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Method (LD-VAM): An Approach To Find Basic

Feasible Solution Of Transportation Problem

Utpal Kanti Das , Md. Ashraful Babu, Aminur Rahman Khan, Md. Abu Helal, Dr. Md. Sharif Uddin

Abstract: The study in this paper is to discuss the limitation of Vogel’s Approximation Method (VAM) and developed an improved algorithm after

resolving this limitation for solving transportation problem. Vogel’s Approximation Method (VAM) is the more efficient algorithm to solve the transportation

problem but it has some limitations when highest penalty cost appear in two or more row or column. For that case VAM does not give any logical

solution. In this paper we stand a logical approach for this problem and developed an algorithm named by ―Logical Development of Vogel’s

Approximation Method (LD-VAM)‖ where feasible solution from this method are very close to optimal solution more than VAM.

Index Terms: Transportation Problem (TP), LD-VAM, VAM, LPP, Penalty, Transportation Cost.

————————————————————

1 INTRODUCTION Each ith source has a capacity of supply amount that is si and

The Transportation Problem is the special class of Linear dj be the demand amount of each jth destination and cij be the

Programming Problem in the field of Applied Mathematics and cost of ith source to jth destination. The ultimate goal of solving

also in Operation Research. There are some existing Transportation Problem is to find the amount of product xij

algorithms to solve the Transportation Problem such as North which will be transfer from ith source to jth destination so that

West Corner Rule (NWC), Least Cost Method (LCM), and total transportation cost will be minimized. The Linear

Vogel’s Approximation Method (VAM) etc. where Vogel’s Programming Problem (LPP) representing the Transportation

Approximation Method (VAM) is known as more efficient problem for m sources and n destinations are generally given

algorithm to find the basic feasible solution. But VAM has as:

some limitations which are discussed in (2.2) and we fixed this

problem and developed a new algorithm in (2.3). To solving m n

Transportation Problem first a fall we have to formulate original Minimize: Z cij xij

problem as a Linear Programming Problem (LPP) for m i 1 j 1

sources and n destinations.

Subject to:

n

j 1

xij si , for i 1, 2,3...................m

m

i 1

xij d j , for j 1, 2,3....................n

_______________________

To applying transportation algorithm for solving TP we have to

Department of Computer Science & Engineering, make a Mathematical model for this LPP.

IUBAT-International University of Business Agriculture

and Technology, Uttara, Dhaka-1230, Bangladesh, 2 METHODOLOGY:

Phone: +88 01919199419, email: ukd@iubat.edu Initially we mention that there are some existing methods for

Department of Mathematics, IUBAT-International solving transportation problem such as North West Corner

University of Business Agriculture and Technology, Rule (NWC), Least Cost Method (LCM), and Vogel’s

Uttara, Dhaka-1230, Bangladesh, Approximation Method (VAM) etc. In this section we discuss

Ph:+88 01720810780, Email: ashraful388@gmail.com . about Vogel’s Approximation Method (VAM) and our proposed

Department of Mathematics, Jahangirnagar University, method Logical Development of Vogel’s Approximation

Savar, Dhaka-1342, Bangladesh, Method (LD-VAM).

Phone:+88 01817537294, email: aminurju@yahoo.com

Department of Mathematics, IUBAT-International 2.1 EXISTING ALGORITHM FOR VOGEL’S APPROXIMATION

University of Business Agriculture and Technology, METHOD (VAM):

Uttara, Dhaka-1230, Bangladesh , The Vogel’s Approximation Method (VAM) is an iterative

Phone: +88 01717056300, email: abu.helal@iubat.edu procedure for computing a basic feasible solution of a

Department of Mathematics, Jahangirnagar University, transportation problem. This method is better than other two

Savar, Dhaka-1342, Bangladesh, methods i.e. North West Corner Rule (NWC) and Least cost

Phone:+8801726452777, email: msharifju@yahoo.com Method (LCM), because the basic feasible solution obtained

42

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by this method is nearer to the optimal solution. The existing the lowest feasible solution.

algorithm for Vogel’s Approximation Method (VAM) is given

below: 2.3 PROPOSED ALGORITHM FOR LOGICAL DEVELOPMENT

OF VOGEL’S APPROXIMATION METHOD (LD-VAM):

