting category be at least a level 7.

The FAA requests also a passenger recovery plan for each adequate airport, if the maximum
diversion time is beyond 180 minutes, or if the flight is conducted in a polar region. This
passenger recovery plan must address the safety and comfort of stranded passengers and
crewmembers at the diversion airport. The passenger recovery plan must also address the
prompt retrieval of passengers and crewmembers from the airport.
In order to select the adequate airports, the Operator may also consider the following criteria:
• The consistency of the Pavement Classification Number (PCN) of the runway(s) with the
Aircraft Classification Number (ACN), even if, in the case of an emergency, it is not
necessary to satisfy a runway pavement requirement normally considered for the regular
use of an airport (“ICAO Convention - Annex 14” and “ICAO Airport Manual, Document
9157 - AN/91”).
• The existence of health-care facilities
• The existence of maintenance facilities
• The existence of airport services to handle the aircraft and provide catering (fuel, food,
etc.)
• The existence of airport facilities to receive and accommodate the passengers
• Any other specific requirements applicable to the Operator.
The above-mentioned requirements do not take into account the actual weather at the airport:
The study is based on theoretical weather conditions only. The actual weather will be taken
into considerations later on, for the dispatch of the flight.
Finally, the local operational authorities must validate the list of adequate airports that the
Operator has selected.
The following chart illustrates the adequate airports for the route from Madrid to Buenos Aires:

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MAD-EZE: Adequate Airports

2.1.3 What is the approved OEI diversion speed?


It is a Mach/IAS speed schedule an Operator is expected to use in the case of a diversion after
an engine failure. This speed is approved by the Operator’s National Authority.
In practice, this OEI diversion speed ranges from Green Dot speed (Best lift-over-drag-ratio
speed) to VMO/MMO (Maximum certified operating speed). The aircraft is designed, tested and
certified to safely fly within this range of speeds, even with one engine inoperative, and with
the remaining engine thrust set to Maximum Continuous Thrust (MCT).
Each individual Operator selects its OEI diversion speed in accordance with their route
structure and associated constraints.
Note: In flight, and as permitted by the operational regulations, the pilot in command can decide to deviate from the OEI
diversion speed, after the flight crew assesses the current situation.

A diversion at high speed maximizes the diversion distance. A diversion at low speed reduces
it. But, at the same time, a diversion at low speed allows a higher level-off and minimizes the
fuel consumption.
What diversion strategy should the Operator select?
For non-ETOPS operations, in the case of an engine failure, the Operator can select either the
standard or the obstacle clearance strategies:
• The standard strategy corresponds to a descent at cruise Mach/300 kt IAS down to an
altitude near the LRC ceiling, and a diversion cruise at LRC speed
• The obstacle clearance strategy corresponds to a drift-down at Green Dot speed until the
obstacles are cleared, and the application of the standard strategy thereafter.
The operational documentation (e.g. the Flight Crew Operating Manual (FCOM)) describes
both diversion strategies, in detail. For ETOPS operations, in the case of an engine failure,
there is no objection to use either the standard strategy, or the obstacle clearance strategy.
However, the associated diversion speeds, respectively LRC speed and Green Dot speed, are
substantially low speeds, that limit the maximum diversion distance.

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Therefore, for ETOPS operations, Operators should select an OEI diversion speed that is
higher than that of the standard or obstacle clearance strategies. A higher diversion speed
extends the diversion distance. This typical ETOPS diversion strategy is referred to as "Fixed
Speed Strategy" in the FCOM.
The word "fixed" emphasizes the fact that a selected OEI diversion speed schedule is applied
during both the diversion descent and cruise phases (But not in the case of a
depressurization).
For each aircraft type, the FCOM provides a sample of OEI speeds (With the relevant graphs
for the related aircraft performance), or references to the performance program to compute the
single-engine aircraft performance. The FCOM provides, for each single-engine speed
associated to the Fixed Speed Strategy, all related aircraft performance data. Depending on
the aircraft, the FCOM provides the following single-engine speeds: 300, 310, 320, 330, 340,
or 350 kt (By comparison, the LRC speed is usually less than 300 kt). This speed range
complies with most Operator requirements. However, if an Operator selects an intermediate
diversion speed, they should compute and include all associated aircraft performance data, in
their Operations Manual.
Note: When the aircraft reaches the diversion cruise Flight Level (FL), the selected IAS might not be maintained and might
be limited to a lower speed due to thrust limitation (MCT), until it increases due to weight decrease. However, this
should not be a criterion to select a lower speed schedule.

POINT OF ENGINE FAILURE


MMO

VMO

INCREASING SPEED
WITH DECREASING
MAX SPEED
WEIGHT

60 min

Descent Profile Example: Max Speed/MCT

The selected OEI diversion speed affects all of the following:


• The diversion distance
• The fuel consumption
• The obstacle clearance.
As an example, an increase in the OEI diversion speed induces:
• An increase in the available diversion distance
• An increase in the fuel consumption
• A decrease in the level-off altitude.
Note: The regulations do not require that Operators take the obstacle clearance limitations into account, when they select
the diversion speed. However, the dispatchers will take these limitations into account, for flight planning (Refer to
section 3.2 of this volume).

For the Madrid/Buenos Aires route, the selected OEI speed is MMO-VMO/MCT, due to the fact
that there are no limiting obstacles. This maximizes the ETOPS threshold distance. The fuel
impact will be assessed at a later stage.

