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I.

Physicochemical Incompatibilities:
A. –original is still present but physical state is altered.
. :

 Dehydration/Salting-out – slightly soluble non-electrolytes from water;


upon addition of electrolytes.
Ex: Gums- Acacia Mucilage (gum in H2O) + ETOH = Acacia ↓
 Temperature Change:
- Endothermic rxn (ex. KI, boric acid)
- Exothermic rxn (ex. Ca(OH)2 lime water, Mg(OH)2 soln)
.

 Eutexia – liquefaction at room temperature.


Ex: Menthol, Thymol, Camphor, Phenol
**Intentionally combined:
- Menthol + Camphor
- Prilocaine + Lidocaine (EMLA)
 Hygroscopic
 Deliquescent
 Efflorescent – releases water for hydration or crystallization.
.

 Several crystalline structures (polymorphs)


.

 Stored in hermetically scaled container.


 Avoid exposure to high temp.
Ex: Volatile oils, alcohols, phenol, aldehydes, aromatic compounds
.

 Absorption – penetrates capillary membrane


 Adsorption – surface phenomenon
.

 Reverse of liquefaction
Ex: Ointments – crumbling
Emulsions – cracking
Gels – synerisis
B. – original drug is no longer present.
.

 Examples: Fats (Rancidity), Oils (Resinify), Catecholamines (MAO)


.

 Precipitation:
Ex: Soluble salts of phenol, COOH, barbituric acid
 Evolution of gas:
Ex: NaHCO3 +Acids → CO2 ↑ (effervescence)
 Change of color: pH indicators
.

 Breaking up of bonds upon addition of water.


Ex: Esters (local anesthetics, aspirin)
Amide (local anesth., β-lactam antibiotics)
Imide (Barbiturates)
.

 Photolysis
 Photo-oxidation
Ex: Nitroprusside – HTNsive crisis

Riboflavin – stored in light-resistant container (amber bottle),


avoid light exposure.
.

 Optical activity is changed resulting to change in biological activity.


 Racemization
Ex of Racemates:
- Thalidomide

 Acacia + Bismuth salts

 Acacia + Fe salts