Step-1: Indentify the boxes having minimum and next to From the above discussion of the limitations of Vogel’s

minimum transportation cost in each row and write the Approximation Method (VAM) we fixed this problem and

difference (Penalty) along the side of the table against proposed an improved algorithm which is named by ―Logical

the corresponding row. Development of Vogel’s Approximation Method (LD-VAM)‖. In

this algorithm, we resolved the above discussed problem of

Step-2: Indentify the boxes having minimum and next to VAM i.e, when largest penalty appear in two or more rows or

minimum transportation cost in each column and write columns then select that row or column among them which

the difference (Penalty) along the side of the table contains the least cost and give the maximum possible

against the corresponding column. If minimum cost allocation. The algorithm of LD-VAM is given below: Set si be

appear in two or more times in a row or column then supply amount of the ith source and dj be the amount of

select these same cost as a minimum and next to demand of jth destination and cij be the unit transportation cost

minimum cost and penalty will be zero. of ith source to jth destination.

a. Indentify the row and column with the largest penalty,

breaking ties arbitrarily. Allocate as much as possible

to the variable with the least cost in the selected row

or column. Adjust the supply and demand and cross

Step-2: if si d j or if si d j then

i j i j

out the satisfied row or column. If a row and column

are satisfies simultaneously, only one of them is balance the transportation problem adding dummy

crossed out and remaining row or column is assigned demand or supply.

a zero supply or demand.

b. If two or more penalty costs have same largest Step-3:

magnitude, then select any one of them (or select a. Identify the smallest and next to smallest cost of each

most top row or extreme left column). row and column and calculate the difference between

them which is called by penalty. Set be the row

Step-4: penalty and be the column penalty.

a. If exactly one row or one column with zero supply or

demand remains uncrossed out, Stop.

b. If only one row or column with positive supply or

pi cih - cik and p j chj - ckj

demand remains uncrossed out, determine the basic b. If smallest cost appear in two or more times in a row

variables in the row or column by the Least-Cost or column then select these same cost as a smallest

Method. and next to smallest cost and penalty will be zero.

c. If all uncrossed out rows or column have (remaining)

zero supply or demand, determined the zero basic pi cih - cik =0 and p j chj - ckj 0

variables by the Least-Cost Method. Stop.

d. Otherwise, go to Step-1.

Step-4: Select max( pi , p j ) . Select lowest cost of that row

2.2 FINDING LIMITATIONS OF VOGEL’S APPROXIMATION or column which has largest penalty and allocate

min si , d j .

METHOD (VAM):

In VAM approach, Penalties are determined by the difference maximum possible amount xij i.e, If

of two minimum costs of each row and each column. The

the lowest cost appears in two or more cells in that

highest penalty indicates that among the two minimum cost,

row or column then choose the extreme left or most

one is the lowest and another is too high. In VAM algorithm

top lowest cost cell.

select such row or column which contains largest penalty to

ensure the least cost in current iteration and avoiding the

Step-5: If tie occurs in the largest penalties in some rows or

chance of taking larger cost in next iteration. If highest penalty

columns then select that row or column which

cost appear in two or more row or column, the VAM algorithm

contains least cost among them.

selects any one of them (or select most top row or extreme left

column) [(2.) Step-3(b)]. But it is not necessarily true that

Step-6: Adjust the supply and demand and cross out the

largest penalty always ensure the lowest cost because

satisfied row or column. If row and column are

difference of two pairs of numbers can be equal when one of

satisfied simultaneously then crossed out one of them

the pair is smaller than another pair. As an example, difference

and set zero supply or demand in remaining row or

of 10 and 5 and difference of 7 and 2 are equal but lowest

column.

numbers exist in second pair. For that reason we can say that

in VAM algorithm, if the lower pair does not appear in the top

Step-7:

most or extreme left position then lowest cost will not be

a. If exactly one row or one column with zero supply or

selected in the current iteration so that total transportation cost

demand remains uncrossed out, Stop.