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2.1.4 What are the reference gross weight and diversion FL?
Regulations do not define the aircraft Reference Gross Weight (RGW) to be considered. The
RGW may range from the Takeoff Weight (TOW) to the Landing Weight (LW), depending on
the authorities. A conservative method is to initialize the RGW with the aircraft weight after one
hour flight (i.e. TOW minus the weight corresponding to one hour of fuel used), for the
calculation of the ETOPS threshold.
The diversion FL is the optimum diversion FL associated with the RGW. This optimum
diversion FL provides the maximum diversion distance.
The calculation of the RGW and the diversion FL may require some iteration.
The FCOM provides the “ETOPS MAXIMUM DIVERSION DISTANCE” and the diversion FL.
Operators can also compute the diversion FL and the ETOPS maximum diversion distance
with a performance software (e.g. PEP).
In the Madrid/Buenos Aires example, the A330 weights 210 000 kg one hour after takeoff from
MAD.
By entering the following FCOM table with these values:
• SPEED SCHEDULE: MMO-VMO/MCT
• AIRCRAFT WEIGHT AT CRITICAL POINT (KG): 210 000
• DIVERSION TIME (MIN): 60

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Example of a MAXIMUM DIVERSION DISTANCE Table

One can obtain the diversion FL and the maximum diversion distance, as follows:
• FL FOR DIVERSION: 170
• MAXIMUM DIVERSION DISTANCE (ETOPS Threshold Distance): 433 nm

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On the plotting chart, circles of 433 nm are drawn, centered on every adequate airport. Due to
the fact that part of the route is outside these circles, ETOPS is required.

MAD-EZE: ETOPS is Required

Useful tip: How to draw the ETOPS threshold circles on a plotting chart?
On a meridian, one minute of angle (1’) is equal to one nautical mile.
Therefore, one degree (1°) is equal to 60 nm.
In accordance with this rule, the ETOPS threshold of 433 nm corresponds to an angle
of seven degrees and thirteen minutes (7° 13’). Therefore, to obtain the radius of the
433 nm circle on the chart, use the divider to measure the above-mentioned angle on
the longitude scale near parallel 45.

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2.2 WHAT IS THE REQUIRED MAXIMUM DIVERSION TIME?

This chapter describes the method that Operators should apply to determine the required
maximum diversion time, on an ETOPS route.
2.2.1 EEP/EXP and ETOPS sector
The plotting chart illustrates that a part of the route extends beyond the 60 min circles centered
on each adequate airport. This part of the route is called the ETOPS sector. The beginning of
the ETOPS sector is called the ETOPS Entry Point (EEP). The end of the ETOPS sector is
called the ETOPS eXit Point (EXP).

The ETOPS Sector, the EEP and the EXP

The selected route should indicate the obstacles to be cleared (If any), and the location of the
selected adequate airports, well distributed along the route. The next step is to select a
diversion time that ensures a possible diversion, from any point of the route, to the
corresponding adequate airports.
A diversion time and a diversion speed provide a diversion distance that can be drawn on the
chart as circles, centered on the adequate airports. The Operator should select a maximum
diversion time and a speed schedule that ensure coverage of the entire ETOPS sector, with a
minimum overlap of the circles. The higher the diversion speed, the longer the diversion
distance and the lower the level-off.

The following illustration shows three circles, associated with two adequate airports, for three
speed schedules:
• At LRC speed, the corresponding circles are substantially small
• At 300 kt IAS the circles are wider but do not provide a continuous area of operation
• At 310 kt IAS the circles are tangent, and provide a continuous area of operation along
the route. This ensures the feasibility of the ETOPS operation.

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ADEQUATE AIRPORT 1

*
M0.80/310 kt
M0.80/300 kt

LRC speed

LRC speed

M0.80/300 kt ADEQUATE AIRPORT 2

*
M0.80/310 kt

Effect of Single-Engine Speed Selection on the ETOPS Area of Operation


(For a Specific Maximum Diversion Time)

Therefore, in this example, 310kt IAS is the required minimum speed schedule. In practice, the
Operators select a diversion speed higher than this minimum speed schedule. This provides
the flight crew with more flexibility in the aircraft routing, if they need to perform either of the
following:
• The avoidance of an adverse weather zone
• The use of a more direct route
• The coverage of the possible variations of an organized track system, such as on the
North Atlantic…
The Operator should select a diversion speed that is between the minimum diversion speed
and VMO.
The diversion strategy should also be determined taking into account the diversion fuel
requirement, as the ETOPS regulations require the Operators to use the same diversion speed
strategy to determine both the area of operation and the diversion fuel. Therefore, a
compromise between speed and fuel should be found: For example, a diversion at VMO
provides the widest area of operation but requires the highest diversion fuel quantity. In this
case, a reduction of the diversion speed, that reduces the area of operation and the diversion
fuel quantity, may be a better option, provided that the flight routing is not modified.
The used fuel (kg) is equal to the distance covered (nm) divided by the specific range (nm/kg).
2.2.2 Covering the ETOPS sector
The “ETOPS MAXIMUM DIVERSION DISTANCE” table, already described in section 2.1.4 of
this volume, contains various diversion times (60 min, 90 min, 120 min, 180 min, etc.) This
ETOPS maximum diversion distance is the maximum distance from an ETOPS alternate
airport at which an aircraft can operate under ETOPS regulations. The Operator's authorities
must approve the defined maximum diversion distance.

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The table provides, for each of these diversion times, a maximum diversion distance, in
accordance with the selected speed schedule and RGW. As for the ETOPS threshold, the
ETOPS maximum diversion distance is a function of speed, weight and altitude (Cruise and
diversion FLs).
The speed:
The ETOPS OEI diversion speed must provide a compromise between the maximum diversion
distance, the diversion fuel quantity, and the obstacle clearance. This is the speed defined in
section 2.1.3 of this volume. The approved OEI diversion speed, for our example, is VMO.
The weight:
Regulations do not define the aircraft weight to be considered: The Operators can compute
their own reference weights taking into account their ETOPS route structure. The weight,
defined by the Operator, should be as realistic as possible and submitted for approval to the
airline's national authority. ETOPS regulations recommend that the aircraft reference weight be
computed as the highest of the estimated gross weight values at the Critical Points (CPs) of
the various routes within the defined area of operation. A CP is a specific diversion point along
the route. It is called ‘critical’, due to the fact that a diversion at this point is the least favorable,
in terms of fuel planning. The Operator should initiate the computation with a takeoff at the
maximum takeoff weight (structural or runway limitation or landing weight limitation) and a
standard speed schedule, in still air and ISA (or delta ISA) conditions. When applicable, the
above-mentioned computation should be conducted considering that a given route may be
supported by various sets of declared en-route alternates (Thus resulting in different CP
locations). For additional information on Critical Points, refer to section 3.3 FUEL
CONSIDERATIONS. In this brochure, the Maximum Diversion Distance is computed with the
weight at CP. In our example, the A330 weight is 180 t at the CP.
The cruise FL:
Regulations do not define the initial cruise FL to be considered. Due to the fact that the
influence of this parameter on the ETOPS maximum diversion distance is low, in our example,
the maximum diversion distance is computed with the initial cruise FL 350.

The diversion FL:

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Getting to grips with ETOPS: Area of Operations
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Regulations do not define the diversion FL to be considered. In our example, the Maximum
Diversion Distance is based on the diversion FL that provides the greatest distance.

90 min

120 min

MAD-EZE: 90 and 120 min Circles


The circles that entirely cover the ETOPS sector, with an optimum overlap, define the ETOPS
maximum diversion time. On the illustration above, 862 nm circles cover the ETOPS sector.
This corresponds to a maximum diversion time of 120 minutes. Intermediate diversion times
(For example, 75 min or 105 min, in order to reduce the circle overlap) can be computed via
interpolation. The Airworthiness Authorities can also grant a 15 % increase of the diversion
time, to be used on a case by case basis only. Therefore, in our example, the Operator could
be authorized to operate an aircraft up to 138 or 207 min instead of, respectively 120 or 180
min, but with the constraints associated with the initially approved diversion time (i.e. 120 or
180 min). The purpose of the 15 % increase is to permit continuation of safe operations in case
of sudden adverse weather that would prohibit the selection of usually selected alternates. The
maximum diversion circles define the ETOPS area of operations. In other words: The area of
operations is the airspace in which the distance to an ETOPS en-route alternate airport is less
than the ETOPS maximum diversion distance.
2.2.3 Summary
The area of operations depends on the following parameters:
• The selected speed schedule
• The Reference Gross Weight
• The maximum diversion distance or time.
The area of operations illustrates the following:
• The ETOPS en-route alternates
• The ETOPS Entry Point(s) (EEP)
• The ETOPS eXit Point(s) (EXP)
• The ETOPS sector.
The area of operations is computed, with the following assumptions:
• ISA conditions, or ∆ISA, if the deviation is constant during the entire year
• No wind.
Note: It is not required to modify the area of operation if the actual weather conditions differ from the “ideal” ISA or ∆ISA
conditions used for the computation.

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3 FLIGHT DISPATCH

3.1 ETOPS ALTERNATE AIRPORTS

To be selected as an ETOPS alternate airport, an adequate airport must be usable and must
satisfy a number of weather and field conditions. These conditions ensure a safe approach and
landing, during a required time window, that was previously called “the period of suitability”.
3.1.1 ETP and time window
The ETP:
ETP stands for Equal-Time Point. An ETP is the point of equal flying time between two
diversion airports. The ETP can also be defined as: “The point at the farthest ‘air mile’ distance
from a pair of ETOPS alternate airports”.

MAD-EZE: The ETP Location

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Getting to grips with ETOPS: Flight Dispatch
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In the example above, if a diversion is necessary during flight in the ETOPS sector, from the
EEP to the ETP, the nearest diversion airport is Amílcar Cabral International Airport (SID).
After the ETP, and until the EXP, it becomes Fortaleza International Airport (FOR).
The ETP is determined only for the engine-failure case. Therefore, the effects of wind and
temperature are considered at the OEI cruise altitude. If the FL, wind force and temperature
are the same in both directions, the ETP is the midpoint.

ETP

+50 kt/ISA +50 kt/ISA

SID One-engine-inoperative cruise alt. FOR

Same Weather Conditions: The ETP is the Midpoint Between SID and FOR

If the weather conditions are different, the ETP moves towards the most adverse weather
conditions.

ETP

-50 kt/ISA +50 kt/ISA

SID FOR

Different Weather Conditions: The ETP Moves Towards the Most Adverse One

The following formula provides the value of the ETP displacement, Δ:


∆ =0.5 D x (RWC – CWC)/(2 TAS + RWC + CWC)
Definitions:
• D is the great circle distance between the two diversion airports.
• RWC is the Returning Wind Component at the OEI altitude.
• CWC is the Continuing Wind Component at the OEI altitude.
• TAS is the average diversion TAS.

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On ETOPS flights longer than the MAD – EZE example, additional en-route alternate airports
are necessary, and for each additional airport, the Operator has to define another ETP.

Airport ETP
3 ETP 4
3 Airport
5

ETP ETP
1 2

Airport
Airport
4
2
Airport
1

Example of a Longer ETOPS Flight


Before the aircraft reaches ETP 1, the nearest diversion airport is Airport 1. Between ETP 1
and ETP 2, Airport 2 is the nearest diversion airport, etc.
The time window:
For each adequate airport along the route, the time window is a period during that the airport
must be technically usable and with appropriate weather minima. This time window is based
on the earliest and latest Estimated Times of Arrival (ETAs) at this airport.

MAD-EZE: Earliest ETA at SID

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For SID, we use the EEP to calculate the earliest ETA, because it is the point where ETOPS
begin. Before the EEP, the usual 60 min regulations apply.