may not be minimized. For that case VAM may not be given

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demand remains uncrossed out, determine the basic

variables in the row or column by the Least-Cost Source Destination Supply Row

Method. D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 Penalty

c. If all uncrossed out rows or column have (remaining) S1 10 8 9 5 13 100 4

zero supply or demand, determined the zero basic S2 7 9 8 10 4 80 3

variables by the Least-Cost Method. Stop. 9 3 7 10 6 1

d. Otherwise go to Step-3. S3 30

40

11 4 8 3 9 5

3 NUMERICAL ILLUSTRATION: S4

50

40

Consider some special types of Transportation Problems 90

Demand 60 100

where highest penalty appear in two or more rows or columns

Column 2 1 2 2

and solve these using Vogel’s Approximation Method (VAM)

and the proposed method Logical Development of Vogel’s Penalty

Approximation Method (LD-VAM) and compare these results

with optimal solution for measuring accuracy. Iteration-3:

Consider a Mathematical Model of a Transportation D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 Penalty

Problem in below: S1 10 8 9 5 13 100 1

7 9 8 10 4 3

S2

Table-1.1: 80

9 3 7 10 6 1

S3 30

Source Destination Supply 40

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 11 4 8 3 9 1

S4 40

S1 10 8 9 5 13 100 50

S2 7 9 8 10 4 80 Demand 60 100 10

Column 2 1 2

S3 9 3 7 10 6 70

Penalty

S4 11 4 8 3 9 90

Demand 60 40 100 50 90 Iteration-4:

Now we find the feasible solution of this problem using LD- Source Destination Supply Row

VAM and VAM respectively in below: D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 Penalty

S1 10 8 9 5 13 100 1

3.1.1 SOLUTION OF EXAMPLE-1 USING LOGICAL 7 9 8 10 4

S2

DEVELOPMENT OF VOGEL’S APPROXIMATION METHOD (LD- 80

VAM): 9 3 7 10 6 1

Costs are indicating in right-top corner and allocations are S3 40 10 20

indicating in bottom-left corner. 11 4 8 3 9 1

S4 50 40

Iteration-1:

Demand 60 100

Destination Row Column 1 1 3

Source Supply Penalty

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 Penalty

S1 10 8 9 5 13 100 3

S2 7 9 8 10 4 80 3 Iteration-5:

3

S3 9 7 10 6 30 3 Source Destination Supply Row

40

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 Penalty

S4 11 4 8 3 9 90 1

S1 10 8 9 5 13 100 1

Demand 60 100 50 90

7 9 8 10 4

Column S2

2 1 1 2 2 80

Penalty 9 3 7 10 6 2

S3 20

40 10

In Iteration-1, the largest penalty appears in three times in S1, 11 4 8 3 9 3

S2, S3 rows, but lowest cost appear in (S3, D2) cell. As per S4

40 50

LD-VAM algorithm allocate 40 amount commodity in (S3, D2) Demand 60 60

cell. 1 1

Column

Penalty

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APPROXIMATION METHOD (VAM):

Source Destination Supply Row Costs are indicating in right-top corner and allocations are

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 Penalty indicating in bottom-left corner.

S1 10 8 9 5 13 100 1

7 9 8 10 4

S2 80 Table-1.3:

9 3 7 10 6 2

S3 40 20 10 Destination

Su

Sou

11 4 8 3 9 ppl Row Penalty

S4 rce D D D3 D D

40 50 y

1 2 4 5

Demand 60 40 1 8 9 5 1 100 3 1 1 1 1 1

Column 1 2 0 5 3

Penalty S1

5 0

0

Iteration-7: 7 9 8 1 4 80 3 3 3

S2 0 8

Source Destination Supply Row 0

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 Penalty 9 3 7 1 6 70 3 3 1 1 2 2

10 8 9 5 13 S3 1 50 0 1

S1 60 40 0 0

7 9 8 10 4 11 4 8 3 9 90 1 4 1 1 3

S2 S4 4 50

80

9 3 7 10 6 0

S3 40 20 10 Dem 6 4 10 5 9

11 4 8 3 9 and 0 0 0 0 0

S4 2 1 1 2 2

40 50

Colu 2 1 1 2

Demand 0

mn 2 1 2

Column Pen 1 1 3

Penalty alty 1 1

1 2

In Iteration-6, only one row has remains with positive supply

and demand amount then as per LD-VAM algorithm allocates Total Transportation Cost (Using VAM):

these by Least Cost Method. The final feasible solution table is

given below: (10 50) (5 50) (4 80) (9 10) (7 50)

Table-1.2: (6 10) (4 40) (8 50) 2130

Source Destination Supply

Observation: We observed that VAM provides feasible

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5

solution for Example-1 is 2130 and LD-VAM provides 2070

10 8 9 5 13 which is lower than VAM.