The estimated time of departure


+ The flight time to the EEP (Normal cruise)
+ The flight time from the EEP to SID (Normal cruise speed and FL)
= The earliest ETA at SID

For a generic airport, the earliest ETA is computed as follows:

Airport ETP
3 ETP 4
3 Airport
5

ETP ETP
1 2

Airport
Airport
4
2
Airport
1

For a Generic Airport: Earliest ETA at Airport 3

In practice, the earliest ETA at an alternate airport is equal to the sum of all of the following:
• The estimated time of departure
• The flight time to reach the ETP between the considered alternate airport and the
previous alternate airport along the route
• The diversion flight time (Associated with a diversion at the normal cruise speed and flight
level) from this ETP to the considered alternate airport.
For the illustration above, the earliest ETA at Airport 3 is:
The estimated time of departure
+ The flight time to ETP 2 (Normal cruise)
+ The flight time from ETP 2 to Airport 3 (Normal cruise speed and FL)
= The earliest ETA at Airport 3

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MAD-EZE: Latest ETA at SID


In practice, the latest ETA at an alternate airport is equal to the sum of all of the following:
• The departure time
• The flight time to reach the ETP between the considered alternate airport and the next
alternate airport along the route
• The diversion flight time from this ETP to the considered alternate airport, associated with
a diversion at LRC speed and FL 100, or Minimum Off Route Altitude (MORA).
For the example above, the latest ETA at SID is:
The estimated time of departure
+ The flight time to the ETP (Normal cruise)
+ The flight time from the ETP to SID (LRC speed and FL 100/MORA)
= The latest ETA at SID
The definition of the time window, based on these earliest and latest ETAs, is slightly different
for the FAA and EASA: The EASA takes into account an additional in-flight delay of one hour.
Earliest Latest
Departure ETA ETA Time

1 hour

FAA
FAR 121.624b
FAA

EASA
EU-OPS 1.297 EASA

The Time Window


For each adequate airport along the route, the dispatcher must check that, for its time window:
• The airport is open, or can be open, if requested (By checking NOTAMs)
• One or more of its instrument approaches are available (By checking NOTAMs)
• The forecast weather at the airport is better than the dispatch weather minima (By
checking TAFs, SNOWTAMs, etc.)

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The time window is provided for the estimated time of departure, and must be adjusted to the
actual time of departure, in the case of a delay:
• For EASA Operators: Airbus recommends that if the dispatch of a flight is delayed by
more than one hour, pilots and/or operations personnel should monitor weather forecasts
and airport status of the ETOPS alternate airports, to ensure that they remain within the
specified planning minima requirements, until dispatch.
• For FAA Operators: Pilots and/or operations personnel should monitor weather forecasts
and airport status of the ETOPS alternate airports, to ensure that they remain within the
specified planning minima requirements, until dispatch.
3.1.2 Dispatch weather minima
The dispatch weather minima for the ETOPS alternate airports are usually more restrictive
than the normal weather minima necessary to initiate an instrument approach. This is due to
the following two main factors:
• The possible degradation of weather conditions
• The need to determine the suitability (During the above-mentioned time window) of a
specific en-route alternate airport, before departure of the ETOPS flight.

These more restrictive minima are necessary to ensure that the flight crew can safely perform
an instrument approach, in the case of a diversion to the corresponding alternate airport.
These ETOPS dispatch minima apply only until the aircraft is airborne.
After takeoff, the normal minima apply.
The ETOPS dispatch weather minima may be slightly different from one regulation to another:
• The FAA ETOPS dispatch weather minima take into account the possible degradation of
the weather conditions at the diversion airports (Refer to FAR 121.624/121.625/121.631
and AC 120-42 B):

Available Instrument IFR Weather: IFR Weather:


Approaches Minimum Ceiling Minimum Visibility

NPA, CAT I or Circling MDA or DH PM


Approaches to a Single RWY + 400 ft + 1 sm (1 600 m)

Two or More Instrument Highest (DH, MDA) Highest PM


Approaches (1)
(Can be associated + 200 ft + ½ sm (800 m)
with the same runway)

3/4 sm (1 200 m) or
CAT II Approach 300 ft
RVR 4000 ft (1 200 m)

1/2 sm (800 m) or
CAT III Approach 200 ft
RVR 1 800 ft (550 m)

Definitions: • PM = Published Minima


• DH = Decision Height
• MDA = Minimum Descent Altitude
• NPA = Non Precision Approach
• RVR = Runway Visual Range.

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• The EASA ETOPS dispatch weather minima, in addition to the FAA definition, also take
into account the possible degradation of the let-down aids capability (Refer to EASA EU-
OPS 1.297, AMC 20-6 rev.2):

Available Instrument IFR Weather: IFR Weather:


Approaches Minimum Ceiling Minimum Visibility

DH/DA PM
Precision Approaches
+ 200 ft + 800 m

MDH/MDA PM
NPA
+ 400 ft + 1 500 m

Note: The weather minima for precision approaches of the table above, apply only to CAT I approaches. For CAT II
and CAT III approaches, the increments required by this table have to be approved by the national authority.

For geographical areas where weather conditions are very stable (The variations are well
known and occur at a low rate), a decrease of the dispatch minima can be considered, but only
with the agreement of the Operator’s National Authority.
It is worth recalling that most Airbus twin-engine aircraft are category C aircraft for the
determination of the normal minima (Only some A321 are category D aircraft). These normal
minima are provided on the approach plates.

Example: Fortaleza (SBFZ)

SBFZ
ETOPS Dispatch Normal (Operational) EASA FAA
Weather Minima

CAT I Ceiling (ft) 208 408 (208 + 200) 608 (208 + 400)

Visibility (m) 1 200 2 000 (1 200 + 800) 2 800 (1 200 + 1 600)

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ILS/DME
DA(H) 290’ (208’)

1200m

Fortaleza, ILS 13 Approach Chart


For aircraft certified for Low Visibility Operations (LVOs), Operators can consider lower
weather minima than that published, in the case of a failure in the airframe, and/or the
propulsion system, that may cause a diversion. This is subject to approval by the Operator’s
National Authority on a case-by-case basis.
In principle, an aircraft approved for lower-than-standard minima will be dispatched with the
minima of the next higher approach capability (For example, an aircraft approved for CAT II
approach will be dispatched considering CAT I minima).
Remember that this concept of ETOPS dispatch weather minima applies only for dispatch:
Once airborne, the flight crew uses the normal (operational) weather minima.
3.1.3 Surface conditions
In addition to specific ceiling and visibility, tailwind and crosswind limits must be checked for
each ETOPS alternates. The following elements must be within acceptable limits to enable the
flight crew to perform a safe approach and landing with one engine inoperative:
• The forecast surface crosswind, gusts included
• The forecast tailwind, gusts excluded
• The condition of the runway expected to be in use.

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The maximum crosswind and tailwind values are in the limitations part of the FCOM:
• For dry runways (Demonstrated crosswind values and maximum tailwind)

• For contaminated runways (Computed values)

A330 FCOM Limitations: Environmental Envelope, Airport Operations and Wind Limitations

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Remember that there are no forecasts for braking actions. Hence, the company policy should
be based on available SNOWTAM, METARS and forecast analyses.

Useful tip: How to avoid the wind traps…

• METARs, TAFs and VOLMETs provide the surface wind in degrees TRUE
• The Runway QFU is in degrees MAGNETIC
• The Magnetic variation can significantly change along the route

Add the magnetic variation to the reported wind direction


to get a correct runway/wind correlation.

Fortaleza METAR: SBFZ 151500Z 08026G38KT 9999 BKN020 31/22 Q1010

08026G38KT

Fortaleza Runway
In the example above, the magnetic wind direction is: 080O + 22 O = 102 O. Therefore,
the crosswind component on runway 13, is equal to the following:
38 kt * sin (127 O - 102 O) = 16 kt

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3.1.4 ETOPS alternate airport selection form


The result of the previous checks and calculations can be reported in a form designed to ease
dispatch. The illustrations below are examples of ETOPS alternate airport selection forms. This
form includes the list of adequate airports for the route, their associated approaches and
weather minima and their time window. The ETOPS alternate airport selection form also has
two specific columns, that provide the following information:
• The NOTAM column indicates if an approach is available or not, in accordance with the
NOTAMs at dispatch
• The last column indicates if the approach is OK or not, taking into account the weather
forecast of the airport (TAF, etc.), for the computed time window.

Examples of ETOPS Alternate Airport Selection Forms (EASA – FAA)

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3.2 OBSTACLE CLEARANCE

As already mentioned in section 2.1.3, the regulations do not require that the Operator take the
obstacle clearance limitations into account for the definition of the speed strategy. However,
the Operator must check the obstacle clearance constraints during the flight planning.

The Effect of Speed on the Net Flight Path


If the OEI diversion speed does not provide the required obstacle clearance, the dispatcher
should ensure the following:
• The computation of a lower OEI diversion speed, and the communication of this speed to
the flight crew
• The check of the fuel quantity: There should be enough fuel to cover the diversion at the
new lower OEI diversion speed.

3.3 FUEL CONSIDERATIONS

To be authorized for dispatch, an aircraft must have sufficient fuel on board to perform the
intended ETOPS flight. The required fuel quantity depends on the applicable operational
regulations.
Contrary to the area of operation, that is determined in still air and ISA conditions (Or
prevailing delta ISA), the fuel planning must take into account the expected meteorological
conditions along the considered routes (Forecast wind components and temperature).
In order to dispatch an aircraft for an ETOPS flight, the dispatcher must determine, for the
considered route, both a standard and an ETOPS fuel planning. The dispatcher should select
the most restrictive fuel planning (i.e. the fuel planning that requires the highest fuel quantity),
to determine the minimum block fuel required for the flight."
The Operator should always consider an up-to-date aircraft performance factor to determine a
realistic fuel planning.
The performance factor reflects the airframe/engines deterioration with time, and is used to
define the real fuel consumption. The computation of the performance factor is based on in-

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flight recordings (Manual or automatic) of engine and aircraft parameters. Therefore, for a new
aircraft, whose performance is equivalent to the baseline, the performance factor is equal to
one. The performance factor should be defined for each individual aircraft of the Operator's
fleet.
The FCOM and the in-flight performance computer programs (IFP and FLIP) provide the fuel
consumption data for a baseline aircraft. To determine the real fuel consumption, the baseline
data should be multiplied by the performance factor. For example, a performance factor equal
to 1.03 indicates a 3 % increase in the fuel consumption.
This fuel planning is the one used for non-ETOPS operations. Therefore, the standard block
(Ramp) fuel includes all of the following fuel quantities:
• Fuel for taxi-out
• Trip fuel from departure to destination
• Alternate fuel (Including go-around)
• 30 minutes holding at alternate
• En-route reserve (Usually 3 % or 5 % of the trip fuel, or the fuel quantity corresponding to
10 % of the trip time)
• Extra fuel reserves (Operator’s policy).
The block fuel is the sum of the above-mentioned fuel quantifies, and should be corrected with
the relevant performance factor.
The following graph describes a standard fuel planning. All relevant fuel data are provided by
the FCOM.

Standard Fuel Planning

3.3.1 Requirements and scenarii


For ETOPS operations, the dispatcher should compute a specific ETOPS fuel planning, also
called Critical Fuel Reserves in the regulations.

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The ETOPS fuel planning has two parts: The first part corresponds to a standard fuel scenario
from the departure airport to the Critical Point (CP) and the second part corresponds to the
critical fuel scenario from the CP to the diversion airport.
The ETOPS critical fuel scenario is based on the separate study of three failure cases, that
occur at the critical point, with their respective diversion profiles.
Critical fuel scenario
This scenario is based on a case that occurs at the CP, and that requires a diversion.
The diversion profile is defined as follows:
• Descent at a pre-determined speed strategy to the required diversion flight level
• Diversion cruise at the pre-determined speed
• Normal descent down to 1 500 ft above the diversion airport
• 15 minute holding at this altitude
• Instrument approach (IFR).

The three separate failure cases and their respective diversion profile are the following:
a) Engine failure
• Descent at VMO/MMO down to the OEI optimum diversion FL,
• Diversion cruise at the speed schedule that was selected for the determination of the area
of operation.

Flight Profile: Engine Failure


The OEI FL is higher than FL100, used for the two remaining scenarii (Based on
decompressions). As the aircraft flies higher, the required fuel quantity is much lower than the
fuel quantity required for the two remaining scenario. Therefore, this scenario is never limiting,
and the analysis of this scenario ends here.
b) Aircraft depressurization
• Emergency descent at VMO/MMO (Speed brakes extended) down to FL100 (or MORA)
• Diversion cruise at Long Range Cruise (LRC) speed.