S1 100

60 40

7 9 8 10 4 3.2 Example-2:

S2 80

80 Consider a Mathematical Model of a Transportation Problem in

9 3 7 10 6 below:

S3 70

40 20 10

11 4 8 3 9 Table-2.1:

S4 90

40 50

Demand 60 40 100 50 90 Source Destination Supply

D1 D2 D3 D4

Total Transportation Cost (Using LD-VAM): S1 7 5 9 11 30

(10×60)+(9×40)+(4×80)+(3×40)+(7×20)+ S2 4 3 8 6 25

(6×10)+(8×40)+(3×50)=2070 S3 3 8 10 5 20

S4 2 6 7 3 15

Demand 30 30 20 10

VAM and VAM respectively in below.

45

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3.2.1 SOLUTION OF EXAMPLE-2 USING LOGICAL solution for Example-2 is 470 and LD-VAM provides 415 which

DEVELOPMENT OF VOGEL’S APPROXIMATION METHOD (LD- is lower than VAM.

VAM):

Costs are indicating in right-top corner and allocations are 3.3 EXAMPLE-3:

indicating in bottom-left corner. Consider a Mathematical Model of a Transportation Problem in

below:

Table-2.1:

Table-3.1:

Sourc Suppl D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6

e y S1 12 4 13 18 9 2 120

D1 D2 D3 D4 S2 9 16 10 7 15 11 80

7 5 9 11 S3 4 9 10 8 9 7 50

S1 5 5 20 30 S4 9 3 12 6 4 5 90

S5 7 11 5 18 2 7 100

S6 16 8 4 5 1 10 60

4 3 8 6

25 Demand 75 85 140 40 95 65

S2 25

3.3.1 SOLUTION OF EXAMPLE-3 USING LOGICAL

3 8 10 5 DEVELOPMENT OF VOGEL’S APPROXIMATION METHOD (LD-

S3 20 20 VAM):

Costs are indicating in right-top corner and allocations are

2 6 7 3 indicating in bottom-left corner.

S4 5 10 15

Table-3.2:

30 30 20 10 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6

nd

S1 12 4 13 18 9 2 120

55 65

Total Transportation Cost (Using LD-VAM): S2 9 16 10 7 15 11 80

(7 5) (5 5) (9 20) (3 25) (3 20) 25 40 15

S3 4 9 10 8 9 7 50

(2 5) (3 10) 415 50

S4 9 3 12 6 4 5 90

3.2.2 SOLUTION OF EXAMPLE-2 USING VOGEL’S 30 25 35

APPROXIMATION METHOD (VAM): S5 7 11 5 18 2 7 100

Costs are indicating in right-top corner and allocations are 100

indicating in bottom-left corner. S6 16 8 4 5 1 10 60

60

Table-2.2: Demand 75 85 140 40 95 65

ce D1 D2 D3 D4 y (4 55) (2 65) (9 25) (10 40) (7 15)

7 5 9 11

S1

30

30 (4 50) (3 30) (6 25) (4 35) (5 100)

S2

4 3 8 6

25 (1 60) 2220

25 0

3 8 10 5

S3 20 3.4 EXAMPLE-4:

5 5 10

Consider a Mathematical Model of a Transportation Problem in

2 6 7 3

S4 15 below:

15

Dem Table-4.1:

30 30 20 10

and

Source Destination Supply

Total Transportation Cost (Using VAM):

D1 D2 D3 D4

(5 30) (4 25) (3 0) (3 5) (10 5)

S1 6 1 9 3 70

(5 10) (7 15) 470 S2 11 5 2 8 55

S3 10 12 4 7 90

Observation: We observed that VAM provides feasible Demand 85 35 50 45

46

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH VOLUME 3, ISSUE 2, FEBRUARY 2014 ISSN 2277-8616

DEVELOPMENT OF VOGEL’S APPROXIMATION METHOD (LD-

VAM):

7 20 3 40 8 0 6 20 9 0 8 60 4 0

Costs are indicating in right-top corner and allocations are 4 70 3 100 6 10 5 80 1900

indicating in bottom-left corner.