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Flight profile: Aircraft Depressurization

However, in the case of a depressurization, a diversion above FL 100 may be necessary, for
example, to clear obstacles with a sufficient altitude margin. A diversion above FL 100 is
authorized if the aircraft is equipped with supplemental oxygen for both the flight crew and a
defined percentage of passengers, in accordance with regulatory requirements
The following table summarizes the regulatory requirements:

Reference FAR 121.329 EU OPS 1.5.043 ICAO Annex 6 ◊ 4.3.8

Flight crew All flight crew members for All flight crew members for All flight crew members for
(cockpit + cabin) max. diversion time max. diversion time max. diversion time

Passengers 30 % of passengers for max. 30 % of passengers for max. 10 % of passengers for max.
diversion time at 15 000ft diversion time at 15 000ft diversion time at 13 000ft
or or
10 % of passengers for 10 % of passengers for
diversion time in excess diversion time in excess
of the first 30 minutes of the first 30 minutes
at 14 000ft at 14 000ft

Oxygen Requirements

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c) Engine failure and aircraft depressurization:


• Emergency descent at VMO/MMO (Speed brakes extended) down to
FL 100/MORA,
• Diversion cruise performed at the speed schedule adopted for the determination of the
area of operation.

Flight profile: Engine Failure and Aircraft Depressurization

However, a diversion above FL100 is authorized if the aircraft is equipped with supplemental
oxygen as mentioned above.
For each scenario, the dispatcher must compute the required block fuel, in accordance with
the Operator's ETOPS fuel policy, and with the regulatory ETOPS critical fuel reserves
described in the following chapter. Depending on the strategy and on the OEI speed selected
for the single-engine diversion scenario, any one of the remaining two scenarios may result in
the highest fuel requirement. The scenario that requires the highest fuel quantity is referred to
as the ETOPS critical fuel scenario, and the associated block fuel quantity is referred to as the
ETOPS critical fuel planning.
3.3.2 Fuel reserves
ETOPS regulations require the addition of specific fuel reserves to the ETOPS diversion fuel.
For the computation of the ETOPS critical fuel reserves and of the entire ETOPS critical fuel
planning, the diversion fuel must include the following fuel reserves:
• The required fuel quantity to fly from the CP to the diversion airport (1 500 ft above the
airport)
• The required fuel quantity to perform a 15 minute holding at 1 500 ft at Green Dot speed
(Best lift/drag speed)
• The required fuel quantity to perform an Instrument approach (IFR)
• The fuel mileage penalty: 5 %, or a demonstrated performance factor computed by a
performance monitoring program, of the trip fuel
• Contingency fuel:

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o The required fuel quantity to account for a 5 % increase in the forecast wind, if
this forecast wind is based on a wind model validated by the Authority, e.g. the
World Area Forecast System (WAFS), or
o 5 % of the required fuel quantity to fly from the CP to the diversion airport,
• Effect of any CDL and/or MEL item
• Icing: The fuel to account for icing must compensate for the additional fuel consumption
due to the most restrictive of the following effects:
o The effect of the use of Nacelle Anti-Ice (NAI) + Wing Anti-Ice (WAI) systems
during the entire time icing is forecast, or
o The effect of ice accretion on the unheated surfaces of the aircraft (Additional
drag) plus the effect of the use of NAI and WAI for 10 % of the time icing is
forecast.

The fuel reserves to be considered for standard and ETOPS fuel planning (Before and after
the CP) are summarized in the table below:
ETOPS Fuel Planning
Standard
Fuel Reserves From Departure to From CP to
Fuel Planning
CP Diversion
Performance factor (1) (1) (1)

Per company policy


Contingency Fuel (2) (4)
(3)

Effect of MMEL X X X

Effect of CDL X X X

Effect of WAI + NAI (5) (6)

Effect of ice (6)


accretion
Notes: (1) The performance factor demonstrates the effect of airframe and/or engine degradation: It is either a
demonstrated factor from a performance monitoring program or 5%
(2) As per company policy: Usually 5 % of the trip fuel, or the fuel quantity corresponding to 10 % of the trip time
(3) Based on experience, Airbus recommends that the Operators consider a contingency fuel of 2 to 3 % of the
required fuel quantity to fly from the departure airport to the CP
(4) The fuel to compensate for any error in the wind forecast is either based on a forecast wind speed increased
by 5 % (If the forecast wind is based on a wind model validated by the Authority), or 5 % of the required fuel
quantity to perform the diversion (Critical scenario)
(5) If forecast icing conditions
(6) The fuel to account for icing is the greater of:
• The fuel to account for the use of NAI and WAI during the entire time icing is forecast, or
• The fuel to account for airframe icing (drag) plus the use of NAI and WAI for 10% of the time icing is
forecast
For current Airbus ETOPS aircraft, the highest fuel quantity is the fuel to account for the use of NAI and WAI
during the entire time icing is forecast.
Fuel Reserves Summary
As part of an accelerated ETOPS process, the operational authorities may require additional
fuel reserves until the Operator demonstrates the accuracy of its fuel predictions.
The entire ETOPS critical fuel planning for the ETOPS critical fuel scenario (i.e. from the
departure to the CP, and then from the CP to the diversion airport) must be compared to the
standard fuel planning (i.e. from the departure to the destination and destination alternate)
computed in accordance with the company fuel policy and applicable operational
requirements. The highest of both fuel requirements shall be considered as the required block
fuel for the flight. Therefore, the flight crew is assured they can safely complete the flight,
regardless of the flight scenario (normal flight or diversion).

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3.4 TIME-LIMITED SYSTEMS

As described in Volume 1 of this publication, the aircraft has Time-Limited Systems (TLS), for
example, the Cargo Fire Suppression System (CFSS) and some other ETOPS significant
systems. The dispatchers and the flight crew must check that TLSs capabilities can sustain the
entire diversion. The time capabilities of the TLS (CFSS and all other ETOPS significant
systems) are listed in the Airplane Flight Manual (AFM), Appendix 6.
There are two different time capabilities: One for the CFSS and one for all other ETOPS
significant systems, for which the computation of their time capabilities is based on their
reliability assessments.
The following is an extract from the A330 AFM, Appendix 6:

A330 AFM, Appendix 6


Depending on the granted maximum diversion time, the dispatcher must perform checks of the
time capabilities of ETOPS significant systems:
• ETOPS up to 180/207 min: If the ETOPS diversion time is up to 180/207 min, the
dispatcher must check that the time capabilities of ETOPS significant systems exceed the
ETOPS diversion time. In order to add a safety margin, the checks done are that the
ETOPS diversion time is lower than the time capabilities minus 15 min. These checks are
usually performed one time.
In the case of the MAD – EZE example, the ETOPS maximum diversion time is 120 min,
significantly below the time capability of the CFSS (260 min) minus 15 min and also
below the time capability of all other ETOPS significant systems (222 min) minus 15 min.
• ETOPS beyond 180/207 min: If the ETOPS diversion time is beyond 180/207 min, the
checks are slightly different and must be performed for each flight.
o For the CFSS, the actual diversion times from the ETPs (All engines operative
and at cruise altitude) replace the ETOPS diversion time. These actual diversion
times are provided by the Computerized Flight Plan (CFP).

XXXX YYYY

BURN SUMARY CRUISE FL 2ENG 2ENG


CRUISE SPEED .82 .82

G/C DIST 1603 1452


CRUISE DIST 1521 1534
ETP W/C P10 M018
ENROUTE TEMP M005 M006
MSA FL 049 078
TIME TO ALTERNATE 03:46 03:51
TOTAL 018555 019156

CFP Example, Beyond 180/207 min


o For the other ETOPS significant systems, the actual diversion times from the
ETPs (One Engine Inoperative (OEI), and at the OEI diversion altitude) replace

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the ETOPS diversion time. Note that these actual OEI diversion times can be
longer than the ETOPS diversion time. OEI diversion times are also in the CFP.
XXXX YYYY

BURN SUMARY OEI FL 1ENG 1ENG


CRUISE SPEED 330 KT 330 KT

G/C DIST 1603 1452


CRUISE DIST 1521 1534
ETP W/C P10 M018
ENROUTE TEMP M005 M006
MSA FL 049 078
TIME TO ALTERNATE 04:25 04:35
TOTAL 018555 019156

CFP Example, Beyond 180/207 min

3.5 PLOTTING CHART

The dispatcher prepares a plotting chart, that contains the following details:
• The intended A/C routing
• The ETOPS area of operation, clearly defined by the circles centered on the ETOPS en-
route alternate airports
• The EEP(s) and EXP(s), that define the ETOPS sector(s)
• The ETP(s) and the CP, as computed, or from the Computerized Flight Plan (CFP).

MAD - EZE Plotting Chart Extract

The flight crew is provided with this plotting chart during the flight preparation.

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3.6 DISPATCH CHECKLIST EXAMPLE

The Operator should consider the use of an ETOPS dispatch check list. This document lists all
the steps to be completed, in order to dispatch the ETOPS flight.

ETOPS Dispatch Checklist Example

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3.7 ETOPS BEYOND 180 MINUTES SPECIFICITIES

As indicated in the example above, the ETOPS checklist includes the following specific checks
for ETOPS beyond 180 min flights:
• The dispatcher and the flight crew must check that the requirements related to SATCOM
are fulfilled (FAA only)
• The dispatcher and the flight crew must check the Time Limited Systems before each
flight (Refer to section 3.4)
• The diversion distance must be below the granted Maximum Diversion Distance, if any.
E.g. A330 Maximum Diversion Distance: 1 700 nm.

In addition to these specific checks, the dispatcher must inform the flight crew that the route is
operated with ETOPS beyond 180 min.

Notes: The ETOPS 207 min certification (15 % extension of the ETOPS 180 min certification) is based on the requirements
of the ETOPS 180 min certification. Therefore, it is not considered as an ETOPS beyond 180 minutes certification.

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4 THE ETOPS FLIGHT

4.1 THE FLIGHT PREPARATION

During the flight preparation, the dispatcher (or dispatch office) collects and processes the
information described in the previous chapters of this publication. This information is provided
to the flight crew in the following documents:
• A Computerized Flight Plan (CFP), also referred to as a Reference Flight Log (RFL),
established with forecast en-route winds and temperatures
• Navigation and plotting charts, that describe the following:
o The ETOPS area of operations defined by the relevant circles centered on the
ETOPS en-route alternate airports
o The not authorized areas (Hatched)
o The aircraft routing, that includes the EEP, EXP, ETPs and CP, based on the
prevailing wind conditions. The position of ETPs, based on the current wind
forecast, is provided either by the CFP, or with a manual wind correction
method.
• Airport charts, to perform a diversion to any ETOPS en-route alternate airports
• The MEL and CDL ETOPS capability: Specific dispatch standards may apply and
depending on the status of the aircraft, additional fuel may be required
• Relevant additional information:
o For the destination, destination alternate and ETOPS en-route alternate
airports:
 NOTAMs, if any
 TAFs and METARs (The TAFs must be valid for the required time
windows in accordance with the CFP).
o Significant weather charts that provide synoptic weather information and
forecast (e.g. turbulence and icing conditions)
o Wind and temperature forecast charts for FL 100, for the typical single-engine
cruise altitude and for normal cruise flight levels. These charts may be used for
icing forecast
o All other documents provided for a standard flight.

The flight crew then checks this documentation, and conducts a briefing that highlights any
specific diversion strategy related to the route (Maximum diversion time, obstacle clearance,

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etc.) CFP fuel and time predictions are usually very accurate. However, the flight crew must
also perform the following checks, to detect any possible gross error:
• Conformity of the CFP routing with the ATC flight plan
• Aircraft type, date, Estimated Time of Departure (ETD), estimated ZFW/TOW/FOB
• Wind data compared to the en-route weather forecast
• Trip fuel, fuel to alternate, ETOPS fuel from ETPs to en-route alternates compared to
flight-crew-computed values (Including performance factor).