In above two examples and some other examples, we

Source Destination Supply observed that feasible solutions using Logical Development of

Vogel’s Approximation Method (LD-VAM) are lower than

D1 D2 D3 D4 Vogel’s Approximation Method (VAM) where some of these are

S1 6 1 9 3 70 exactly equal to the optimal solution and some are very close

35 35 to optimal solution. The comparison table of these solutions is

S2 11 5 2 8 55 given below:

5 50

S3 10 12 4 7 90 Table-6:

80 10

Demand 85 35 50 45 Transportat Problem Methods

ion Size

Total transportation Cost: LD-VAM VAM Optimal

Problem

1 35 3 35 11 5 2 50 Example-1 4×5 2070 2130

Solution

2070

10 80 7 10 1165 Example-2 4×4 415 470 410

Example-3 6×6 2220 2310 2170

Example-4 3×4 1165 1220 1160

3.5 EXAMPLE-5:

Example-5 5×7 1900 1930 1900

Consider a Mathematical Model of a Transportation Problem in

below:

5 CONCLUSION:

Table-5.1: In this paper we find a limitation of Vogel’s Approximation

Method (VAM) and developed an improved algorithm by

Destinations resolving this limitation named ―Logical Development of

Source Supply Vogel’s Approximation Method (LD-VAM)‖ for solving

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 Transportation Problem. From the above examples and other

S1 12 7 3 8 10 6 6 60 transportation problems, LD-VAM provides the lower feasible

S2 6 9 7 12 8 12 4 80 solution than VAM which are very close to optimal solution and

S3 10 12 8 4 9 9 3 70 sometimes equal to optimal solution.

S4 8 5 11 6 7 9 3 100

S5 7 6 8 11 9 5 6 90 REFERENCES

[1] Hamdy A. Taha. Operation Research: An

Demand 20 30 40 70 60 80 100 Introduction, Eighth Edition, ISBN-13: 978-

0132555937,

3.5.1 SOLUTION OF EXAMPLE-4 USING LOGICAL

DEVELOPMENT OF VOGEL’S APPROXIMATION METHOD (LD- [2] P. Rama Murthy. Operation Research, Second

VAM): Edition, ISBN (13): 978-81-224-2944-2

Costs are indicating in right-top corner and allocations are

indicating in bottom-left corner. [3] Hamdy A Taha. TORA Optimizing System Software.

to Operations Research, 6th ed. New York: McGraw-

Source Destinations Supply Hill, Inc.

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7

S1 12 7 3 8 10 6 6 60 [5] A. Edward Samuel and M. Venkatachalapathy.

20 40 0 ―Modified Vogel’s Approximation Method for Fuzzy

S2 6 9 7 12 8 12 4 80 Transportation Problems‖, Applied Mathematical

20 0 60 0 Sciences, Vol. 5, 2011, no. 28, 1367 – 1372.

S3 10 12 8 4 9 9 3 70

70 [6] Nagraj Balakrishnan,Tulane University. Modified

Vogel’s Approximation Method for the Unbalanced

S4 8 5 11 6 7 9 3 100

Transportation Problem. Appl. Math. Lett. Vol. 3, No.

100

2, pp. S11, 1990

S5 7 6 8 11 9 5 6 90

10 80

[7] M.A. Hakim, An Alternative Method to find Initial Basic

Demand 20 30 40 70 60 80 100 Feasible Solution of a Transportation problem. Annals

47

IJSTR©2014

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH VOLUME 3, ISSUE 2, FEBRUARY 2014 ISSN 2277-8616

pp. 203-209, ISSN: 2279-087X (P), 2279-0888(online)

modified VAM for the unbalanced transportation

problem, Journal of Operational Research Society,

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Uddin and M. Abdul Malek. Determination of Basic

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Approach. Jahangirnagar University Journal of

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8594 (2012).

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Transportation Problem: An Algorithmic Approach.

Jahangirnagar University Journal of Science, Vol. 34,

No. 2, pp. 49-62 ISSN 1022-8594 (2011).

Analysis of some Variants of Vogel’s Approximation

Method, Asia-Pacific Journal of Operational Research

21(4) (2004) 447-462.

modification of Vogel's approximation method through

the use of heuristics, INEOR, 19 (1981) 259-263.

Programming, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Gliffs, New

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48

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