4.2 ETOPS ELEMENTS OF THE CFP

The CFP contains the following specific ETOPS information:


• The Operator's certified maximum diversion time with its associated distance, and the
selected OEI speed strategy

• The list of ETOPS alternates and their time windows

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• The list of ETPs and, for each ETP, the following data:

o The total flight time to the ETP


o The position of the ETP
o The estimated aircraft weight and fuel on board at the ETP (With the
assumption that the contingency fuel is already burned)
o The distances, FLs, winds and temperatures to the corresponding alternates
o The fuel scenario and the required fuel quantity to reach the corresponding
alternates.

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4.3 COCKPIT PREPARATION

In the FCOM and QRH, the cockpit preparation checklist and some abnormal procedures are
adapted to ETOPS flights.
The Procedures-Special Operations-Extended Range Operations FCOM section describes all
flight crew procedures related to ETOPS flights.
4.3.1 Preflight checks
The flight crew must verify that the aircraft has not been degraded to NON-ETOPS and must
acknowledge the ETOPS release from line maintenance (Refer to Volume 3 of this publication:
Maintenance).
Depending on the aircraft type, the usual cockpit preparation may require additional checks.
On A320 family aircraft, for example, the flight crew has to check the fuel X-FEED valve before
each ETOPS flight.

Example of the Checks to be Carried-Out on an A320

The flight crew should refer to the FCOM of their aircraft to obtain the list of preflight checks.

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4.3.2 Data loading


In order to display an ETOPS ETP on the Navigation Displays (NDs), the flight crew has to
create a “NEW WAYPOINT” in the FMS. However, the flight crew must not insert the new
waypoint in the active flight plan, due to the following reasons:
• The waypoint is not part of the ATC F-PLN
• An error in coordinates may cause a dangerous track deviation
• The waypoint would corrupt position reporting (CPDLC/ADS).

The flight crew should select a waypoint identification ("IDENT") for the ETOPS ETP, that
clearly refers to the associated ETOPS alternate airports. In addition, the waypoint
identification for the ETOPS ETP must be sufficiently different from other waypoints of the
active flight plan, in order to avoid any confusion. In the following example, the selected
identification of the ETP between Amilcar (SID) and Fortaleza (FOR) is SIDFOR.
The flight crew obtains the latitude and longitude of the ETOPS ETP from the CFP, and inserts
the coordinates in the LAT/LONG field of the NEW WAYPOINT page.

Creation of the SIDFOR ETOPS ETP on the MCDU

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Note that the FMS can compute an ETP. However, the FMS ETP is different from the ETOPS
ETP of the CFP. The FMS computes an ETP for a normal cruise flight level and with all
engines operative. Therefore, for a specific pair of alternate airports, the FMS ETP and the
ETOPS ETP may have slightly different positions.

The FMS ETP as Shown on the MCDU

The flight crew can display both ETPs on the Navigation Displays (NDs). SIDFOR, the ETOPS
ETP of the MAD-EZE flight appears when the flight crew presses the WPT pushbutton on the
EFIS control panel.

The ETOPS ETP, inserted as a waypoint

The ETP, computed by the FMS

ETOPS and FMS ETPs Displayed on the ND

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4.4 BEFORE REACHING THE EEP

During the flight, the flight crew and the dispatcher must monitor the significant changes in
conditions at the ETOPS alternate airports (Weather, NOTAMs, etc.)
Before the aircraft reaches the ETOPS Entry Point (EEP):
• The weather conditions at all ETOPS alternate airports must satisfy the operating minima
• If the weather conditions at any ETOPS alternate airport do not satisfy the operating
minima, the flight crew should select another ETOPS airport, select another route (if there
is enough fuel on board), or turn back to the departure airport
• If an alternate airport becomes unavailable, and the flight crew selects another route, the
dispatcher and the flight crew must check that the new route remains in the Operator's
ETOPS area of operation.

The above-mentioned requirements do not override the authority of the pilot in command, who
remains responsible for the selection of the safest course of action. However, the flight crew
should not accept an ATC clearance that would cause the aircraft to fly a route beyond the
Operator’s approved diversion time.

4.5 FLYING THE ETOPS SECTOR

The flight crew should fly the ETOPS sector just as any other part of the flight, and perform the
following:
• The standard flight monitoring, that includes regular checks of the fuel on board.
• The monitoring of the status of the various diversion airports. However, beyond the EEP,
if one diversion airport closes, or becomes unavailable, the flight may continue.
The flight crew's decision to divert should be based on the same criteria as for any non-
ETOPS flight. However, the flight crew should also consider ETOPS diversion requirements,
included in the AFM/FCOM/CMP (e.g. the diversion is mandatory if only one electrical
generator remains available after a multiple failure).

Example of ETOPS Diversion Requirements as Found in the FCOM

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Getting to grips with ETOPS: The ETOPS Flight
The Flight Operations View

4.6 DIVERSION

As discussed in section 4.5 of this publication, the flight crew may have to divert, due to
ETOPS requirements. However, there are no specific procedures for ETOPS diversions, i.e.
the flight crew should perform an ETOPS diversion as any standard diversion. The flight crew
still has to comply with route requirements (NAT, MNPS, etc.) as for non-ETOPS flights.
The selected diversion speed may be different from the approved OEI speed: Based on
circumstances and judgment, the Captain may decide to select another diversion speed.

Operational Approval Considerations (AMC 20-6 Rev 2)


“Contingency procedures should not be interpreted in
any way that prejudices the final authority and
responsibility of the pilot in command for the safe
operation of the aeroplane.”

However, if the Captain decides to select a diversion speed that is different from the approved
OEI speed, the flight crew should also remember that the Operator's approved maximum
diversion time is partly based on the time limitations of the ETOPS significant systems (e.g.
CFSS). Therefore, when they select an OEI speed other than the approved OEI speed, the
flight crew should check that the resulting diversion time does not exceed the time limitations
of the ETOPS significant systems.

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